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Postcolonialism

"The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire"

Vasco da Gama is the first European to visit India since Rome in 1898

1799- British East India Company becomes the dominant European power in India

The British East India Company is a business that will compete with others in India

Grows to be HUGE- like its own country

Grease on paper cartridges of rifles in BEIC's army

India's First War of Independence

"Sepoy Rebellion"

British East India company is taken over by the British government in 1858

British Raj

What is a colony? What is its purpose for the colonizing nation?

Spices were a very expensive item in Europe

-Spices -Indigo (dye) -Silk -Cotton -Saltpetre -Tea -Opium
Potassium Nitrate/ Gunpowder

White Man's Burden

Take up the White Man's burden-Send forth the best ye breed-Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child.

Take up the White Man's burden-In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain To seek another's profit, And work another's gain -Rudyard Kipling (1899)

"Crown Jewel" of the British Empire

Colonies, especially India, were hugely profitable for the British

But...
Two World Wars crumble the British economically

WWI
India has over 1 million troops in Middle East and elsewhere Hope for more independence

Mohandas Gandhi
Young lawyer in South Africa, working with Indian community there Returns to India in 1915 to join political struggle

Satyagraha
"Insistence on truth"

सत्याग्रह

A philosophy of strength through passive resistance created by Gandhi

Swaraj
"Self- governance" Gandhi and other Indian nationalists strive to determine their own future

Goals:

Swaraj
Peace between religions Women's Rights

Ending Poverty
Ending Dalit (or "untouchability")

Caste System
Hindu social organization

Indian National Congress
Political party pushing for self- governance

Non- Cooperation

Gandhi leads a boycott of Britishmade goods

Salt March
British taxed the sale of salt in India

Gandhi plans 240 mile march to the sea to collect free salt and avoid taxes

Hunger Strikes

Gandhi famous for protesting by not eating

Fasting and meeting Indira Gandhi

WWII
Tough decision for Nationalistssupport British or not?

"Quit India" was Gandhi's appeal

Indians fought in North Africa, but also in the Burma campaign vs. the Japanese

Jawaharlal Nehru
Leader of Indian National Congress, friend of Gandhi
Wanted an independent, secular, socialist state

Muslim League
Lahore Resolution 1940After independence India must be split between Muslim and Hindu nations

Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Led the Muslim League Did not support Gandhis' Satyagrahas- wanted political pressure only

Independence
Britain decided to give up India in 1947 - No money - No support at home - International pressure

Sources on Independence

Partition

The British gave India independence only after the idea of dividing India was agreed upon

Migration
Muslims move to Pakistan Sikhs and Hindus move to India
12 million total people displaced

East Pakistan
From 1947- 54 was run out of Islamabad

1971- Awami League starts rebellion vs Pakistan for independence

India supports the Awami League in the conflict, trying to weaken Pakistan

Bangladesh
1971- Bangladesh independent country
Dhaka today is a massive, global city

India- Pakistan Wars:
1947- Over Kashmir/ Religion

1965- Over Kashmir

1971- Over Bangladesh

1999- Over Kashmir

Kashmir
Disputed region Pakistan, India and China have all claimed all or parts

Siachen Glacier

Siachen Glacier

India first nuclear test1974

Pakistan first test1998

Abdul Qadeer Khan has bought and sold nuclear secrets and tech all over the world

South Asia Today

Varanasi

Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma

How did the British gain control of India? What were the advantages to Britain of having a colony in India?
What was the White man's burden, who had this idea?

Who is Mohandas Gandhi? What were his goals? What was Satyagraha? How did this idea influence other leaders?
How did Indians protest British rule?

Why did Britain eventually grant independence to India? What issues did India have to address after 1947? How were people in India and Pakistan affected by partition?

How did Bangladesh become its own nation? Why is there a conflict in Kashmir? What are the current issues facing South Asia?