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CRITICAL REASONING TEST SECTION 1 30 Minutes 20 Questions 1. Nearly one in three subscribers to Financial Forecaster is a millionaire, and over half are in top management. Shouldn’t you subscribe to Financial Forecaster no ! A reader ho is neither a millionaire nor in top management ould be most li"ely to act in accordance ith the advertisement’s suggestion if he or she dre hich of the follo ing #uestionable conclusions invited by the advertisement! $A% Among finance&related periodicals. Financial Forecaster provides the most detailed financial information. $'% Top managers cannot do their (obs properly ithout reading Financial Forecaster. $)% The advertisement is placed here those ho ill be li"ely to read it are millionaires. $*% The subscribers mentioned ere helped to become millionaires or (oin top management by reading Financial Forecaster. $+% ,nly those ho ill in fact become millionaires, or at least top managers, ill read the advertisement. Questions 2-3 are based on the follo ing. )ontrary to the charges made by some of its opponents, the provisions of the ne deficit&reduction la for indiscriminate cuts in the federal budget are (ustified. ,pponents should remember that the Ne *eal pulled this country out of great economic troubles even though some of its programs ere later found to be unconstitutional. -. The author’s method of attac"ing the charges of certain opponents of the ne deficit&reduction la is to $A% attac" the character of the opponents rather than

their claim $'% imply an analogy bet een the la and some Ne *eal programs $)% point out that the opponents’ claims imply a dilemma $*% sho that the opponents’ reasoning leads to an absurd conclusion $+% sho that the Ne *eal also called for indiscriminate cuts in the federal budget



.. The opponents could effectively defend their position against the author’s strategy by pointing out that $A% the e/pertise of those opposing the la is outstanding $'% the lac" of (ustification for the ne la does not imply that those ho dre it up ere either inept or immoral $)% the practical application of the ne la ill not entail indiscriminate budget cuts $*% economic troubles present at the time of the Ne *eal ere e#ual in severity to those that have led to the present la $+% the fact that certain fla ed programs or la s have improved the economy does not prove that every such program can do so 0. 1n Millington, a city of 23,333 people, Mercedes 4edrosa, a realtor, calculated that a family ith Millington’s median family income, 5-6,333 a year, could afford to buy Millington’s median&priced 577,333 house. This calculation as based on an 11.percent mortgage interest rate and on the realtor’s assumption that a family could only afford to pay up to -2 percent of its income for housing. 8hich of the follo ing corrections of a figure appearing in the passage above, if it ere the only correction that needed to be made, ould yield a ne calculation sho ing that even incomes belo the median family income ould enable families in Millington to afford Millington’s median&priced house! $A% Millington’s total population as 02,333 people. $'% Millington’s median annual family income as 5-7,333 $)% Millington’s median&priced house cost 563,333 $*% The rate at hich people in Millington had to pay mortgage interest as only 13 percent. $+% 9amilies in Millington could only afford to pay up

to -- percent of their annual income for housing.



2. 4sychological research indicates that college hoc"ey and football players are more #uic"ly moved to hostility and aggression than are college athletes in noncontact sports such as s imming. 'ut the researchers’ conclusion—that contact sports encourage and teach participants to be hostile and aggressive—is untenable. The football and hoc"ey players ere probably more hostile and aggressive to start ith than the s immers. 8hich of the follo ing, if true, ould most strengthen the conclusion dra n by the psychological researchers! $A% The football and hoc"ey players became more hostile and aggressive during the season and remained so during the off&season, hereas there as no increase in aggressiveness among the s immers. $'% The football and hoc"ey players, but not the s immers, ere a are at the start of the e/periment that they ere being tested for aggressiveness. $)% The same psychological research indicated that the football and hoc"ey players had a great respect for cooperation and team play, hereas the s immers ere most concerned ith e/celling as individual competitors. $*% The research studies ere designed to include no college athletes ho participated in both contact and noncontact sports. $+% Throughout the :nited States, more incidents of fan violence occur at baseball games than occur at hoc"ey or football games. ;.<oss= The profitability of )ompany >, restored to private o nership five years ago, is clear evidence that businesses ill al ays fare better under private than under public o nership.

?ulia= 8rong. A close loo" at the records sho s that > has been profitable since the appointment of a first&class manager, hich happened hile > as still in the pubic sector. 8hich of the follo ing best describes the ea" point in <oss’s claim on hich ?ulia’s response focuses! $A% The evidence <oss cites comes from only a single observed case, that of )ompany >. $'% The profitability of )ompany > might be only temporary. $)% <oss’s statement leaves open the possibility that the cause he cites came after the effect he attributes to it. $*% No mention is made of companies that are partly government o ned and partly privately o ned. $+% No e/act figures are given for the current profits of )ompany >.

$+% Stronger patent la s ould stimulate improvements in productivity for many manufacturers. $*% The ea"ness of current patent la s has been a cause of economic recession. 'ehind this surface divergence in immediate purpose there is the unified underlying goal of A A A A A.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 7. live sho s are used very deliberately to influence cro d movements. manufacturers ould be encouraged to invest in the development of ne products and technologies. Such investment fre#uently results in an increase in a manufacturer’s productivity. +vening performances have a rather different purpose= to encourage visitors to stay for supper. Stronger patent la s are needed to protect inventions from being pirated. 6. $)% Manufacturers ill decrease investment in the development of ne products and technologies unless there are stronger patent la s. 8hich of the follo ing conclusions can most properly be dra n from the information above! $A% Stronger patent la s tend to benefit financial institutions as ell as manufacturers. $'% 1ncreased productivity in manufacturing is li"ely to be accompanied by the creation of more manufacturing (obs. 8ith that protection. $A% "eeping the lines at the various rides short by dra ing off part of the cro d $'% enhancing revenue by attracting people ho come only for the live sho s and then leave the par" $)% avoiding as far as possible traffic (ams caused by 0 visitors entering or leaving the par" $*% encouraging as many people as possible to come to the par" in order to eat at the restaurants $+% utiliBing the restaurants at optimal levels for as much of the day as possible . 8hich of the follo ing best completes the passage belo ! At large amusement par"s. @unchtime performances relieve the pressure on a par"’s restaurants.

Some observers have concluded that the rise in the price of pepper means that the s itch by some gro ers from pepper to cocoa left those gro ers no 2 better off than if none of them had s itchedE this conclusion. 13. 4epper is conse#uently in relatively short supply. $*% Surplus stoc"s of pepper have been reduced in the past three years. $*% ?ames eighs more than Mar" $+% Delly eighs less than Mar". Mar" eighs less than Ned. 8hich of the follo ing can be inferred from the passage! $A% 4epper is a profitable crop only if it is gro n on a large scale. is un arranted because it can be inferred to be li"ely that $A% those gro ers could not have foreseen ho high the price of pepper ould go $'% the initial cost involved in s itching from pepper to cocoa is substantial $)% supplies of pepper ould not be as lo as they are if those gro ers had not s itched crops $*% cocoa crops are as susceptible to being reduced by bad eather as are pepper crops $+% as more gro ers turn to gro ing cocoa. Questions 10-11 are based on the follo ing. $)% 8orld production of pepper ill return to previous levels once normal eather returns. 4artly because of bad eather. ho ever.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 C. cocoa supplies ill increase and the price of cocoa ill fall precipitously. 1f the information above is true. The price of pepper has soared in response= it no e#uals that of cocoa. orld production of pepper has been running ell belo orld ide sales for three years. Delly and Ned are e/actly the same eight.?ames eighs more than Delly. . 11. $'% @uis eighs more than ?ames. $+% The profits that the gro ers of pepper have made in the past three years have been unprecedented. @uis eighs more than Mar". $'% 8orld consumption of pepper has been unusually high for three years. but also partly because some ma(or pepper gro ers have s itched to high&priced cocoa. $)% Delly eighs less than @uis. hich of the follo ing must also be true! $A% @uis eighs more than Ned.

for e/ample. hich as later painted over. ould most seriously ea"en the conclusion dra n above! $A% The rate of inflation in the state averaged 13 percent each year during the previous governor’s term in office and . $+% Analysis relying on >&rays only has the capacity to detect lead&based hite pigments in layers of paint beneath a painting’s surface layers.bviously.2 percent each year. They claim. 8hich of the follo ing.. 8hile the previous governor as in office. $'% 4ainters of da Finci’s time commonly created images of mountainous scenery in the bac"grounds of portraits li"e the Mona Lisa. if true. 8hile Governor Ferdant has been in office. if true. 1.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 1-. $'% 'oth federal and state income ta/ rates have been lo ered considerably during Ferdant’s term in office. ho ever. ould tend most to ea"en the force of the s"eptics’ ob(ections! $A% There is no ritten or anecdotal record that @eonardo da Finci ever painted over ma(or areas of his Mona Lisa. . the state’s budget has sho n some increase in spending over the previous year. $*% *uring Ferdant’s term in office. . that >&ray e/aminations of the Mona Lisa do not sho hidden mountains. the state has either discontinued or begun to charge private citiBens for numerous services that the state offered free to citiBens during the previous governor’s term. percent each year. the state’s budget has increased by an average of . that additional mountainous scenery once appeared in @eonardo da Finci’s Mona Lisa. the state’s budget increased by an average of 11. $)% No one "no s for certain hat parts of the Mona Lisa may have been painted by da Finci’s assistants rather than by da Finci himself. $*% 1nfrared photography of the Mona Lisa has revealed no trace of hidden mountainous scenery. S"eptics reply to these claims. 8hich of the follo ing. percent each year during . the state introduced several so&called GausterityH budgets intended to reduce the gro th in state spending. Ferdant’s term. researchers analyBe layers of paint that lie buried beneath the surface layers of old paintings. $)% 1n each year of Ferdant’s term in office. $+% *uring the previous governor’s term in office. :sing computer techni#ues. the austere budgets during Governor Ferdant’s term have caused the slo do n in the gro th in state spending.

but not Ⅰand not Ⅲ $)% Ⅰand Ⅲ. but not Ⅱ $*% Ⅱ and Ⅲ. but the reduction as not achieved because improvements in efficiency resulted in higher production on the land in use.Ⅱand Ⅲ 12. $+% . And yet. 4eople bet een eighteen and t enty&four. 1n order to reduce crop surpluses and increase prices.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 10. many of them must learn more about technology. . Ⅲ.n public referenda issues. $A% Ⅰ. $)% 1t should be suggested that prospective voters attend applied science courses in order to ac#uire a minimal competency in technical matters. are more li"ely to be technologically illiterate than some hat older adults. young people tend to confuse real or probable technologies ith impossible ideals. An effort to help feed&grain producers resulted in higher prices for their crops. $'% Thorough studies of technological issues and 7 innovations should be made a re#uired part of the public and private school curriculum. they must increase their "no ledge of pure science. but not Ⅰ $+% Ⅰ. 8hich of the follo ing statements provides support for the claim above! Ⅰ. 8hich of the follo ing conclusions can be properly dra n from the statements above! $A% 1f all young people are to ma"e informed decisions on public referenda. but not Ⅱ and not Ⅲ $'% Ⅱ. gro ers of certain crops ere paid to leave a portion of their land idle. Technological education is orsening. 9ederal agricultural programs aimed at benefiting one group hose livelihood depends on farming often end up harming another such group. ho are (ust emerging from their formal education. but the higher prices decreased the profits of livestoc" producers. $*%1f young people are not to be overly influenced by famous technocrats.Many farm or"ers ere put out of or" hen a program meant to raise the price of grain provided grain gro ers ith an incentive to reduce production by giving them surplus grain from government reserves. issues for public referenda ill increasingly involve aspects of technology. Ⅱ.

$'% 1f. before the emergence of a third party. "no n ith certainty. assuming that each is a 1f the factual information in the passage above is realistic possibility. party candidacy affects the t o ma(or candidates selling prices. Since a third& the investment ith costs. the practice is unfair and should not be 8hich of the follo ing. of either of the t o ma(or parties. 1n a political system ith only t o ma(or parties. $*% )ompetitors that do 6 . true. and share of une#ually. the third party ill dra its voters manufacturing processes! e#ually from the t o ma(or parties. the 17. hich of the follo ing can be most reliably constitutes the most serious inferred from it! disadvantage for companies of using the method above $A% 1f the political platform of the third party is a for evaluating the financial compromise position bet een that of the t o benefit of ne ma(or parties. $)% A third&party candidate ill not capture the votes $'% 1n several years interest of ne voters ho have never voted for candidates rates might go do n.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 1. $+% The founders of a third party are li"ely to be a $)% Some cost&cutting coalition consisting of former leaders of the t o processes might re#uire ma(or parties. voters $A% The costs of materials ere divided e#ually bet een the t o ma(or re#uired by the ne parties.. such e/pensive investments that there ould be no net gain for many years. for reasons neither of them has any mar"et remaining constant. The third&party candidate al ays pro(ected results of ma"ing attracts some of the voters ho might other ise have the investment against the voted for one of the t o ma(or candidates. control over. but not alternative of not ma"ing voters ho support the other candidate. allo ed. reducing the interest costs $*% The political stance of a third party ill be more of borro ing money to radical than that of either of the t o ma(or parties. neither of the ma(or parties is li"ely to process might not be capture much more than one&half of the vote. )ompanies considering ne entrance of a third&party candidate into an election cost&cutting manufacturing race damages the chances of only one of the t o processes often compare the ma(or candidates. until the investment as paid for by savings in the manufacturing process. pay for the investment.

333 adoptions. $+% The pottery of type . $*% 4eople ho see" to adopt children often go $)% The middle layer does through a long process of intervie s and not represent the period investigation by adoption agencies. . as imported to the city by traders. but in 1C6-. There are far fe er children available for adoption lo er layer of a large mound. long time before the city as destroyed. contains some pieces of pottery the last year for hich figures e/ist. $+% The period of year chosen for averaging out the cost of the investment might be some hat longer or shorter. too" place..GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 Questions 19-20 are based on the follo ing Archaeologists see"ing the location of a legendary siege and destruction of a city are e/cavating in several possible places. T o million The bottom of the middle layer couples are currently aiting to adopt. later period than the time of the destruction of the city. "no n to be from a some 23. than there are people ho ant to adopt. $+% 4eople ho see" to adopt children generally $*% The siege lasted for a ma"e very good parents. but the 8hich of the follo ing statements. $A% The lo er layer $'% The number of adoptions in the current year is contains the remains of greater than the number of adoptions in any the city here the siege preceding year. children available for adoption than there are people 1C. 8hich of the follo ing ho ant to adopt! hypotheses is best supported $A% The number of couples aiting to adopt has by the evidence above! increased significantly in the last decade. of the siege. thus affecting the result. $)% The number of adoptions in a year is $'% The legend confuses appro/imately e#ual to the number of children stories from t o different available for adoption in that period. including a middle and a 16. The force of the evidence cited above is most seriously ea"ened if hich of the follo ing is true! C invest in a ne process might reduce their selling prices and thus ta"e mar"et share a ay from companies that do not. there ere only of type . -3. historical periods. if true. most strengthens the author’s claim that there are far fe er lo er layer does not.

$)% Several pieces of stone from a lo er&layer all have been found incorporated into the remains of a building in the middle layer. found in the lo er level. $+% 'ronBe a/heads of a type used at the time of the siege ere found in the lo er level of e/cavation. $*% 'oth the middle and the lo er layer sho evidence of large&scale destruction of habitations by fire. small animals long native to the area. $'% 4ottery of types 1 and -. dig large burro s into hich ob(ects can fall hen the burro s collapse. the besieging forces came. according to the legend. as used in the cities from hich. 13 .GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 $A% Gerbils.

11 allo ing the harmful insects and fungi to thrive. if true. $)% Air pollution from the refinery has changed the chemical balance in the plants’ environment. $*% 4ollutants that are invisible and odorless are emitted into the surrounding air by the refinery. . most seriously ea"ens the conclusion dra n by the company spo"esperson! $A% The study did not measure the #uantity of pollutants emitted into the surrounding air by the aluminum refinery. )ompany spo"esperson= The refinery is not to blame. -. the number of deaths per mile driven on a high ay fell abruptly as a result. Neighboring landholders= Air pollution from the giant aluminum refinery that has been built ne/t to our land is "illing our plants. $*% 1n recent years high ay patrols have been less effective in catching drivers ho speed. $+% The change in the speed limit cannot be responsible for the abrupt decline in high ay deaths in 1C70. the average speed of vehicles on high ays has risen. $'% The neighboring landholders have made no change in the ay they ta"e care of their plants. $)% *river&education courses have been more effective since 1C70 in teaching drivers to drive safely. Since then. $+% The various species of insects and fungi mentioned in the study have been occasionally found in the locality during the past hundred years. since our study sho s that the damage is due to insects and fungi. $'% 4eople have been driving less since 1C70. After the national speed limit of 22 miles per hour as imposed in 1C70.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 CRITICAL REASONING TEST SECTION 2 30 Minutes 20 Questions 1. 8hich of the follo ing conclusions can be properly dra n from the statements above! $A% The speed limit alone is probably not responsible for the continued reduction in high ay deaths in the years after 1C70. 8hich of the follo ing. ho ever. but the number of deaths per mile driven on a high ay has continued to fall.

$)% The incidence of mos#uito&borne encephalitis in counties ith the largest number of television sets per capita is li"ely to decrease even further. $)% 8ealthy people pay. $+% The more television sets there are per capita in a county. The researchers’ conclusion ould be most strengthened if hich of the follo ing ere true! $A% 4rograms designed to control the siBe of disease& bearing mos#uito populations have not affected the incidence of mos#uito& borne encephalitis. 8hen all purchases of consumer goods are ta/ed at a fi/ed percentage of the purchase price. <evie ing historical data. . on average. medical researchers in )alifornia found that counties ith the largest number of television sets per capita have had the lo est incidence of a serious brain disease. $*% The total amount spent by all poor people on purchases of consumer goods e/ceeds the total amount spent by all ealthy people on consumer goods. 0.. $'% 4oor people spend a larger proportion of their income on purchases of consumer goods than ealthy people do. 1t can be correctly inferred on the basis of the statements above that hich of the follo ing is true! $A% 4oor people constitute a larger proportion of the ta/paying population than ealthy people do. the more time the average county resident spends atching television. Sales ta/es tend to be regressive. The researchers have concluded that people in these counties stay indoors more and thus avoid e/posure to the disease. $+% The average purchase price of consumer goods bought by ealthy people is higher than that of consumer goods bought by poor people. a larger amount of sales ta/es than poor people do. $*% The more time people in a county spend outdoors. poor people pay a larger proportion of their income in sales ta/es than ealthy people do. mos#uito&borne encephalitis. $'% The occupations of county residents affect their ris" of e/posure to mos#uito&borne encephalitis more 1- than does television& atching.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 . affecting poor people more severely than ealthy people. the greater their a areness of the dangers of mos#uito&borne encephalitis.

GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 2. $*% Since the beginning of the discount program. thereby eliminating the necessity for covering operating costs ith government funds. <ed @abel supermar"ets have begun offering discounts on home appliances to customers ho spend 523 or more on any shopping trip to <ed @abel. profits ould be vigorously pursued. The city’s public transportation system should be removed from the (urisdiction of the municipal government. $)% Most people ho received discounts on home appliances through <ed @abel’s program ill shop at <ed @abel after the program ends. since cash register receipts of 523 or more are up thirty percent since the beginning of the program. most seriously ea"ens the claim of the <ed @abel e/ecutives! $A% Most people ho s itched to <ed @abel after the program began spend more than 523 each time they shop at <ed @abel. hich finds it politically impossible either to raise fares or to institute cost&saving reductions in service. $+% Almost all of the people ho have begun spending 523 or more at <ed @abel since the discount program began are longtime customers ho have increased the average amount of their shopping bills by ma"ing fe er trips. 1f public transportation ere handled by a private firm. To entice customers a ay from competitors. 523 ould not be persuaded to spend more by any discount program. $'% Most people hose average grocery bill is less than 1. 8hich of the follo ing. . The statements above best support the conclusion that $A% the private firms that ould handle public transportation ould have e/perience in the transportation industry $'% political considerations ould not prevent private firms from ensuring that revenues cover operating costs $)% private firms ould receive government funding if it ere needed to cover operating costs $*% the public ould approve the cost&cutting actions ta"en by the private firm $+% the municipal government ould not be resigned to accumulating merely enough income to cover costs . <ed @abel e/ecutives claim that the discount program has been a huge success. most of the people ho spend 523 or more at <ed @abel are people ho have never before shopped there and hose average grocery bill has al ays been higher than 523.. if true.

$)%No provision as made to ensure that a dead bird ould not be reported by more than one observer. 8hich of the follo ing statements. $'% 4esticide sprayings ere timed to coincide ith various phases of the life cycles of the insects they destroyed. $)% +mployers often hire e/tra help during holiday and arm eather seasons.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 7. 8hich of the follo ing. if true. the teenage unemployment rate. Throughout the 1C23’s.3’s. 4esticide manufacturers claimed that the publicity given to bird deaths stimulated volunteers to loo" for dead birds. 6. there ere increases in the numbers of dead birds found in agricultural areas after pesticide sprayings. $+% The teenage unemployment rate has occasionally declined in the years since 1C. $*% 1nitial increases in bird deaths had been noticed by agricultural or"ers long before any publicity had been given to the matter.3. a ne lo er legal age for teenagers. Therefore. and that the increase in numbers reported as attributable to the increase in the number of people loo"ing. ould help to refute the claim of the pesticide manufacturers! $A%The publicity given to bird deaths as largely regional and never reached national proportions. $+% *ead birds of the same species as those found in agricultural areas had been found along coastal areas here no farming too" place.3 the teenage unemployment rate has risen hen the minimum age has risen. Teenagers are often priced out of the labor mar"et by the government&mandated minimum& age level because employers cannot afford to pay that much for e/tra help. ill no longer increase.3. ould most ea"en the argument above! $A% Since 1C. $*% The teenage unemployment rate rose more #uic"ly in the 1C73’s than it did in the 1C. if )ongress institutes a subminimum age.3 the teenage unemployment rate has risen even hen the minimum age remained 10 constant. if true. hich has been rising since 1C. $'% Since 1C. .

the ne record is not surprising at all. the loss to the industry is much smaller than estimated because $A% many users ho illegally copy programs never find any use for them $'% most of the illegally copied programs ould not be purchased even if purchasing them ere the only ay to obtain them $)% even if the computer industry received all the revenue it claims to be losing. the comparison of its sales record ith that 12 of other divisions is irrelevant. This record is especially surprising since the Ne Iampshire *ivision has the smallest potential mar"et and the lo est sales of any of )ompany >’s divisions. 8hich of the follo ing identifies a fla in the logical coherence of the statement above! $A% 1f overall sales for )ompany > ere sharply reduced. set a ne record for annual sales by that division. Thus. it is not surprising that the Ne Iampshire *ivision as last in sales. $)% 1f this is the first year that the Ne Iampshire *ivision has been last in sales among )ompany >’s divisions.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 C. Most of the illegal copying is done by people ith no serious interest in the programs. 8hich of the follo ing best completes the passage belo ! The computer industry’s estimate that it loses millions of dollars hen users illegally copy programs ithout paying for them is greatly e/aggerated. This year the Ne Iampshire *ivision of )ompany >. it is not surprising that it had the lo est sales. $+% Since the Ne Iampshire *ivision has the smallest potential mar"et. it ould still be e/periencing financial difficulties $*% the total mar"et value of all illegal copies is lo in comparison to the total revenue of the computer industry $+% the number of programs that are fre#uently copied illegally is lo in comparison to the number of programs available for sale 13. the Ne Iampshire *ivision’s ne sales record is irrelevant to the company’s prosperity. $*% 1f overall sales for )ompany > ere greater than usual. . $'% Since the division is competing against its o n record.

Statement of a :nited States copper mining company= 1mport #uotas should be imposed on the less e/pensive copper mined outside the country to maintain the price of copper in this countryE other ise. J is usually follo ed by K. it is usually preceded by > and J. and then the demand for :nited States copper ill go do n. 1f the factual information presented by both companies is accurate. $+% 1n cases here K occurs. not J. J is usually preceded by >. J is usually follo ed by K. the best assessment of the logical relationship bet een the t o arguments is that the ire manufacturer’s argument $A% is self&serving and irrelevant to the proposal of the mining company $'% is circular. 1f the copper prices e pay are not at the international level. . $'% 1n cases here > occurs. $)% 1n cases here J occurs but > does not. $*% 1n cases here J occurs but K does not. J has been believed to cause K. follo ed by J. presupposing hat it see"s to prove about the proposal of the mining company $)% sho s that the proposal of the mining company ould have a negative effect on the mining company’s o n business $*% fails to give a reason hy the proposal of the mining company should not be put into effect to alleviate the concern of the mining company for staying in business $+% establishes that even the mining company’s business ill prosper if the mining company’s proposal is re(ected 1-. best support the ne report’s suggestion! $A% 1n cases here > occurs but J does not.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 11. our sales ill drop. our companies ill not be able to stay in business. <esponse of a :nited States copper ire manufacturer= :nited States ire and cable manufacturers purchase about 73 percent of the copper mined in the :nited States. > is usually follo ed by K. may be the cause of K. noting that J and K are often observed to be preceded by >. A ne report. 8hich of the follo ing further observations ould 1. suggests that >.

The medical challenges provided by teaching hospitals attract the very best physicians. This. 10. $'%)onsiderably more than -3 percent of drivers and front&seat passengers in *ole )ounty al ays ear 17 seat belts hen traveling by car. 8hich of the follo ing. by earing seat belts. ould most strengthen Ms. $+% The modern trend among physicians is to become highly specialiBed.. 4rimm= 1f hospitals ere private enterprises. A recent survey of all auto accident victims in *ole )ounty found that. . $*% More than half of the drivers and front&seat passengers in the survey ere not earing seat belts at the time of their accidents. enables those hospitals to concentrate on nonroutine cases. there ould be no teaching hospitals. dependent on profits for their survival. in turn. $'% Sophisticated. $+% Most of the auto accidents reported to police in *ole )ounty do not involve any serious in(ury. $)% +/isting teaching hospitals derive some revenue from public subsidies. 4rimm’s claim! $A% *octors at teaching hospitals command high salaries. drivers and front&seat passengers can greatly reduce their ris" of being severely in(ured if they are in an auto accident.f all the drivers and front&seat passengers in the survey. Na"ai’s attempt to refute Mr. $*% The patient mortality rate at teaching hospitals is high. 63 percent ere not earing seat belts at the time of their accidents. if true. Na"ai= 1 disagree. more than -3 percent ere earing seat belts at the time of their accidents.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 1. of the severely in(ured drivers and front&seat passengers. Ms. because of the intrinsically high cost of running such hospitals. nonroutine medical care commands a high price. The conclusion above is not properly dra n unless hich of the follo ing is true! $A% . This indicates that. Mr. $)% More drivers and front& seat passengers in the survey than rear&seat passengers ere very severely in(ured.

Si/ months or so after getting a video recorder. if true. ould most seriously ea"en the conclusion above! $A% The mar"et for video recorders ould not be considered saturated until there as one in 63 percent of homes. $+% 1n a shrin"ing mar"et. Therefore. if accurate. because the number of homes ith video recorders is still gro ing. $)% 9e of the early buyers of video recorders raised any complaints about performance aspects of the ne product. 8hich of the follo ing.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 12. if true.. because advertisers pass along advertising costs to us through the higher prices they charge for their products. ould ea"en the plausibility of the advertiser’s conclusion $'% 'y #uestioning the truth of the purportedly factual statement on hich the advertiser’s conclusion is based $)% 'y offering an interpretation of the advertiser’s opening statement that. 'ut clearly. but also often as #uic" to tire of them. sho s that there is an implicit contradiction in it $*% 'y pointing out that the advertiser’s point of vie is biased $+% 'y arguing that the advertiser too narro ly restricts the discussion to the effects of advertising that are economic 16 . competition al ays intensifies and marginal businesses fail. 8hich of the follo ing best describes ho the consumer counters the advertiser’s argument! $A% 'y alleging something that. once the mar"et for video recorders is saturated. Advertiser= The revenue that ne spapers and magaBines earn by publishing advertisements allo s publishers to "eep the prices per copy of their publications much lo er than ould other ise be possible. The trade of businesses selling and renting videos is still buoyant. $'% Among the items handled by video distributors are many films specifically produced as video features. 1. $*% The early buyers of a novel product are al ays people ho are #uic" to ac#uire novelties. )onsumer= 'ut ho pays for the advertising that pays for lo &priced ne spapers and magaBines! 8e consumers do. consumers benefit economically from advertising. many early buyers apparently lost interest in obtaining videos to atch on it. businesses distributing videos face hard times.

if true. ould ea"en the conclusion dra n above +>)+T4= $A% The second survey occurred during a period of 1C recession hen rumors of cutbac"s and layoffs at @ar" Manufacturing ere plentiful . @ar" Manufacturing )ompany initiated a voluntary Luality )ircles program for machine operators. $*% Any national family policy that is adopted ould include legislation re#uiring employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing government& sponsored day care. Mr. +ach of the follo ing. any or"ers ho participate in a Luality )ircles program ill. Such la s ould decrease the stress levels of employees ho have responsibility for small children. Thus. . $)% The goal of a national family policy is to lo er the stress levels of parents. better&ad(usted families. such la s ould lead to happier. machine operators e/hibited t o of the primary indicators of improved (ob satisfaction= increased productivity and decreased absenteeism. 16. ould most strengthen the conclusion above! $A% An employee’s high stress level can be a cause of unhappiness and poor ad(ustment for his or her family. 8hich of the follo ing. if true. $)% 8hile participating in Luality )ircles at @ar" Manufacturing. as a result. $'% The surveys also sho ed that those @ar" machine operators ho neither participated in Luality )ircles nor "ne anyone ho did so reported the same degree of lessened satisfaction ith their or" situations as did the @ar" machine operators ho participated in Luality )ircles. 1ndependent surveys of employee attitudes indicated that the machine operators participating in the program ere less satisfied ith their or" situations after t o years of the program’s e/istence than they ere at the program’s start. $+% Most children ho have been cared for in daycare centers are happy and ell ad(usted.bviously.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 17. $'% 4eople ho have responsibility for small children and ho or" outside the home have higher stress levels than those ho do not. . @a son= 8e should adopt a national family policy that includes legislation re#uiring employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing government&sponsored day care. become less satisfied ith their (obs.

$+% The number of prospective first&time donors is li"ely to go up by 2 percent. Luestions 1C&-3 are based on the follo ing. in a large percentage of cases. $*% The blood supplies available from blood ban"s are li"ely to go do n. . 8hich of the follo ing inferences about the conse& -3 #uences of instituting the ne tests is best supported by the passage above! $A% The incidence of ne cases of NAN' hepatitis is li"ely to go up by 13 percent. carry other infections for hich reliable screening tests are routinely performed. 1C. they felt that participation might improve their or" situations. $'% *onations made by patients specifically for their o n use are li"ely to become less fre#uent. -3. $)% The estimate of the number of donors ho ould be dis#ualified by tests for NAN' hepatitis is an underestimate. develop the disease themselves at any point. their or" satisfaction had increased. Therefore. hile participating in Luality )ircles in their previous companies. 'lood ban"s ill shortly start to screen all donors for NAN' hepatitis. $+% The donors ho ill still supply NAN'& contaminated blood ill donate blood at the average fre#uency for all donors. Although the ne screening tests are estimated to dis#ualify up to 2 percent of all prospective blood donors. $+% The machine operators ho participated in Luality )ircles reported that. hen the program started. $)% The demand for blood from blood ban"s is li"ely to fluctuate more strongly. about 13 percent of actual donors ill still supply NAN'&contaminated blood. they ill still miss t o&thirds of donors carrying NAN' hepatitis.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 $*% Several or"ers at @ar" Manufacturing ho had participated in Luality )ircles hile employed at other companies reported that. in a large percentage of cases. $'% *onors carrying NAN' hepatitis do not. The argument above depends on hich of the follo ing assumptions! $A% *onors carrying NAN' hepatitis do not. $*% The incidence of NAN' hepatitis is lo er among the potential blood donors than it is in the population at large.

represents a benefit of the ne techni#ues to farmers +>)+4T= $A% The techni#ues allo the development of superior strains to ta"e place more rapidly. The plan of )hild’s 8orld assumes that $A% supermar"ets ill not also be selling children’s clothes in the same manner $'% personal service by sales personnel is not re#uired for selling children’s clothes successfully $)% the same "ind of computers ill be used in inventory control for both clothes and toys at )hild’s 8orld $*% a self&service plan cannot be employed ithout computeriBed inventory control $+% sales cler"s are the only employees of )hild’s 8orld ho could be assigned tas"s related to inventory control -. has relied on a Gsupermar"et conceptH of computeriBed inventory control and customer self&service to eliminate the category of . A group of them e/posed to continuous fluorescent light survived t enty&five percent longer than a similar group e/posed instead to e#ual periods of indoor fluorescent light and of dar"ness.. 1t no plans to ne tissue&culture and cloning employ the same concept in selling children’s clothes. Millions of identical copies of a plant can be produced using sales cler"s from its force of employees. techni#ues. .GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 CRITICAL REASONING TEST SECTION 3 30 Minutes 20 Questions 1. a chain of toy stores. if true. )hild’s 8orld. re#uiring fe er generations of plants gro n to maturity. )ontinuous indoor fluorescent light benefits the health of hamsters ith inherited heart disease. each of the follo ing. The method of the research described above is most li"ely to be applicable in addressing hich of the follo ing #uestions! $A% )an industrial or"ers ho need to see their or" do so better by sunlight or by fluorescent light! $'% )an hospital lighting be improved to promote the recovery of patients! $)% Io do deep&sea fish survive in total dar"ness! $*% 8hat are the inherited illnesses to hich hamsters are sub(ect! -1 $+% Are there plants that re#uire specific periods of dar"ness in order to bloom! 1f plant propagation by such methods in laboratories proves economical.

spread more rapidly among genetically uniform plants than among those ith genetic variations. 0. ho are trying to address the logically prior issue of hether&&&& $A% user&friendliness also implies that o ners can service their o n computers $'% personal computers cost more the more user& friendly they are $)% currently available models are user&friendly enough to suit them $*% the people promoting personal computers use them in their o n homes $+% they have enough sensible uses for a personal computer to (ustify the e/pense of buying one 2. $)% 4lant diseases and pests. $*% 1f a country is a closed society. $+% Special genetic traits can more easily be introduced into plant strains ith the use of the ne techni#ues. 8hich of the follo ing best completes the passage belo ! Sales campaigns aimed at the faltering personal computer mar"et have strongly emphasiBed ease of use. 8hich of the follo ing is an assumption that ould ma"e the conclusion above logically correct! $A% 1f a government "no s about a particular eapons& smuggling incident. $*% Mechanical harvesting of crops is less difficult if plants are more uniform in siBe. $)% 1f a government does not permit eapons to enter a country. it must have intended to use -- the eapons for its o n purposes. . $+% 1f a country is a closed society. it is a closed society. $'% 1f a government claims that it "ne nothing about a particular eapons& smuggling incident. So J’s government must have "no n about the eapons. its government has a large contingent of armed guards patrolling its borders. called user&friendliness. its government has "no ledge about everything that occurs in the country. once they ta"e hold. A eapons&smuggling incident recently too" place in country J. it must have "no n everything about it.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 $'% 1t is less difficult to care for plants that ill gro at rates that do not vary idely. 8e all "no that J is a closed society. This emphasis is oddly premature and irrelevant in the eyes of most potential buyers.

. 'y placement and headlines. 7. The above argument ould be most ea"ened if hich of the follo ing ere true! $A% Seeing or hearing an advertisement for a product tends to increase people’s desire for that product.lder people tend to be less influenced by mass& media advertisements than younger people tend to be. $*% None of the events concerning other people that are reported in ne spapers is so salient in people’s minds as their o n personal e/periences. 4eople tend to estimate the li"elihood of an event’s occurrence according to its salienceE that is. according to ho strongly and ho often it comes to their attention. $*% Those ho oppose cigarette use have advertised against it in the mass media ever since cigarettes ere found to be harmful. if they are true. $+% The press is the ne s medium that focuses people’s attention most strongly on local crimes. hich of the follo ing is most probably also true! $A% The language used in ne spaper headlines about local crime is inflammatory and fails to respect the rights of suspects. 'anning cigarette advertisements in the mass media ill not reduce the number of young people ho smo"e. 1t can be concluded on the basis of the statements above that.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 . $+% .. They "no that cigarettes e/ist and they "no ho to get them. They do not need the advertisements to supply that information. $'%The coverage of international events in ne spapers -. $)% <eaders of local ne s in ne spapers tend to overestimate the amount of crime in their o n localities relative to the amount of crime in other places. is neglected in favor of the coverage of local events. ne spapers emphasiBe stories about local crime over stories about crime else here and about many other ma(or events. $)% Advertisements in the mass media have been an e/ceedingly large part of the e/penditures of the tobacco companies. $'% 'anning cigarette advertisements in the mass media ill cause an increase in advertisements in places here cigarettes are sold.

Luestions CM13 are based on the follo ing. the such as airline flight more canned and prepac"aged foods the household attendant. status of teachers. if omen become the ma(ority in currently male&dominated professions li"e accounting. and secretaries more nonfood aste the household discards. fresh produce it thro s a ay. the status and discards as aste. ho ever. and secretaries ere predominantly menE these occupations slipped in pay and status hen they became largely occupied by omen. the $'% 8hen large numbers of smaller is the proportion of fresh produce in the men (oin a female& household’s food aste. siBed households. 8hich of the follo ing. ould most li"ely be and prepac"aged foods—its diet is. 'y analyBing the garbage of a large number of average& of the opposition. and physicians attained 8hich of the follo ing can be properly inferred from their current relatively the passage! high levels of income and prestige at about the same $A% An increasing number of households rely on a time that the pay and highly standardiBed diet. ban" $'% The less standardiBed a household’s diet is.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 $+% an attac" on the character 6. the greater refute the conclusion above! the #uantities of fresh produce the household thro s $A% Accountants. la . teachers. ban" tellers. pay of the occupation $+% The more fresh produce a household buys. Therefore. if — less food the more standardiBed made up of canned true. a ay. the more tend to increase. dominated occupation. and medicine. a group of modern urban anthropologists has found that a household discards 13. The argument above is based on $A% another argument that contains circular reasoning $'% an attempt to refute a generaliBation by means of an e/ceptional case $)% an analogy bet een the past and the future $*% an appeal to popular beliefs and values -0 . slipped. $*% The less standardiBed a household’s diet is. the tellers. C. 1n the past. The more part of the evidence used to standardiBed a household’s diet is. la yers. the income and prestige of these professions ill also drop. $)% The less standardiBed a household’s diet is.

immune to any evaluation. $*% 1f present trends in the a arding of la degrees to omen continue. precise eather forecasts The company’s plan as described above assumed even though the e/act each of the follo ing +>)+4T= causal mechanisms are not understood. could best be used as a basis for arguing against the 11. $+% The tripling of capacity ould not result in insuperable technological obstacles to efficiency. 8hich of the follo ing. $+% The pay and status of female accountants. 'ut this is an idle boast. $'% +/penses ould not rise beyond the level that could be compensated for by efficiency or volume of operation. $)% The planned plant ould be sufficiently reliable in service to contribute a net financial benefit to the company as a hole. $A% *emand for electricity ithin the company’s area of service ould increase in the future. it ill be at least t o decades before the ma(ority of la yers are omen. To continue these financial configurations of data can trends. hile the demand for ban" tellers has remained relatively stable. ban" tellers. An electric&po er company gained greater profits and author’s position that the provided electricity to consumers at lo er rates per meteorologists’ claim unit of electricity by building larger&capacity more cannot be evaluated! efficient plants and by stimulating greater use of $A% )ertain unusual electricity ithin its area. accurate mathematical model of the atmosphere ith all its comple/ities. . if true. or both. the company planned to replace an old plant serve as the basis for by a plant ith triple the capacity of its largest plant.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 1-. and physicians today are governed by significantly different economic and sociological forces than ere the pay and status of female teachers. for any inade#uate eather forecast ould obviously be blamed on imperfections in the model. Luestions 1-&1. la yers. are based on the follo ing Meteorologists say that if only they could design an -2 $)% The demand for teachers and secretaries has increased significantly in recent years. $*% Safety measures to be instituted for the ne plant ould be the same as those for the plant it ould replace. they could forecast the eather ith real precision. and secretaries in the past.

casts the most serious doubt on the suitability of those four countries as models in the sense described! $A% Many countries ish to increase their share of orld e/port trade. four had the same share of total orld e/ports in 1C60 as in 1C2. $'% Folcanic eruptions. even small increments in comple/ity ill mean large increases in the number of computers re#uired for the representation of the models. the combustion of fossil fuels. e/porters in 1C2. $'% Many countries are less concerned ith e/ports alone than ith he balance bet een e/ports and imports.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 $'% Most significant gains in the accuracy of the relevant mathematical models are accompanied by clear gains in the precision of eather forecasts. $*% 9re#uent and accurate data about the atmosphere collected at a large number of points both on and above the ground are a prere#uisite for the construction of a good model of the atmosphere. aside from the doubt e/pressed in the passage above! $A% The amount of energy that the +arth receives from the Sun is monitored closely and is "no n not to be constant. if true.. $+% 8ith e/isting models of the atmosphere. . large scale eather patterns can be predicted ith greater accuracy than can relatively local eather patterns. $+% Meteorologists readily concede that the accurate mathematical model they are tal"ing about is not no in their po er to construct. ould cast the most serious doubt on the meteorologists’ boast. not (ust "eep it stable... Theses countries can therefore serve as models for those countries that ish to "eep their share of the global e/port trade stable over the years. $)% Mathematical models of the meteorological aftermath of such catastrophic events as volcanic eruptions are beginning to be constructed. 1. . $*% Modern eather forecasts for as much as a full day ahead are broadly correct about 63 percent of the time. if true. 10. and several other processes that also cannot be #uantified ith any accuracy are "no n to have a significant and continuing impact on the constitution of the atmosphere. 8hich of the follo ing. $)% As current models of the atmosphere are improved. 8hich of the follo ing.f the countries that ere the orld’s t enty largest -.

o ned electric transmission services! Luestions 12&1. 8hich of the follo ing the four countries are very different from each #uestions can be ans ered other. are based on the follo ing $'% 1f private operators ere 1n the :nited States. 8hich of the follo ing. 1. t o had a much larger. the 4ostal Service has a monopoly allo ed to operate first& on first&class mail. the cost per transaction does not go do n as more pieces of information are transmitted. since its electronic transmission service could believe that the 4ostal be subsidiBed from the profits of the monopoly. $+% +lectronic transmission ill never be cost& effective for material not sent by first&class mail such as ne spapers and bul" mail. on the basis of the $*% . ould could be transmitted electronically. $A% 1s the 4ostal Service as $+% The e/ports of the four countries range from 12 efficient as privately percent to 72 percent of the total national output. but much of hat is sent first class class mail services. it ould have a monopoly on that transmission! "ind of service.. it could not ma"e a profit on first& $+% 1s the 4ostal Service class mail. it ould have an unfair transmittal operators advantage.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 $)% 8ith respect to the mi/ of products each e/ports. and information in the passage t o had a much smaller. if each is true. ould allay $*% 1s the 4ostal Service the electronic transmittal operators’ fears of unfair prohibited from offering competition! electronic transmission $A% 1f the 4ostal Service ere to offer electronic services ! transmission. +lectronic transmittal they choose to do so! operators argue that if the 4ostal Service ere to offer $)% *o the electronic electronic transmission. -7 . e/pected to have a $'% 1f the 4ostal Service ere to offer electronic monopoly on electronic transmission. share of total orld above! e/ports in 1C73 than in 1C60.f the four countries. $*% There is no economy of scale in electronic transmission—that is. Service ma"es a profit on first&class mail! 12. $)% Much of the material that is no sent by first& class mail could be delivered much faster by special pac"age couriers. but is not sent that ay because of cost.

Thus manned spaceflight definitely has a positive future. 16. @ists of hospitals have been compiled sho ing hich hospitals have patient death rates e/ceeding the national average. rather than large differences. $*% Some hospitals serve a larger proportion of lo & income patients. but this as the issue raised by Teresa. $)% 4atients ho are very old on admission to a hospital are less li"ely than younger patients to survive the same types of illnesses or surgical procedures. provides a good logical ground for hospitals to ob(ect to interpreting ran" on these lists as one of the indices of the #uality of hospital care +>)+4T= $A% <an" order might indicate insignificant differences. $+% 9or&profit hospitals sometimes do not provide intensive&care units and other e/pensive services for very sic" patients but refer or transfer such patients to other hospitals. +ach of the follo ing. $+% 1t fails to respond to Teresa’s argument because it does not address the fundamental issue of hether space activities should have priority over other claims on the national budget. tends to disprove the evidence cited by Teresa in dra ing her conclusion. if true. $)% 1t raises a consideration that out eighs the argument Teresa ma"es. 8hich of the follo ing is the best logical evaluation of +d ard’s argument as a response to Teresa’s -6 argument! $A% 1t cites evidence that. $*% 1t does not meet Teresa’s point because it assumes that there is no serious impediment to transporting people into space. if true. since it cannot compete economically ith other means of accomplishing the ob(ectives of spaceflight. $'% 1t indicates a logical gap in the support that Teresa offers for her conclusion. .GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 17. +d ard= No mode of human transportation has a better record of reliability= t o accidents in t enty& five years. ho tend to be more seriously ill hen admitted to a hospital. Teresa= Manned spaceflight does not have a future. The data have been ad(usted to allo for differences in the ages of patients. $'% Iospitals that "eep patients longer are li"ely to have higher death rates than those that discharge patients earlier but do not record deaths of patients at home after discharge. in numbers of patient deaths.

the proposal ould deny the last nominee e#ual -C . <esearchers have hypothesiBed that this predisposition in esterniBed 'lac"s may reflect an interaction bet een estern high&salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt. $)% 1f there are several prospective nominees. prospective nominees must consent to nomination and before giving such consent must be told ho the other nominees ill be. about t ice as li"ely as 8hite Americans to develop high blood pressure. $'% The proposal ould iden the choice available to those choosing among the nominees. ho. throughout their history. are lo .GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 1C. The follo ing proposal to amend the byla s of an organiBation as circulated to its members for comment. 8hich of the follo ing comments concerning the logic of the proposal is accurate if it cannot be "no n ho the actual nominees are until prospective nominees have given their consent to be nominated! $A% The proposal ould ma"e it possible for each of several nominees for an office to be a are of ho all of the other nominees are. here salt as al ays available. on the hole. 'lac" Americans are. most 8hite Africans have mar"edly decreased their salt consumption. esterniBed 'lac" Africans. ould most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis! $A% The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia. -3. $'% The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem. $*% 'lood pressures are lo among the Joruba. 8hen more than one nominee is to be named for an office. $)% 'ecause of their blood pressure levels. if true. This li"elihood also holds for esterniBed 'lac" Africans hen compared to 8hite Africans. 8hich of the follo ing statements about present&day. have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines. $+% No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found bet een those people ho have had salt available throughout their history and those ho have not.

3 . 8hich of the follo ing best completes the passage belo ! 1n a survey of (ob applicants. $*%The proposal ould enable a prospective nominee to ithdra from competition ith a specific person ithout ma"ing that ithdra al "no n. are based on the follo ing. the proposal ould ma"e it impossible for anyone to become a nominee. CRITICAL REASONING TEST SECTION 4 30 Minutes 20 Questions 1. the survey may underestimate the proportion of (ob applicants ho are dishonest. Io ever.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 treatment ith the first. t o&fifths admitted to being at least a little dishonest. because——. $A% some dishonest people ta"ing the survey might have claimed on the survey to be honest $'% some generally honest people ta"ing the survey might have claimed on the survey to be dishonest $)% some people ho claimed on the survey to be at least a little dishonest may be very dishonest $*% some people ho claimed on the survey to be dishonest may have been ans ering honestly $+% some people ho are not (ob applicants are probably at least a little dishonest Luestions -&. $+% 1f there is more than one prospective nominee. The average life e/pectancy for the :nited States population as a .

. $'% The governor of @ouisiana has falsely alleged that statistics for his state are inaccurate.7 years. 71. $)% The longevity ascribed to Ia aii’s current population is attributable mostly to genetically determined factors. 1f a ne ly ed couple from @ouisiana ere to begin their family in Ia aii. and those born in @ouisiana. ould most seriously ea"en the conclusion dra n in the passage! $A% 1nsurance company statisticians do not believe that moving to Ia aii ill significantly lengthen the average @ouisianian’s life. their children ould be e/pected to live longer than ould be the case if the family remained in @ouisiana. $+% Studies sho that the average life e/pectancy for Ia aiians ho move permanently to @ouisiana is roughly e#ual to that of Ia aiians ho remain in Ia aii. average life e/pectancy has risen at a higher rate for @ouisianians than for Ia aiians. 0. if true. 8hich of the follo ing statements. $)% T enty&five percent of all @ouisianians ho move to Ia aii live longer than 77 years. 1nsurance )ompany > is considering issuing a ne policy to cover services re#uired by elderly people ho suffer from diseases that afflict the elderly. therefore. but children born in Ia aii ill live an average of 77 years. $'% +nvironmental factors tending to favor longevity are abundant in Ia aii and less numerous in @ouisiana. $*% Thirty percent of all @ouisianians can e/pect to live longer than 77 years. ould most significantly strengthen the conclusion dra n in the passage! $A% As population density increases in Ia aii.1 . 8hich of the follo ing.C years.. if true. 4remiums . $*% .. $+% Most of the Ia aiian 1slands have levels of air pollution ell belo the national average for the :nited States.ver the last decade. -.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 hole is 7. life e/pectancy figures for that state are li"ely to be revised do n ard.

$'% The amount of money accumulated by putting the prepayment funds in an interest&bearing account today ill be greater than the total cost of tuition for any of the pubic colleges hen the child enrolls. . is the most appropriate enough to pay for the medical services reason for parents not to participate in the program! $A% The parents are unsure about hich pubic college in the state the child ill attend.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 2. 4arents should any serious diseases as children participate in the program as a $)% 1ncluding a greater number of services in the policy means of decreasing the cost than are included in other policies of lo er cost for their children’s college $*% 1nsuring only those individuals ho ere re(ected education.- for the policy must be lo enough to attract customers. $)% The annual cost of tuition at the state’s pubic colleges is e/pected to increase at a faster rate than the annual increase in the cost of living $*% Some of the state’s public . A program instituted in a particular state allo s parents to prepay their children’s future college tuition at current 8hich of the follo ing strategies ould be most li"ely rates. )ompany > is concerned that the income from the policies ould not be sufficient to pay for the claims that ould be made. if $+% 1nsuring only those individuals ho are ealthy true. by other companies for similar policies 8hich of the follo ing. Therefore. The program then pays to minimiBe )ompany >’s losses on the policies! the tuition annually for the $A% Attracting middle&aged customers unli"ely to child at any of the state’s submit claims for benefits for many years public colleges in hich the $'% 1nsuring only those individuals ho did not suffer child enrolls.



colleges are contemplating large increases in tuition ne/t year. $+% The prepayment plan ould not cover the cost of room and board at any of the state’s public colleges. ;. )ompany Alpha buys free&travel coupons from people ho are a arded the coupons by 'ravo Airlines for flying fre#uently on 'ravo airplanes. The coupons are sold to people ho pay less for the coupons than they ould pay by purchasing tic"ets from 'ravo. This mar"eting of coupons results in lost revenue for 'ravo. To discourage the buying and selling of free&travel coupons, it ould be best for 'ravo Airlines to restrict the $A% number of coupons that a person can be a arded in a particular year $'% use of the coupons to those ho ere a arded the coupons and members of their immediate families $)% days that the coupons can be used to Monday through 9riday $*% amount of time that the coupons can be used after they are issued $+% number of routes on hich travelers can use the coupons

7. The ice on the front indshield of the car had formed hen moisture condensed during the night. The ice melted #uic"ly after the car as armed up the ne/t morning because the defrosting vent, hich blo s only on the front indshield, as turned on full force. 8hich of the follo ing, if true, most seriously (eopardiBes the validity of the e/planation for the speed ith hich the ice melted! $A% The side indo s had no ice condensation on them. $'% +ven though no attempt as made to defrost the bac" indo , the ice there melted at the same rate as did the ice on the front indshield. $)% The speed at hich ice on a indo melts increases as the temperature of the air blo n on the indo increases. $*% The arm air from the defrosting vent for the front indshield cools rapidly as it dissipates throughout the rest of the car. $+% The defrosting vent operates efficiently even hen the heater, hich




C. A conservation group in the :nited States is trying to 6. To prevent some conflicts of interest, )ongress could change the long&standing prohibit high&level government officials from accepting image of bats as frightening positions as lobbyists for three years after such officials creatures. The group contends leave government service. ,ne such official concluded, that bats are feared and ho ever, that such a prohibition ould be unfortunate persecuted solely because they because it ould prevent high&level government are shy animals that are active officials from earning a livelihood for three years. only at night. The official’s conclusion logically depends on hich of the follo ing assumptions! $A% @a s should not restrict the behavior of former government officials. $'% @obbyists are typically people ho have previously been high&level government officials. $)% @o &level government officials do not often become lobbyists hen they leave government service. $*% Iigh&level government officials ho leave government service are capable of earning a livelihood only as lobbyists. $+% Iigh&level government officials ho leave government service are currently permitted to act as lobbyists for only three years. 8hich of the follo ing, if true, ould cast the most serious doubt on the accuracy of the group’s contention! $A% 'ats are steadily losing natural roosting places such as caves and hollo trees and are thus turning to more developed areas for roosting. $'% 'ats are the chief consumers of nocturnal insects and thus can help ma"e their hunting territory more pleasant for humans. $)% 'ats are regarded as frightening creatures not only in the :nited States but also in +urope, Africa, and South America. $*% <accoons and o ls are shy and active only at nightE yet they are not generally feared and persecuted. $+% 4eople "no more about

blo s arm air to ard the feet or faces of the driver and passengers, is on.




Luestions 11&1- are based on the follo ing. The fe er restrictions there are on the advertising of legal 13. Meteorite e/plosions in the +arth’s atmosphere as services, the more la yers there large as the one that destroyed forests in Siberia, ith are ho advertise their services, appro/imately the force of a t elve&megaton nuclear and the la yers ho advertise a blast, occur about once a century. specific service usually charge The response of highly automated systems controlled less for that service than la yers ho do not advertise. Therefore, by comple/ computer programs to une/pected if the state removes any of its circumstances is unpredictable. current restrictions, such as the 8hich of the follo ing conclusions can most one against advertisements that properly be dra n, if the statements above are true, do not specify fee arrangements, about a highly automated nuclear&missile defense overall consumer legal costs ill system controlled by a comple/ computer program! be lo er than if the state retains $A% 8ithin a century after its construction, the its current restrictions. system ould react inappropriately and might 11. 1f the statements above are accidentally start a nuclear ar. true, hich of the follo ing $'% The system ould be destroyed if an e/plosion must be true! of a large meteorite occurred in the +arth’s atmosphere. $A% Some la yers ho no $)% 1t ould be impossible for the system to advertise ill charge distinguish the e/plosion of a large meteorite from more for specific services the e/plosion of a nuclear eapon. if they do not have to $*% 8hether the system ould respond specify fee arrangements inappropriately to the e/plosion of a large in the advertisements. meteorite ould depend on the location of the $'% More consumers ill blast. use legal services if there $+% 1t is not certain hat the system’s response to the are fe er restrictions on e/plosion of a large meteorite ould be, if its the advertising of legal designers did not plan for such a contingency. services. $)% 1f the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more la yers ill advertise their services.

the behavior of other greatly feared animal species, such as lions, alligators, and sna"es, than they do about the behavior of bats.



1.. *efense *epartment analysts orry that the ability of the :nited States to age a prolonged ar ould be seriously endangered if the machine&tool manufacturing base shrin"s further. 'efore the *efense *epartment publicly connected this 1-. 8hich of the follo ing, if true, ould most seriously security issue ith the ea"en the argument concerning overall consumer import #uota issue, legal costs! ho ever, the machine&tool industry raised the national $A% The state has recently removed some other security issue in its petition restrictions that had limited the advertising of legal for import #uotas. services. $'% The state is unli"ely to remove all of the restrictions that apply solely to the advertising of legal services. $)% @a yers ho do not advertise generally provide legal services of the same #uality as those provided by la yers ho do advertise. $*% Most la yers ho no specify fee arrangements in their advertisements ould continue to do so even if the specification ere not re#uired. $+% Most la yers ho advertise specific services do not lo er their fees for those services hen they begin to advertise. 8hich of the follo ing, if true, contributes most to an e/planation of the machine& tool industry’s raising the issue above regarding national security! $A% 8hen the aircraft industries retooled, they provided a large amount of or" for tool builders. $'% The *efense *epartment is only marginally concerned ith the effects of foreign competition on the machine&tool industry. $)% The machine&tool industry encountered difficulty in obtaining governmental protection against imports on grounds other than defense.

$*% 1f more la yers advertise lo er prices for specific services, some la yers ho do not advertise ill also charge less than they currently charge for those services. $+% 1f the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services ere those that apply to every type of advertising, most la yers ould advertise their services.




$*% A fe eapons important for defense consist of 12. The cost of producing radios parts that do not re#uire e/tensive machining. in )ountry L is ten percent $+% Several federal government programs have been less than the cost of designed hich ill enable domestic machine&tool producing radios in )ountry manufacturing firms to compete successfully ith J. +ven after transportation foreign toolma"ers. fees and tariff charges are 10. ,pponents of la s that re#uire automobile drivers and added, it is still cheaper for passengers to ear seat belts argue that in a free a company to import radios society people have the right to ta"e ris"s as long as from )ountry L to )ountry the people do not harm others as a result of ta"ing J than to produce radios in the ris"s. As a result, they conclude that it should be )ountry J. each person’s decision hether or not to ear a seat The statements above, if belt. true, best support hich of 8hich of the follo ing, if true, most seriously the follo ing assertions! ea"ens the conclusion dra n above! $A% @abor costs in )ountry $A% Many ne cars are built ith seat belts that L are ten percent belo automatically fasten hen someone sits in the those in )ountry J. front seat. $'% 1mporting radios from $'% Automobile insurance rates for all automobile )ountry L to )ountry J o ners are higher because of the need to pay for ill eliminate ten percent the increased in(uries or deaths of people not of the manufacturing (obs earing seat belts. in )ountry J. $)% 4assengers in airplanes are re#uired to ear seat $)% The tariff on a radio belts during ta"eoffs and landings. imported from )ountry L $*% The rate of automobile fatalities in states that do to )ountry J is less than not have mandatory seat&belt la s is greater than ten percent of the cost of the rate of fatalities in states that do have such manufacturing the radio la s. in )ountry J. $+% 1n automobile accidents, a greater number of $*% The fee for transporting passengers ho do not ear seat belts are in(ured a radio from )ountry L to than are passengers ho do ear seat belts. )ountry J is more than ten percent of the cost of manufacturing the radio in )ountry L. $+% 1t ta"es ten percent less time to manufacture a radio in )ountry L than it

n the basis of those figures. 17.72.6 . the higher the annual 8hich of the follo ing ould reveal most clearly percentage rate at hich the the absurdity of the conclusion dra n above! income is ta/ed.333 products purchased ithin members of the :nited States armed forces died its (urisdiction. $)% )itiBens ith lo annual incomes can afford to pay a relatively higher percentage of their incomes in state sales ta/. . ta/= the lo er the income. combat in(uries $'% The federal income ta/ $*% )omparing death rates per thousand members of favors citiBens ith high each group rather than comparing total numbers of incomes. hereas the deaths state sales ta/ favors $+% )omparing deaths caused by accidents in the citiBens ith lo :nited States to deaths caused by combat in the incomes. This ta/. it can be therefore. . since their federal income ta/ is relatively lo . has the reverse overseas in the armed forces during the Second effect of the federal income 8orld 8ar than it as to stay at home as a civilian. *uring the Second 8orld 8ar. armed forces.333 sales ta/ to the price of most civilians died in the :nited States and about 036. overseas. $A% )ounting deaths among members of the armed The conclusion above forces ho served in the :nited States in addition ould be properly dra n if to deaths among members of the armed forces hich of the follo ing ere serving overseas assumed as a premise! $'% +/pressing the difference bet een the numbers of deaths among civilians and members of the $A% The amount of money armed forces as a percentage of the total number citiBens spend on of deaths products sub(ect to the $)% Separating deaths caused by accidents during state ta/ tends to be e#ual service in the armed forces from deaths caused by across income levels. $*% The lo er a state’s sales ta/.. the more it ill tend to redistribute income from the more affluent . if vie ed as ta/ concluded that it as not much more dangerous to be on income.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 does in )ountry state adds a 7 percent 1. about .

’s% in a large sample of companies is 27.’s in those same companies -3 years ago as appro/imately eight years younger.nly appro/imate information is given concerning the average age of the )+. The average age of chief e/ecutive officers $)+.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 citiBens to the rest of society.’s remain in office. 1C. Jet the manufacturers have been spending an amount e#ual to 13 percent of their gross receipts on cigarette promotion in magaBines.’s in general tend to be older no . $+% 1nformation concerning the e/act number of companies in the sample has not been given.n the basis of those data. $+% )itiBens ho fail to earn federally ta/able income are also e/empt from the state sales ta/. Surveys sho that every year only 13 percent of cigarette smo"ers s itch brands. . $)% The information is based only on companies that have been operating for at least -3 years. 1t follo s from these figures that inducing cigarette smo"ers to s itch brands did not pay. $*% . .f the follo ing. 16. not of overall costs $'% past patterns of smo"ing and may not carry over to the future $)% the assumption that each smo"er is loyal to a single brand of cigarettes at any one time $*% the assumption that each manufacturer produces only one brand of cigarettes . $'% No information is given concerning the average number of years that )+. it can be concluded that )+. The average age of )+. Luestions 1C&-3 are based on the follo ing.’s assumed their current positions have not been specified. 8hich of the follo ing casts the most doubt on the conclusion dra n above! $A% The dates hen the )+.C .’s -3 years ago. and that cigarette companies ould have been no orse off economically if they had dropped their advertising. the best criticism of the conclusion that inducing cigarette smo"ers to s itch brands did not pay is that the conclusion is based on $A% computing advertising costs as a percentage of gross receipts.

$*% Many teachers have cited lo pay and lac" of professional freedom as reasons for their leaving the profession. $'% Today more teachers are entering the profession ith a higher educational level than in the past. if they ould be unli"ely to drop it. ould most support the $+% 'rand loyalty is typically not very strong among claims above! those ho smo"e ine/pensive cigarettes. improvements in or"ing $)% There e/ists no research conclusively demon& conditions and their salaries strating that increases in cigarette advertising are have not "ept pace ith related to increases in smo"ing. Toughened hiring standards have not been the primary cause of the present staffing $A% )igarette advertisements provide a ma(or shortage in public schools. $+% Many prospective teachers 03 . $)% Some teachers have cited higher standards for hiring as a reason for the current staffing shortage. if true. $A% Many teachers already in the profession ould not have been hired under the ne hiring standards. most serinously ea"ens the conclusion that cigarette companies could have dropped advertising ithout suffering economically! CRITICAL REASONING TEST SECTION 5 30 MINUTES 20 QUESTIONS 1. 8hich of the follo ing. $*% Advertising is so firmly established as a ma(or business activity of cigarette manufacturers that 8hich of the follo ing. proportion of total advertising revenue for The shortage of teachers is numerous magaBines. primarily caused by the fact $'% )igarette promotion serves to attract first&time that in recent years teachers smo"ers to replace those people ho have stopped have not e/perienced any smo"ing.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 $+% figures for the cigarette industry as a hole and may not hold for a particular company -3. true. salaries in other professions.

ould most seriously ea"en the home builder’s argument! The conclusion above ould be more reasonably dra n if $A% Most individuals have no formal training in ho to hich of the follo ing ere e/tinguish fires. inserted into the argument as $'% Since ne homes are only a tiny percentage of an additional premise! available housing in the city. than do boo"s and articles. $+% 1n terms of the criteria used to a ard royalties. $+% The largest proportion of property damage that $)% 1nventions bring more results from residential fires is caused by fires that prestige to universities start hen no household member is present. Therefore. $*% 1n the e/perience of most universities. educational soft are programs are more mar"etable than are boo"s and articles. a home builder argued that royalties from boo"s and because more than ninety percent of residential fires are articles they rite. if true. 8hich of the follo ing. the ne ordinance ould be e/tremely narro in scope. +ven though most universities not entering the profession. A proposed ordinance re#uires the installation in ne faculty members’ inventions. homes of sprin"lers automatically triggered by the the faculty members retain the presence of a fire. educational computer soft are they develop. educational soft are programs are more nearly comparable to boo"s and 01 . retain the royalties from -. $*% 1n the city here the ordinance as proposed.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 have cited the ne hiring standards as a reason for . e/tinguished by a household member. programs.. residential faculty members should retain sprin"lers ould only marginally decrease property the royalties from the damage caused by residential fires. Io ever. $A% <oyalties from inventions $)% The installation of smo"e detectors in ne are higher than royalties residences costs significantly less than the from educational soft are installation of sprin"lers. the $'% 9aculty members are more average time re#uired by the fire department to li"ely to produce respond to a fire as less than the national educational soft are average. programs than inventions.

$)% +/ercise and eight reduction are the most effective methods of lo ering bloodstream cholesterol levels in humans. 8hich of the follo ing can be correctly inferred from the statements above! $A% 1ndividuals ho are under eight do not run any ris" of developing high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream. The argument above assumes that $A% the perceived threat of nuclear catastrophe has increased over the years. 0. but hen nuclear& arms testing increased. $+% . 8hen limitations ere in effect on nuclear&arms testing. decreases the illingness of people to postpone consumption for the sa"e of saving money. $'% 1ndividuals ho do not e/ercise regularly have a high ris" of developing high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream late in life. @evels of I*@ in the bloodstream of some individuals are significantly increased by a program of regular e/ercise and eight reduction. 1ncreases in the level of high&density lipoprotein $I*@% in the human bloodstream lo er bloodstream& cholesterol levels by increasing the body’s capacity to rid itself of e/cess cholesterol. $*% A program of regular e/ercise and eight reduction lo ers cholesterol levels in the bloodstream of some individuals. The perceived threat of nuclear catastrophe. therefore.nly regular e/ercise is necessary to decrease cholesterol levels in the bloodstream of individuals of average eight.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 articles than to inventions. $'% most people supported the development of nuclear arms $)% people’s perception of the threat of nuclear catastrophe depends on the amount of nuclear& arms testing being done $*% the people ho saved the most money hen nuclear&arms testing as limited ere the ones ho supported such limitations $+% there are more consumer goods available hen nuclear&arms testing increases 0- . people tended to spend more of their money. 2. people tended to save more of their money.

$*% Many ne airports are being built in areas that are presently served by high&speed ground& 0. $)% The ma(ority of travelers departing from rural airports are flying to destinations in cities over .33 miles a ay.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 .ne&half of all departing flights in the nation’s busiest airport head for a destination in a ma(or city --2 miles a ay. The successful implementation of this plan ould cost far less than e/panding e/isting airports and ould also reduce the number of airplanes clogging both airports and air ays. . could proponents of the plan above most appropriately cite as a piece of evidence for the soundness of their plan! $A%An effective high&speed ground&transportation system ould re#uire ma(or repairs to many high ays and mass& transit improvements. 8hich of the follo ing.. 8hich of the follo ing best completes the passage belo ! 4eople buy prestige hen they buy a premium product. They ant to be associated ith something special. A cost&effective solution to the problem of airport congestion is to provide high&speed ground transportation bet een ma(or cities lying -33 to 233 miles apart. $A% affluent purchasers currently represent a shrin"ing portion of the population of all purchasers $'% continued sales depend directly on the maintenance of an aura of e/clusivity $)% purchasers of premium products are concerned ith the #uality as ell as ith the price of the products $*% e/pansion of the mar"et niche to include a broader spectrum of consumers ill increase profits $+% manufacturing a premium brand is not necessarily more costly than manufacturing a standard brand of the same product 7. if true. Mass&mar"eting techni#ues and price&reduction strategies should not be used because AAAAAAA. $'% .

$+% A large proportion of air travelers are vacationers ho are ta"ing long&distance flights. effect on the price of domestic oil as long as an open&mar"et country has domestic supplies capable of meeting domestic demand.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 transportation systems. hether such countries import all or none of their oil. $+% 1f international oil prices rise. 8hich of the follo ing conclusions is best supported by the statement above! $A% *omestic producers of oil in open&mar"et countries are e/cluded from the international oil mar"et hen there is a disruption in the international oil supply. $'% 1nternational oil&supply disruptions have little. 1f there is an oil&supply disruption resulting in higher international oil prices. if any. $*% . 1f the statement above concerning oil&supply disruptions is true. Luestions 6&C are based on the follo ing. hich of the follo ing policies in an open&mar"et nation is most li"ely to reduce the long& term economic impact on that nation of sharp and une/pected increases in international oil prices! $A% Maintaining the #uantity of oil imported at constant yearly levels $'% 1ncreasing the number of oil tan"ers in its fleet $)% Suspending diplomatic relations ith ma(or oil& producing nations $*% *ecreasing oil consumption through conservation $+% *ecreasing domestic production of oil C. $)% The oil mar"et in an open& mar"et country is actually part of the international oil mar"et. domestic distributors of oil in open&mar"et countries ill begin to import more oil than they 00 . even if most of that country’s domestic oil is usually sold to consumers ithin its borders. domestic oil prices in open& mar"et countries such as the :nited States ill rise as ell.pen&mar"et countries that e/port little or none of their oil can maintain stable domestic oil prices even hen international oil prices rise sharply. 6.

has been eradicated in many parts of the orld. <ed blood cells in hich the malarial&fever parasite resides are eliminated from a person’s body after 1-3 days. $)% Many malarial symptoms other than the fever. 8hich of the follo ing indicates a fla in the reasoning above! $A% 8eight is only one measure of normal infant development. most seriously ea"ens the conclusion above! $A% The fever caused by the malarial parasite may resemble the fever caused by flu viruses. hich can be suppressed ith antimalarial medication. if a three&month&old child eighs only ten pounds. $)% 1t is possible for a normal child to eigh ten pounds at birth. any fever that develops in a person more than 1-3 days after that person has moved to a malaria&free region is not due to the malarial parasite. $*% The phrase G belo averageH does not necessarily mean insufficient. $+%Average eight gain is not the same as average eight. 13. $*% 1n some cases. its eight gain has been belo the :nited States average. if true. 'ecause the parasite cannot travel to a ne generation of red blood cells. $'% Some three&month&old children eigh as much as seventeen pounds. the parasite that causes malarial fever travels to 02 . hich is the principal insect carrier of the malarial parasite. can reappear ithin 1-3 days after the medication is discontinued. The average normal infant born in the :nited States eighs bet een t elve and fourteen pounds at the age of three months.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 e/port. Therefore. $'% The anopheles mos#uito. 8hich of the follo ing. 11.

9act 1= Television advertising is becoming less effective= the proportion of brand names promoted on television that vie ers of the advertising can recall is slo ly decreasing. 9act . The number of people diagnosed as having a certain intestinal disease has dropped significantly in a rural county this year. many people ho until this year ould have been diagnosed as having the intestinal disease are no 0. ould most seriously ea"en the health officials’ e/planation for the lo er incidence of the disease! $A% Many ne ater& treatment plants have been built in the last five years in the rural county. $)% 'ecause of a ne diagnostic techni#ue.ould be most li"ely to contribute to an e/planation of fact 1 if hich of the follo ing ere also true! $A% The average television vie er currently recalls fe er than half the brand names promoted in commercials he or she sa . 1. as compared to people ho did not contract the disease. hich made for cleaner ater this year and thus reduced the incidence of the disease.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 cells of the spleen. 9act -= Television vie ers recall commercials aired first or last in a cluster of consecutive commercials far better than they recall commercials aired some here in the middle. $)% The average number of hours per day that people spend atching television is decreasing. Iealth officials attribute this decrease entirely to improved sanitary conditions at ater& treatment plants.. if true. there are individuals ho appear to be immune to malaria. $'% The total time allotted to the average cluster of consecutive television commercials is decreasing. . $'% 'ottled spring ater has not been consumed in significantly different #uantities by people diagnosed as having the intestinal disease. 1-. hich are less fre#uently eliminated from a person’s body than are red blood cells. as compared to last year. $+% 1n any region infested ith malaria&carrying mos#uitoes. $+% The average number of television commercials in a cluster of consecutive commercials is increasing. $*% The average number of clusters of consecutive commercials per hour of television is increasing. 8hich of the follo ing.

might not encourage the development of $)% 1f they ished to e/tend innovative eapons. based on the possibility. Iistorical costing allo s contractors to protect their assuming that it is a realistic profits by adding a percentage increase. if true. groups might not al ays $*% Many ta/payers #uestion the amount of money agree on the best ays to the government spends on military contracts. argues most current rate of inflation. ta"e over their leadership. The price the government pays for standard eapons par" system. governmental enterprises $*% 'ecause of medical advances this year. achieve conservation $+% The pricing method based on historical costing ob(ectives. far fe er into private hands suggest people ho contract the intestinal disease ill that conservation ob(ectives develop severe cases of the disease. put in charge of operating and financing the national 10.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 correctly diagnosed as suffering from intestinal 12. hich is no purchased from military contractors is determined by run by the government.H 8hich of the follo ing. suggestion above! 8hich of the follo ing statements. $)% The contractual price ill be greatly affected by $'% 4rivate environmental the cost of materials used for the products. ould in general be better $+% The ater in the rural county as brought up to served if private the sanitary standards of the ater in neighboring environmental groups ere counties ten years ago. a pricing method called Ghistorical costing. environmental groups as $'% The rate of inflation has varied considerably over members and eventually the past t enty years. to the previous year’s strongly against the contractual price. the private environmental groups might have to see" contributions from ma(or donors and the general public. Some ho favor putting ulcers. is the best $A% Those see"ing to basis for a criticism of historical costing as an abolish all restrictions on economically sound pricing method for military e/ploiting the natural contracts! resources of the par"s $A% The government might continue to pay for past might (oin the private inefficient use of funds. $*% There might be competition among 07 . the par" system.

if true.. in claims against companies under riting satellite 'iographers claim that insurance. the time for the terrible living causes of failure are generally impossible to conditions in Normandy. This. believed that private environmental groups. insurance premiums are $A% Although Napoleon as necessarily very high. Toc#ueville. Toc#ueville disli"ed& ma"ing satellites more e/pensive to launch and centraliBed government operate. might die out despite the best efforts of the :nited States. "ne that if his father had not suffered ill health. economic conditions. historians no "no that $)% The greater the performance demands placed on bad harvests ere really satellites. in turn. if that the cost of television satellites ill continue to true. As a result. international consortia. such as the )alifornia study of democracy in the condor. popularly blamed at the $'% 8hen satellites reach orbit and then fail. insurance premiums shot up. pinpoint ith confidence. even if those groups a government that are not hampered by insufficient resources. ta"en together ith the information above. $*% Most satellites are produced in such small $'% Napoleon as notorious numbers that no economies of scale can be for refusing to share realiBed. his family ould have had a steady income and a comfortable standard of 06 . centraliBes po er in one 1. a nineteenth& par" areas. best supports the conclusion 8hich of the follo ing. the more fre#uently those satellites brea" to blame for the poor do n. poverty of his childhood in Normandy. has added to the pressure to because he blamed s#ueeBe more performance out of currently operating Napoleon’s rule for the satellites. inefficiencies are $)% Toc#ueville said he inevitable. ould cast the most increase! serious doubt on the biographers’ claim! $A% Since the ris" to insurers of satellites is spread over relatively fe units. A recent spate of launching and operating mishaps individual or institution is ith television satellites led to a corresponding surge dangerous to its citiBens.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 private environmental groups for control of certain 17. 8hich of the follo ing. century riter "no n for his $+% Some endangered species. po er ith any of his $+% Since many satellites are built by un ieldy political associates.

GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 living. ill not increase neighbors in Normandy. $'% 1n 1CC2 more people $'% The signals received on the satellite are stronger ill be or"ing in high& than those received by a terrestrial telescope.ill 0C . e/act increase its share. $*% The computer programs re#uired for ma"ing use $)% Nonservice occupations of the signals received by the satellite re#uired a ill account for the same long time for development. ere or"ing in lo & paying service occupations in 1C6.more people accomplishment. the :nited States of greatest increase in the the nineteenth century allo ed political po er to number of people employed be concentrated in a fe institutions. and 1f the estimates above are sophisticated computer programs. $*% Although Toc#ueville asserted that :nited States 1C. its share of total 16. <ecent estimates predict that bet een 1C6. hich of the interferometric lin"ing of an +arth&based radio follo ing conclusions can telescope ith a radio telescope on an orbiting be dra n! satellite as therefore a significant technological $A% 1n 1C6. be facilitated. hereas the details of celestial ob(ects that combines signals category of high&paying intercepted by idely spaced radio telescopes. "no ledge of the locations of the telescopes. paying service $)% The resolution of detail achieved by the satellite& occupations than ill be +arth interferometer system is inferior to that or"ing in lo &paying achieved by e/clusively terrestrial systems. ill be in the category of $+% Toc#ueville once rote in a letter that.and 1CC2 the political life as democratic. <adio interferometry is a techni#ue for studying employment. although lo &paying service his childhood as terribly impoverished. The successful accurate. it as occupations. This service occupations ill techni#ue re#uires ultraprecise timing. service occupations. ere or"ing in lo & 8hich of the follo ing can be correctly inferred paying service from the statements above! occupations than ere $A% Special care as ta"en in the launching of the or"ing in high&paying satellite so that the calculations of its orbit ould service occupations. share of total employment $+% The location of an orbiting satellite relative to in 1CC2 as in 1C6-. This category. not different from the e/perience of his friends and ho ever. locations on +arth can be ell enough "no n for $*% Many of the people ho interferometric purposes.

The statements above best support hich of the follo ing conclusions! $A% 8here public&service or"ers are permitted to stri"e. since some of the income urban and suburban households use for food and shelter can be used by rural households for other needs. $+% A stri"e by or"ers in a local government is unli"ely to be settled ithout help from an arbitrator. $+% All three types of households spend more of 23 . $*% Most categories of public&sector or"ers have no counterparts in the private sector. 8hich of the follo ing inferences is best supported by the statement made above! $A% The average rural household includes more people than does the average urban or suburban household. $+% The rate of gro th for lo &paying service occupations ill be greater than the overall rate of employment gro th bet een 1C6.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 be or"ing in high&paying service occupations by 1CC2. 9or a local government to outla all stri"es by its or"ers is a costly mista"e. $'% <ural households have lo er food and housing costs than do either urban or suburban households. ithout any negotiated public&sector labor settlements guiding the arbitrators. CRITICAL REASONING TEST SECTION 6 30 MINUTES 20 QUESTIONS 1. no acceptable substitutes for the services provided by any of those or"ers are available.and 1CC2. $)% Suburban households generally have more purchasing po er than do either rural or urban households. $*% The median income of urban and suburban households is generally higher than that of rural households. Stri"es should be outla ed only for categories of public&sector or"ers for hose services no acceptable substitute e/ists. because all its labor disputes must then be settled by binding arbitration. -3. $)% 'inding arbitration tends to be more advantageous for public&service or"ers here it is the only available means of settling labor disputes ith such or"ers. contract negotiations ith those or"ers are typically settled ithout a stri"e. $'% 8here stri"es by all categories of pubic&sector or"ers are outla ed. <ural households have more purchasing po er than do urban or suburban households at the same income level.

GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 their income on food and housing than on all other purchases combined. if feasible.ffering career counseling for those Me/ican nationals ho graduate from state border colleges and intend to return to Me/ico .H the association claimed. -. Affirmative action is good business. 21 . The association’s argument as it is presented in the passage above ould be most strengthened if hich of the follo ing ere true! $A% The percentage of minority and omen or"ers in business has increased more slo ly than many minority and omen’s groups ould prefer. So asserted the National Association of Manufacturers hile urging retention of an e/ecutive order re#uiring some federal contractors to set numerical goals for hiring minorities and omen. offers the best prospects for alleviating the problem of the drop in enrollment of Me/ican nationals as the teaching faculties assessed it! $A% 4roviding grants&in&aid to Me/ican nationals to study in Me/ican universities $'% Allo ing Me/ican nationals to study in Te/as border colleges and to pay in&state tuition rates. on average. G*iversity in or" force participation has produced ne ideas in management. hich are the same as the previous international rate $)% <eemphasiBing the goals and mission of the Te/as state border colleges as serving both in&state students and Me/ican nationals $*% 1ncreasing the financial resources of Te/as colleges by raising the tuition for in&state students attending state institutions $+% .. 8hich of the follo ing. and mar"eting. 1n 1C62 state border colleges in Te/as lost the enrollment of more than half. Teaching faculties have alleged that this e/treme drop resulted from a rise in tuition for international and out&of&state students from 503 to 51-3 per credit hour. of the Me/ican nationals they had previously served each year. product development. $'% Those businesses ith the highest percentages of minority and omen or"ers are those that have been the most innovative and profitable $)% *isposable income has been rising as fast among minorities and omen as among the population as a hole.

$)% Many pilots of private planes ould rather buy radar e#uipment than be e/cluded from centrally located airports. $'% Most outlying airfields are not e#uipped to handle commercial&airline traffic. 2. 1f the airspace around centrally located airports ere restricted to commercial airliners and only those private planes e#uipped ith radar. $+% <ecent improvements in management practices have allo ed many manufacturers to e/perience enormous gains in or"er productivity. $)% Most private planes that use centrally located airports are not e#uipped ith radar. The conclusion dra n in the first sentence depends on hich of the follo ing assumptions! $A% . Luestions 0&2 refer to the follo ing. if true.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 $*% The biggest gro th in sales in the manufacturing sector has come in industries that mar"et the most innovative products. most of the private&plane traffic ould be forced to use outlying airfields.utlying airfields ould be as convenient as centrally located airports for most pilots of private planes. 8hich of the follo ing best completes the passage belo ! +stablished companies 2- . $+% 4rivate planes not e#uipped ith radar systems cause a disproportionately large number of midair collisions around centrally located airports. 8hich of the follo ing. Such a reduction in the amount of private&plane traffic ould reduce the ris" of midair collision around the centrally located airports.. ould most strengthen the conclusion dra n in the second sentence! $A% )ommercial airliners are already re#uired by la to be e#uipped ith e/tremely sophisticated radar systems. $*% )ommercial airliners are at greater ris" of becoming involved in midair collisions than are private planes. 0. . $'% )entrally located airports are e/periencing over& cro ded airspace primarily because of sharp increases in commercial&airline traffic. $*% The number of midair collisions that occur near centrally located airports has decreased in recent years. $+% A reduction in the ris" of midair collision ould eventually lead to increases in commercial&airline traffic.

333 lu/ury or prestige items years ago have led researchers $'% a highly successful automobile as introduced by to speculate that people the same company that had earlier introduced a arrived in South America first. $A% ballpoint pens and soft&tip mar"ers have eliminated 'ut recent discoveries of the traditional mar"et for fountain pens. $)% The climate is armer at the .-.333 years ago.333&year&old south American site than at the oldest "no n North American site. ould be machines. as purchased by a public library as ell speculation above! as by ban"s $+% the inventor of a commonly used anesthetic did not $A% A roc" shelter near intend the product to be used by dentists. bridge into North America. by trying to ma"e better slide rules 8hich of the follo ing. clearing human shelters in South the ay for the mar"eting of fountain pens as America dating from . and then spread reacted to the introduction of electronic calculators north ard. they tend not to be innovative that people first reached the themselves and tend to underestimate the effects of the Americas less than -3. if it $*% one of the first models of modern accounting ere discovered. $'% Some North American sites of human habitation predate any sites found in South America.333 years ago as continuously occupied until . . currently account for almost the entire mar"et for contains evidence of use that drug by human beings 1C.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 concentrate on defending hat they already have. 4ennsylvania.333 years ago.333 innovations of others.-. ho 4ittsburgh. designed for use in the ban"ing pertinent evidence against the industry. The clearest e/ample of this years ago by crossing a land defensive strategy is the fact that……. Most archaeologists have held )onse#uently..-. model that had been a dismal failure after voyaging across the $)% a once&successful manufacturer of slide rules 4acific. 7. $*% The site in South America that as occupied . 2.

8hich of the follo ing statements.bviously. $*% The eevil population in Asia remained at appro/imately the same level bet een 1C63 and 1C60. or". 1n Asia. ould best the mayor’s publicity e/plain the 1C60 decrease in productivity! campaign has convinced many $A% 4rices for palm fruit fell bet een 1C63 and 1C60 people to leave their cars at follo ing the rise in production and a concurrent home and ride the bus to fall in demand. above! $)% <apid increases in productivity tend to deplete trees of nutrients needed for the development of the fruit&producing female flo ers. bet een 11. but not as efficiently as the species of eevil that as introduced in 1C63.233 and -3. 20 .333 years ago. of persons riding buses into the midto n area. city has decreased seven 8hen eevils "no n to be efficient pollinators of palm percent.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 C. 6. *uring the same flo ers ere introduced into Asia in 1C63. palm fruit period. if native trees because the imported ones have left true. $)% <oad reconstruction has greatly reduced the number of lanes available to commuters in ma(or streets leading to the midto n area during the past si/ months. casts the most serious behind their pests and diseases in their native doubt on the conclusion dra n lands. into the midto n area of the hich has "ept palm fruit productivity unnaturally lo .. there has been an productivity increased—by up to fifty percent in some e#uivalent rise in the number areas—but then decreased sharply in 1C60. . considerably lo ered orld ide sea levels. $A% 9ares for all bus routes in Greenville have risen an average of five percent during the past si/ months. $'% 1mported trees are often more productive than 8hich of the follo ing. $+% 4rior to 1C63 another species of insect pollinated the Asian palm trees. $*% The number of buses entering the midto n area $+% The last 1ce Age. Since the mayor’s publicity campaign for Greenville’s bus service began si/ months ago. if true. $'% The mayor of Greenville rides the bus to )ity Iall in the city’s midto n area. here palm trees are non&native. the treesN morning automobile traffic flo ers have traditionally been pollinated by hand.

$)% Since the research priorities of biotechnology companies are not the same as those of academic institutions. ould tend to ea"en most seriously the prediction of scientific secrecy described above! $A% 'iotechnological research funded by industry has reached some conclusions that are of ma(or scientific importance. 8ith the emergence of biotechnology companies. $'% 8hen the results of scientific research are "ept secret. independent researchers are unable to build on those results. the financial support of research by such companies distorts the research agenda. more severe short&term effects of the crash on the purchasing po er of the currency of )ountry T 11. $+% Surveys sho that longtime bus riders are no more satisfied ith the Greenville bus service than they ere before the mayor’s publicity campaign began. $*% To enhance the companiesN standing in the scientific 22 .GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 of Greenville during the morning hours is e/actly the same no as it as one year ago. 8hich of the follo ing. if true. ould slo the development of biological science and engineering. This constraint. in turn. 1n the aftermath of a orld ide stoc"&mar"et crash. it as feared that they ould impose silence about proprietary results on their in&house researchers and their academic consultants. )ountry T claimed that the severity of the stoc"& mar"et crash it e/perienced resulted from the accelerated process of denationaliBation many of its industries under ent shortly before the crash. 8hich of the follo ing. 13. ould be most useful in an evaluation of )ountry T’s assessment of the causes of the severity of its stoc"& mar"et crash! $A% )alculating the average loss e/perienced by individual traders in )ountry T during the crash $'% :sing economic theory to predict the most li"ely date of the ne/t crash in )ountry T $)% )omparing the total number of shares sold during the orst days of the crash in )ountry T to the total number of shares sold in )ountry T (ust prior to the crash. if it could be carried out. $*% )omparing the severity of the crash in )ountry T to the severity of the crash in countries other ise economically similar to )ountry T that have not e/perienced recent denationaliBation $+% )omparing the long&term effects of the crash on the purchasing po er of the currency of )ountry T to the immediate.

This record demonstrates that the (udge has not discriminated against omen in cases of se/ discrimination against omen. the (udge has decided in favor of the omen. 1-. if true. $*% The people ho have continued to smo"e 2. 'ut the record sho s that in si/ty percent of such cases. $'% The number of teen&age children ho have begun to smo"e this year is greater than the number of adults ho have #uit smo"ing during the same period. even though the number of adults ho smo"e has decreased. the number of nonsmo"ers ho have begun to use che ing tobacco or snuff is greater than the number of people ho have #uit smo"ing.. 1n the :nited States this year. the number of omen ho have begun to smo"e is greater than the number of men ho have #uit smo"ing. could e/plain the simultaneous increase in tobacco sales and decrease in the number of adults ho smo"e +>)+4T. The tobacco industry is still profitable and pro(ections are that it ill remain so. +ach of the follo ing. $A% *uring this year. especially results that are important. .GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 community. the total amount of tobacco sold by tobacco&farmers has increased. Some people have #uestioned the (udge’s ob(ectivity in cases of se/ discrimination against omen. $+%'iotechnology companies devote some of their research resources to problems that are of fundamental scientific importance and that are not e/pected to produce immediate practical applications. The argument above is fla ed in that it ignores the possibility that $A% a large number of the (udge’s cases arose out of allegations of se/ discrimination against omen $'% many (udges find it difficult to be ob(ective in cases of se/ discrimination against omen $)% the (udge is biased against omen defendants or plaintiffs in cases that do not involve se/ discrimination $*% the ma(ority of the cases of se/ discrimination against omen that have reached the (udge’s court have been appealed from a lo er court $+% the evidence sho s that the omen should have on in more than si/ty percent of the (udge’s cases involving se/ discrimination against omen 1. $)% *uring this year. the biotechnology companies encourage employees to publish their results.

their level of participation in e/tracurricular activities and varsity sports is unusually high. none of them lives in a foreign country. $'% According to their applications.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 consume more tobacco per person than they did in 12. ma"es the argument above more faculty for courses logically correct +>)+4T= ta"en by all freshmen. 'ut each year. $A% )ollard greens have more nutritional value than 8hich of the follo ing "ale. if true. $)% According to their applications. smaller freshman classes 10. year. administrators at Nice Any of the follo ing. fla ed! $+% Dale and collard greens have the same nutritional value. Surprised by a 03 since collard greens have more nutritional value than percent increase in #ualified lettuce. if introduced into the argument )ollege no plan to hire as an additional premise. $A% A substantially higher percentage than usual plan to study for advanced degrees after graduation from college. strongly suggest that the $*% Spinach and collard greens have the same administrators’ plan is nutritional value.n the basis of a decrease in the past. the college&age population. statements about Nice $'% Spinach has more nutritional value than lettuce. . ho ever. it follo s that "ale has more nutritional value applicants over the previous than lettuce. Dale has more nutritional value than spinach. $*% A substantially lo er percentage than usual rate 27 . )ollege’s current #ualified $)% Spinach has more nutritional value than collard applicants. $+% More of the cigarettes made in the :nited States many colleges no this year ere e/ported to other countries than as anticipate increasingly the case last year. ould greens.

.&17 are based on the follo ing. A researcher discovered that people ho have lo levels of immune&system activity tend to score much lo er on tests of mental health than do people ith normal or high immune&system activity. The value of a product is determined by the ratio of its #uality to its price. $*% Mental illness does not cause people’s immune& system activity to decrease. the better ill be 26 . The researcher concluded from this e/periment that the immune system protects against mental illness as ell as against physical disease. $'% Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body system. 17. 1. The researcher’s conclusion depends on hich of the follo ing assumptions! $A% Iigh immune&system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune&system activity does. The researcher’s conclusion ould be most seriously ea"ened if it ere true that $A% there as a one&year delay bet een the completion of a pilot study for the e/periment and the initiation of the e/periment itself $'% people’s levels of immune&system activity are not affected by their use of medications $)% a fe people ith high immune&system activity had scores on the test of mental health that ere similar to the scores of people ho had normal immune&system activity $*% people ho have lo immune&system activity tend to contract more viral infections than do people ith normal or high immune&system activity $+% high levels of stress first cause mental illness and then cause decreased immune&system activity in normal individuals 16.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 Nice )ollege as their first choice among the colleges to hich they are applying. $)% 4eople ith high immune&system activity cannot develop mental illness. $+% 4sychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment. Luestions 1. The higher the value of a product. $+% A substantially lo er percentage than usual list mathematics as their intended ma(or.

because interest rates for mortgages 8hich of the follo ing. 1C. $)% The prices of ne houses have been rising slo ly over the past three years because there is an increasing shortage of housing. best e/plains the sharp different segments of the population of consumers. if true. $*% There as a greater amount of moderate& priced housing available for resale by o ners during ?anuary than in the 2C . if $)% )ompeting products often try to appeal to true. fe er constraints limiting the total amount they pay. rise in the average price of $*% The competitive position of a product can be ne houses! affected by such factors as advertising and brand $A% Sales of higher&priced loyalty.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 its competitive position. This large sales drop position. $'% @abor agreements of builders ith construction unions are not due to e/pire until the ne/t ?anuary. Therefore. 8hich of the follo ing. higher&priced brands of some product ne houses sold. as accompanied by a sharp $'% 9or certain segments of the population of rise in the average price of consumers. 1n ?anuary there as a large drop in the number of ne houses sold. either increasing the #uality or lo ering the price of a given product ill increase the li"elihood that consumer ill select that product rather than a competing one. ould most ere falling and many strengthen the conclusion dra n above! consumers ere aiting to $A% 1t is possible to increase both the #uality and the see ho lo the rates ould price of a product ithout changing its competitive go. lines are preferred to the lo er&priced brands. houses ere unaffected $+% )onsumers’ perceptions of the #uality of a by the sales drop because product are based on the actual #uality of the their purchasers have product.

3 . CRITICAL REASONING TEST SECTION 7 30 MINUTES 20 QUESTIONS 1. not for . $A% The numbers on the ne/t based on the provision. $+% 1nterest rates for home mortgages are e/pected to rise sharply later in the year if predictions of increased business activity in general prove to be accurate. $+% The mileposts had originally been put in place for the use of mountain bi"ers. $*% the treaty specified that the signal for one of the $'% The numbers on the countries to initiate action as notification by the mileposts indicate other countries that they had completed action "ilometers.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 preceding three months. if comply ith the treaty. not miles. for its o n lac" of milepost had been compliance reversed. of the path. ould e/plain the countries are so re#uired. $+% there as ambiguity ith respect to the date after $)% The facing numbers hich all actions contemplated in the treaty are to indicate miles to the end be complete. $*% A milepost as missing bet een the t o the hi"er encountered. the hi"er as she approached it ith the actions of each conditional on simultaneous and G-.H on its bac". not miles from the beginning. hereas all the other true. Seven countries signed a treaty binding each of them read G-1H on the side facing to perform specified actions on a certain fi/ed date. according to the terms of the treaty behind. discrepancy described above! $)% each country might have a ell&founded e/cuse. +ach country as reasoned that the ne/t milepost also to notify the si/ other countries hen it had for ard on the path ould completed its action. A milepost on the to path -3. She action ta"en by the other countries. indicate that she as half ay bet een one end of the path The simultaneous&action provision of the treaty and the other. Io ever. the leaves open the possibility that milepost one mile further on $A% the compliance date as sub(ect to read G-3H facing her and G-0H postponement. $'% one of the countries might not be re#uired to ma"e any changes or ta"e any steps in order to 8hich of the follo ing.

avoidance systems that are not fully tested. Guitar strings often go -. rather than changes in the Malfunctioning systems could mislead pilots.. faster than do fol" $+% )ollision&avoidance systems. researcher’s hypothesis! $'% ?et engines. e/perimental flights made over a si/&month of the same gauge. string. Airline= Ne ly developed collision&avoidance systems. dead at different rates hen strung on various brands of guitars. classical guitarists ma"e $*% Many airline collisions are caused in part by the their strings go dead e/haustion of over or"ed pilots. appear to have or"ed better in $)% *etermining hether passenger planes than in cargo planes during identical lengths of string.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 hi"ers. A researcher hose son is pilots to avoid crashes. . a classical guitarist 4ilots= 4ilots ill not fly in planes ith collision& hypothesiBed that dirt and oil. $*% *etermining hether a dead string and a ne string produce different #ualities of sound $+% *etermining hether smearing various substances on ne guitar . at this stage of guitarists development. The pilots’ ob(ection is most strengthened if hich of 8hich of the follo ing the follo ing is true! investigations is most li"ely to yield significant information $A% 1t is al ays possible for mechanical devices to that ould help to evaluate the malfunction. go period. the li"ely guitarists malfunctions of the not&fully&tested systems ill $'% *etermining hether cause even more crashes. have achieved e/emplary performance $A% *etermining if a metal and safety records. Their mechanical arnings enable use. although not fully tested hen first put into use. causing material properties of the crashes.1 . GdeadH—become less although not fully tested to discover potential responsive and bright in tone — malfunctions. alloy is used to ma"e the $)% Although collision&avoidance systems ill enable strings used by classical pilots to avoid some crashes. ere responsible. must be installed immediately in after a fe ee"s of intense passenger planes.

$)% The lo est recorded temperature of the +merald <iver before the dam as built as . of ater temperature in the 8hich of the follo ing. Most consumers do not get much use out of the sports the eight fish species native to e#uipment they purchase. casts most doubt on the river belo the dam from 23 claim that most consumers get little use out of the degrees to .0 . Since the more than once a year. native species to begin the $'% ?oggers often e/aggerate the fre#uency ith hich reproductive cycle.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 2. none of 0. seventeen the +merald <iver as still percent of the adults in the :nited States o n (ogging reproducing ade#uately in the shoes. and only seventeen percent (og dam reduced the annual range more than once a ee". if true. the +merald <iver annually overflo ed its ban"s. scientists sports e#uipment they purchase! have hypothesiBed that sharply rising ater temperatures must $A% ?oggers are most susceptible to sports in(uries be involved in signaling the during the first si/ months in hich they (og. $'% 'efore the dam as built. ould most activities other than (ogging.- strings causes them to go dead . degrees. 9or e/ample. if true. $+% ?oggers ho (og more than once a ee" are often $A% The native fish species ere active participants in other sports as ell. 8hich of the follo ing $)% Many consumers purchase (ogging shoes for use in statements. T o decades after the +merald <iver *am as built. creating bac" aters that ere critical breeding areas for the native species of fish. but only forty&five percent of the o ners (og river belo the dam. they (og in surveys designed to elicit such information. still able to reproduce only in side streams of the river belo the dam here the annual temperature range remains appro/imately 23 degrees. strengthen the scientists’ $*% )onsumers ho ta"e up (ogging often purchase an hypothesis! athletic shoe that can be used in other sports.

$)% 1t is true that it is illegal for a government official to participate in a transaction in hich there is an apparent conflict of interest. they must negotiate in some cases. have begun competing ith the declining native fish species for food and space. 'ut someone else certainly ould have burglariBed that house if the defendant had not done so first. . $+% Artists are not concerned ith the monetary value of their products. $'% Some cabinetma"ers are more concerned than others ith the practical utility of the products they produce. 'ut if the police ant to prevent loss of life. 'ut if :nited States companies do not do so. Although custom prosthetic disobeyed this policy.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 degrees. here it ill not be used by anyone. $+% 9ive of the fish species native to the +merald <iver are not native to any other river in North America. cabinetma"ers must e/ercise their craft ith an eye to the practical utility of their product. degrees. 8hich of the follo ing is most li"e the argument above in its logical structure! 7. 9or this reason. 1n recent years many cabinetma"ers have been inning acclaim as artists. 'ut if the facts are e/amined carefully. cabinetma"ing is not art. bone replacements produced . $A% 1t is true that it is against the police department’s policy to negotiate ith "idnappers. $+% 1t is true that company policy forbids supervisors to fire employees ithout t o ritten arnings. 'ut there have been many supervisors ho have 6. companies in other countries ill. $*% 1t is true that it is against the la to burglariBe people’s homes. $)% )abinetma"ers should be more concerned ith the practical utility of their products than they currently are. hereas the lo est recorded temperature of the river after the dam as built has been 0... . 'ut there is a long tradition in the :nited States of conscientious ob(ection to serving in the armed forces. $*%Nonnative species of fish. 1t is true that it is against international la to sell plutonium to countries that do not yet have nuclear eapons. $'% it is true that it is illegal to refuse to register for military service. introduced into the +merald <iver after the dam as built. 8hich of the follo ing is an assumption that supports dra ing the conclusion above from the reason given for that conclusion! $A% Some furniture is made to be placed in museums. $*% An ob(ect is not an art ob(ect if its ma"er pays attention to the ob(ect’s practical utility. it ill clearly be seen that there as no actual conflict of interest in the defendant’s case. 'ut since furniture must be useful.

Not only ill surgery and recovery time be reduced. and physiological variables. forms the best basis for at hen compared ith the use of ordinary least a partial e/planation of replacements the patterned e/tinctions $*% The degree to hich custom replacements revealed by the fossil record! produced ith the ne techni#ue are more $A% Ma(or episodes of carefully manufactured than are ordinary e/tinction can result from replacements idespread $+% The amount by hich custom replacements environmental produced ith the ne techni#ue ill drop in cost disturbances that affect as the production procedures become standardiBed numerous different and applicable on a larger scale species. but custom replacements should last longer. if is li"ely to reduce the need for repeat surgery true. custom replacements should still be cost&effective. $'% )ertain e/tinction episodes selectively affect organisms ith particular sets of characteristics uni#ue to their species. geographical. $)% Some species become e/tinct because of accumulated gradual changes in their local environments.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 C. therefore. $*% 1n geologically recent . yield a random $A% The amount of time a patient spends in surgery pattern of e/tinctions. 8hich of the follo ing must be studied in order to evaluate the argument presented above! . +/tinction is a process that can depend on a variety of ecological. and should. $)%The degree to hich the use of custom replacements 8hich of the follo ing. thereby reducing the need for further hospital stays. versus the amount of time spent recovering from Io ever. the fossil record surgery sho s that e/tinction occurs in $'% The amount by hich the cost of producing custom a surprisingly definite pattern.0 through a ne computer&aided design process ill cost more than t ice as much as ordinary replacements. replacements has declined ith the introduction of ith many species vanishing the ne techni#ue for producing them at the same time. These variables affect different species of organisms in different ays.

)ertain messenger molecules intervention has changed the pattern of e/tinctions. points to the most its ability to serious fla of a plan to develop a medication that $A% balance its trade hile its standard of living rises ould prevent asthma $'% balance its trade hile its standard of living falls attac"s by bloc"ing receipt $)% increase trade deficits hile its standard of living of any messages sent by the rises messenger molecules $*% decrease trade deficits hile its standard of living referred to above! falls $+% "eep its standard of living constant hile trade deficits rise. An asthma the international mar"etplace. if proper test of a country’s ability to be competitive is true. in balanced by means of a decline in a country’s response to harmless things standard of living. establishes a country’s ability to compete in off the lungs. Neither a rising standard of living nor balanced trade.2 . 1f the facts stated in the passage above are true. li"e pollen or household dust. This partially seals by itself. human 11. $)% Such a medication ould not become available for several years.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 times. contract. because of long lead times in both development and . the muscle cells encircling the lungs’ air ays to 13. $A% <esearchers do not yet "no ho the body produces the messenger molecules that trigger asthma attac"s. fight damage to the lungs $+% Species that are idely dispersed are the least li"ely from no/ious air by telling to become e/tinct. for hich there is no fossil record. $'% <esearchers do not yet "no hat ma"es one person’s messenger molecules more easily activated than another’s. 'oth are re#uired attac" occurs hen the simultaneously since standards of living can rise messenger molecules are because of gro ing trade deficits and trade can be activated unnecessarily. a 8hich of the follo ing.

8hich of the follo ing statements.. hich must therefore be decreased to prevent future currency declines. $+% @ivestoc" producers claim that resistant bacteria in animals cannot be transmitted to people through infected meat. other . 1.. believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat. if true. if true. $*% 'efore there as a large budget deficit. . ould most seriously ea"en the conclusion about ho to prevent future currency declines! $A% The government has made little attempt to reduce the budget deficit. 'ut that prediction ould not have adversely affected the dollar had it not been for the government’s huge budget deficit.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 manufacture. ould most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the scientists! $A% Antibiotics are routinely included in livestoc" feed so that livestoc" producers can increase the rate of gro th of their animals. $'% Most people ho develop food poisoning from bacterially infected meat are treated ith prescription antibiotics. Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments. the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics. ho ever. 8hich of the follo ing. $)% The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural areas here meat is of comparable #uality. $+% 8hen there is a large budget deficit. predictions of slo er economic gro th fre#uently caused declines in the dollar’s value. $*% Such a medication ould be unable to distinguish bet een messages triggered by pollen and household dust and messages triggered by no/ious air. $)% The value of the dollar declined several times in the year prior to the recent prediction of slo er economic gro th. $+% Such a medication ould be a preventative only and ould be unable to alleviate an asthma attac" once it had started. Some scientists. 1-. $'% The budget deficit has not caused a slo do n in economic gro th. $*% 4eople ho have never ta"en prescription antibiotics are those least li"ely to develop resistant bacteria. The recent decline in the value of the dollar as triggered by a prediction of slo er economic gro th in the coming year.

7 . step&by& step reasoning is inappropriate for ma"ing many real&life management decisions. $)% The decisions made by middle&and lo er&level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning. most participating countries favored uniform controls on the #uality of effluents. hether or not specific environmental damage could be attributed to a particular source of effluent. in order to avoid e/cessively restrictive controls.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 events in addition to predictions of slo er economic gro th sometimes trigger declines in currency value. decision& ma"ing by managers that is reasoned step&by&step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision& ma"ing. The conclusion above is based on hich of the follo ing assumptions! $A% Methodical. Io ever. of course. is that AAAAAAAAAAA. 10. a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle&or lo er&level managers. $A% any uniform controls that are adopted are li"ely to be implemented ithout delay $'% any substance to be made sub(ect to controls can actually cause environmental damage $)% the countries favoring uniform controls are those generating the largest #uantities of effluents $*% all of any given pollutant that is to be controlled actually reaches the North Sea at present $+% environmental damage already inflicted on the North Sea is reversible 12. be sho n. This confirms the alternative vie that intuition is actually more effective than careful. step&by&step reasoning in ma"ing decisions. methodical reasoning. 8hat must. Traditionally. $*% Top managers use . 8hich of the follo ing best completes the passage belo ! At a recent conference on environmental threats to the North Sea. $'% Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical.

ma"ing than middle&or lo er&level managers )onsider. 1n fact. rendered can appropriately be ignored in computing productivity. individuals. $+% The number of letters delivered is relevant to measuring the productivity of postal . the often said to be more #uotas ill help Gmini&millsH flourish in the :nited productive if more letters States. or"ers. $'% 9oreign steel mills have long produced grades of $A% 4ostal or"ers are steel comparable in #uality to the steel produced representative of service by the big American mills.6 . The imposition of #uotas limiting imported steel ill postal or"ers= they are not help the big American steel mills. for e/ample. 1. ould cast the most more are delivered! serious doubt on the claim made in the last sentence The ob(ection implied above above! to the productivity measure described is based on doubts $A% Luality rather than price is a ma(or factor in about the truth of hich of determining the type of steel to be used for a the follo ing statements! particular application. $*% *omestic Gmini&millsH consistently produce $)% 4roductivity should be better grades of steel than do the big American ascribed to categories of mills. specialiBed types of steels that are not produced by $*% The #uality of services the big American steel mills. productivity of service $+% Top managers are more effective at decision& or"ers is comple/. not to $+% *omestic Gmini&millsH produce lo &volume. are lost or delayed per or"er at the same time that 8hich of the follo ing. or"ers in general..GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 intuitive reasoning in ma"ing the ma(ority of their 17. if true. $)% American #uotas on imported goods have often $'% The delivery of letters is induced other countries to impose similar #uotas the primary activity of the on American goods. )orrectly measuring the decisions. 'ut is this really ould have been ta"en by the foreign steel mills in true! hat if more letters the absence of #uotas. Those small domestic mills ill ta"e more are delivered per postal business from the big Americal steel mills than or"er. postal service.

16. . $+% The average ne sstand price of ne spapers sold in To n S in lo er than the average price of ne spapers sold in To n T. ea"ens the conclusion above +>)+4T= $A% To n S has a larger population than To n T. 1C. $*% A ee"ly ne spaper restricted to the coverage of local events is published in To n S. $'% Most citiBens of To n T or" in To n S and buy their ne spapers analyst predicts that Iong Dong can retain its capitalist ays after it becomes part of mainland )hina in 1CC7 as long as a capitalist Iong Dong is . here local populations of the birds apparently seldom have contact ith one another. researchers have concluded that the bo erbirds’ building styles are a culturally ac#uired. Male bo erbirds construct elaborately decorated nests. A greater number of ne spapers are sold in To n S than in To n T. $+% 1t is ell "no n that the song dialects of some songbirds are learned rather than transmitted genetically. 8hich of the follo ing. rather than a genetically transmitted. trait. $)% The bo ers of one species of bo erbird lac" the to ers and ornamentation characteristic of the bo ers of most other species of bo erbird. -3. Therefore. if true. if true. the citiBens of To n S are better informed about ma(or orld events than are the citiBens of To n T. 'asing their (udgment on the fact that different local populations of bo erbirds of the same species build bo ers that e/hibit different building and decorative styles. $*% 'o erbirds are found only in Ne Guinea and Australia. $)% The average citiBen of To n S spends less time reading ne spapers than does the average citiBen of To n T.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 or"ers. ould most strengthen the conclusion dra n by the researchers! $A% There are more common characteristics than there are differences among the bo er&building styles of the local bo erbird population that has been studied most e/tensively $'% Joung male bo erbirds are inept at bo er& building and apparently spend years atching their elders before becoming accomplished in the local bo er style. +ach of the follo ing. or bo ers.C .

73 . QUESTIONS 1f the predictions above are correct. be $A% 1f Iong Dong fails to stay prosperous. if true. 1t ta"es the 1CC7. a tree that is #uite $'% 1f Iong Dong retains its capitalist ays until rare in the ild. $+% The ibora generally gro s in largely inaccessible places. continued production of the $*% Iong Dong ill be prosperous after 1CC7 drug must inevitably lead to $+% The citiBens of Iong Dong ill have no the ibora’s e/tinction. $*% The ibora can be propagated from cuttings and gro n under cultivation. $)% The leaves of the ibora are used in a number of medical products.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 useful to )hinaE that a capitalist Iong Dong ill be CRITICAL REASONING useful to )hina as long as Iong Dong is prosperousE TEST SECTION 8 and that Iong Dong ill remain prosperous as long 30 MINUTES 20 as it retains its capitalist ays. 8hich of the follo ing. it ill no obtained only from the bar" of longer remain part of mainland )hina.333 tree to ma"e one $)% 1f there is a orld economic crisis after 1CC7. most seriously ea"ens the argument above! $A% The drug made from ibora bar" is dispensed to doctors from a central authority. therefore. it "ilogram of the drug. bar" of 2. it ill be allo ed to do so after ard. hich of the follo ing further predictions can logically be derived 1. at present. A drug that is highly effective in treating many types of from them! infection can. that Dong. 1t ill not adversely affect the economy of Iong follo s. $'% The drug made from ibora bar" is e/pensive to produce. restrictions placed on them by the government of mainland )hina. the ibora.

and this reduced #uality ould lead to lo ered sales. ould most ea"en the diverse crops. from fertiliBers and pesticides is to ta"e farmland out of production. argument above! but not by planting the same crop each year. thus reducing costs for chemicals. +/perts therefore urge farmers to diversify their crops and to rotate their plantings yearly. Shelby 1ndustries manufactures and sells the same gauges as ?ones 1ndustries. Shelby 1ndustries is see"ing a competitive The statements above. 71 . 1ndustries. farmers to get out of debt. Iigh levels of fertiliBer and pesticides. to $A% The rules for governmental support of farm prices promote this end. if true. if $)% 9armers can continue to ma"e a profit by rotating true. Therefore. gauge fertiliBers and pesticides. Shelby or" against efforts to reduce ater pollution.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 -. $)% ?ones 1ndustries has ta"en a ay t enty percent of Shelby 1ndustries’ business over the last year. needed hen farmers try to produce high yield of the same crop year after year. 1ndustries should lo er $'% The only solution to the problem of ater pollution employee ages. 8hich of the follo ing. farmers must have produced that same crop for 1ndustries and ?ones the past several years. . pollute ater supplies. manufacturers cannot $+% Governmental price supports for farm products are receive volume discounts set at levels that are not high enough to allo on ra materials.. best support hich of the advantage over ?ones follo ing conclusions! 1ndustries. $*% Shelby 1ndustries pays its employees. on average. +mployee ages account for forty percent of the cost of manufacturing To receive governmental price&support benefits for a gauges at both Shelby crop. $'% @o ering ages ould reduce the #uality of employee or". $A% 'ecause they ma"e a $*% Ne farming techni#ues ill be developed to ma"e small number of precision it possible for farmers to reduce the application of instruments.

Jet these communities are deficit figures are ad(usted so home to thriving businesses specialiBing in the rental of that different countries are furniture for infants and small children. ith the largest budget deficits 0. $+% )hildren’s furniture available for rental is of the $)% <educing a country’s same #uality as that available for sale in the stores. if true. 1f they did. trade deficits. national budget deficit ill not necessarily result in a lo ering of any trade deficit that country may have. 1n fact. hich of the follo ing children’s furniture buy their furniture from can properly be inferred on the distributors outside of 9lorida. hen families ith small children. Some communities in 9lorida are populated almost ould also have the largest e/clusively by retired people and contain fe . best reconciles the correlation. another are impossible. basis of them! $'% The fe children ho do reside in these communities all "no each other and often ma"e $A% )ountries ith large overnight visits to one another’s houses. if any. $'% <eliable comparisons of $*% Many residents of these communities must provide the deficit figures of one for the needs of visiting grandchildren several country ith those of ee"s a year. 2. @arge national budget deficits $+% Many people ho or" for manufacturing plants do not cause large trade live in areas in hich the manufacturing plant they deficits. it outright. seeming discrepancy described above! 1f the statements above are all $A% The businesses specialiBing in the rental of true. countries or" for is the only industry. there is no such 8hich of the follo ing. national budget deficits $)% Many residents of these communities ho move tend to restrict foreign fre#uently prefer renting their furniture to buying trade.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 ten percent more than does ?ones 1ndustries. reliably comparable to each other. $*% 8hen countries are ordered from largest to smallest in terms of population. 7- . the smallest countries generally have the smallest budget and trade deficits.

including a variety of foods. Nevertheless. is a better source of those vitamins than are such fortified brea"fast cereals alone. Some of these cereals provide 133 percent of the recommended daily re#uirement of vitamins.. $'% 4eople ho regularly eat cereals fortified ith vitamin supplements sometimes neglect to eat the foods in hich the vitamins occur naturally. The claim about #uality made above rests on a #ues& tionable presupposition that $A% any fla in or" on a product ould cause a bottlenec" or delay and so ould be prevented from occurring on a Gfast cycleH production line $'% the strategy of Gfast cycle timeH ould re#uire fundamental rethin"ing of product design $)% the primary goal of the organiBation is to produce a product of une/celled #uality. G9ast cycle timeH is a strategy of designing a manu& facturing organiBation to eliminate bottlenec"s and delays in production. $)%9oods often must be fortified ith vitamin supplements because naturally occurring vitamins are removed during processing. the natural combination of vitamins ith other nutrients ma"es those vitamins more usable by the body than are vitamins added in vitamin supplements. Not only does it speed up production. rather than to generate profits for stoc"holders $*% Gfast cycle timeH could be achieved by shaving time off each of the component processes in production cycle $+% Gfast cycle timeH is a concept in business strategy that has not yet been put into practice in a factory 7. Many brea"fast cereals are fortified ith vitamin supplements. . ould most strongly support the position above! $A% 1n many foods. The reason is that the bottlenec"s and delays cannot be eliminated unless all or" is done right the first time. $*% :nprocessed cereals are naturally high in several 7. if true. a ell&balanced brea"fast. 8hich of the follo ing. .GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 $+% )ountries ith the largest trade deficits never have similarly large national budget deficits. but it also assures #uality.

money. The more orried investors are about losing their As a result of the la suit. to ma"e very ris"y investments ithout orrying The conclusion above is about their money based on hich of the $'% lenders receive higher interest rates on unsecured follo ing assumptions! loans than on loans bac"ed by collateral $)% in times of high inflation.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 of the vitamins that are usually added to fortified C. Therefore. $*% Advertising firms ill continue to use imitators to mimic the physical 70 . $)% The original versions of some ell&"no n songs are unavailable for use in commercials. $+% the potential return on investment in a ne $'% )ommercials using company is typically lo er than the potential famous singers are return on investment in a ell&established usually more effective company than commercials using imitators of famous singers. the more they ill demand a high potential advertising firms ill stop return on their investmentE great ris"s must be offset by using imitators in the chance of great re ards. —— illustrated by the fact that . fundamental one in determining interest rates. This principle is the commercials. and it is advertising costs ill rise. 8hich of the follo ing best completes the passage famous singer’s ell&"no n belo ! rendition of a certain song. commercial to evo"e the 6. the interest paid to $A% Most people are unable depositors by ban"s can actually be belo the rate to distinguish a famous of inflation singer’s rendition of a $*% at any one time. a la suit against an $+% )ereals containing vitamin supplements are no advertising firm for using harder to digest than similar cereals ithout added another singer in a vitamins. since famous singers’ services cost more than $A% successful investors are distinguished by an ability those of their imitators. A famous singer recently on brea"fast cereals. a commercial ban" ill have a song from a good single rate of interest that it ill e/pect all of its imitator’s rendition of the individual borro ers to pay same song.

$'% 1n these stories. $+% The advertising industry ill use ell&"no n renditions of songs in commercials. A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day on private vehicles entering the city. $*% Many commuters opposing the mayor’s plan have indicated that they ould rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five&dollar&per day fee. $'% The cost of par"ing fees already ma"es it considerably more e/pensive for most people to ta"e a private vehicle into the city than to ta"e a bus.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 mannerisms of famous singers. some of those people doing so intentionally. the younger children. $+% *uring the average or"day. claiming that the fee ill alleviate the city’s traffic congestion. the severity of the harm produced as clearly stated. unli"e the older ones. A group of children of various ages as read stories in hich people caused harm. and some accidentally. 8hich of the follo ing statements. ould most seriously ea"en the conclusion above! $A% 1n interpreting these stories. assigned punishments that did not vary according to hether the harm as done intentionally or accidentally. private vehicles o ned and operated by people living ithin the city account for t enty percent of the city’s traffic congestion. 11. 72 . provides the best evidence that the mayor’s reasoning is fla ed! $A% 4ro(ected increases in the price of gasoline ill increase the cost of ta"ing a private vehicle into the city. The mayor reasons that. the listeners had to dra on a relatively mature sense of human psychology in order to tell hether harm as produced intentionally or accidentally. 13. Jounger children. $)% Most of the people currently riding the bus do not o n private vehicles. 8hich of the follo ing. then. do not regard people’s intentions as relevant to punishment. since the fee ill e/ceed the cost of round&trip bus fare from many nearby points. if true. 8hen as"ed about appropriate punishments for those ho had caused harm. if true. many people ill s itch from using their cars to using the bus.

8hich of the follo ing challenges indicates the most $'% The price paid for most serious ea"ness in the attempted e/planation illegal drugs by the described above! average consumer did not $A% 8hy does the part that replies not ans er. the holesale price of most illegal drugs ould not have dropped substantially in 1C67.&10 are based on the follo ing. 8hen hypnotiBed sub(ects are told that they are deaf and are then as"ed hether they can hear the hypnotist. 1f the program had been successful. $+% The younger children assigned punishments that varied according to the severity of the harm done by the agents in the stories. The argument in the passage 7. The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country as a failure in 1C67. ay in the situation described! $*% The holesale price of a $+% 8hy are the separate parts of the self the same fe illegal drugs for all sub(ects! increased substantially in 1C67. drugs dropped substantially in 1C67. they reply. 1-.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 $)% Jounger children are as li"ely to produce harm unintentionally as are older children. The argument in the passage e/plain this result by arguing that the selves of depends on hich of the hypnotiBed sub(ects are dissociated into separate follo ing assumptions! parts. drop substantially in GJesH! 1C67. $+% A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1C67 as not the sole cause of the drop in their holesale price. . 10. $*% The older children assigned punishment in a ay that closely resembled the ay adults had assigned punishment in a similar e/periment. GNo.H Some theorists try to 1.. $'% 8hy are the observed facts in need of any special $)% *omestic production of e/planation! illegal drugs increased at $)% 8hy do the sub(ects appear to accept the a higher rate than did the hypnotist’s suggestion that they are deaf! entry of such drugs into $*% 8hy do hypnotiBed sub(ects all respond the same the country. Luestions 1. and that the part that is deaf is dissociated from $A% The supply of illegal the part that replies.

GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 ould be most seriously ea"ened if it ere true that $A% in 1C67 smugglers of illegal drugs. $'% No coins minted after A. if true. $)% Most modern histories of )yprus mention that an earth#ua"e occurred near the island in A. as a group..*.*... most strongly supports the archaeologists’ hypothesis! $A% 'ronBe ceremonial drin"ing vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and follo ing A.. $+% the country’s citiBens spent substantially more money on illegal drugs in 1C67 than they did in 1C6. had significantly more funds at their disposal than did the country’s customs agents $'% domestic production of illegal drugs increased substantially in 1C67 $)% the author’s statements ere made in order to embarrass the officials responsible for the drug& control program $*% in 1C67 illegal drugs entered the country by a different set of routes than they did in 1C6.2. Archaeologists have hypothesiBed that the destruction as due to a ma(or earth#ua"e "no n to have occurred near the island in A. +/cavation of the ancient city of Dourion on the island of )yprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of to ns devastated by earth#ua"es.. but coins minted before that year ere found in abundance.. $*% Several small statues carved in styles current in )yprus in the century 77 .*. 8hich of the follo ing.. 12.2 ere also found in several graves near Dourion.2 ere found in Dourion.*...2.

sales of Mammoth 1ndustries’ telephones have fallen in the last year. $'% Mammoth 1ndustries’ average inventory of telephones a aiting shipment to retailers has declined slightly over the last year.*. $)% Advertising has made the brand name of Mammoth 1ndustries’ telephones idely "no n. if true. $*% Mammoth 1ndustries’ telephone is one of three brands of telephone that have together accounted for the bul" of the last year’s increase in sales. At t o&year community colleges. 1n order to ta"e advantage of this increase. but fe consumers "no that Mammoth 1ndustries o ns this brand. $+% *espite a slight decline in the retail price. +ach of the follo ing. 17. Many institutions of higher education suffer declining enrollments during periods of economic slo do n. if true.33 and 033 ere found in Dourion. $*% T o&year community colleges devote more resources than do other 76 . $'% *uring periods of economic prosperity. 1...GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 bet een A. ho ever. $+% Stone inscriptions in a form of the Gree" alphabet that as definitely used in )yprus after A.. helps to e/plain the enrollment increases in t o& year community colleges described above +>)+4T= $A% *uring periods of economic slo do n. Sales of telephones have increased dramatically over the last year. provides most support for the vie that Mammoth 1ndustries cannot increase its sales of telephones by adopting the plan outlined above! $A% Although it sells all of the telephones that it produces. Mammoth 1ndustries’ share of all telephone sales has declined over the last year.*.. 8hich of the follo ing. t o&year community colleges are more li"ely than four&year colleges to prepare their students for the (obs that are still available. hile continuing its already very e/tensive advertising of this product. $)% Tuition at most t o&year community colleges is a fraction of that at four& year colleges.2 ere found in Dourion. graduates of t o&year community colleges often continue their studies at four&year colleges. Mammoth 1ndustries plans to e/pand production of its o n model of telephone. enrollment figures boom during these periods hen many people have less money and there is more competition for (obs.

The ans er to hich of the follo ing #uestions ould be most useful in evaluating the significance. true and "no n by the $+% Students at t o&year community colleges. can control the e/plain the results of the cost of their studies by choosing the number of study! courses they ta"e each term. -3. $'% The cost in reduced land #uality that is attributable to any individual user is less easily measured ith common land than it is ith private land. a serious disease. Luestion 16&1C are based on the follo ing. million acres of private graBing land sho ed that the common land as in better condition. hile the costs of reduced land #uality that results from overuse ould be spread among all users. a false 7C . 8hich of the follo ing. ith the result that he or she ould obtain a competitive advantage. both the costs and the benefits of overuse fall to the individual user. Iardin argued that graBing land held in common $that is. the other users are li"ely to do so even more. and no private land. for graBing! $A% 8ith private graBing land. open to any user% ould al ays be used less carefully than private graBing land. ith the conse#uence that the costs to each user out eigh the benefits. 1n tests for pironoma. but not ranchers. $*% 1f one user of common land overuses it even slightly. in relation to Iardin’s claim. $)% An individual ho overuses common graBing land might be able to achieve higher returns than other users can. of the study described above! $A% *id any of the ranchers hose land as studied use both common and private land! $'% *id the ranchers hose land as studied tend to prefer using common land over using private land for graBing! $)% 8as the private land that as studied of comparable #uality to the common land before either as used for graBing! $*% 8ere the users of the common land that as studied at least as prosperous as the users of the private land! $+% 8ere there any o ners of herds ho used only common land. 'ut a study comparing -17 million acres of common graBing land ith 0. $+%There are more acres of graBing land held privately than there are held in common. ould best help those at most four&year colleges..GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 colleges to attracting those students especially 1C. if affected by economic slo do ns. 16. +ach rancher ould be tempted to overuse common land because the benefits ould accrue to the individual.

they do notE a false negative result indicates that people do not have pironoma hen.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 positive result indicates that people have pironoma hen. they do. $'% )ompany 4 holds more safety inspections than does )ompany . if $+% All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the true. related accidents last year than $)% 1n treating pironoma patients. hours per ee". gives the most support to the recommendation above! CRITICAL REASONING TEST SECTION 30 MINUTES 20 QUESTIONS Luestions 1&. it is essential to did the employees of )ompany begin treatment as early as possible. $)% )ompany 4 maintains a more modern infirmary than does )ompany . )ompanies .are based on the follo ing. in fact. 8hich of the follo ing. 1. $*% )ompany . are less li"ely to $*% The proportion of inconclusive test results is have (ob&related accidents than e#ual for all laboratory tests used to detect are employees of )ompany 4. the employees of effects as do the other laboratory tests used to )ompany . employees of ee" of delay can result in loss of life. To detect pironoma most accurately. the conclusion above! $A% )ompany 4 manufactures products that are more haBardous for or"ers to produce than does )ompany . physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lo est proportion of false positive results. ould most strengthen same proportion of false negative results. Therefore.. 8hich of the follo ing. )ompany . in fact.. and 4 each have the same number of employees $A% The accepted treatment for pironoma does not ho or" the same number of have damaging side effects. had fe er (ob& detect pironoma. since even a 4.. paid more for ne (ob&related medical claims than did )ompany 63 . if true. According to $'% The laboratory test that has the lo est proportion records maintained by each of false positive results causes the same minor side company. pironoma.

conclusion dra n above! $+% The ma(ority of (ob&related accidents at )ompany .. "eyboards are no more e/pensive to manufacture than are standard "eyboards and re#uire less fre#uent repair than do standard "eyboards.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 . costs. "eyboards is increasing each year. each had more true.. $)% The employees of )ompany 4 ere sic" more often than ere the employees of )ompany . . $'% +9). $A% 4eople ho use both standard and +9). "eyboard. "eyboard to the standard "eyboard than in the transition from the standard "eyboard to the +9). "eyboards report greater difficulty in the transition from the +9). "eyboard ill result in an $'% )ompany 4 considered more types of accidents to immediate reduction of typing be (ob&related than did )ompany . the +9). ould most ea"en the than one (ob&related accident. 8hich of the follo ing. Therefore. $*% The more training and e/perience an employee 61 4. $A% The employees of )ompany 4 lost more time at replacement of standard or" due to (ob&related accidents than did the "eyboards ith the +9). involved a single machine.. 1n comparison to the standard type riter "eyboard.. if $*% Several employees of )ompany . conclusion above! allo s faster typing and results in less fatigue. ould most ea"en the typist’s strongest fingers. $)% The number of businesses and government agencies that use +9). 8hich of the follo ing. hich places the most&used "eys nearest the -. $+% )ompany 4 provides more types of health&care benefits than does )ompany . employees of )ompany . if true. "eyboard..

$+% Novice typists can learn to use the +9). ould best help e/plain ho the s eetener might produce the observed effect! $A% The government’s analysis of the artificial s eetener determined that it as sold in relatively pure form. $'% A high level of the amino acid in the blood inhibits the synthesis of a substance re#uired for normal brain functioning. Adult female rats ho have never before encountered rat pups ill start to sho maternal behaviors after being confined ith a pup for about seven days. 0. some of hich must be consumed for ade#uate nutrition. $)% 'ecause the s eetener is used primarily as a food additive. $'% The amino acid referred to in the conclusion is a component of all proteins. $*% The t o groups of sub(ects ere evenly matched ith regard to cognitive abilities prior to the e/periment.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 has had ith the standard "eyboard. $)% The #uantity of the s eetener consumed by individuals in the e/perimental group is considered safe by federal food regulators. "eyboard in about the same amount of time it ta"es them to learn to use the standard "eyboard. After ard. this group sho ed lo er cognitive abilities than did the other half of the sub(ects—the control group— ho did not consume the s eetener. 8hich of the follo ing. if true. 8hich of the follo ing. "eyboard. Ialf of the sub(ects in an e/periment—the e/perimental group—consumed large #uantities of a popular artificial s eetener. Luestions 0&2 are based on the follo ing. ould best support the conclusion that some ingredient of the s eetener as responsible for the e/perimental results! $A% Most consumers of the s eetener do not consume as much of it as the e/perimental group members did. if true. 2. adverse reactions to it are rarely noticed by consumers. $+% A second e/periment in hich sub(ects consumed large #uantities of the s eetener lac"ed a control group of sub(ects ho ere not given the s eetener. harmless substance. $+% Sub(ects in the e/periment did not "no hether they ere consuming the s eetener or a second. $*% The amino acid that is a constituent of the s eetener is also sold separately as a dietary supplement. . This period can be considerably shortened by disabling the female’s sense of 6- . The detrimental effects ere attributed to an amino acid that is one of the s eetener’s principal constituents. the more costly it is to train that employee to use the +9)..

$*% The only purpose of an intervie is to evaluate hether (ob applicants’ personalities are suited to the re#uirements of the (ob. 8hich of the follo ing hypotheses best e/plains the contrast described above! $A% The sense of smell in adult female rats is more acute than that in rat pups. $+% the fit of (ob applicants’ personalities to the re#uirements of the (ob as once the most important factor in 6. ith it. $'% The amount of scent produced by rat pups increases hen they are in the presence of a female rat that did not bear them. 7. . The intervie is an essential part of a successful hiring program because. $)% 1ntervie ers can accurately identify applicants hose personalities are unsuited to the re#uirements of the (ob. $)% 9emale rats that have given birth are more affected by olfactory cues than are female rats that have never given birth. $+% The development of a female ratNs maternal interest in a rat pup that she did not bear is inhibited by the odor of the pup. $'% The intervie is a more important part of a successful hiring program than is the development of a (ob description.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 smell or by removing the scent&producing glands of the pup. (ob applicants ho have personalities that are unsuited to the re#uirements of the (ob ill be eliminated from consideration. $*% A female rat that has given birth sho s maternal behavior to ard rat pups that she did not bear more #uic"ly than does a female rat that has never given birth. The argument above logically depends on hich of the follo ing assumptions! $A% A hiring program ill be successful if it includes intervie s.

they agricultural production has been falling in )ountry >. >. They can. the nonprotein drugs that resist digestion $)% <emoving permanently from the digestive system any substances that digest proteins 60 . it are digested and cannot reach has been rising in )ountry J. but hile proteins are ta"en orally. if true. Neighboring )ountry J has in(ection under the s"in. not the changes in the insulin. An overly centraliBed economy. such as 6. 8hich of the follo ing. $'% 8hereas )ountry J is landloc"ed. their target cells. compounds that are bro"en do n by target cells. successfully accomplishes $*% The crops that have al ays been gro n in )ountry hich of the follo ing ould > are different from those that have al ays been be beneficial to users of gro n in )ountry J. ho ever. ould most ea"en the contain chemical bonds that argument above! are not bro"en do n by the digestive system. protein drugs! $+% )ountry >’s ne government instituted a centraliBed economy ith the intention of ensuring $A% )oating insulin ith an e#uitable distribution of goods. $A% 1ndustrial production also is declining in )ountry thus. strongly support a claim that a $)% 'oth )ountry > and )ountry J have been research procedure that e/periencing drought conditions. is responsible for the poor agricultural administered by the production in )ountry > since its ne government cumbersome procedure of came to po er. by procedures that or" in the laboratory.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 ma"ing hiring decisions. )ountry > has a The statements above most ma(or seaport. C. must still be climate. be ta"en orally. :seful protein drugs. but hose chemical bonds are resistant to digestion $'% )onverting into protein compounds. )ertain nonprotein drugs. 1f e/perienced the same climatic conditions.

provides the strongest support for )ountry J’s policy of buying scrap iron abroad! $A% The price of scrap iron on international mar"ets rose significantly in 1C67. these pay raises constitute a force causing further inflation. 11. in a systematic ay.. $+% 9urnaces that process scrap iron can be built and operated in )ountry J ith substantially less foreign e/change than can furnaces that process iron ore. if true. $'% )ountry J’s foreign&e/change reserves dropped significantly in 1C67. 8hich of the follo ing.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 $*% *etermining. $)% 1ncreases in the pay of some or"ers are tied to the level of inflation. $)% There is virtually no difference in #uality bet een steel produced from scrap iron and that produced from iron ore. 8hich of the follo ing. 8e can conclude that inflation is on an up ard trend and the rate ill be still higher ne/t year.. 13. )ountry J uses its scarce foreign&e/change reserves to buy scrap iron for recycling into steel. Although the steel thus produced earns more foreign e/change than it costs. and at an inflation rate of 0 percent or above.percent. @ast year the rate of inflation as 1. and e/perts predict that scrap iron ill be used even more e/tensively in the future. but for the current year it has been 0 percent. $+% Government intervention cannot affect 62 . hat enBymes and bacteria are present in the normal digestive system and hether they tend to be bro"en do n ithin the body $+% *etermining the amount of time each nonprotein drug ta"es to reach its target cells. )ountry J’s o n territory has vast deposits of iron ore. most seriously ea"ens the conclusion above! $A% The inflation figures ere computed on the basis of a representative sample of economic data rather than all of the available data. $'% @ast year a dip in oil prices brought inflation temporarily belo its recent stable annual level of 0 percent. $*% Scrap iron is no used in the production of roughly half the steel used in the orld today. that policy is foolish. hich can be mined ith minimal e/penditure of foreign e/change. $*% The 1. if true.percent rate of inflation last year represented a ten&year lo .

333 persons —about 23 percent higher management hierarchy. 1. if $'% employees should be re arded for accurately true. 'ecause no employee ants to be associated ith bad the average rate of violent ne s in the eyes of a superior.. information about crime in states ith strict serious problems at lo er levels is progressively gun&control la s as .. gun&control la s have never been passed. ould most ea"en reporting problems to their superiors the argument above! $)% problem&solving ability is more important at higher levels than it is at lo er levels of the $A% The annual rate of management hierarchy violent crime in states $*% chief e/ecutives obtain information about ith strict gun&control problems at lo er levels from no source other than la s has decreased since their subordinates the passage of those la s. $+% some employees are more concerned about truth $'% 1n states ith strict gun& than about the ay they are perceived by their control la s. 1-. Thus one ay The conclusion dra n above is based on the to reduce violent crime is to assumption that repeal strict gun control la s. $+% @ess than half of the 6. 1n the :nited States in 1C6. fe superiors individuals are prosecuted for violating such la s.02 softened and distorted as it goes up each step in the crimes per 133. $*% The annual rate of nonviolent crime is lo er in states ith strict gun& control la s than in states ithout such la s. . many individuals have had no formal training in the use of firearms. $)% 1n states ithout strict gun&control la s.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 the rate of inflation to any significant degree. The chief e/ecutive is. less ell informed about problems at than the average rate in the lo er levels than are his or her subordinates at those eleven states here strict levels. therefore. $A% problems should be solved at the level in the management hierarchy at hich they occur 8hich of the follo ing.

for their o n portfolios. Generally. sell. if true. police officers in 10. increased its police force $+% The ma(ority of M+GA stoc" ill soon be o ned by 1C percent last year. The proposal to hire ten ne control la s o n a gun. necessarily reduce crime. the corporation’s officers and process the increased directors have bought up to nine times as much of it caseload of arrests and as they have sold. $)% 1f funding for the ne police officers’ salaries is approved. $'% 1nside purchases of M+GA stoc" are about to $A% Studies have sho n that cease abruptly. a rise in stoc" prices is imminent. convictions that ne officers usually generate. there ere 03 percent more arrests and 1. by M+GA’s o n officers and directors. $'% 8hen one ma(or city but less rapidly. 1n salaries of additional court recent days.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 individuals ho reside in states ithout strict gun& 12. ill most seriously $A% The imbalance bet een inside purchases and ea"en the conclusion inside sales of M+GA stoc" ill gro even dra n above! further. and not all convictions result in 67 . support for other city services ill have to be reduced during the ne/t fiscal year. stoc" in their o n There is sufficient funding corporations. hile the price of M+GA )orporation and prison employees to stoc" has been falling. )orporate officers and directors commonly buy and Middleto n is #uite foolish. The facts above best support hich of the follo ing predictions! 8hich of the follo ing. hen the ratio of such inside to pay the salaries of the sales to inside purchases falls belo . percent more 1 for a ne officers. an increase in a city’s $)% The price of M+GA stoc" ill soon begin to go police force does not up. not all arrests result in convictions. $*% The price of M+GA stoc" ill continue to drop. but not the given stoc". $*% 1n most :nited States cities.

and state high ays not covered in the report. To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedures. )learly. e/ceeding the speed limit ere tic"eted more than $)% There are several categories of once in the time period covered by the report. surgical procedure as $'% *rivers ho are tic"eted for e/ceeding the speed necessary.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 prison terms. $+% Middleto n’s ratio of police officers to citiBens has reached a level at hich an increase in the number of officers ill have a deterrent effect on crime. factors $other than the $)% The number of vehicles that ere tic"eted for surgical procedures e/ceeding the speed limit as greater than the themselves% that influence number of vehicles that ere e#uipped ith radar the incidence of diseases for detectors. thirty&three percent of all vehicles tic"eted for e/ceeding the speed limit ere e#uipped ith them. surgical procedure $other than $+% *rivers on Maryland high ays e/ceeded the hysterectomies. speed limit more often than did drivers on other prostatectomies. and tonsillectomies. prostatectomies. it ould be most important to establish hich of the follo ing! $A% A local board of revie at $A% *rivers ho e#uip their vehicles ith radar each hospital e/amines the detectors are less li"ely to be tic"eted for records of every operation e/ceeding the speed limit than are drivers ho do to determine hether the not.. $*% 9or certain surgical procedures. hich surgery might be $*% Many of the vehicles that ere tic"eted for considered. it is difficult to determine after the 66 . limit are more li"ely to e/ceed the speed limit $'% The variation is unrelated to regularly than are drivers ho are not tic"eted. The conclusion dra n above depends on hich of the follo ing assumptions! 17. There is a great deal of geographical variation in the fre#uency of many surgical procedures—up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand bet een different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies. drivers ho e#uip their vehicles ith radar detectors are more li"ely to e/ceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers ho do not. A recent report determined that although only three percent of drivers on Maryland high ays e#uipped their vehicles ith radar detectors. 1. tonsillectomies% that are often performed unnecessarily.

The conclusion of the argument above depends on hich of the follo ing assumptions! $A% <elatively fe very over eight people ho have dieted do n to a ne eight tend to continue to consume substantially fe er calories than do people hose normal eight is at that level. prostatectomies. follo ed by arthritis and high blood pressure. They ill thus burn significantly fe er calories at the ne eight than do people hose eight is normally at that level. $'% The metabolisms of people ho are usually not over eight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people ho have been very over eight. $)% The average age of people suffering from sinusitis ill increase bet een 1C67 and -333. 8hich of the follo ing conclusions can be most properly dra n about chronic medical conditions in the :nited States from the information given above! $A% Sinusitis ill be more common than either arthritis or high blood pressure in -333. The average age of the :nited States population ill increase bet een 1C67 and -333. <esearchers have found that hen very over eight people. The incidence rates for both arthritis and high blood pressure increase ith age. Such ne ly thin persons ill. therefore. 16.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 operation hether the procedures ere necessary or hether alternative treatment ould have succeeded. ultimately regain eight until their body siBe again matches their metabolic rate. $+% 'ecause of the constancy of their metabolic rates. $+% 8ith respect to ho often they are performed unnecessarily. lose eight primarily through dieting. 1n 1C67 sinusitis as the most common chronic medical condition in the :nited States. $*% <esearchers have not yet determined hether the metabolic rates of formerly very over eight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents. their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. $)% The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current eight of the individual. and tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general. ho tend to have relatively lo metabolic rates. people ho are at their usual eight normally have as much difficulty gaining eight as they do losing it. $*% 9e er people ill suffer 6C . 1C. hysterectomies. in that order. but the incidence rate for sinusitis is the same for people of all ages. $'% Arthritis ill be the most common chronic medical condition in -333.

$'% Iost insects lac" any effective defenses against the form of predation practiced by parasitic asps.GMAT 逻逻 逻逻区 from sinusitis in -333 than suffered from it in 1C67. 4arasitic asps lay their eggs directly into the eggs of various host insects in e/actly the right numbers for any suitable siBe of host egg. $+% A ma(ority of the population ill suffer from at least one of the medical conditions mentioned above by the year -333. the developing asp larvae ould compete ith each other to the death for nutrients and space. $*% 9ailure to lay enough eggs ould lead to the death of the developing asp larvae more #uic"ly than ould laying too many eggs. -3. $)% 4arasitic asps learn from e/perience ho many eggs to lay into the eggs of different host species. 8hich of the follo ing conclusions can properly be dra n from the information above! $A% The siBe of the smallest host egg that a asp could theoretically parasitiBe can be determined from the asp’s egg&laying behavior. $+% 4arasitic asps use visual clues to calculate the siBe of a host egg. 1f they laid too many eggs in a host egg. "illing the asp larvae. portions of the host egg ould decay. C3 . 1f too fe eggs ere laid.