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ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE AND PAPER & PULP INDUSTRIES BIOTECHNOLOGY IN PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY The pulp and

paper industry is a large and growing portion of the world‟s economy. Pulp and paper production has increased gl obally, as has the rate of paper consumption. In general, the industry is very capital-intensive with small profit margins. T his tends to limit experimentation, development, and incorporation of new technologies into mills. However, the pulp and paper industry is facing increasing pressure from environmental regulations. To keep up with the increasing demand for pulp and paper and to meet increasingly stringent environmental regulations, the industry has been constantly looking towards technological improvements. Over the past 20 years, research efforts in laboratories around the world have sought to apply biotechnology in industrial wood processing. This brief overview summarises different biotechnological applications of microbes and their enzymes in the pulp and paper industry which have been commercialised or are under development. It also offers a perspective on future developments. BIOPULPING- Biopulping is defined as the treatment of lignocellulosic materials with lignin -degrading fungi prior to pulping. It is getting closer to commercialisation. In the 1970s, Eriksson and co-workers at the Swedish pulp and paper research institute (STFI), Stockholm, launched a fairly comprehensive investigation that demonstrated that fungal pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials could result in energy savings and strength improvements for mechanical pulping. Mechanical pulping involves th e use ofmechanical force to separate wood fibres. Mechanical processes have high yield (up to 95 per cent) and produce paper with high bulk, good opacity and excellent printability. However, they are energy intensive (electricity use) and produce paper with relatively low strength and high colour reversion rate (tendency to turn yellow with time). The pulps from several wood species have high pitch content and therefore require ameliorating steps. Although the STFI research had limited success (it encountered difficulties in scale-up), it provided valuable insights. A more comprehensive evaluation of biomechanical pulping was launched in 1987 at the US Departent of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. The consortium has established the economic feasibility of biopulping at pilot scale in connection with mechanical pulping. The two-week, environmentally friendly process increases mill throughput by 30 per cent or reduces the electrical energy requirement by at least 30 per cent at unchanged throughput. It also improves paper strength. Investigations at laboratory scale have sorted through the more than 30 variables associated with biopulping, including species and strains or fungi, inoculums form and amount, species of wood, wood chip size, environmental factors, effect of added nutrients, need to sterilise the chips, etc. Of several hundred species and strains of white-rot fungi examined to date, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora was found to be the best for both hardwood and softwood species. PITCH PROBLEMS- Pitch is the mixture of hydrophobic resinous materials found in many wood species and constitutes some 2-8 per cent of to al wood weight, depending upon the species and the time of year. It causes a number of problems in pulp and paper manufacture, including deposits on tile and metal surfaces, plugging of drains, discoloration of the felt, tears and other defects in paper, downtime for cleaning, etc. Traditional methods of controlling pitch problems include natural seasoning of wood before pulping and/or adsorption and dispersion of the pitch particles with chemicals in the pulping and papermaking processes, accompanied by adding fine talc, di spersants and other kinds of chemicals. During the past ten years or so, two biotechnological methods have been developed independently and are now been used industrially. In the late 1980s, scientists in Japan discovered that the treatment of mechanical (groundwood) pulps with lipases, which catalyse the hydrolysis of triglycerides, reduces pitch problems significantly. In the ea rly 1990s, Sandoz Chemicals Corporation in the United States (now Clariant Corporation) introduced a new product for control of pitch in pulpwood chips, called Cartapip. Cartapip is a fungal inoculum of the ascomycete Ophiostoma piliferum. A water slurry of the fungal spores is sprayed onto wood chips as they are piled prior to pulping. The fungus invades the wood cells, degrading the pitch. Pitch, inc1uding toxic resin acids, is also metabolised quite effectively by lignin-degrading fungi in biopulping, thus offering an additional benefit. FIBRE IMPROVEMENTS OR MODIFICATIONS- The structure and chemical composition of pulp fibre surfaces are of paramount importance for paper strength and other properties. Due to the higher yields obtained with mechanical pulps as compared to chemical pulps, they have attracted growing interest. Sometimes chemical pulps are added to mechanical pulps to impart strength or other properties. With improvement of mechanical pulp fibre properties, the use of chemical pulps can be reduc ed or eliminated.Enzymes have been used to improve physical properties of fibres and might have a commercial role in future. Cellulases can enhance pulp fibrillation and thereby improve paper strength. They can reduce fibre coarseness and increase paper densi ty and smoothness. However, they reduce viscosity and must be used with care. Xylanase preparations have also been reported to improve pulp fibrillation and fibre bonding. With recycled fibres, there is growing concern about the rate of water drainage on the paper machine. The speed of paper machine operation depends in part on the drainage rate ofwater out of the pulp mat. Drainage rates tend to be lower for recycled fibres than for virgin fibres so that there is a decr ease in the paper machine production rate as recycled fibre content increases. It has been discovered that cellulases and hemicellulases can improve the drainage rates of recycled fibres. Pilot and mill-scale testing has led to the commercial use of these enzymes as drainage aids. In the future, other enzyme-based processes could lead to cleaner and more efficient pulp and paper processing. Starch -modifying enzymes are sometimes used to improve paper quality. Enzymatic modification of starches is a cleaner process than chemical (oxidative) modification, as less energy is used and less waste is produced. Enzymetically modified starches at the wet end (size press) are applied in about 10 per cent of pa per production. DEINKING- Traditional deinking processes use NaOH, NaSO3, silicates and hydrogen peroxide for deinking oil-based printing materials such as newspapers and magazines. However, with the growing use of coating and new types of inks containing synthetic polymers in laser and xerographic printing, conventional deinking methods are inadequate for producing high-quality pulps. Recycling mills are therefore increasingly dependent upon mechanical devices to break down the larger non-ink particles to allow for removal by floatation or washing. Enzymatic techniques that allow for deinking of all kinds of recycled papers have recently been developed and commercialised.Cellulase acts on cellulose of wood fibres and facilitates the loosening of ink from fibre thus reducing the need of chemicals . BLEACHING OF KRAFT PULPS- The kraft process accounts for most of the world‟s pulp production. Kraft pulping degrades and removes most of the lignin, without severely damaging the cellulose. Kraft pulps have a characteristic brown colour, which must be removed by bleaching before the manufacture of printing and writing or other products in which appearance is important. Kraft bleach plants use a variety of chemicals and treatment sequences to convert brown kraft pulp to white pulp. Traditionally, chlorination has been used, but because of consumer resistance and environmental regulations on chlorine bleaching, pulpmakers are turning to other bleaching chemicals (chlorine dioxide, oxygen, ozone, and peroxide), to extended pulping times (thereby lowering the pulp lignin content and decreasing bleaching chemical

requirements), and to other process modifications. However, disadvantages associated with some of these methods are higher cost and/or greater danger of loss of pulp yield and strength as compared with chlorination. The essence of the process is a new enzyme better suited to the temperatures and pH found in pulp processing. The cost of the process is said to be the same as the conventional chlorine-intensive method. This is an example of the continuous improvement that characterises many biotechnological processes. Studies conducted in Finland show that hemicellulases (mainly xylanases) enhance pulp bleaching. These enzymes are now being used commercially in Scandinavia, Canada, the United States, and Chile. The treatment of kraft pulps with xylanases leads to sig nificant reduction in chemical consumption with almost no loss in pulp yield or quality. Biobleaching of acid bisulphite pulp with xylanases has also shown promise, with chemical savings of up to 51 per cent. Research is now being directed towards the discovery or engineering of enzymes that are more robust with respect to pH and temperature. Ligninases such as manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccases have also shown potential in pulp bleaching, but have not been used commercially. Both of these enzymes can achieve more substantial delignifying action than xylanase, but there are obstacles to be overcome before either enzyme can be used cost-effectively. There is currently no large-scale commercial source for either enzyme, so costs remain to be established. Current efforts have been to produce these enzyme cheaply enough so that the technology can become economically attractive. Also, genetic engineering of a fungus to produce a desired mixture of enzymes and their cosubstrate in situ may become more cost-effective than producing and applying the enzymes in separate steps. REDUCTION OF ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN BLEACH PLANT EFFLUENTS- Organochlorines have been a matter of concern in the pulp and paper industry for the last two decades. These compounds are produced mainly by the reactions between residual lignin present in wood fibres and the chlorine and chlorine derivatives used for bleaching. Some of these compounds are toxic, mutagenic, and persistent; bioaccumulation causes harm to biological systems. Earlier measures taken by the pulp and paper industry to solve the chlorine problem focused on improving effluent treatment methods. Many physico -chemical methods have been used to treat bleach plant effluents, including precipitation with lime, alum and metal ions, and synthetic polymeric coagulants; adsorption on activated carbon, natural clays and polymeric adsorbents; membrane techniques; rapid filtration in soil; UV irradiation; and oxidation using oxygen, sulphur dioxi de, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite. The problems underlying the physico-chemical treatments are those associated with cost and reliability. Today, R&D in this area has shifted towards improving the pulping process to decrease production of undesirable by-products. Biotechnological methods have the potential to eliminate or reduce the problems associated with physico-chemical methods. Biological treatments with bacteria or fungi are known to be effective in reducing the biological oxygen demand (BOD), the chemical oxygen demand (COD), and the toxicity of kraft pulp mills. Some enzymes also seem to have the potential to remove colour and adsorbable organic halogens from pulp and paper mill effluents. Peroxidase, laccase, etc., are the most important of these. Many factors have to b e considered in choosing an effective and commercial bleaching/treatment process that meets all the environmental guidelines. These processes are not used commercially. The most widely practised of the earlier biotechnologies are waste treatment processes. These are based in large part on the degradative activities of mixtures of aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms, primarily bacteria. At present, cleaner production is largely achieved by process-integrated water treatment using biologically treated process water from the same production plant. Some 10-20 per cent of European paper producers reuse treated water in this way, so that there is zero discharge of wastewater. In the United States and Japan, a much smaller number of paper manufacturers use treated wastewater. REFINING OF THERMO MECHANICAL PULP (TMP) Refining is a mechanical process in which wood chips are separated to free fibres. The process used large amount of electricity . The enzyme cellulase acts on cellolose in wood fibres and softens wood chips to minimize refining time and electricity required. BIOFILM PROBLEMS- Biofilms (slimes) in pulp and paper mills are a serious problem. They clog wires, pipes, and drains and conta minate the product itself, sometimes to the point of discoloration. They are controlled primarily through the use of biocides, some of which can be toxic to humans and other life forms. A significant amount of research has gone into finding environmentally b enign control methods. Because the biofilms are comprised of bacteria and fungi embedded in a matrix of extracellular polysaccharides, enzymes that hydrolyse the polymers have been studied. There is at least one commercial enzyme product, „„ED -l‟‟, a levulanase used by paper mills in the United States, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and Japan. Another promising method of controlling biofilms is the introduction of non -film-forming microbes that outcompete the biofilm formers for substrates. It is likely that a combination of enzymes, friendly microbes, and dispersants will ultimately be used to lower or eliminate the use of biocides in pulp and paper mills.

Fig process in pulp and paper industry Fig 2. Table showing main characteristics of enzymes applied in various processes

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APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY
INTRODUCTION Retting of flax was the first biotechnological application in textile processing. More than 2000 years ago, micro-organisms grown on flax were used to achieve partial decortication in the extraction of linen fibres from flax stems. Amylases were the only enzymes applied in textile processing until the 1980‟s. These enzymes are still used to remove starch-based sizes from fabrics after weaving. Research on enzymatic applications in textile processing dates back to the beginning of the last century. During this period, the potential of proteolytic enzymes was assessed for the removal of wool-fibre-scales resulting in improved anti-felting behaviour. Despite the fact that investigations in this area are still on going, an industrial process has not yet been achieved. This is largely attributed to the heterogeneous nature of textile fibres and the unacceptable fibre strength losses incurred. With the advent of biological detergents in the 1960s, proteases made their way into detergent formulations specifically to remove organic protein-based stains (e.g. from egg, blood) from textile garments. Later in the 1970s, cellulases were found to add detergency during fabric washing and to remove fibrillation in multiple washes. Today, cellulases are included in many washing powders. Cellulases have also been employed to enzymatically remove fibrils and fuzz fibres and have also successfully been introduced to the cotton textile industry and later for lyocell processes. Further applications have been found for these enzymes to produce the aged look of denim and other garments. In May 2000, the First International Symposium on Biotechnology in the Textile Industry was held in Portugal and was attended by more than 150 participants from all over the world. The presentations given at this forum by scientists and delegates from industry reflected the enormous potential of Biotechnology in the textile fiel . Advances in biotechnology have made it possible to tailor special enzyme mixtures for specific applications. For example, amylases have been developed for desizing processes running at 100 °C while cellulase monocomponents were identified to be superior to the native enzymes in several textile applications. Besides hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulases, amylases, pectinases (bioscouring) and proteases (wool finishing), other enzyme activities including oxidoreductases have been realised as powerful tools in various textile-processing steps. Several studies dealing with cellulases are presented in this special issue. By focusing on process development and the control of enzymatic fibre hydrolysis this research strives to find a balance between the beneficial effects of enzyme treatments and the potential strength losses. A number of investigations have dedicated their efforts to the phenomenon known as back staining, experienced during bio-stoning and bio-finishing of both cotton and linen fabrics. Other authors took the great challenge to elucidate the degradation mechanism of the natural substrates of cellulases. The effect of endoglucanases and cellobiohydrolases from different sources were used for these investigations together with components of these enzymes.The results of these contributions combined with information about the molecular architecture and specificities on soluble substrate of cellulases from different families will improve our understanding of the functioning of this interesting class of enzymes. Although fibres from cotton were the main target substrates for enzymatic modifications introduced in the last few years, enzymes also seem to have a potential for the improvement of fibres/fabrics from other sources such as flax and wool. Two interesting contributions show how enzymes can be used both in flax processing and analysis. Besides enzymes, the biopolymer chitosan can be used to improve the properties of wool. Biotechnological processes for the treatment of textile effluents can be grouped into two areas, microbial systems and enzymes. In microbial effluent treatment, a combination of anaerobic and aerobic steps seems to be beneficial in achieving sufficient detoxification. New more efficient treatment processes and their integration into textile finishing are discussed in several of the following papers. Ligninolytic enzymes such as laccases, lignin peroxidases and manganese peroxidases have been shown to decolourise textile dyes involving either polymerisation or degradation of dyes. The mechanisms of decolorisation and detoxification have been described for several dyes, including azo compounds. However, although some azo dyes were degraded with concomitan conversion of the azo group into molecular nitrogen

transform fibers into yam. convert the yarn into fabric or related products. Many shorter fibers. and carding are sometimes performed in integrated carders that accept raw fiber and output carded sliver. Both this process and enzymatic treatment of dyeing effluents have been shown to enable recycling of the process waters. Little overlap occurs between hitting and weaving. Manmade fibers may be processed into filament yarn or staple-length fibers (similar in length to natural fibers) so that they can be spun. with a brief mention of processes used to make carpets. Sorting and cleaning is performed in machines known as openers. cotton. wet processing 4. with a brief discussion of the fabrication of non-apparel goods: 1. Note that some of these steps may be optional depending on the type of yarn and spinning equipment used. The fibers must be sorted based on grade. Opening.fabrication Yarn Formation Textile fibers are converted into yam by grouping and twisting operations used to bind them together. Natural fibers. Another interesting application of enzymes for textile effluent treatment involves the use of catalases for the conversion of hydrogen peroxide present in bleaching effluents to oxygen and water. It appears that the redox potential rather than steric effects seem to determine the degradation velocity. and drafting. fragmented group of establishments that produce andor process textile-related products (fiber.yarn formation 2. the textile industry includes the production of yam. These teeth pull the unbaled fibers apart. Tufts of fiber are conveyed by air stream to a carding machine. These fibers must go through a series of preparation steps before they can be spun into yarn. and blended with fibers from different bales to improve the consistency of the fiber mix. fabric formation 3. which would weaken the yarn. and wool fabrics. twigs. A series of rotating brushes rests on top of the belt. such as cotton and wool. A further objective of carding is to better align the fibers to prepare them for spinning. cleaned to remove particles of dirt. Opening of bales sometimes occurs in conjunction with the blending of fibers. Figure shows the different steps used to form yarn. carding. The primary focus ofthis section is on weaving and knitting operations. Textile establishments receive and prepare fibers. The process of converting raw fibers into fineshed the apparel and nonapparel textile products is complex. The sheet of carded fibers is removed through a funnel into a loose ropelike strand called a sliver. and industrial goods. blending. The main steps used for processing natural and manmade fibers into yam are below. Suppliers deliver natural fibers to the spinning mill in compressed bales. thus.(harmless). thread. most textile mills specialize. The opener consists of a rotating cylinder equipped with spiked teeth or a set of toothed bars. fabric.  . Flowchart of yarn formation process  Opening/Blending. . including opening. In its broadest sense. the opener blends the fibers as it cleans and opens them. and dye and fmish these materials at various stages ofproduction. combing. and leaves. Although most textile fibers are processed using spinning operations. these enzymes did not attack some dyes at all. The different rotation speeds of the belt and the brushes cause the fibers to tease out and align into thin. or among production of manmade. especially when immobilised enzymes had been used. fabric) for further processing into apparel. which transports the fibers over a belt equipped with wire needles. Filament yarn may be used directly or following further shaping and texturizing. parallel sheets. or webbing. blending. Industrial Processes in the Textile Industry-The textile industry is comprised of a diverse. the processes leading to spinning vary depending on whether the fibers are natural or manmade. Carding. fluffing them while loosening impurities. include animal and plant fibers. This section focuses on the following four production stages. home furnishings. yarn. and finish goods. Because the feed for the opener comes from multiple bales. known as staple when harvested. are separated out and removed.

or interlacing yarns. and 2) synthetic fibers. in terms of manmade fiber production. Spinning. Fabrics are formed from weaving by interlacing one set of yarns with another set oriented crosswise.. the length-wise yarns that form the basic structure of the fabric are called the warp and the crosswise yarns are called the filling. It is then fed onto a high-speed spindle by a yarn guide that travels up and down the spindle. also referred to as the weft. During drawing. Manmade filaments may then be texturized or otherwise treated to simulate physical characteristics of spun natural fibers. 'The fibers are now spun together into either spun yams orfilament yams. and more aligned comb sliver. is the most common process used to create fabrics. Worsted wool and combed cotton yarns are finer (smaller) than yam that has not been combed because of the higher degree of fiber alignment and fiuther removal of short fibers. 1979).g. . Once a sliver has been drawn.    Weaving Weaving is performed on modern looms. . 1979). cleaner. warp yarns are frst wound on large spools. combed sliver is used to make worsted yam. it is termed a roving. Several card slivers are fed to the combing machine and removed as a finer. Since manmade fibers are synthesized From organic chemicals.g. Combing. which are synthesized from organic chemicals. and feel of natural fibers. which are created by reacting chemicals with wood pulp. is made up ofa loose assemblage of fibers drawn into a single strand and is about eight times the length and one-eighth the diameter of the sliver. Fabric Formation The major methods for fabric manufacture are weaving and knitting. chemical. . Spun yarns are composed of overlapping staple length fibers that are bound together by twist. Methods used to produce spun yams. As the slivers pass through. whereas carded sliver is used for woolen yam. and rope are also produced primarily for use in industrial applications. nonwovens. is the process of forming fibers by forcing a liquid through a small opening beyond which the extruded liquid solidifies to form a continuous filament. and twill weaves are the most commonly used weave patterns. are manufactured using spinning processes that simulate or resemble the manufacture of silk. structure. or approximately as wide as a pencil (Wingate. plain. The yarn is first fed through another set of drawing or delivery rollers. Following spinning. Narrow wovens. The size solution forms a coating that protects the yarn against snagging or abrasion during weaving. to align the polymer molecules and strengthen the filament. or nonwoven textiles. not staple length fibers). are discussed in this section. yam formation of manmade fibers does not involve the extensive cleaning and combing procedures associated with natural fibers. The warp yarns are then unwound and passed through a sue solution (sizingklashing) before being wound onto a warp beam in a process known as beaming. the rovings may be blended with other fibers before being processed into woven. and nonwovens include fabrics bonded by mechanical. While the filling yarns undergo little strain in the weaving process. the manmade fibers are drawn. both synthetic and cellulosic. or stretched. Weaving mills classified as broad woven mills consume the largest portion of textile fiber and produce the raw textile material from which most textile products are made. which are placed on a rack called a creel. The rovings produced in the drafting step are mounted onto the spinning frame. Spinning. such as rayon and acetate. the adaptability of manmade fibers. Drawing. Figure shows fabric formation processes for flat fabrics. Filament yams are made from continuous the strands of manmade fiber (e. Combing is similar to carding except that the brushes and needles are finer and more closely spaced. Satin. Knitting is the second most frequently used method of fabric construction. In the weaving operation. stretchable. slivers from different types of fibers (e. they are further drawn out and lengthened. to the point where they may be five to six times as long as they were originally. such as sheets and apparel. This process imparts a slight twist as it removes the yam and winds it onto a rotating spindle. cotton and polyester) may be combined to form blends. which lengthen and stretch it still further. or other means. knitted. warp yarns undergo much strain during weaving and must be processed to prepare them to withstand the strain Before weaving. Manmade fibers include 1) cellulosic fibers. The drawing frame contains several sets of rollers that rotate at successively faster speeds.The yarn is collected on a bobbin. Weaving. where they are set for spinning. In the wool system. the term combed cotton applies to the yam made from combed sliver. now termed a roving in ring spinning operations. Texturizing is often used to curl or crimp straight rod-like filament fibers to simulate the appearance. Narrow wovens include fabrics less than 12 inches in width. The difference in speed of travel between the guide and the spindle determines the amountof twist imparted to the yarn. Manmade fibers. Drafting is a process that uses a frame to stretch the yam further. Following drafting. which contain similar parts and perform similar operations to simple hand-operated looms. Several slivers are combined into a continuous. The yarn. The popularity of knitting has increased in use due to the increased versatility of techniques. and the growth in consumer demand for wrinkle-resistant. Drafring. or cones. In the cotton system. snug-fitting fabrics. such as polyester and nylon. rather than filament yams. ropelike strand and fed to a machine known as a drawing frame (Wingate.

Most fabric that is dyed. suits. and socks. These stages. Note that some of these steps may be optional depending on the style of fabric being manufactured. the mill removes natural impurities or processing chemicals that interfere with dyeing. Double knits are made on machines with two sets of needles. Preparation. Weft knitting machines can produce both flat and circular fabric. Yarns are interlocked to form the fabric. or finished must be prepared. a warp beam is set into the knitting machine. There are three fundamental stitches in weft knitting: plain-knit. Wet processing enhances the appearance. Typical wet processing steps for fabric  Fabric Preparation. underwear. Knitted fabrics can be used for hosiery. Wet processing. Warp Knitting. into finished consumers‟ goods. across a fabric.Knitting Knitted fabrics may be constructed by using hooked needles to interlock one or more sets of yams through a set of loops. and drying steps. shown in Figure involve treating gray goods with chemical baths and often require additional washing. or rows of loops. coats. Also collectively known as fmishing. also known as pretreatment. pantyhose. one yam is carried back and forth and under needles to form a fabric. depending on the purpose of the fabric. Several'different types of machinery are used in both weft and warp knitting. The needles produce parallel rows of loops simultaneously that are interlocked in a zigzag pattern. with the exception of denim and certain knit styles. durability. printed. wet processing has been broken down into four stages in this section for simplification: fabric preparation. dyeing. In preparation.  Weft knitting. and connections between loops are horizontal. Circular machines produce mainly yardage but may also produce sweater bodies. Flatbed machines knit full garments and operate at much slower speeds. Fabric is produced in sheet or flat form using one or more sets ofwarp yams. and finishing. Warp knitting represents the fastest method of producing fabric from yarns. Warp knitting differs from weft knitting in that each needle loops its own thread. The simplest. and other home furnishings. consists of a series of various treatment and rinsing steps critical to obtaining good results in subsequent textile finishing processes. . printing. On a machine. and rib. most common filing knit fabric is single jersey. rugs.Woven and knit fabrics cannot be processed into apparel and other finished goods until the fabrics have passed through several water-intensive wet processing stages. In weft (or filling) hitting. known as gray or greige (pronounced gri[zh]) goods. and the yarns run vertically while the connections are on the diagonal. the individual yam is fed to one or more needles at a time. and serviceability of fabrics by converting undyed and unfinished goods. Yams run horizontally in the fabric. purl. Weft knitting uses one continuous yam to form courses. The loops may be either loosely or closely constructed. In warp knitting. rinsing. sweaters. . All hosiery is produced as a filling knit process. slacks. Knitting is performed using either weft or warp processes.

Bleaching decolorizes colored impurities that are not removed by scouring and prepares the cloth for further finshing processes such as dyeing or printing. activator. sodium hypochlorite. Alkaline solutions are typically used for scouring. The solvents then evaporate leaving a hard opaque coating. Singeing is a dry process used on woven goods that removes fibers protruding from yarns or fabrics. which is carried out at room temperature. and finishing. or by specialty dyehouses. Scouring uses alkali. pigments are typically insoluble and have no affinity for the fibers. temperature. increases the longevity of fabric finishes applied during finshing. These components are introduced to the fabrics during the manufacture of synthetic fibers. antistatic agents. Desizing is an important preparation step used to remove size materials applied prior to weaving. yarn. Pigments are used for about 75 to 85 percent ofall printing operations. techniques. increase in strength by as much as 20 percent. chemicals. and appearance. Typically. and embossing. Dyeing Dyeing operations are used at various stages of production to add color and intricacy to textiles and increase product value. puckering. and roller printing are often used commercially. Heatsetting can also give cloth resistance to wrinkling during wear and ease-of-care properties attributed to improvements in resiliency and in elasticity. do not require washing steps. Mercerization is a continuous chemical process used for cotton and cotton polyester goods to increase dyeability. scouring wastes contribute a large portion of biological oxygen demand (BOD) loads from preparation processes. singeing is essential.    . Several different types of chemicals are used as bleaching agents. Finishing Finishing encompasses chemical or mechanical treatments performed on fiber. and selection depends on the type of fiber present in the yam. or performance. cloth. Printing Fabrics are often printed with color and patterns using a variety of techniques and machine types. dirt and other natural materials. . or fabric to improve appearance. sodium chlorite. designed to chemically or physically alter the fabric. These chemical residues can be passed on to subsequent stages with improper preparation. stabilizer. For instance. These are burned off by passing the fibers over a flame or heated copperplates. The most common chemical finishes are those that ease fabric care. Application of chemical finish are often done in conjunction with mechanical finishing steps . yam. with concentrations of active ingredients ranging typically from 20 to 80 percent. yams. typically sodium hydroxide. This. ironing or other physical treatments used to increase the luster and feel of textiles. such as singeing and mercerizing. Solvents are used as vehicles for transporting the pigment and resin mixture to the substrate. Typical preparation treatments include desizing. water-soluble sizes. texture. other methods. or ability to pick up dyes. It is especially useful for fabrics that are to be printed or where a smooth finish is desired. Mercerizing. Natural fibers such as cotton are most often sized with water-insoluble starches or mixtures of starch and other materials. twisted ribbon-like cotton fiber to swell into a round shape and to contract in length. pastes. the mercerizing stage chemically treats the fabric to increase fiber strength and dye affinity. however. resist. Compared to dyes. This process. and other necessary chemicals. or cloth. in some cases solvent solutions may also be used. creased. and residual tints used for yarn identification. Dyes used by the textile industry are largely synthetic. 2) the temperature is raised to the recommended level for that particular fiber or blend and held for the amount of time needed to complete the bleaching action. or cloth through washing. Resin binders are typically used to attach pigments to substrates. and generate little waste (Snowden-Swan. However. the most common is rotary screen. such as the permanent-press. Removing starches before scouring is necessary because they can react and cause color changes when exposed to sodium hydroxide in scouring. accounting for over 90 percent of the bleach used in textile operations. Impurities may include lubricants. and cloth construction. or finished product and the subsequent finishing that the product will receive. Heatsetting is a dry process used to stabilize and impart textural properties to synthetic fabrics and fabrics containing high concentrations of synthetics. to the fiber. 1995). The most common bleaching agents include hydrogen peroxide. creasing. and stain resistant finishes. and increase its affinity for dyes. Chemical finishes are usually followed by drying. Singeing improves the surface appearance of woven goods and reduces pilling.printing. Pollutant outputs associated with singeing include relatively small amounts of exhaust gases from the burners. The bleaching process involves several steps: 1)The cloth is saturated with the bleaching agent. and time vary with the type of fiber. Application of chemical finishes to textiles can impart a variety of properties ranging from decreasing static cling to increasing flame resistance. Mechanical Treatments Hearsetting. typically derived from coal tar and petroleum-based intermediates. Textural properties may include interesting and durable surface effects such as pleating.. Of the numerous printing techniques. smooth. Manmade fibers are generally sized with water-soluble sizes that are easily removed by a hot-water wash or in the scouring process. soil-release. This causes the fiber to become more lustrous than the original fiber. the cloth maintains its shape and size in subsequent finishing operations and is . Textiles are dyed using a wide range of dyestuffs. uneven). granules. curing. Many ofthe pollutants from preparation result from the removal of previously applied processing chemicals and agricultural residues. and is typically used with caustic solutions. Dyes are sold as powders. Specialty dyehouses operate either on a commission basis or purchase greige goods and finish them before selling them to apparel and other product manufacturers. and cooling steps. such as direct. to break down natural oils and surfactants and to emulsify and suspend remaining impurities in the scouring bath. and equipment. Most dyeing is performed either by the finshing division of vertically integrated textile companies. The specific scouring procedures. Pollution outputs may include volatile components of spin finishes if heatsetting is performed before scouring and bleaching processes. If a fabric is to have a smooth finish . which are then removed by washing before the cloth is scoured. Hydrogen peroxide is by far the most commonly used bleaching agent for cotton and cotton blends. in turn. Mechanical finishes can involve brushing. such as antistatic. causes the flat.  Desizing. Bleaching.stabilized in the form in which it is held during heat setting (e. Scouring. and liquid dispersions. Singeing.Selected mechanical and chemical finishing techniques are described below. and bleaching. Bleaching is a chemical process that eliminates unwanted colored matter from fibers.g. discharge. Enzymes are used to break these starches into watersoluble sugars. when proprietary spin finish are applied to provide lubrication and impart special properties. and 3) the cloth is thoroughly washed and dried. yarns. and sulfur dioxide gas. scouring. Preparation steps can also include processes. When manmade fibers are heatset. flat screen (semicontinuous). Scouring is a cleaning process that removes impurities from fibers. luster.

No Enzyme Name Substrate 1 Laccase Colour Chormophore and pigments 2 Peroxidases Colour Chromophore & pigment Textile Application 1. there is still considerable scope for improving the speed. Softening.  Brushing and napping. The Sanforizing process reduces residual shrinkage of fabrics after repeated laundering (Wingate. compresses the fabric structure to reduce stresses in the fabric. Brushing and napping decrease the luster of fabrics by roughening or raising the fiber surface and change the feel or texture of the fabric (ATMI. Softeners and abrasion-resistant finishes. Bio-bleaching of indigo in denim for various effects Bio-bleaching of wood pulp . or ironing. 19971. The carbonization process in which vegetable matter in wool is degraded by treatment with strong acid and then subjected to mechanical crushing can. Typically. Compacting. Stone wash-Bio-polishing (Bio-singeing) 2. Bio finishing for handle modification 3. one roll is made of chilled steel.Discoloration of coloured Chromophore effluent 2.g. Shearing is a process that removes surface fibers bypassing the fabric over a cutting blade.No Enzyme Substrate Textile Application Name 1 Amylase Starch Starch desizing 2 Cellulase Cellulose 1. However. e. which includes the Sanforizing process. The Tables 1 and 2 exemplify such textile applications. Carbonization of wool 3 Pectinase Pectin Bio scour replacing caustic 4 Catalase Peroxides In situ peroxide decomposition without any rinse in bleach bath 5 Lipases Fats and oils Improve hydrophilicity of PET in place of alkaline hydrolysis Table 2: Application of Oxidoreductase in Fabric Preparation S. The current application in the textile industry involves mainly hydrolases and now to some extent is Oxidoreductase. Calendering. Table 1: Application of Hydrolase Enzyme in Fabric Preparation S. including the development of more temperature stable enzymes as well as a better understanding of how to characterize their activity and performance with respect to different fabrics. be replaced by selective enzyme degradation of the impurities. Chemical Treatments     Opticalfinishes. ofteners and abrasion-resistant finishes are added to improve feel or to increase the ability of the textile to resist abrasion and tearing. These fibres are formed in the cortex between the lignified core and the outer layers of the stem. This can be achieved by beating the fabric surface or passing the fabric between calendering rolls. Fabric Preparation Desizing using amylase enzymes has been well established for many years. in principle. the fabric passes through two or more rolls. The fabric and backing blanket are fed between a roller and a curved braking shoe. mainly pectin and lignin are removed and the fibres are separated. Compacting. thereby softening the fabric structure and increasing its sheen. Recently. Optical fmishes added to either brighten or deluster the textile. for pad batch as opposed to jigger desizing. The luster can be further increased if the rolls are scribed with closely spaced lines. The steel roll may also be heated using gas or steam. and processing conditions. Bio-bleaching of lignin containing and pigments fibres like kenaf and jute 3.). Application of biotechnology in textile industry  Fibre Preparation in textiles Linen is a cellulosic fibre obtained from the flax plant. Compacting reduces the potential for excessive shrinkage during laundering. with the blanket under tension. while the other is made of a softer material like cotton fihers. economics and consistency of the process. sizes. Absorbent and soil release finishes. Luster can be added to yarns by flattening or smoothing the surfaces under pressure. Once goods pass through the machine they are wound up at the back of the machine. in which matrix components. Shearing. Opticalfinishing. In calendering. These finishes that alter surface tension and other properties to increase water absorbency or improve soil release. can be used to reduce surface friction between individual fibers. Pre-treatment of the flax with sulphur dioxide gas brings about sufficient breakdown of the woody straw material to speed up enzyme retting whilst preventing excessive bacterial or fungal deterioration of the fibre. 1979). The tension on the blanket is released after the fabric and blanket pass the braking shoe. These processes involve the use of wires or brushes that pull individual fibers. considerable efforts have been put to use enzymes in the retting process to control the process to produce linen fibres of consistent quality. they are separated from the stems by retting.

Treatment of Silk-Cellulosic blend is claimed to produce some unique effects. the water solubility and the high molecular weight inhibit the permeation through biological cell membranes. surface texture. handle and felting characteristics without degradation or weakening of the wool fibre as a whole and without the need for environmentally damaging prechlorination treatment. there by modifying the luster.  Wool Processing Applications The international wool secretariat (IWS) together with. They are also an excellent illustration of how different industry structural and market considerations can affect the uptake of enzyme technology. Disadvantages can include degradation of the fabric and loss of strength as well as 'back staining'. Now processors are learning to play more sophisticated tunes such as achieving a peach skin finish by use of a combination of stones and natural cellulase. for example. One of the problems here has been the level of investment in 'continuous-batch' or tunnel washers. Custard. Conventional stone washing uses abrasive pumice stones in a tumbling machine to abrade and remove particles of indigo dyestuff from the surfaces of denim yarns and fabric. Novo. An already established application is the use of catalase enzymes to breakdown residual hydrogen peroxide after. Salad oil. pre bleach of cotton that is to be dyed a pale or medium shade. Here.40° C. Egg. The enzyme catalase is added after oxidative bleaching and allowed to react for 15 minutes at 30° C.  Bacterial Cellulose . These typically afford a residence time of 6-12 min which is not long enough for present enzyme systems to perform adequately. Some of the major classes of enzymes and their effectiveness against common stains are summarized in Table 3 Table 3: Types Of Enzymes and Their Effectiveness Against Various Stains Enzymes Effective For Proteases Grass. Cellulase enzymes can also cut through cotton fibres and achieve much the same effect without the damaging abrasion of the stones on both garment and machine. colour brightness.  Textile After-care Enzymes have been widely used in domestic laundering detergents since the 1960s. It degrades the residual peroxide in water and oxygen. drapeability. been developing the use of protease enzymes for a range of wool finishing treatments aimed at increased comfort (reduced prickle. A slight reddening of the original indigo shade can also occur. Soil removal Early problems of allergic reactions to some of these enzymes have now largely been overcome by the use of advanced granulation technology. Blood. Other biopolymers with textile potential include polylactates and polycaprolactones. which are investigated for medical applications. and softness without any loss of absorbency. The polishing action thus achieved helps to eliminate pilling and provides better print definition. have lower running costs and produce less sludge. enzymes still have to make a corresponding impact upon the commercial laundering market. A weight loss in the base fabric of some 3-5% is typical but reduction in fabric strength can be controlled to within 2-7% by terminating the treatment after about 30-40 min using a high temperature or low pH 'enzyme stop'. so called biopolymers. Also.  Other Protease Applications Protease enzymes similar to those being developed for wool processing are already being used for the degumming of silk and for producing sand washed effects on silk garments. Finishing Bio-stoning and the closely related process of bio-polishing are perhaps attracting most current attention in the area of enzyme processing. Bio-polishing employs basically the same cellulose action to remove fine surface fuzz and fibrils from cotton and viscose fabrics. PHB is produced by bacterial fermentation of a sugar feed stock and commercially available as 'Biopol'. pH 5-10 and the application time is 10 min to 15 min. One area that still poses problems is that of tubular cotton finishing. naturally occurring polyester etc. More efficient methods of 'enzyme kill' are also required because of the extent of water recycling in modern washers. However. Softening. Bio-polishing can be used to clean up the fabric surface after the primary fibrillation of a peach skin treatment and prior to a secondary fibrillation process which imparts interesting fabric aesthetics. treat wastes containing up to 30 000 mg/l of COD. Conventional activated sludge and other systems are generally well able to meet BOD and related discharge limits on most cases. Modern enzyme systems have reduced the use of sodium perborate in detergents by 25% along with the release of harmful salts into the environment.  Natural fibre sources Several possibilities exist for producing entirely new fibre materials. Chocolate celluloses Colour brightening. The synthetic dyes are designed in such a way that they become resistant to microbial degradation under the aerobic conditions. The polymer is stable under normal conditions but biodegrades completely in any microbial active environment.60° C. using biotechnological process routes. Reactive dyes are especially sensitive to peroxide and currently require extended rinsing and/or use of chemical scavengers. which are used for thickening of printing pastes. The best suitable conditions are the temperature range of 20° C. Sauces Amylases Spaghetti. The basic mechanisms are found closely parallel to those of bio-polishing. Butter. greater softness) as well as improved surface appearance and pilling performance. Proteases are also being used to wash down printing screens after use in order to remove the proteinaceous gums. the fibre residues tend to be trapped inside the fabric rather than washed away. Sweat stains Lipases Lipstick. The results obtained were compared with the conventional process and it was found that the outcome of the enzymatic process was excellent. The industry faces some specific problems like colour removal from dyestuff effluent and handling of toxic wastes including PCPs and heavy metals. Anaerobic processes convert the organic contaminants principally into methane and carbon dioxide and usually occupy less space. The improved enzyme treatments will allow more selective removal of parts of the wool cuticle.  Role In Waste Treatment Natural and enhanced microbial process has been used to treat waste materials and effluent streams from the textile industry.

 Dyestuffs And Intermediates Attempts have been made to synthesize bacterial forms of indigo as well as fungal pigments for use in the textile industry. Thus tissue engineering also forms the integral aspect of biotechnology. Weight loss during processing of fabric is minimised by enzymes. Soaking In this stage. odour absorbers and reinforcing blends with aramids. Now enzymes can do the job better as it can provide better soaking effect. Some of these steps like soaking. Cotton processing by enzyme catalysis is possible. had it not been for the leather industry. . there are some proprietory enzymes that can stabilize the hide by removing all proteinous matter of non-leather origin from the hide. Examples of proprietory enzymes used in soaking process are: a) Palkosoak™ which is a mixture of protease and lipase suitable for alkaline conditions b) Palkosoak ACP™ which is again mixture of protease and lipase that suits acidic conditions. 2. INTRODUCTION: Bioprocess in leather industry. Although not many enzymes are used in the liming process as of now. If this is not done. the hide was soaked in brine to remove unwanted parts of the hide and the skin. Biocides have also been found useful in curing the hides but this is not environment friendly.The specialty papers and nonwovens are produced based on bacterially grown cellulose fibres. Liming After soaking. • The effluent discharges (both gaseous and aqueous) in leather processing using the conventional route (without using enzyme s) contributes to dissolved solids (chromium. namely. the hides are washed and soaked in surfactants and other compounds mostly anti-microbial. the conventional processing of leather involves the use of chemicals and the maximum amount of solid wastes like lime and chrome sludge and noxious gases( like hydrogen sulphide )are generated during the leather making processes. The spider DNA is transferred into bacteria with the air of manufacturing proteins with the strength and resilience of spider silk for use in bulletproof vests. liming. Although the leather industry takes care of this environmental problem and generates employment. salt curing is still the predominant way of curing and biotech hasn't made inroads for curing the hide process. sutures etc. bating and degreasing involving a biotech perspective will be discussed in detail in this article. then there is the chance of the flayed hide getting putrefied. chromium by 85% and Total Dissolved Solids by 85%. Textile structures gain importance as scaffolds to grow biological tissues in in-vitro.  Biotechnology For Tissue Engineering and Medical Textiles The application of polymer materials in medicine for producing various implants such as vascular prosthesis. The use of enzymes reduces this requirement considerably. so liming is done precisely to achieve desired swelling of skin. in which case the soaking process will take nine hours. Conventionally. Fortunately the leather industry makes use of these hides to process it further and make leather. However. and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD).(water and energy) 4. The conventional process of soaking uses sodium tetrasulphide plus a surfactant. 2. using biotech processes helps in reducing COD by 80%. The idea is to remove the keratinous matter and remove proteins like mucins and the ultimate quality of leather depends on this process. tanning.  Genetically Modified Micro-Organisms Attempts have been made to transfer certain advantageous textile properties into microorganisms where they can be more readily reproduced by bulk fermentation processes. Curing the hide This is the first step which entails treating the flayed hide with brine. Controlled revascularisation of the epidermal tissue is the key issues in tissue regeneration involving the use of porous and naturally occurring polymeric scaffolds on which cells are seeded. because they can re-hydrate the hides better and quicken up the entire process. The intention is to help in the further processing to leather. sulphides and sulphates etc) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). This has made the entire process of tanning hides to become more efficient and quicker. Today several of the chemicals used in leather processing have been substituted with enzymes. First trail of cotton processing are in semi continuous way. But proteases and lipases used along with surfactants can reduce the time required for soaking to five hours. lime. the next step is liming operation. Conventionally this is done with milk of lime. An example is SEBbate Acid ™ that makes the hide smoother for fabrication and dyeing by ensuring smoother grain and pliability of the hide. heart valves. Starting point for future research and development. These are extremely fine and resilient and are used as specialized filters. That is because.  Advantages of using enzymes in textiles 1. the processing of hide to leather itself generates a fair amount of pollutants. preparation for tanning. is one of the most significant achievements in contemporary surgery. Advantages When enzymes are used in leather processing it conveys certain advantages such as: • Water usage is high in conventional leather processing which is about 30 to 40 liters per kg of hide processed. One example of such an enzyme is Specialty Enzyme's SEBsoak product.  1. Despite all this. Limitations of using enzymes in textiles Although time required for processing is more the lost can be compensated by time required between processes. It is in these areas that biotechnology through the use of enzymes has played a key role in refining the process of leather making. Production cost is reduced. Different stages of leather processing There are three distinct stages of leather processing. The meat processing industry generates hides of dead animals which would have caused environmental problems in disposal. lipases and amylases are used in leather manufacturing. Each of these stages involves several other steps. and finishing. Potential non-textile applications include food industry colourants. Certain micro fungi are capable of yielding up to 30% of their biomass as pigment. resulting in swelling of the collagen structure. It may be that soaking would not have made the skins swollen to the required degree. 3. so the fiber bundles can be opened up. So today proteases.

Examples are beta-carotene and lycopene. glandulars. It works by diffusion of the enzymes into the hides. Waste processing Trypsin and proteolytic enzymes are used in further processing chrome tanned waste from tanneries. albumin and other non-structured proteins which are not required in the hide for leather making. minerals. a portmanteau of the words “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical”. and may be found in many forms such as tablets. Nutraceutical Nutraceutical. capsules. such as vitamin D to Milk. When enzymes of lipase type are used. removes swelling and produces silky grain. The conventional method is to use sulphide to eliminate keratin but the problem is it produces effluents with high COD. Health Canada defines the term as "a product isolated or purified from foods that is generally sold in medicinal forms not usually associated with food. There are multiple different types of products that may fall under the category of nutraceuticals. Functional foods . Trypsin and alkaline proteases are commonly used. or sometimes by using the manure of pigeon or hen. rather than a capsule. rather than by taking dietary supplements manufactured in liquid or capsule form.De-hairing This entails making the hides free of hairs and furs. they will rupture fat cell membranes and cause triglyceride splitting thereby facilitating degreasing process. enzymatic process is far quicker. “A dietary supplement is a product taken by mouth that contains a "dietary ingredient" intended to supplement the diet. New Jersey. Crawford. FarmaceuticalsAccording to a report written for the United States Congress entitled "Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms. enzymatic dehairing for goatskin and sheepskin and a unique bio-driven three step tanning technique. Dietary supplements-A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients derived from food products that are concentrated in liquid or capsule form. Medical foods are regulated by the FDA and will be prescribed/monitored by medical supervision. Enzymes are not directly involved in this stage. Functional foods have been either enriched or fortified. Current biotech research in leather manufacturing has generated technologies for non-lime enzyme assisted de-hairing for cow hides. including the prevention and treatment of disease. and Laws". and the process does not produce toxic wastes. This obviates the need for sodium sulfide. Medical foods can be ingested through the mouth or through tube feeding. there is a paradigm shift in leather processing from chemical driven processes to enzyme driven processes. An example of a proprietory enzyme used in de-hairing process is Palkodehair ™ which is a protease enzyme that works in alkaline conditions. a process called nutrification. gelcaps. dietary supplements and specific diets to genetically engineered foods. The swell regulating properties of this enzyme results in better grain smoothness of leather. Sometimes.Functional food are designed to allow consumers to eat enriched foods close to their natural state. Bating The idea of bating is to make the leather soft and supple (to bring out the grain and give flexibility) suitable for tanning. Another example is SEB lime. Conclusion As you can see from this article. soups. Instead. additional complementary nutrients are added. Tanning This is the last stage in making leather which involves introducing a tanning agent in the hides. by enzymes secreted by Rhizopus oryzae or by using alkaline protease from Alcaligenes faecalis. on the basis of recognized scientific principles. Stephen L. Moreover. The term nutraceutical was originally defined by Dr.Medical foods aren‟t available as an over-the-counter product to consumers. Medical foods are always designed to meet certain nutritional requirements for people diagnosed with specific illnesses. Classification of nutraceuticals Nutraceuticals is a broad umbrella term used to describe any product derived from food sources that provides extra health benefits in addition to the basic nutritional value found in foods. proteolytic enzymes of bacterial and fungal origin can now be used that will do the job by attacking the protein matter at the hair base. elastin. Bating increases the stretch of leather. (2) consumed in the diet as often as daily. It refers to medically valuable compounds produced from . The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 defined generally what constitutes a dietary supplement. which is biodegradable and eco friendly. DeFelice. The " dietary ingredients" in these products may include: vitamins. Degreasing It is essential to remove the fatty substances that escape the liming and other processes. Dietary supplements can also be extracts or concentrates. tablet. founder and chairman of the Foundation of Innovation Medicine (FIM). is a food or food product that reportedly provide s health and medical benefits. normally achieved by striking the leather with metal and wooden rods so that residues of proteins and epidermis are removed. organ tissues. Programs. and (3) should regulate a biological process in hopes of preventing or controlling disease Medical Food. or powders. and substances such as enzymes. De-hairing can be done using extra cellular protease secreted by Bacillus isolate. and processed foods such as cereals. liquids. solvent extraction and pressure degreasing. “(Farmaceuticals) is a melding of the words farm and pharmaceutical s. and which is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease or condition for which distinctive nutritional requirements. or powder. herbs or other botanicals. are established by medical evaluation. and beverages. The key to using enzymes in leather processing is that it shouldn't damage or dissolve the keratin in the hides. Such products may range from isolated nutrients. This practice restores the nutrient content in a food back to similar levels from before the food was processed. Now proteolytic bating enzymes of pancreatic or bacterial origin are used for bating under alkaline conditions. The conventional method is acqueous emulsification. herbal products. Else it will result in uneven dyeing and finishing as for example cause waxy patches in leathers. All functional foods must meet three established requirements: foods should be (1) present in their naturally-occurring form. but it should have the ability to hydrolyze casein. An example of a proprietory enzyme suitable for bating is Palkobate™ that works best in alkaline conditions.[14] The FDA considers medical foods to be “formulated to be consumed or administered internally under the supervision of a physician. amino acids. and metabolites. softgels.

used for the treatment of post thrombic syndrome. They are categorized as follows: 1. Common herbs are: Evening prime rose oil. They do this via the GSH pathway. and that some of the beneficial effects of whey protein intake are abrogated by inhibition of GSH synthesis.Ginger. Animal experiments showed that the concentrates of whey protein also exhibit anticancer activity. hypolipidemic.The dietary supplement health and education act of 1994 defines the Dietary supplements as the products administered through mouth that contain a dietary ingredient intended to add something to the foods you eat. Whey Protein Isolate (like the ISM whey protein) is the most pure and concentrated form. amino acids and fatty acids. Omega 3 Oil) Flax oil: rich in ALA (Alpha-Linolenic Acid. antihypertensive... MODE OF ACTION OF NUTRACEUTICALS: WHEY PROTIENS: Whey is the natural by-product of the cheese-making process (it is the liquid part of milk that remains after the manufacture of cheese). (c) Dietary Supplement. may take up to 10-25 grams or more a day.having antibacterial and antifungal activity used for the treatment of weight loss. in enclosed manufacturing facilities) and also provide agricultural producers with higher earnings BIOPROCESSING OF NUTRACEUTICALS 1-Utilization of metabolites of plant origin for manipulation of gut flora in rumen in favour of CLA production as also on secretion of herbal nutraceutical directly in milk by adding suitable herbs/herbal extracts in the feed. Proponents believe that using crops and possibly even animals as pharmaceutical factories could be much more cost effective than conventional methods (i. prevent malignant processes and control symptoms. Experimental data demonstrate that a cysteine-rich whey protein concentrate represents an effective cysteine delivery system for GSH replenishment during the immune response. with all the essential amino acids and with the highest protein quality rating among all proteins. antioxidant. minerals. Omega 3 Oil). the induction of p53 protein in transformed cells and inhibition of neoangiogenesis OMEGA 3AND 6 FATYACID:Fish oils: rich in EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid...Nutraceuticals are non-specifi c biological therapies used to promote wellness. by maximizing production of GOS from whey based on isolating and using highly enhancedgalactosyltransferase activity of selected microbial strains for.having positive iontropic activity.. Dosage varies. antiviral and antibacterial properties.. Some recent experiments in rodents indicate that the antitumor activity of the dairy products is in the protein fraction and more specifically in the whey protein component of milk. anti-tumor. Vitamin D used for treatment of tuberculosis Vitamin B used for Alzheimer disease. We and others have demonstrated that whey protein diets result in increased glutathione (GSH) concentration in a number of tissues. Anti-cachectic: EFAs prevent & reverse wasting syndrome.for treatment of atopic eczema.  EFAs slow metastasis EFAs impair tumour angiogenesis CATEGORIES OF NUTRACEUTICALS. Athletes.Garlic. The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system is the principal protective mechanism of the cell and is a crucial factor in the development of the immune response by the immune cells. Omega 6 Oil) Oral administration of a supplement rich in omega-3 fatty acids for 5 d before surgery may improve not only preoperative nutritional status but also preoperative and postoperative inflammatory and immune responses in patients who have cancer.Ginkgo. The biological components of whey demonstrate immune-enhancing.Based on chemical constituents (a) Nutrients .modified agricultural crops or animals (usually through biotechnology). (b) Herbals -Herbs or botanical products as concentrates and extracts. . EFAs induce apoptosis (suicide) in cells..e. Whey protein is particularly rich in substrates for GSH synthesis. Common nutrients and their associated health Benefits are Vitamin E used for treatment of Parkinson‟s disease. We suggest that whey protein may be exerting its effect on carcinogenesis by enhancing GSH concentration. body converts into EPA Nuts: GLA (Gamma Linoleic Acid. such as vitamins.... 2-Value addition to whey. a by product of dairy industry.. It is a complete protein. and those who use it as a protein supplement.Substances with established nutritional functions. and delivers more essential amino acids to the body when compared to other proteins on a gram-to-gram basis.

3. including tablets. organ tissues. like "vitamin-enriched" products. management and treatment of chronic diseases of the modern age". The general category of functional foods includes processed food or foods fortified with health-promoting additives. Functional foods are part of the continuum of products that individuals may consume to increase their health and/or contribute to reducing their disease burden. Vitamins.Functional Food Center has adopted a new definition of functional food . Parkinson’s disease Vitamin E in food may be protective against Parkinson‟s disea se. omega-3 fatty acids in salmon or saponins in soy. Agricultural scientists successfully have come up with the techniques to boost the nutritional content of certain crops. apples. Obesity 1. done to resolve public health problems such asrickets. such as lycopene in tomatoes. called “phyto-estrogens” is recommended. an important source in the prevention. Fermented foods with live cultures are considered functional foods with probiotic benefits. caffeine. Tomatoes and salmon are two types of food that researchers have found to contain benefits beyond basic nutrition . minerals for prevention and treatment of CVD. ma huang-guarana. They also serves specific functions such as sports nutrition.in this case.Many fruits. Alzheimer’s disease β-carotene. 2. arthritis. weight-loss supplements and meal replacements. Dietary fibers from psyllium have been used for glucose control in diabetic patients and to reduce lipid levels in hyperlipidemia. and glucosamine/chondroitin for arthritis. chitosan and green tea help in body weight loss. an antioxidant. Polyphenol (in grape) prevent and control arterial diseases 3. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids. Lipoic acid. curcumin. lycopene. ginkgo biloba. They are available in different dosage forms. grapes. Even tea and chocolate have been noted in some studies to contain health-benefiting attributes. Products considered functional generally do not include products where fortification has been done to meet government regulations and the change is not recorded on the label as a significant addition ("invisible fortification"). gout. turmeric etc may exert positive effects on specific diseases by neutralizing the negative effects oxidative stress mitochondrial dysfunction. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Supplement ingredients may contain vitamins. (b) Nontraditional Neutraceutical They are the outcome from agricultural breeding or added (nutrients and/or ingredients such as Orange juice fortified with calcium. It is simply natural. grains. Bioprocessing of Functional Food. (a) Traditional Neutraceutical Under the category of traditional Neutraceutical comes food in which no change to the food are made. Momordica Charantia (MC) possesses potential anti obese properties.for memory loss. herbs or other botanicals. Traditional and Non. -Functional food is a food where a new ingredient(s) (or more of an existing ingredient) has been added to a food [1] and the new product has an additional function (often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention). red wine. and concentrates 2. . red wine and green tea) reduce the inflammation that results from hay fever. extracts. and thus. Cancer 1. vegetables. capsaicin. Ethyl esters of n-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in diabetic patients. Herbal stimulants. and cherries) block the ACE and strengthen the tiny capillaries that carry oxygen and essential nutrients to all cells. dairy and meat products contain several natural components that deliver benefits beyond basic nutrition. 2. Anti-oxidants. 4. respectively. To prevent prostate/breast cancer a broad range of phyto-pharmaceuticals with a claimed hormonal activity.Examples of dietary supplements are black cohosh. or other dietary substances. "Functional Food is a Natural or processed food that contains known biologically-active compounds which when in defined quantitative and qualitative amounts provides a clinically proven and documented health benefit. cereals with added vitamins or minerals and flour with added folic acid are nontraditional neutraceutical. There has been no change to the actual foods. vegetables. amino acids. Creatine modifies Parkinson‟s disease features as measured by a decline in the clinical signs. other than the way the consumer perceives them. capsules. Flavonoids (in onion. Research currently is being conducted to improve the nutritional quality of many other crops. whole foods with new information about their potential health qualities. Diabetes 1. gland extracts. Flavonoids which block the enzymes that produce estrogen reduce of estrogen-induced cancers. Las Vegas on March 15-17. Docosahexaenoic acid modulates insulin resistance and is also vital for neurovisual development. such as ephedrine. powders. bursitis. Allergy Quercet (found in Onions.Traditional neutraceutical Wide variety of neutraceutical foods are available in the market which falls in the category of traditional foods and non traditional foods. minerals. enzymes. 2. or Vitamin D to milk.for menopausal symptoms. An example of this type of fortification would be the historic addition of iodine to table salt. Dietary fibers. TYPES OF DISEASES NUTRACEUTICALS USED Cardiovascular diseases 1. FUNCTIONAL FOOD. and various forms of neural degeneration. lycopene and omega-3 fatty acids. lutein. fish. liquids. It was debated at the 9th International Conference on "Functional Foods and Chronic Diseases: Science and Practice" at the University of Nevada. and asthma. Functional foods are an emerging field in food science due to their increasing popularity with health-conscious consumers and the ability of marketers to create new interest in existing products. for treatment of diabetic neuropathy. 2. 2011.

they maintain the metabolism.Stimulant. yerba mate. There are various brands and varieties of energy drinks. A typical floor maltings is a long. TN and sold sparsely throughout the nation. They generally contain large amounts of caffeine and other stimulants.CURRENT TRENDS 1. Ingredients:Energy drinks generally contain methylxanthines (including caffeine). FUNCTIONAL BEVERAGES Energy drinks. The grains are made to germinate by soaking in water. and then storing for around six weeks to overcome seed dormancy. Bioprocess involved:Malting is the process of converting barley into malt. creatine.They have medicinal properties for early recovery. but of considerably greater size. herbal extracts and amino acids and may or may not be carbonated. B vitamins. it is transferred to the malting or germination floor. and takes place in a maltings. açaí. or as dietary supplements. when a Chicago businessman named William Mark Swartz was urged by coworkers to formulate a soft drink fortified with vitamins as an alternative to sugar sodas full of empty calories. single-story building with a floor that slopes slightly from one end of the building to the other. significant improvements in mental and cognitive performances as well as increased subjective alertness. or a malting floor. these pneumatic plants are batch processes. Probiotics are commonly consumed as part of fermented foods with specially added active live cultures. Smoke. in which stool from a healthy donor is delivered like a suppository to an infected patient. Probiotic organisms are live microorganisms that are thought to be beneficial to the host organism. Its origins date back to 1949. and are then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air. Energy drinks contain about three times the amount of caffeine as cola. and ginkgo biloba. cheese. and herbs. Amul calci plus is fortified with natural calcium and pregnant women from 150mg/day to 400-600mg/day. probiotics are: "Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host". Other products such as yogurt. Lucozade Energy was originally introduced in 1929 as a hospital drink for "aiding the recovery. large industrial fans are used to blow air through the germinating grain beds and to pass hot air through the malt being kilned. According to the currently adopted definition by FAO/WHO. coming from an oasting fireplace (via smoke channels) is then used to heat the wooden floor and the sprouted grains. In the UK. 2. B-vitamins. he formed a partnership with Charles Gordon of Tri-Cities Beverage to produce and distribute the soda. HEALTH SPPLEMENTS Malt energy drinks. and disaccharides. Vitamin D fortification. immune system enhancements and cell growth. When the grain has a moisture content of around 46%. typically 100 ton batches compared with 20 ton batches for floor malting. including monosaccharides such as glucose or fructose. Floor maltings began to be phased out in the 1940s in favour of "pneumatic plants".In US he milk is fortified with 100IU/cup. IODINE to TABLE SALT –Recommended dietary allowance of iodine is 150mg/100ml. When ready. It also develops other enzymes. such as proteases. it was promoted as an energy drink for "replenishing lost energy. Enuf is still being manufactured in Johnson City.An energy drink is a type of beverage which is purported to boost mental or physical energy. sometimes called a malthouse. The sprouted barley is kiln-dried by spreading it on a perforated wooden floor. orange juice etc are also fortified with milk. Caffeine is the stimulant that is found in coffee and tea. where it is constantly turned over for around five days while it is air-dried. Twelve ounces of Coca-Cola Classic contains 35 mg of caffeine. soy yogurt. and many brands offer artificially sweetened 'diet' versions.High protein drinks Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting". He developed an "energy booster" drink containing B vitamins. Some contain high levels of sugar. The malting process starts with drying the grains to a moisture content below 14%. Like floor maltings. Here. caffeine and cane sugar. the grain is immersed or "steeped" in water two or three times over two or three days to allow the grain to absorb moisture and to start to sprout. After placing a notice in a trade magazine seeking a bottler.glucuronolactone." in the early 1980s. carnitine.[8] Malts range in colour from very pale through crystal and amber to chocolate or black malts. Benefits of energy drinks:Caffine. The grain at this point is called "green malt". Since 1983." One of the first energy drinks introduced in America was Dr. for use in brewing or distilling. Other commonly used ingredients arecarbonated water. such as sucrose ormaltose. Enuf. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics. Many also contain sugar or other sweeteners. Probiotics are also delivered in fecal transplants. Malting grains develops the enzymes required to modify the grain's starches into sugars. which break down the proteins in the grain into forms that can be used by yeast. [1]Dr. Herbs. guarana. Tata chemicals has been manufacturing Vacuum Evaporated Iodized Tata salt. inositol. and taurine. maltodextrin. The green malt is then kiln-dried to the desired colour and specification. whereas a Monster Energy Drink contains 120 mg of caffeine. such as in yogurt. The temperature is usually around 55 °C (131 °F). but certain yeasts and bacilli may also be used. . A common ingredient in most energy drinks is caffeine (often in the form of guarana or yerba mate). plus various forms of ginseng. PROBIOTICS.

Prior to bottling. 2. destroying any bacteria that may be present. vitamins and calcium are added to the concentrate. 7. Single bottles of Yakult are sorted into groups of five and shrinkwrapped in polypropylene film. Bottling and Packaging The bottles are wrapped with individual bottle labels.] prevention and treatment of pathogen-induced diarrhea. sealed and transferred along the conveyor belt to the packaging facility. forming a 'carton' of 50 Yakult bottles. The tank is chilled to around 2° C. Then. 3. and atopic diseases. in those cases which the European Food Safety Authority has investigated health claims that are made about probiotic products. urogenital infections. For this reason. they are filled with Yakult. Sterilisation The sweet. Injection Blow Moulding Machine The plastic bottles are produced on site. Refrigeration Room Finished products are kept refrigerated before delivery to stores.YAKULT Yakult is a fermented milk drink containing over 6.000-litre mixing and storage tank. the term appears to be a composite of the Latin preposition pro ("for") and the Greek adjective βιωτικός (biotic). . To date. Sterilised flavours.Mixing of Raw Ingredients Live Lactobacillus casei Shirota strain is cultured in a 'seed tank' in our laboratory.Lactobacillus caseistrain Shirota.500-litre culture tank via a closed system of pipes and valves. The solution is then transferred to a 6. At the start of the 20th century. it states that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of the products containing probiotics and the claimed health benefits. "life"). glucose and filtered. probiotics were thought to beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. syrup solution. milky solution is sterilised at a high temperature for a short time. these probiotic bacteria are able to survive the acidic environment of the stomach and reach the intestines alive In the intestine they change the environment to favour the growth of beneficial bacteria and suppress the growth of harmful bacteria Bioprocess involved: 1. Example. 8. 5. sterile water. the latter deriving from the noun βίος (bios. capped with a foil lid. 6. specific health effects are being investigated and documented including alleviation of chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases. The solution is allowed to ferment for about one week until the number of Lactobacillus casei bacteria reaches an ideal concentration. the concentrate is diluted with filtered. Yakult Quality Assurance Yakult maintains a comprehensive quality assurance program in order to ensure that our product is of the highest quality.. sterilised water to make a sweet milky solution. Unlike most bacteria found in normal yoghurt. Mixing and Storage Tank The concentrate is transferred to a 12. 4. Today. samples are collected for laboratory analysis throughout the production process to confirm that the quality assurance measures in place have been effective. thus inhibiting pathogens and toxin producing bacteria.Etymologically. Culture Tank The temperature of the tank is reduced to 37°C and live Lactobacillus casei Shirota strain is added. Skim milk powder is mixed with sugar. Ten "5-packs" are grouped together and wrapped again in polyethylene film and then heat shrunk. The bottles are made from polystyrene.5 billion probiotic (friendly) bacteria .

DISEASE RESISTANCE A plant disease is any abnormal condition that alters the appearance or function of a plant.The amount of solid waste is relatively small. hail. processing methods and parameters. check for potential contaminants. Waste Management Cleaning . Liquid wastes . It does not occur instantly like injury. physical attributes and taste.  Disease is a process or a change that occurs over time. It is a physiological process that affects some or all plant functions. The Disease Triangle Different Pathogens Causing diseases . Yakult's quality assurance utilizes a system called "Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points" (HACCP). microbiological quality. is used to sterilize the pipes and tanks. 9. The principles of HACCP are internationally recognised as an excellent method for assuring stringently high standards. A single phase chemical cleaner is used. Non-infectious plant disease:  An abnormality on plant cause by agencies such as nutrient deficiencies. Quality assurance measures are in place to maintain standards for personnel and factory hygiene. reducing the numbers of chemicals introduced into the drains. following a cleaning program that is predominantly governed by CIP (Cleaning in Place).Any liquid waste goes into a holding tank in our water treatment facility. each bottle is inspected for undesirable markings and incorrect printing. upon which a total of more than 200 tests are conducted.Yakult adheres to a comprehensive hygiene and sanitation program. Steam. frost lightning and other external factors which are non-infectious and their effects are not transmissible from affected to health plants.  Clare Kenag (1974): Plant disease as “infectious” or “non-infectious”. acidity.Our testing involves more than 150 samples per production run. composition. These determineLactobacillus casei numbers. Infectious plant disease:  Abnormal plant conditions caused by biological agencies eg fungi. an environmentally friendly cleaner. equipment cleaning. In addition. bacteria. and product handling. viruses and nematodes and are capable of being transmitted from diseased plants to health plants to cause disease on the latter under favourable environmental conditions. Chlorine based chemicals are not used. wing. Disease may also reduce yield and quality of harvested product. Solid wastes . The acidity (pH) of the water is adjusted with acid or alkaline before being released into the sewage system.

mode of manifestation of resistance to a pathogen. R-genes. Flor described the genetics that underlie race-specific or gene-for-gene resistance of flax rust with its host flax (Flor.Plant resistance mechanism. Physiological features of HR-Rapid oxidative burst -Ion fluxes characterized by K+ . Gene-for-gene interactions specify plant disease resistance. parasites etc. nematodes).responsible for providing resistance to plants against a diverse range of pathogens viz.avirulence genes. protozoa. -Cellular decompartmentalization. Resistance is only expressed when a plant that contains specific R gene that has the corresponding avirulence gene. Elicitor molecules interacts with receptors (encoded by R genes) Cascade of host genes get activated leading to HR and inhibition of pathogen growth. fungi.these genes encodes any determinant of specificity of interaction with host eg. Many pathogens exhibit gene-for-gene resistance on their hosts. bacteria.localized induced cell death in the host plant at the site of infection. mycoplasma.   Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) Induced systemic resistance Race specific or gene-for gene resistance Elicitation of race-specific resistance. Gene –for – gene system involving HR are seen in all involving intracellular obligate pathogens (viruses and mycoplasma) as well as intercellular facultative and obligate pathogens (bacteria. -Production of antimicrobial compounds (Phytoalexins) . 2. HR. -Cross-linking and strengthening of plant cell wall. Mechanism Plant recognition of specific molecules (elicitors) produced by pathogen (Coded directly or indirectly by avirulence genes ) 3. PAMPs or MAMPs (Pathogen or microbe associated molecular patterns) Gives the pathogen an avirulent phenotype or a host plant that carries the corresponding R gene. Avr genes.Two broad mechanisms:   Race-specific or gene-for-gene resistance Non-specific or broad spectrum resistance:   1. nematodes.hyper sensitive response.H+ exchange. genetic incompatibility H. fungi. 1956). Fig. Plant responses to pathogen attack Few terms: 1. All the other combinations lead to lack of recognition by the host and the result is disease.

. . -SAR is associated with induction of wide range of genes (called PR or Pathogenesis –related genes).Pathogenesis related proteins (PRs) were first described in 1970 in tobacco leaves infected with TMV. NON-Specific or Broad Spectrum Resistancei) Systemic acquire Resistance (SAR): -Triggered by HR and other necrotic reactions. overexpression of PR-1 significantly increase resistance against infection by Perenospora tabacina and Phytopthora var. .Confers quantitative protection against broad spectrum of microorganisms in a manner comparable to innate immunity of mammals. plant cell death occurs and accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) takes place. -In response to SA. ->HR and other necrotic reactions trigger a subsequent response i.flavum avirulence genes avr9 and avr4 encode precursors for elicitor peptides that specifically elucidated HR in tomato plants that have corresponding r R genes cf-9 and cf-4 respectively. nicotinae. This form of induced resistance is called SAR by Ryals et al. which gets activated upon SA accumulation. positive regulator protein NP1 moves to the nucleus where it interacts with TGA transcription factor to induce defense gene expression thus activating SAR (PR genes). Mechanism: -Plant uses pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize conserved microbial signatures (elicitors). 2. PRs are plant proteins that accumulate after pathogen attack.e. PR genes. disease occurs. Example of gene-for-gene interaction in disease resistance – Interaction between potato and its leaf mold pathogen cladosporum flavum.β-1. -This interaction triggers an immune response.-Induction of pathogenesis related (PR) protein such as chitinases and glucanases. Examples are-PR-1 -PR-1. Two c. But if interaction is incompatible. If interaction is compatible.Resistance is expressed locally at the site of primary inoculation but also systematically in tissues remotely located from initial treatment. SAR (Subsequent acquired resistance) that acts non-specifically throughout plant.3-glucanases (PR2) -Chitinases (PR3) -PR-4 -Osmotin(PR-5) -In tobacco. in 1992.

Often they are the only control measures that are profitable for high acreage of low value crops. bacteria. -Experimentally. and it was often difficult to evaluate their effectiveness. -In case of Rhizobacteria. -ISR is manifested to plant by other microorganisms like rhizobacter or other bacterial strains present in soil. but not SA-responsive genes. -SA is not necessary for ISR. and of the weak links in pest-crop interactions. ADVANTAGES:-Cultural controls are generally the cheapest of all control measures because they usually only require modifications to normal production practices. namely the creation of resistance to pesticides. and viruses. Also.ii) Induce systemic resistance(ISR) -Another form of induced resistance. the O-antigenic side chains of bacterial outer membrane Lipopolysaccharide. and the killing of non-target organisms. Effectiveness of cultural controls is difficult to assess and they do not always provide complete economic control of pests. in association with plant. iii) Reduce pest survival on the crop by enhancing its natural enemies.Cultural controls require long-term planning for greatest effectiveness and they need careful timing. were poorly understood. rhizobacteria mediated ISR is dependent on Jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene signaling in plant. acts as inducing determinant. or by altering the crop's susceptibility to the pest. because they are dependent on detailed knowledge of the bio-ecology of the crop-pests-natural controls-environment relationships. Instead. and are usually specific. They may be effective for one pest but may be ineffective against a closely related species. The plant diseases may be caused by the micro-organisms. In pseudomonas strains inducing systemic resistance in Arabidopsis. especially its dispersal and overwintering habits. host plant discrimination or location by both adults and immatures. Chemical Plant Disease Control A plant disease is a physiological condition reflected by its structural abnormality that is harmful to the plant or to any of its parts and also reduces its economic value. STRATEGIES ON WHICH CULTURAL PRACTICES ARE BASED: i) Make the crop or habitat unacceptable to pests by interfering with their oviposition preferences. It may also be caused by the . Of major importance is the fact that they do not possess some of the detrimental side effects of pesticides. Cultural controls are dependable. ii) Make the crop unavailable to the pest in space and time by utilizing knowledge of the pest's life history. DISADVANTAGES:. are more demanding on the farmer's competence. which is of benefit under natural condition where multiple pathogens may be present. as such. -Not associates with typical SAR genes. which promotes growth in plant. They are often based on the substitution of knowledge and skills for purchased inputs and. CULTURAL METHODS Cultural controls are the oldest methods that have been used to manage pest populations. indicating specific recognition between bacteria and plants at the root surface. including fungi. with the development of synthetic pesticides these controls were rapidly abandoned or de-emphasized and research on them was largely discontinued. most of which. ecology and phenology. etc. However. it is necessary to have accurate knowledge of crop and pest biology. the results were very variable. To design and implement cultural controls. Plant diseases may be temporary or permanent in natu re. thus suggesting that SA accumulation not requires for ISR. only careful planning. Sometimes they do not even require extra labour. feed crops and the environment. when Arabidopsis is inoculated with a pathogen. leaves expressing SAR exhibit a primed expression of SA while leaves expressing ISR are primed to express JA/ethylene. -Some strains show specificity. ConclusionThus a combination of SAR and ISR can increase protection against pathogens that are resisted through both pathways as well as extend protection to broader spectrum of pathogen than ISR and SAR alone. both root and foliar pathogens. Some cultural controls have adverse effects on fish and wildlife and may also cause erosion problems. E. -The generally non-specific character of induced resistance constitutes an increase in the level of basal resistance to several pathogens simultaneously.g. Because cultural controls are preventative rather than curative they are dependent on long-range planning. in the past. suppresses disease through antagonism between bacteria and soil borne pathogens as well as by inducing systemic resistance in plant against. undesirable residues in food.

1. The chemicals can be broadly classified on the basis of their mode of action against pathogen and type of pathogen.therapy. etc. 2. bordeaux mixture. According to type of pathogen Based on the type of pathogens. excess or lack of soil moisture and aeration. nematicides for killing nematodes. plantvax. To control this disease use of fungicides become essential to avoid any loss of the crop. Resistant varieties of potato are attacked by late blight if rain occurs during tuber formation. organo mercurials. Systemic fungicides The chemicals which on. 2. It has been found that wind. Protectants Protectants are prophylactic in their behaviour. deficiency or excess of plant nutrients. ceresan and streptocyclin. effective and popular. They include thiram. Therefore. the control of plant diseases usually lies in preventing and curing the infectio n through various means. plantvax. This therapy can be achieved by physical means. For killing different groups of pathogens. dithane M-45. Non. animals. The chemicals mainly used for controlling diseases are: fungicides for killing fungus. such as seed. Classification of Chemicals There are many chemicals which are available for plant disease control but all are not equally safe. The first landmark in the control of fungal disease of plants was the discovery by Anton de Bary that the causal agents of many plant disease are fungi. Some diseases remain on the surface of the plant while others are deeply seated. dusts or seed treatment for protecting plants from the ravages of the pathogens is not an innovation of the 20th century. when applied appropriately. diseased plants. they enter the plants and affect deep-seated infection. dithane Z. Therefore. Fungicides The chemicals which kill fungus are called fungicides. Therapeutants Therapeutants is an agent that inhibits the growth and development of a disease already entered in a plant. terbam. Bactericides . Even when a crop has been grown from pathogen free soil and the crop seems superficially healthy. brassicol. application. Usually the chemo-therapeutants are systemic in their action. Eradicants Eradicants help to eradicate the dormant or active pathogen from the host completely.g. but quite often by chemical means and is called chemo. plant surfaces or the soil but cannot penetrate deep into plant tissues. ziram. 3. such as solar energy treatment or hot water treat.ment. They are usually not transported downwards through the phloem tissue. burgundy mixture etc. bactericide for killing barteria. The success of any chemical depends on the selection of suitable chemical and its use at appropriate time and place and its proper application. zineb.e. the use of fungicides in some circumstances become unavoidable.78. i. carboxin. Maneb. insects and soil help to spread the diseases. eradicants and therapeutants. even in the case of resistant varieties. A. zineb. and viricides for killing viruses. tubers. They are effective in checking the entry (by covering surfaces) and penetrating in the tissue killing pathogen in the host plant. such as phenyl mercury acetate. According to mode of action Depending upon their mode of action the chemicals can be grouped as protectants. and cycosin: b.systemic fungicides Non-systemic or contact fungicides are the chemicals which do not enter inside the plant tissue. They are absorbed by the roots and transported acropetally to the xylem. cuttings. These fungicides can kill pathogen present inside as well as outside the plant. agallol. are absorbed and spread into the whole system of plant to kill fungus in all its stages are called systemic fungicides. methoxy ethyl mercury chloride. thiram. These chemicals can be used as protectant as well as eradicant. Therefore. different types of chemicals are required. B. water. they act outside the plant parts as a cover to check the invasion by the pathogen. The use of chemical sprays. roots etc. Some of the common systemic chemicals are bavistin. but kill the pathogen by surface contact. judicious use of chemical protection will prolong the life of resistance in the variety. soil acidity or alkalinity. seed. The aim and of use of chemicals in plant disease control are to create a toxic barrier between the host surface or tissue and the pathogen and. foliage. vitavax. These may be applied to seeds. Examples are lime. bordeaux mixture. e. Most of the plant diseases are caused by fungus only. to eradicate the pathogen present at a particular site on the host.physiological conditions like high or low temperatures. They are briefly discussed as under. sulphur. Some of the examples are captan. the chemicals can be grouped as (1) fungicides (2) bactericides and (3) nematicides 1. sulphur. captan. streptocyclin and agromycin. These fungicides can again be classified as systemic and non-systemic based upon their action in plant.

man and animals. Benzene fungicides F. leaves flowers and fruits is called vegetative or foliar application. DBCP. iv. Slow or no loss of toxicity in storage. Sulphur fungicides B. the anti-infection chemicals or fungicides having following characters are supposed to be ideal. Majority of the modern chemicals are used as "protectants" to prevent infection of susceptible plant surfaces by a pathogen. dusting and pastes. Hetero-cyclic nitrogen compound Methods of Chemical Application Basically. ii. 1. carbofuran.The chemicals which kill bacteria are known as bactericides. Mercury fungicides D. This depends on the type of vegetation. locality. streptomycin.A basic quality of fungicides. Good spreading quality on host surface. IV. v. and popular. Anti-pathogen Chemicals The chemical substances that help to retard the activity of pathogens like fungus. telone. The nematicides commonly used are. High tenacity on the host surface i. multiplication and survival. infestation of diseases etc. Copper fungicides C. phorate. and iii. bactericides and nematicides is that they possess differential toxicity. D. A. Chemicals for Disease Control. inactivaion or destruction of the pathogen when it lands on the treated surface. B.D. However. cure of the diseased plant. A. bacteria and nematodes are said to be anti-pathogen chemicals. ii. effective. These methods are described in detail here. the chemicals are applied by the methods of foliar or vegetative application. reduction in inoculum density or eradication of inoculum from source of growth. it should be retained on the surface. agrimycin-l00 and endomycin. soil application and seed treatment. Retention of toxicity on dilution. III. The chemicals used for killing bacteria are steptocyclin. In general. The number of chemicals available for plant disease control are many although all are not equally safe. The term "broad spectrum" and "narrow spectrum" of chemicals is used to indicate the range of pathogens affected by a particular chemical. i. These are generally known as antibiotics. Foliar application Application of chemicals on the stem. methon M-sodium and vapam. terracur. vi. Spraying . They include: i. Functions The anti-pathogen chemicals are expected to perform three major functions. terracur-P. Quinone fungicides E. Some of the important categories of chemicals used for disease control are given here A. High toxicity for the pathogen at low concentration. They have different effect on different groups of living organisms.e. Nematicides The chemicals which kill the nematodes are called nematicides. iii. It is carried out in the form of spraying. Desired characters. Certain chemicals are more or less toxic to all or most pathogens while others are toxic to only a specific group of pathogens. 3. This helps in eradication of the dormant inoculum present on the surface. nemaphos. very few chemicals are available to eradicate an established active plant disease infection. Absence of toxicity for the host.

chemicals have the ability to diffuse through soil particles. When trees are pruned application of paste or paint is necessary. Many soil fumigants are not effective in soils containing high organic matter content C. Ultra low volume -less than 5 l/ha spray 2. a. 3. augmentation and conservation. In the control of nematodes volatile soil fumigants are used. Seed protectants BIOLOGICAL METHODS Biological control is a method of controlling pests (including insects. It relies on predation. The success of soil treatment depends on many factors. One cause of failure of chemicals to completely eradicate pathogens from soil is their rapid degradation by physical. 4. However. Most fungicidal soil treating . The chemicals used for this purpose are usually volatile and on coming in contact with soil moisture release gases which diffuse in the soil and kill the larvae of the nematode. Pasting and painting Chemicals are occasionally mixed with water. complete eradication of pathogens from soil with chemical treatments is neither feasible nor desired. Light ploughing or harrowing is done to mix the chemical in sufficient depth. Soil application The purpose of chemical soil treatment is to eradicate or reduce the inoculum density of soil-borne plant pathogens. As a protective layer such toxicants destroy the spores before or after their germination and infection of the host is checked. or other natural mechanisms. The treatment can be applied before or after planting of seeds. On the basis of their mode of action the seed treatment chemicals can be of three types. Example covered smut of barley and grain smut of jowar. Seed treatment Seeds. 3. This method of soil treatment is too expensive. The chemical soil treatment can be done in any of the following ways. bulbs and other propagating materials are given chemical treatment for eradication of pathogens present on them and for preventing their rot in the soil after planting. for seed borne disease seed treatment is the only method of control. Low volume spray -5 -400 l/ha c. . This method is possible in crops planted in furrows such as potato and sugarcane. but typically also involves an active human management role. 2. parasitism. Dusting is advisable only in very wet weather which favours sticking of chemical of host surface. Furrow application Furrow application is most common practice followed to apply dusts and granules. Proper ploughing of the land is necessary before-treatment. Many systemic fungicides are used as spray materials. Sometimes. Drenching of soil with solution of suspension Chemicals are applied to soil surface in quantities sufficient to wet 10-15 cm depth of the soil. alcohol. Fumigation Soil fumigation is usually done to control plant parasitic nematodes. If organic manures are to be added that should be done after fumigation. mites. powders of granules Non-volatile fungicides are mixed with soil or fertilizers and broadcast on the soil surface. or other carriers and applied as paint or paste on injured surface or parts of the plant. High volume spray -more than 400 l/ha b. Wettable chemicals available in solution or emulsified form are used for spraying to provide a protective covering over the surface before arrival of. tubers. Dusting Insoluble or non-suspendable materials are used for dusting on the foliage. weeds and plant diseases) using other living organisms. B. the pathogen. Seed disinfestants 2. Fungicides and bactericides are more effective as spray rather than as dust.e. The soil should be well pulverised and should be neither too dry nor too wet.It is more prevalent for fungal disease than for bacterial diseases of the foliage. 1. Special equipments are required for their application. There are three basic types of biological pest control strategies: importation (sometimes called classical biological control). Broadcasting of dusts. chemical and biological conditions of soil. herbivory. Application of these highly toxic volatile substance is recommended some days or weeks before actual planting of the crop. 1. The spraying is influenced by the volume i.

Relatively few natural enemies may be released at a critical time of the season (inoculative release) or millions may be released (inundative release). a situation that can occur when a pest is accidentally introduced into a new geographic area. There are many examples of successful importation programs. This is usually done by government authorities. One of the earliest successes in the west was in controlling Icerya purchasi. Within a few years the cottony cushion scale was completely controlled by these introduced natural enemies. Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists. MOLECULAR MARKER Molecular marker. and pathogens. Types of biological pest control There are three basic types of biological pest control strategies: importation (sometimes called classical biological control). also known as biological control agents. are used to control greenhouse whitefly. by Hsi Han. boosting the naturally occurring population. lady beetles. which describes mandarin oranges protected by biological pest control techniques that are still in use today. a major constraint to the implementation of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in pragmatic breeding programs in the past has been the perceived high relative cost of MAS compared to conventional phenotypic selection. These studies have shown that in some circumstances the adoption of MAShas the ability to improve selection efficiency over phenotypic selection alternatives. without its associated natural enemies. 1997. and parasitized aphid mummies are almost always present in aphid colonies BiotechnologicalapproachindiseasemanagementBiotechnological approach A) Marker assisted plants breeding   in disease management includes ‒ Different markers and application in disease resistance Achievements B) Tissue culture methods   Somaclonal variation Somatic hybridization C)Genetic engineering (Transgenics) D) Meristem – Tip culture (for virus free planting material) Marker assisted plants breedingIn this technique. linkages are sought between DNA markers and agronomically important trait such as resistance to pathogens insects and nematodes etc. including: Joseph Needham noted a Chinese text dating from 304AD.Molecular marker are used to identify and tag desired gene. Biological control agents of weeds include herbivores and plant pathogens. 1999. and a parasitoid fly were introduced from Australia by Charles Valentine Riley. Instead of selecting for a trait the breeder can select for a marker that can be detected very easily in this selection scheme. An example of inoculative release occurs in greenhouse production of several crops. In many instances the complex of natural enemies associated with a pest may be inadequate. parasitoids. hover fly larvae. Knapp 1998.Encarsia formosa. Records of the Plants and Trees of the Southern Regions. Natural enemies are already adapted to the habitat and to the target pest. The advent of molecular markers as a tool to aid selection has provided plant breeders with the opportunity to rapidly deliver superior genetic solutions to problems in agricultural production systems. However.Natural enemies of insect pests. Simulation studies have examined the potential role for MAS in breeding programmes (Hospital et al.A molecular marker is a DNA sequence that is readily detected and whole inheritance can easily be monitored. include predators. Moreau et al. The point at which molecular markers are applied in a selection strategy can be critical to the effectiveness and cost efficiency of that strategy. Periodic releases of the parasitoid. These introduced pests are referred to as exotic pests and comprise about 40% of the insect pests in the United States. and their conservation can be simple and cost-effective. and the predatory mite Conservation The conservation of existing natural enemies in an environment is the third method of biological pest control. the cottony cushion scale. Charmet et al. a pest that was devastating the California citrus industry in the late 19th century. A predatory insect Rodolia cardinalis (the Vedalia Beetle). Augmentation Augmentation involves the supplemental release of natural enemies. augmentation and conservation Importation Importation (or "classical biological control") involves the introduction of a pest's natural enemies to a new locale where they do not occur naturally. 2000). Lacewings. Different markers use for disease resistance is as follows .

thereby enriching the library for single. spotted wilt virus. It is never certain that a particular characteristic will be expressed after somatic hybridization. Hansen and Earle (1995) reported that black rot disease caused by Xanthomonas compesris is a a serious disease in cauliflower. 1892). jncea and B. oleracea with B. Some of the examples of incorporation of resistance genes via protoplast fusion technique have been listed in Table. Regeneration products after somatic hybridization are often variable due to somaclonal variation. Both interspecific and intergeneric hybrids have been obtained.   Problems and Limitations of Somatic Hybridization       Application of protoplast methodology requires efficient plant regeneration from protoplasts. Hanstein introduced the term protoplast in 1880 to designate the living matter enclosed by plant cell membrane. Typically. To achieve successful integration into a breeding program. insect pests and also cold tolerance. also known as naked plant cell refers to all the components of a plant cell excluding the cell wall. napus. chromosome elimination. (Chwala S. EcoRV. 1988) and beet cyst nematode from Raphanus sativus (Lelivelt et al. especially if the fusion partners are taxonomically far apart. RFLP (Restriction fragment length polymorphism )Developing RFLP probes Total DNA is digested with a methylation-sensitive enzyme (for example. The end-products after somatic hybridization are often unbalanced (sterile. leaf blight. organelle segregation etc. . The digested DNA is size-fractionated on a preparative agarose gel. Verticillium. All diverse intergeneric somatic hybrids reported are sterile and therefore have limited value for new variety development. 1998) The protoplast. phytophthora have been transferred to Solonum tuberosum from other species where normal crossings would not be possible due to taxonomic or other barriers. misformed. Resistance has been introduced in tomato against various diseases like TMV. Kobayeshi et al (196) reported the incorporation of disease resistance genes from wild species Solanum ochranthus a woody vine like tomato relative to L. nigra. napus. It may be necessary to use back-fusion or embryo culture to produce gene combinations that are sufficiently stable to permit incorporation into a breeding program. eluted and cloned into a plasmid vector (for example. The lack of an efficient selection method for fused product is sometimes a major problem. production of somatic hybrid plants has been limited to a few species.1. In species with low polymorphism rates. and fragments ranging from 500 to 2000 bp are excised. and unstable) and are therefore not viable. resistant hybrids have been developed (Sjodin and Glimelius. The somatic hybrids were produced by protoplast fusion of B. However. PstI). additional restriction endonucleases can be tested to increase the chance of finding polymorphism. B. The isolation of protoplasts from plant cells was first achieved by microsurgery on plasmolyzed cells by mechanical method (Klerckar. Resistance to black-leg disease (Phoma lingam) has been found in B. Many disease resistance genes viz. Southern blots of the inserts can be probed with total sheared DNA to select clones that hybridize to single. two to four restriction endonucleases are used such as EcoRI. The true test of protoplast viability is the ability of protoplasts to undergo continued mitotic divisions and regenerate plants.and low-copy sequences. and HindIII. The probes are screened for RFLPs using genomic DNA of different genotypes digested with restriction endonucleases. Attempts were made to introduce tolerance in Brassica napus against Alternaria brassicae from Sinapsis alba (Primard et al. respectively. Protoplasts from any two species can be fused.or low-copy expressed sequences (PstI clones are based on the suggestion that expressed genes are not methylated). somatic hybrids must be capable of sexual reproduction. pUC18). The concentration of protoplasts in a given preparation can be determined by the use of hemocytometer    The family Solanaceae and Brassiceae contains the most commonly used species for somatic hybridization. in species with moderate to high polymorphism rates. RAPD (Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers) SSRT (Simple sequence repeats or microsatellites AFLP (Amplified      2 3 4 fragment length polymorphism) TISSUE CULTURE METHODSOMATIC HYBRIDIZATION Definition: A technique of fusing protoplasts from two contrasting genotypes for production of hybrids or cybrids which contain various mixtures of nuclear and/ or cytoplasmic genomes. Digests of the plasmids are screened to check for inserts. esculentum. carinata and after production of symmetric as well as asymmetric somatic hybrids between these gene donors and B. 1989). translocation.H. 1993). potato leaf roll virus.

Plant that carry additional stably integrated. Though chemotherapeutic and physical agents have been used for production of virus free plants but with limited success. transgenic plants showed increased resistance to the concerned diseases. (Chawala H. DNA copy of viral satellite RNA. it is essential that the apical meristem should be excised along with a minimum of the surrounding tissue but when objective s vegetative propogation. Meristems are genetically stable and can be regenerated into pathogen free plants meristems have been identified as excellent material of germplasm preservation of crop species with seed borne viruses also. In practice shoot tip of upto 1 micro meter are used when the objective in virus elimination. It has been demonstrated that the shoot apices of virus infected plants are frequently devoid of viral particles or contains very low viral concentrations. 1984. several transgenes have been evaluated. Pelargonium etc. insects and pest have been transferred to crop varieties from noncultivated plants. the regeneration of adventitious roots from the developed shoots.2002).  Advantages associated with meristem tip culture For production of disease free plants Meristem tip culture in generally followed where aim is to produce disease free plants. banana. 2) genes specifying toxin inactivation. In case of viral pathogens. Useful traits such as resistance to diseases. In case of bacterial and fungal pathogens. And vectorless approach (Paszhkowski et al. In vitro culture has becomes only effective technique to obtain virus free plants in potato. defective viral genome. 4) expression of bacterial lysozymes. cloned and transferred into the crop in question. Transgenics           Transfer of genes between plant species has played an important role in crop improvement for many decades.. the size of shoot tip used for culture is not important. In almost all the approaches. from stock systemically infected not only with virus but with various other pathogens. and expressed foreign genes transferred (transgenes) from other genetic sources are reffered to as transgenic plants. explants taken for actively growing plants at the beginning of growing season are the most suitable. 8) expression of heterologous thionins. MERISTEM TIP CULTURE Cultivation of axillary or apical shoot meristems. It usually does not involve the regeneration of new shoot meristem When the objective is to free the stock from a virus. The overall process of genetic transformation involves introduction. Meristem culture involves the development of an already existing shoot meristem and subsequently. Disadvantages Facilities required are costly . 1984. gladiolus. To transfer useful genes from a wild species to a cultivated crop. 3) expression of antibacterial peptides. viz. 7) genes encoding ribsome inactivating proteins. antisense constructs of critical viral genes. 1998)               Morel and Martin (1952) developed the technique of meristem culture for in vivo virus eradication of Dahlia. virus coat protein gene. Viral coat protein gene approach seems to be the most successful (Singh.) Methods to transform plants with DNA agrobacterium biolistics GENETIC ENGINEERING Genes expected to confer disease resistance are isolated. it is necessary to achieve intergeneric recombination or chromosome substitution between parental genomes (Chawla. 6) expression of heterologous phytoalexins. The capacity to introduce and express diverse foreign genes in plants was first described in tobacco by Agrobacterium mediated Horsch et al. particularly of shoot apical meristem is known as meristem culture.. 1998) A virus resistant transgenic variety of squash is in commercial cultivation in USA. integration and expression of foreign gene in the recipient host plant.S. resistance has been sought by expression of the following transgenes: 1) genes enoding insensitive target enzymes. Generally. and ribozymes. 5) genes specifying artificially programmed cell death. Chrysanthemum. 9) ectopic expression of pathogenesis related proteins and 10) ectopic expression of chitinases.

the induced plant becomes more resistant than the normal. Induced resistance can be defined as an increased expression of natural defence mechanisms of plants against various type of pathogens. such as 2.).dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA). pests (insects. life history of important key pests of crops and their management strategies are outlined hereunder: A NOVEL STRATEGY FOR PLANT PROTECTION: INDUCED RESISTANCE Most plant protection methods currently applied use toxic chemicals noxious to the environment for pathogen and pest control. this enhancing its biological safety. abiotic elicitors. the induced resistance can be defined as an increased expression of natural defense mechanisms of plants against different pathogens provoked by external factors of various type and manifested upon subsequent inoculation. the mode of their translocation and SAR-mediating signal pathways may act simultaneously. CHEMICAL INDUCERS The use of chemicals as inducers of resistance is an area of extensive work aiming at developing new compounds for disease control meeting the requirements for safe application in greenhouse and fields conditions. etc. low loading amount. Insects that cause less than 5 % damage are not considered as pests.e. Thus. The insects which cause damage between 5 10% are called minor pests and those that cause damage above 10% are considered as major pests.  Special skills are required to carry out the work Errors in maintenance of identify. and after a time interval is subjected to a secondary (“challenge”) inoculation. Insects inflict injury to plants and stored products either directly or indirectly in their attempts to secure food. Chemically-induced SAR was found to be effective against fungi. resurgence of pests. avirulent and attenuated pathogenic strains. long lasting protection. isonicotinic acid (INA). no toxicity to plants and animals. Induced resistance exploiting natural defense machinery of plants could be proposed as an alternative. including synthetic harmless chemical products. or appearance of an unobserved mutant may be multiplied to very high levels in short time. storage structures and packages causing huge amount of loss to the stored food and also deterioration of food quality. Generation and nature of signals. provoked by a range of factors: pathogens causing hypersensitive necrotic reaction. introduction of an unknown pathogen. thus contributing to the development of sustainable agriculture. low economical cost for farmers. bins. induced resistance can be systemic (SAR) or local (LAR). the application of chemical inducers of resistance is an exciting new perspective to supplement the classical chemical means of disease control by providing both effective and ecologically-friendly plant protection A large array of chemical products are shown to induce SAR in tobacco: salicylic acid. is not underlied by genome alterations (mutations. Distribution. inorganic salts. forest trees. no negative effects on plant growth. were found to be effective at inducing. _-aminobutyric acid (BABA) NaClO3. bacteria and viruses. _-aminobutyric acid (BABA). chemical products. Introduction of high yielding varieties. The term “SAR-genes” is used to collectively designate this family of nine genes whose expression is correlated . polyacrylic acid. are noxious to the environment. benzothiadiazole (BTH). Many of the sucking insects serve as vectors of plant diseases and also inject their salivary secretions containing toxins that cause severe damage to the crop. proteins. Depending on the mode of its expression. nature of damage. Mechanisms of SAR A cascade of molecular and biochemical events underlies the expression of SAR. jasmonic acid and ethylene are involved in signalling upon expression of resistance induced by rhizobacteria and enter signal-transducing cascades involving MAPkinases Then interaction with gene promoters or other regulatory factors triggers the expression of the so-called SAR-genes. salicylic acid. bacteria. What is induced resistance? When a plant is inoculated with a pathogen (“primary inoculation”). i. The former group chews off plant parts and swallow them thereby causing damage to the crops. etc. The term “induced resistance” (IR) is used synonymously to ”acquired resistance” (AR). abiotic elicitors. The latter products have direct toxic effect on pathogens. Insects affect human beings in a number of ways. etc. such as some nontoxic chemicals. SiO2. introgression of foreign genetic material). lipids. resistance. i.6. Sucking insects pierce through the epidermis and suck the sap. 2. elicitors of biotic origin. expansion in irrigation facilities and indiscriminate use of increased rates of agrochemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides in recent years with a view to increase productivity has resulted in heavy crop losses due to insect pests in certain crops. chemicals) resulting in generation of signal molecules translocated at long distance. non-induced plant. Induced resistance. medicinal plants and weeds. thus providing an additive effect interactions are a matter of intensive research. etc. namely: no direct toxicity to pathogens. Thus. and switching on of diverse processes contributing to the development of the defense potential of plants realized upon secondary inoculation. reduced disease symptoms develop. HgCl2. non-conventional and ecologically-friendly approach for plant protection. Salicylic acid is commonly recognized as a signal molecule or a prerequisite for signal production in SAR. are economically costly. Insects that cause injury to plants and stored products are grouped into two major groups namely chewing insects and sucking insects. Many of them fed on all kinds of plants including crop plants. have narrow spectrum of defense. Later. elicitors of pathogenic origin (glucans. They also infest the food and other stored products in godowns. paraquat. being based on the expression of latent genetic information present in plants. viruses) causing hypersensitive necrotic reaction (HR). b-aminobutyric acid (BABA). good profit for producers Chemical inducers of plant resistance possess quite different mode of action as compared to fungicides and pesticides. broad spectrum of defense. Perception of inducers is effectuated through binding of pathogen-derived molecules (elicitors) or chemical products with receptor sites on plant membranes or cell walls. This situation has risen mainly due to elimination of natural enemies. nematodes). Its introduction into agricultural practice could minimize the scope of chemical control. Inducers of resistance Amultitude of factors are reported to induce resistance in plants: pathogens (fungi. ensure shortly lasting protection. It is initiated by perception of inducers (pathogens. stimuli other than pathogens. INSECT AND PEST RESISTANT CROPS INTRODUCTION Insects are found in all types of environment and they occupy little more than two thirds of the known species of animals in the world. development of insecticide resistance and out-break of secondary pests. development an yield. avirulent or attenuated pathogenic strains. benzothiadiazole (BTH).6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA). such as benzothiadiazole (BTH).e.

In a recent study it was shown that high level expression of soybean trypsin inhibitor gene in transgenic tobacco plants failed to confer resistance against H. Six different a-amylase inhibitor classes. This leads to the deficiency of essential amino acid and exerts physiological stress on the insect leading to growth retardation. Kunitz-like. moulting and enzyme regulation of insects. glycolipids. These classes of inhibitors show remarkable structural variety leading to different modes of inhibition and different specificity profiles against diverse a-amylases. garlic. soil-dwelling bacterium. Diptera and Coleoptera use serine and cysteine proteinases in their digestive system to degrade proteins in the ingested food. glycogen and other carbohydrates. will ensure exposure of the insect to different PIs in succession. mustard TI. AI forms a complex with certain insect amylases and is supposed to play a role in plant defense against insects.4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolases. tobacco PI and bean a-amylase inhibitors. chickpea and groundnut have been isolated and characterised. a targeted statement of such a combination.1. B. an appropriate combination of PIs targeted to inhibit the complete spectrum of insect gut proteinases improves the stability of each and thus efficiently impairs digestion of dietary proteins in the insect gut. Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive. To overcome this problem. arcelin and α-amylase inhibitor (AI). which interfere with the digestive process of insects. PLANT LECTINS Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that bind glycans of glycoproteins. Lectins can be used to control sap-sucking insects belonging to the order Homoptera. followed by rice.1) constitute a family of endo-amylases that catalyse the hydrolysis of a-D-(1 4)glucan linkages in starch components. It remains a challenge for both fundamental and applied research. This may be contributing for the decreased effectiveness of the PIs expressed in transgenic plants. PIs have been used because of their small size. especially those similar to the seed weevils that feed on starchy seeds during larval and/or adult stages. lectin-like. the Cry toxin may be extracted and used as a pesticide. tobacco. commonly used as a biological pesticide. Transgenic plants expressing foreign insecticidal proteins have been produced for enhanced levels of insect resistance. alternatively. and possibly other toxic metabolites present in the midgut. This mechanism of action reduces the possibility of developing resistance in insects and reduces crop damage. they can also affect the water balance. wheat. PIs inhibit the gut proteases of the insect which adversely affects the protein digestion in the gut and forces the insect to synthesize alternative protease to compensate for the inhibited activity. Tobacco has been used as model plant in many studies to evaluate the efficacy of PIs as an insecticidal protein. oilseed rape. PROTEINASE INHIBITOR Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are anti-metabolic proteins. Additionally. corn cystatins. meaning that they enter the secretory system and subsequently accumulate either in vacuoles or in the cell wall and intercellular spaces. specifically the differential temporal statement. The enzyme plays a key role in carbohydrate metabolism of microorganisms. Plant lectins are classified mainly on the basis of their sugar binding properties. Several insects. Transgenic Azuki bean carrying a-AI gene was resistant to three species of bruchids. In some cases. The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contains a family of related seed proteins called phytohemagglutinin. forcing the insect to alter its mid-gut composition more than once leading to an additional physiological stress. Lepidoptera and Diptera. wheat. Most of the plant lectins are secretory proteins. being a promising tool for ecologically-friendly disease control and sustainable agriculture. depend on their a-amylases for survival. The introduction and expression of the bean α-AI gene in pea confers resistance to the bruchid beetles. rice. Some insects have shown enough flexibility to switch proteinases composition in their guts to overcome the particular proteinase inhibitor expressed in the transgenic plants. Higgins and his group at CSIRO. tomato. The first PI gene to be successfully transferred to tobacco. It is therefore difficult to evaluate the long-term benefits of the expression of these genes in plants. Amylase inhibitors from wheat (WAAI) and common bean (BAAI) have been characterised. There are cowpea serine PIs (CpTI). thuringiensis also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and . The bound lectins may inhibit nutrient absorption or disrupt midgut cells by stimulating endocytosis of the lectins. soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitors. which includes some of the most devastating pests. castor. transgenically expresses PIs have not demonstrated any resistance against insects. EC 3. potato serine PIs (PI-I and PI-II). poplar pea and azuki bean. petunia. cauliflower. plants and animals.2. They are usually highly specific for a particular class of digestive enzymes of insects. Although not fully understood. rice cysteine PIs. potato. bruchids such as Zabrotes can feed on plants producing a-AI because they possess a serine proteinase able to cleave some kinds of a-AI. induced resistance in plants opens new horizons in plant protection. Insects belonging to both Lepidoptera and Coleoptera can overexpress existing gut proteinases or induce the production of new types that are insensitive to the introduced PIs to overcome the deleterious effect of PI ingestion. α. or polysaccharides with high affinity. Various lectins have been proved toxic towards members of the Coleoptera. mungbean. Evidences have been presented to show that insects can adapt to the ingestion of PIs. Lectins from snowdrop. sweet potato. sweet potato inhibitors. lettuce. resulting in enhanced resistance against Manduca sexta was CpTI gene isolated from cowpea. However. Since the economically important classes of pests like Lepidoptera. armigera.with the onset of SAR.AMYLASE INHIBITORS α-Amylases (a-1. Australia introduced α-AI gene in an Indian genotype of chickpea (C-235) and derived significant protection against bruchids. It is known that gut digestive enzymes are not the only targets affected by PIs. sunflower. abundance and stability. It is one of the important defence strategies existing in plants against predators. c-purothionin-like and thaumatin-like could be used in pest control. birch. cereal-type. toxic effects appear to be mediated through binding of the lectins to the midgut epithelial cells with consequent disruption of the cell function. pea. soybean. sweet potato. knottin-like.

insect rich environments. In 1911. genes that have been identified in multiple parents. The nptII gene is derived from the prokaryotic transposon Tn5. and B. Bt cotton contains the following three genes inserted via genetic engineering techniques:    The Cry1Ac gene. and more recently to genetically modified crops using Bt genes. The second part is called the fixation step which aims at fixing the target genes into a homozygous state i. widely used as a biological control agent against various insect pests. The toxin expression is contained within the plant system and hence only those insects that feed on the crop perish.anthracis. This has led to their use as insecticides. Many crystal-producing Bt strains. has been added which gives the plant a tolerance to phosphinothricine. kurstaki (B. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. . Gene pyramiding entails the simultaneous expression of more than one toxin in a transgenic plant. which aims at cumulating of all target genes in a single genotype called the root genotype. and replaces the use of synthetic pesticides in the environment. The first part is called a pedigree. derived from the common soil microbe Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (B. Gene pyramiding has been hailed as a lasting Bt resistance management strategy. The nptII gene. The gene pyramiding scheme can be distinguished into two parts. Generation of a population of doubled haploids from the root genotype is a possible procedure for the fixation steps. Upon sporulation. This gene was derived from the common soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. pyramiding can also improve becomes a parent in the next cross. Moreover. thuringiensis is closely related to B. do not have insecticidal properties. This gene is derived from the soil bacterium Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Cry1Ac. which encodes the selectable marker enzyme neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII). thuringiensis was first discovered in 1901 by Japanese biologist Shigetane Ishiwatari.t. commonly called the stacking of genes through which the protective efficacy. In general. thuringiensis. thuringiensis forms crystals of proteinaceous insecticidal δ-endotoxins (called crystal proteins or Cry proteins). B. many Bt strains produce crystal proteins (proteinaceous inclusions). Additionally.t. the cause of anthrax: the three organisms differ mainly in their plasmids. called δ -endotoxins. silks. However. thuringiensis and suggested the plasmid's involvement in endospore and crystal formation.Bt cotton. a marker gene (pat).e. as well on leaf surfaces. The latter observation has been well documented world-wide. the cry genes are located on a plasmid. The intermediate genotypes are not just an arbitrary offspring of a given cross but it is a particular genotype selected from among the offspring in which all parental target genes are present. achieved through modern biotechnology. In most strains of B. aquatic environments. strategy is to cumulate into a single genotype. Types of Bt crops:Bt cotton:. a soil bacterium. thuringiensis was rediscovered in Germany by Ernst Berliner. flour mills and grain storage facilities. The cotton hybrids containing Bt gene produces its own toxin for bollworm attack thus significantly reducing chemical insecticide use and providing a major benefit to cotton growers and the environment. a transgenic plant. Robert A. In 1976.cereus. produces an insect controlling protein Cry1A(c). The aad gene was isolated from transposon Tn7. Each node of the tree is called an intermediate genotype and has two parents. Like other members of the genus. which are encoded by cry genes. the gene pyramiding aims at the derivation of an ideal genotype that is homozygous for the favorable alleles at all n loci. all three are aerobes capable of producing endospores. The Cry1Ab gene produces a Bt protein (Cry1Ab) which protects the plant from insect damage. to derive the ideal genotype from the one single genotype. the gene for which has been derived from the naturally occurring bacterium. Bt corn:Bt maize has built-in protection against corn borers. who isolated it as the cause of a disease called Schlaffsucht in flour moth caterpillars. animal feces. The toxin expression can be modulated by using tissue-specific promoters. B. the active ingredient of glufosinate ammonium herbicides. which encodes for an insecticidal protein. though. Disadvantage:     Allergy Contamination of gene pool Antibiotics resistance gene Pest develop resistance against Bt crop Evolution of new pest GENE PYRAMIDING Gene pyramiding. stalks and ears throughout its life.aminoglycoside adenyltransferase (AAD) allowed for the selection of bacteria containing the PV-GHBK04 plasmid on media containing spectinomycin or streptomycin. was used to identify transformed cells that contained the Cry1Ac protein. The herbicide tolerance gene allowed selection of transformed plants in the development stage. Each of this intermediate genotype variety can resist. a closer look at the strategy reveals that pyramiding was developed as a practical strategy to broaden the range of insect species that were not being adequately controlled by a single toxin as in the case of the single gene Bollgard® Bt cotton variety.k.B. Bt-11 insect-protected maize produces the Bt protein in its leaves. Advantage:There are several advantages in expressing Bt toxins in transgenic Bt crops:    The level of toxin expression can be very high thus delivering sufficient dosage to the pest. The aad gene which encodes the bacterial selectable marker enzyme 3”(9) -O. In a gene pyramiding scheme.). where the Cry1Ab gene has been added.). Zakharyan reported the presence of a plasmid in a strain of B. several different procedures can be used to undergo fixation in gene pyramiding. spectrum of activity and the durability of resistance offered by the introduced genes can be greatly enhanced through careful design of packages of different genes that contain components which would act on quite different target insects. that have insecticidal action. Here.k. Although the pedigree step may be common.butterflies. It served no other purpose and has no pesticide properties. enabling it to provide season-long protection against these devastating insect pests. B. During sporulation.

Cry1Ac resistant H. Genomes of small viruses can be introduced into crop plants.  The third assumption is that a single gene will not confer resistance to two toxins that are immunologically distinct and that have different binding targets.a population of gametes is obtained from the genotypes and their genetic material is doubled.  The Cry 1Ac and 2Ab toxins have different binding sites in the larval midgut and are considered to be a good combination to deploy in delaying resistance evolution. HaSV is harmless to beneficial insects and the environment and its deployment in transgenic plants would not pose any risks46. The strategy of Bt gene pyramiding rests on three core assumptions. Condensed tannins 4. o This creates some potential for cross resistance to pyramided genes. For instance. producing large population of doubled haploid is difficult and cumbersome in certain plant species. Gossypol. armigera Stunt Virus (HaSV) is a tetravirus specific to lepidopteran insects and is very remotely related to viruses of plants and animals. Bollgard® II  The second assumption is that strains resistant to two toxins with independent actions cannot emerge through selection pressure with one toxin alone. L. Plant secondary metabolities are of 4 categories 1.  Stack genes together – no cross resistance eg.Biologically active substances Eg. chemicals of natural origin  Alkaloids eg.  Multiplicity of binding sites: o The assumption that strains resistant to two toxins with independent modes of action cannot evolve through selection with one toxin alone fails to account for the fact that one toxin can bind to several sites. MAS based gene pyramiding could facilitate in pyramiding of genes effectively into a single genetic background. zea. whereas others are only activated upon insect or pathogen invasion. which will synthesize the viral particles and acquire entomocidal property. Using this process. independent mutations in genes encoding the receptors. H.  Continuous exposure of insects to the active toxin: o Constitutive promoter in transgenic plants will express the toxin continuously at high levels for the duration of the growing season. Behavior modifying chemicals  Repellents  Antifeedants 3.DOPA  Glucosinolates – mustard oils  Cyanogenic glycosides eg. This leads to a population of fully homozygous individuals. Limitations of the Bt gene pyramiding strategy  Diversity and plasticity of resistance genes: o The assumption that insects resistant to only one toxin can be effectively controlled by the second toxin produced by the plant fails to take full consideration of the enormous genetic plasticity in insect populations. Amygdalins  Coumarins 2. armigera will have broad spectrum cross resistance to all Cry1A toxins but lower Cross resistance to Cry2A.Bt gene cottons Bollgard II® (Cry 1Ac + Cry 2Ab) and WideStrike™ (Cry 1Ac + Cry1F) express two Bt endotoxins and were introduced in order to raise the level of control for H. Chemicals of plant defence . PLANT SECONDARY METABOLITES Plants are equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to protect themselves against attack by herbivorous insects and microbial pathogens. Gramine  Non-protein Amino Acids eg. Practical merits of gene pyramiding  Second generation dual. Some of these defense mechanisms are preexisting. which was not satisfactorily controlled by the Cry 1Ac toxin alone. as it confers intense and uninterrupted selection pressure on the insects. However. These viruses are used in insect pest management programmes. INSECTICIDAL VIRUSES There are many viruses pathogenic to insect pests. among which the ideotype can be found. A possible alternative to this method is to self the root genotype directly to obtain the ideal genotype. the ideal genotype can be obtained in just one additional generation after the root genotype is obtained. cry1Ac and cry2Ab. Post infestational defence substances  Antimicrobials  Phytoallexins . Eg. A bio-prospecting approach is needed in India to identify such entomopathogenic viruses whose genomes can be manipulated in plants. This is due to the fact that a species cannot easily evolve resistance to both toxins because that would require two simultaneous.  The first assumption is that insects resistant to only one toxin can be effectively controlled by a second toxin produced in the same plant.  Rotation of two or three transgenic alternatively.

MPK 4 (Map kinase 4) were found to function as an important signaling nodes that integrate signals from jasmonic acid. .Post infestation Process. Effective manipulation of metabolic pathways involved in the production of plant secondary metabolite by introduction/elimination by antisense RNA technology of Enzyme encoding sequence and inhibiting competitive metabolic pathway to achieve metabolic flux towards higher production of particular molecule through antisense RNA and RNA interference technology. NPR 1 (nonexpressor of PR1 gene). GRX 480 (Glutaredoxin).signaling pathway: Transcription factors such as. Effective manipulation of these transcription factors responsible for the metabolic regulation at multiple steps in a pathway lead to more synthesis of target biochemicals. increase production of these compounds. ERF 1 (Ethylene Response Factor 1). ABA and Ethylene in signaling pathways.