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Chapter 4: Results and Analysis Chapter This chapter is providing information related to analysis of two scenarios designed in OMNeT

for analysing quality of service of video conferencing networks over LTE networks. These two scenarios are differentiated with each other on the basis of network load, whereas the low load scenario is designed with network load of only 32 percent and video traffic, whereas the high load scenario is designed with network load of 144 percent with both video and FTP traffic. The analysis is conducted on the basis of results obtained for the values of End to End Delay, Packet loss and Packet Delay Variation. 4.1 Results obtained from Low Load Simulation Scenario: After successfully designing the low load simulation scenario with only video traffic then analysis of different performance factors can be made from the built-in option to analyse different parameters such as End to End Delay, Packet loss and Packet Delay Variation. The given below is the summary of results obtained from OMNeT++ graphical output for End to End Delay, Packet loss and Packet Delay Variation. 4.1.1 E2E delay Analysis: There were four major channel bearers defined with low load scenario such as Platinum, Gold, Silver and Bronze. The frame size was set as 9000 Bytes per second with inter arrival time of 10 Frames per Second. The results obtained can be presented in tabular form, whereas the graphical result obtained from OMNeT 4.3.1 simulation software can be used. The four bearer channels were providing different values of delay such as Platinum Bearer channel was providing average delay of 0.0210 seconds, Gold Bearer Channel was providing average delay of 0.0261 seconds, Silver Bearer Channel was providing average delay of 0.0329 seconds, and Bronze Bearer Channel was providing average delay of 0.03999 seconds. There were two Guaranteed Bit Rate Bearer channels such as Platinum and Gold, whereas there were two Non Guaranteed Bit Rate Bearer Channels such as Silver and Bronze. When comparing the results it shows that Bronze Bearer Channel has more delay as compare to other bearer channels, whereas calculations shows that it is almost 85% higher as compare to Platinum Bearer Channel and 75 % higher than Gold Bearer Channel.

the graphical output was also obtained from OMNeT 4.Table 4. Figure 4.1: Graphical output for End to End Delay in Low Load Scenario 4. whereas . This is the reason that there were no packet losses during the simulation of Low Load scenario.1.1 simulation software that is given below in figure 4.3.1.2 Packet Loss Analysis: The Low Load Simulation scenario was designed with very low load and there was not much congestion of traffic. There were total 60674 Bytes sent from eNodeBs.1: Results obtained from Low Load Scenario for Different values of End to End Delay in four Bearer Channels Besides comparing the results of four bearer channels in Low Load Scenario for the values of End to End Delay.

These results are compiled in a tabular form with other values obtained for each bearer channel such as minimum PDV and Maximum PDV as shown in table 4. The graphical output from OMNeT was also captured as shown in the figure 4.2: Graphical Output for Packet loss in Low Load Simulation Scenario 4. The major reason for not getting any packet losses was due to lower load and enough resources for transmission of packets from transmitter to receiver.000219 ms.the total packets received by workstations were the same amount as 60674 Bytes. and average packet delay variation for Bronze Bearer channel was 0. average packet delay variation for Gold Bearer channel was 0.1.2. Therefore. The average packet delay variation for Platinum Bearer channel was 0. This figure is divided into two portions providing information related to transmitted bytes and received bytes respectively.0002535 ms. Figure 4.0002481 ms.00032 ms. . average packet delay variation for Silver Bearer channel was 0.2.3 Packet Delay Variation (PDV) Analysis: The Low Load simulation scenario for analysing video conferencing traffic in LTE network provided different values of Packet Delay Variation for different traffic bearer channels defined. there were no packet losses during the low load simulation scenario.

There were also four bearer channel used in high load simulation scenario.3.3: Graphical Output of Packet Delay Variation in Low Load Simulation Scenario 4.2: Packet Delay Variation (PDV) results from Low Load Simulation Scenario The above table shows that Platinum Bearer Channel and Bronze Bearer Channel was providing the lowest Packet Delay variation.2 Results obtained from High Load Scenario: This scenario was designed by using two types of traffics such as Video traffic and FTP traffic.3. The graphical output from OMNeT 4. Figure 4.Table 4. whereas Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) channels were defined as Platinum Bearer channel and Gold .1 was also captured and it can be clearly seen that Gold Bearer Channel has highest Packet Delay Variations as shown in the figure 4. whereas the Gold Bearer Channel has the highest average Packet Delay Variations during the simulation of Low Load scenario.

4.490 seconds respectively.Bearer Channel.1 End to End Delay for High Load Scenario: The results obtained from High Load Simulation scenario showed that both Guaranteed Bit Rate Channels were providing lowest values of end to end delays.0371 second and 2.1 simulation software as shown in figure 4.2. Packet loss and Packet Delay Variation. The given below is the summary of results obtained from High Load Simulation Scenario in terms of End to End Delay. where as both Non Guaranteed Bit Rate Channels were providing high values of end to end delay. Similarly. the Silver and Bronze Bearer Channels were providing average end to end delay values of 2. the graphical output was captured from OMNeT 4.612 seconds respectively.3.108 and 33. The data collected from High Load Simulation Scenario can be compiled in a table with other values of delay as shown in table 4. The Platinum and Gold Bearer Channels were providing average end to end delays values of 0. 4. The values collected for Bronze Bearer Channel was very high as compare to other Bearer Channels that shows video conferencing services were severe delays during congestion of network. Table 4. .3: End to End Delay values obtained from four Bearer Channels in High Load Also. Also Non Guaranteed Bit Rate (NGBR) were defined as Silver Bearer Channel and Bronze Bearer Channel.3.

2. The given below graph is showing that only Platinum Bearer Channel was not facing any kind of packet loss due to high priority provided to Guaranteed Bit Rate Channel. Figure 4. The value of packet loss was calculated from simulation results.2 Packet Loss Analysis in High Load Scenario: The value of packet loss was analysed by comparing the difference between the packet sent and packets received in video conferencing network over LTE network. and Bronze Bearer Channel was facing 98 percent packet losses with total packets received were 10526 packets. whereas the other three Bearer Channels were facing massive packet losses. whereas the graphical output was also generated as shown in the figure 4.004 percent packet losses faced in Platinum Bearer Channel with total number of packet received were 526299. whereas only 0. Silver Bearer Channel was facing 91 percent packet losses with total packets received were 36842. This can be clearly seen from the given below graphical output that only blue coloured line is showing the same results. all three Bearer Channels were facing severe packet losses such as Gold Bearer Channel was facing 80 percent packet losses with total packets received were 105263. There were total 526315 packets sent from User Equipments for video conferencing services..4: Graphical output for End to End Delay in High Load Simulation Scenario 4.5. Beside the Platinum Bearer Channel. .

078 exponential-005.8219 and Bronze Bearer Channel was facing average PDV with value of 332. Table 4.61214.2.4.3 Packet Delay Variation Analysis in High Load Scenario: The value of Packet Delay Variation were also collected from High Load Scenario.4: Packet Delay Variation in High Load Simulation Scenario . Silver Bearer Channel was facing average PDV with value of 0.5: Packet Loss Analysis from High Load Simulation Scenario 4. The lowest average Packet Delay Variation was for Platinum Bearer Channel with value of 1.Figure 4. The Bronze Bearer Channel was getting highest Packet Delay Variations due to defined in the Non Guaranteed Bit Rate Channel as show in the given below table 4. whereas Gold Bearer Channel was facing average PDV with value of 0. whereas only Platinum Bearer Channel was providing the lowest variations otherwise the remaining Bearer channels were providing higher Packet Delay Variations.581.

3 Comparison of Scenario Results: The collected results from both low load and high load scenario can be compared with each other to analyse the performance of video conferencing systems over LTE network.6: Graphical Output of four Bearer Channels for value of PDV 4.The graphical output was also obtained from OMNeT simulation software to confirm that high priority channels defined in Guaranteed Bit Rate were getting all the bandwidth of network. Packet Loss and Packet Delay Variation for both scenarios. The given below table is showing the results obtained from both scenarios in table 4. Figure 4. . whereas other Bearer channels were facing high values of Packet Delay Variation as shown in figure 4.6. This can be done by compiling the collected data in one table to compare the values of End to End Delay.5.

The reasons were that there were enough resources available for user equipments to send video traffic to receiver. Gold.5: Comparison of results obtained from both Low and High Load Scenarios 4. The results obtained from Low Load Scenario were much better as compare to high load scenario. The Quality of service of video conferencing systems over LTE network was checked by obtaining results for the values of end to end delay.5 provided complete results obtained from both low and high load scenarios. results in terms of End to End delay for both . Silver Bearer Channel was 6 and Bronze Bearer Channel was 7. But. packet loss and packet delay variation during each scenario.Table 4. The bearer channels were provided priority based on Guaranteed Bit Rate and Non Guaranteed Bit Rate. whereas it is important to consider that there was only one type of traffic used in low load scenario. It was also noticed that End to End Delay was reduced in Low Load Scenario by applying prioritisation of bearer channels. whereas both video and FTP traffics were used in high load scenario to increase the network load. The priority values for Platinum Bearer channel was 2. There were four types of bearer channels defined in both scenarios such as Platinum. Silver and Bronze Bearer Channels. Gold Bearer Channel was 4.4 Discussion on Results: The above table 4.

Many manufacturers are considering the standard E2E Delay value of upto 150 ms for tolerable video conference services in network. the Packet Loss were also analysed from all these four bearer channels. the Packet Delay Variation was also tolerable for low load scenario and suits video traffic applications.004 percent packet losses faced in Platinum Bearer Channel with total number of packet received were 526299. Therefore. But. This mechanism works on the basis of rejections.Guaranteed Bit Rate and Non Guaranteed Bit Rate channels were tolerable as it was less than 150 ms. The End to End Delay results in High Load Scenario showed that prioritisation of Platinum Bearer Channel was helping in getting the lowest E2E delay as value of ARP was set 2 for Platinum Bearer Channel. Also. when there is no rejection then EPS provides access of complete resources to eNodeB in network. There were total 526315 packets sent from User Equipments for video conferencing services. therefore there were lower values of PDV in Platinum and Gold Bearer Channels as compare to Non Guaranteed Bit Rate of Silver and Bronze Bearer Channel. Similarly. the FTP traffic was added in the High Load Scenario network by defining it as best effort traffic. whereas only 0. all three . The Guaranteed Bit Rate Channels were provided with priority. whereas Platinum Bearer channel was only provided almost zero percent of packet loss in High Load Scenario. The major reason for not getting any packet loss was due to mechanism of MAC layer overhead. Besides the End to End Delay. Beside the Platinum Bearer Channel. the packet loss analysis was better in Low Load Scenario and there were no packet losses on any of the Bearer Channels defined in Low Load Scenario. therefore eNodeB were not facing any kind of issues that lead to smooth transmission of exact number of packets to receiver. it can be analysed that value of ARP for Bearer Channel should be lowest for real time applications as low priority with higher values of ARP provides worst result for End to End Delay. This was done to make congestion for the network and video conferencing were also delayed by 120 seconds in order to get better analysis during the High Load Scenario. The reason for getting higher packet losses in Gold. Silver and Bronze Bearer Channel is due to rejections in eNodeB and this usually caused due to lower priority traffic in network. other three Bearer Channels were not providing good results and End to End Delay was higher as compare to Platinum Bearer Channel. whereas all other three bearer channels were providing higher values of packet losses. Beside the End to End delay. After discussing the results from Low Load Scenario.

5 Summary: This chapter analysed the quality of service of video conferencing system over LTE network by varying the network load to create two types of scenarios such as low load and high load. It was clearly analysed that Low Load scenario had better results as compare to high load scenario due to availability of resources for both Guaranteed and Non Guaranteed Bit Rate channels. These scenarios were analysed on the basis of End to End Delay. the value of Packet Delay Variation was tolerable for Platinum Bearer Channel as high priority traffic was able to get access to resources of network and other bearer channels were not able to access network resources in high load scenario. . Also. This was also analysed that prioritisation of Bearer Channel is important for getting quality of service in video conferencing system over LTE network. Silver Bearer Channel was facing 91 percent packet losses with total packets received were 36842. The lowest value of ARP and higher priority of Bearer Channel is recommended for Real Time applications. and Bronze Bearer Channel was facing 98 percent packet losses with total packets received were 10526 packets. whereas there were four bearer channels defined in both these scenarios such as Platinum. Silver and Bronze Bearer channel. Gold. 4. Packet Loss and Packet Delay Variation values.Bearer Channels were facing severe packet losses such as Gold Bearer Channel was facing 80 percent packet losses with total packets received were 105263.