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# HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON SUBMERGED SURFACES

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HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON SUBMERGED SURFACES r r' r r Need to determine: (1) Force magnitude (2) Force direction (3) The location of the acting force .

HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON SUBMERGED SURFACES FORCE MAGNITUDE (FR) Static Fluids NO Shear stress r r d F = − pd A Against the surface r FR = ∫ A r − pd A dp = ρg dh p = p 0 + ρg h Hence: p and A must be expressed in terms of (x.y) .

r ' = i x' + ˆj y ' + k r ˆ dA .0) THE LOCATION OF THE ACTING FORCE r r r '× FR = ∫ A r r r r r × d F = − ∫ r × pd A A dimana: maka: r ˆ ˆ z' .MOMENTS ABOUT O (0. dA = − k r ˆF . FR = k R ˆF (ˆi x' + ˆj y' )× k R = ∫ A r (ˆi x + ˆj y )× d F = ˆ ˆ ˆj y )× pdA k ( i x + ∫ A Maka didapat: y' × F R = ∫ A ypdA r r' r r x' × F R = ∫ A xpdA .

THE LOCATION OF THE ACTING FORCE 1 y' = FR 1 x' = FR ∫ ∫ A ypdA A xpdA FR = p atm A + γ ∫ hdA A − p atm A .

EXAMPLE PROBLEM 3.5 GIVEN: Rectangular gate. w = 5m FIND: r Resultant force. of the water on the gate SOLUTION: • Does the resultant force pass through the center of gravity? • NO! . hinged along A. F R .

: r FR = ∫ A r − pd A r dF h dp = ρg dh r r ˆ FR = ∫ − pdA = − ∫ pwdη k A A ( r ˆ dA = wdη k ) Atmospheric pressure is neglected From the diagram: h = D + η sin 300 p = ρ g(D + η sin 300) (p = ρ gh) r r L ˆ FR = ∫ − pdA = − ∫ ρg D + η sin 300 wdη k A 0 r ˆ kN {Force acts in negative z direction} FR = −588 k ( ) .Basic Eqs.

5ˆ i + 6 . η ' FR = 1 η' = FR ∫ A η pdA 1 η pdA = ∫A FR 2 ∫ L 0 ηpwd η = L 0 ρgw FR ∫ L 0 η (D + η sin 30 0 dη ) η' = ρgw ⎡ Dη FR ⎤ ρgw ⎡ DL2 L3 0⎤ + = + sin 30 sin 30 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ F 2 3 2 3 ⎣ ⎦0 ⎦ R ⎣ η 3 η‘ = 2.5m 2 FR r r ' = 2 . and D 2m ' +η = + 2.22 m.r Finding the line of action of the resultant force.22 m = 6. FR . 22 ˆj .22 m y’ = 0 0 sin 30 sin 30 w w pdA = ∫A 2 2 FR m x' = 1 FR ∫ A xpdA = 1 FR ∫ A pdA = w FR = 2.

HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON SUBMERGED SURFACES As ∫ hdA = As ∫ y sin θ dA = sin θ As ∫ ydA .

HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON SUBMERGED SURFACES From solid mechanics. the location of the center of gravity (centroid of the area) measured from the free surface is: 1 y c = ∫ ydA AA ∫ hdA = sin θy A c A = hc A FR = p c A .

HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON SUBMERGED SURFACES Center of pressure on an inclined plane surface: y' = ∫y A where: 2 I xx = yc A yc A dA y’ = y-location of acting force x’ = x-location of acting force yc = y-location of surface center of gravity xc = x-location of surface center of gravity = surface moment of inertia around an axis parallel to x-axis passing through CG = cross moment of inertia around axes passing through CG I ˆxˆx y' = y c + yc A x' = xc + I ˆxˆy yc A .

HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON SUBMERGED SURFACES .

HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON SUBMERGED SURFACES .

HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON SUBMERGED SURFACES .

Centroidal moments of inertia for various cross sections: (a) rectangle. . and (d) semicircle. (b) circle. (c) triangle.

. • Buoyant force passes through the center of buoyancy. • The magnitude of the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Fb = ρgVb = γVb • Buoyancy is the net pressure force acting on a submerged body. which is at the centroid of the displaced fluid.

BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Stability of floating bodies .

V = 18. Fnet = 4.EXAMPLE PROBLEM 3.3 Net force on the string.8 GIVEN: Crown volume.9 in.7 lbf FIND: The average material density of the crown SOLUTION: r r r Fnet + Fbuoyancy = Fgravity .