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# Set-Valued Observers for Attitude and Rate Gyro Bias Estimation

INSTITUTE FOR SYSTEMS AND ROBOTICS

S. Brás

P. Rosa

C. Silvestre

P. Oliveira

Institute for Systems and Robotics Instituto Superior Técnico Lisbon, Portugal

2012 American Control Conference Montréal, Canada

However.Introduction Some estimators rely on stochastic descriptions of the exogenous disturbances and measurement noise to provide accurate estimates. in many situations no probability information about disturbances and noise is available and only magnitude bounds are known. In such circumstances. 2 . an estimator that computes the set of possible states given the sensor information is more suitable. Objective: • Simultaneously estimate the smallest set containing the attitude (rotation matrix) and rate gyro bias.

Introduction Discrete attitude kinematic model That is an exact description of the physical quantities involved. No model identification is required. Angular velocity measurements 3 .

Introduction  Assumption: there are at least three non-coplanar vector observations (noisy) • • • • Magnetometer Accelerometer Star-tracker Sun sensor  The manufactures often provide the maximum noise levels in each axis of the sensor. 4 .

 The dynamic model may be uncertain. on the 5 .Set-Valued Observers  There is uncertainty on the state and measurements.  Uncertainty is described by means of polytopes.

Set-Valued Observers Prediction (model) Update (measurements) 6 .

Then we have 7 .e.Attitude Estimator  In our approach we map: i..

Attitude Estimator  The solution is then the intersection of state polytope in SO(3).  Summarizing: k SO(3) R9 with k+1 SO(3) R9 R9 No conservatism is added by this operation 8 .

Attitude Estimator  The uncertainty in the model is associated with the bias and noise in the rate gyro measurements 9 .

The solution is global.e. in the sense that it converges for any initial conditions. 10 . • The estimates are stable. • It is based solely on the kinematics.Attitude Estimator  Main advantages: • • • The state is guaranteed to be inside the polytope. i. thus it is platform independent and it is suitable even if a dynamic model is unknown or inaccurate . the set containing the state does not grow unbounded.  Main disadvantages: • Computational cost. There are no singularities.

Rate Gyro Bias Estimator  Goal: Reduce the uncertainty in the bias to improve the attitude estimates  Strategy: to design an SVO for the rate gyro bias Polytope: known from the rate gyro properties Polytope: Computed using R(k) and R(k-1) Vector: sensor measurement 11 .

into sub-polytopes.Increasing the Convergence Speed  Divide-to-conquer strategy which consists on: • • • • Divide the polytope containing the bias. degenerate into empty sets When all but one SVO have degenerated. so that only one sub-polytope contains the true bias Design SVOs initialized with each of the sub-polytopes The SVOs initialized with polytopes not containing the bias will. the remaining subpolytope is divided and the process repeats itself 12 . B(k). at some time instant.

Increasing the Convergence Speed With this strategy we bring together the SVO methodology and the idea of model falsification Disadvantages: • Higher computational cost Multi-core and multi-processor systems can be exploited for implementing this strategy since each core can be assign to one SVO 13 .

115 deg/s  Vector measurements: Noise bounded by ±0.Simulation Results  Angular velocity: Noise bounded by ±0.01 Trajectory 14 .

different approaches can be explored: • attitude • Exploit the rotation matrix polytope to obtain another polytope containing the rotation vector.  To obtain uncertainty bounds on more suitable representations. 15 . To compute bounds on the Euler angles using nonlinear optimization. Remark: these operations are conservative but do not add conservatism to the estimator.Simulation Results The representation of the uncertainty in R9 does not provide an intuitive measure of the uncertainty on the attitude estimate.

Simulation Results Upper and lower bounds on the attitude estimates 16 .

Simulation Results Bias upper and lower bounds 17 .

since the attitude is given by the rotation matrix and is global. it is valid for any initial conditions. • The observer has no singularities.Conclusions • A solution for the problem of attitude estimation is proposed based on setvalued observers. • The online estimation of the rate gyro bias reduces the uncertainty in the angular velocity measurements and consequently in the model. • Parallel processing can be exploited to increase the estimation rate. in the sense that. • The nonlinearities of the plant are tackled by adding conservatism to the estimates. 18 .

Thank you 19 .