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# INSTITUTE FOR SYSTEMS AND ROBOTICS

Fault Detection and Isolation for Inertial Measurement Units
S. Brás P. Rosa C. Silvestre P. Oliveira

Institute for Systems and Robotics Instituto Superior Técnico Lisbon, Portugal

51st IEEE Conference on Decision and Control Maui, Hawaii, USA

Introduction
The navigation system is a critical component in any aircraft or spacecraft.

In high reliability systems it is not only necessary to detect faults, but also to isolate the defective sensor.

Objective:
• Development of Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) strategies for Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs).

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which exploit: • Hardware redundancy – by identifying non-compatible redundant sensor measurements. • • The proposed solutions guarantee that there will be no false alarms. • Analytical redundancy – by using Set-Valued Observers to model the dynamic relation between measurement of the sensor suite. Tuning of a decision rule based on a threshold to declare whether or not a fault has occurred is not needed. 3 . • It is assumed that the sensor measurements are corrupted by bounded noise.Introduction Two strategies are proposed.

Sensor Model Rate-gyros model Inertial vector model (such as accelerometers) Each component of satisfies 4 .

Hardware Redundancy Measurement model Matrix form 5 .

Hardware Redundancy ω(k) Non-faulty sensors ω(k) Faulty sensor 6 .

Then the emptiness of Si=Set(MΩHΩ\{i}. the faulty measurement is Ωr(i). it is not possible to isolate the fault at this instant.Hardware Redundancy Fault detection and isolation algorithm: • • If Set(MΩHΩ. Si is non-empty.mΩ\{i}) for all sensors is evaluated. If only for one i. • 7 . If not. a fault is detected.mΩ) is empty.

Hardware Redundancy Proposition: • If the magnitude of the fault is greater than ε. Assumption: • There are at least five sensor measurements. ε 8 . the proposed FDI scheme is able to detect and isolate non-simultaneous faults.

 Uncertainty is described by means of polytopes. on the 9 .Set-Valued Observers  There is uncertainty on the state and measurements.  The dynamic model may be uncertain.

Set-Valued Observers Prediction (model) Update (measurements) 10 .

Analytical Redundancy Analytical model of the vector observations: Solution: Using the Mean Value Theorem it can be concluded that Bounds on the transition matrix elements 11 .

Analytical Redundancy Fault detection filter: 12 .

Analytical Redundancy Fault detection and isolation filter: 13 .

Analytical Redundancy Stages of the FDI filter: 14 .

1 s  100 Monte-Carlo runs 15 .05  Sampling period of all sensors set to T=0.Simulation Results  Angular velocity:  Vector measurements: Noise bounded by ±0.

Simulation Results We assume that one of the following six faults can occur: 1. rate gyro #3 badly damaged generating a null measurement. a stuck at type of fault in first sensor of vector #1. the second component of vector #2 is null. the maximum amplitude of the noise in the third sensor of vector #3 increases five times. 6. 16 . 4. 5. the maximum amplitude of the noise in the rate gyro #3 increases fifteen times. a stuck at type of fault in rate gyro #1. 3. 2.

Simulation Results Five gyros and five sensors per vector Three gyros and three sensors per vector 17 .

Simulation Results 18 .

Simulation Results 19 .

• Sufficient conditions have been provided that guarantees isolation of nonsimultaneous faults. • The dynamic relation between the angular velocity and the vector measurements is exploited in the second methodology. which resorts to the setvalued state estimates provided by SVOs to validate or falsify different models of faults. only a few iterations. in general. as long as the non-faulty model of the system remains valid. • Neither solution generates false detections. • The first scheme takes advantage of hardware redundancy in the sensor measurements to detect incoherences between them.Conclusions • Two novel FDI methodologies for IMUs and vector observations were proposed. 20 . • Simulation results show that the detection and isolation of the faults take.

Thank you 21 .