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Introduction to the Physics of Fluids and Solids

J. S. Trefil
D e p a r t m e n t of Physics, University of V i r g i n i a

Pergamon Press Inc.
New York • Toronto • Oxford • Sydney • Braunschweig

PERGAMON PRESS INC. Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, N.Y. 10523 PERGAMON OF CANADA LTD. 207 Queen's Quay West, Toronto 117, Ontario PERGAMON PRESS LTD. Headington Hill Hall, Oxford PERGAMON PRESS (AUST.) PTY. LTD. Rushcutters Bay, Sydney, N.S.W. PERGAMON GmbH Burgplatz 1, Braunschweig Copyright © 1975, Pergamon Press Inc. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Trefil, J S Introduction to the physics of fluids and solids. Includes bibliographies. 1. Fluids. 2. Solids. I. QC145.2.T73 1975 ISBN 0-08-018104-X

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Preface

It h a s b e c o m e increasingly clear o v e r t h e past f e w y e a r s that a sizable p e r c e n t a g e of t h e s t u d e n t s w h o l e a v e u n i v e r s i t i e s w i t h d e g r e e s in p h y s i c s will n o t e n d u p d o i n g r e s e a r c h in a r e a s n o r m a l l y identified w i t h c u r r e n t research. T h e increased concern with the environment and with applied r e s e a r c h h a s m e a n t t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s o f t e n find t h e m s e l v e s w o r k i n g in fields like o c e a n o g r a p h y or a t m o s p h e r i c p h y s i c s . In t h e long-range h i s t o r i c a l v i e w , this is n o t s t r a n g e , s i n c e t h e p h y s i c i s t h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y p l a y e d t h e r o l e of t h e g e n e r a l i s t in t h e p a s t . T h e q u e s t i o n a b o u t w h i c h I h a v e b e c o m e increasingly c o n c e r n e d is " A r e w e e q u i p p i n g o u r s t u d e n t s t o b e t h e g e n e r a l i s t s of t h e f u t u r e ? " T h e r e is a g r o w i n g b o d y of o p i n i o n in t h e p h y s i c s c o m m u n i t y t h a t is c o m i n g t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h i s q u e s t i o n m u s t b e a n s w e r e d in t h e n e g a t i v e . M y o w n t h e o r y a b o u t h o w this s t a t e of affairs c a m e a b o u t is t h a t w e h a v e , to a large extent, stopped teaching physics students about m a n y a r e a s of c l a s s i c a l p h y s i c s . T h a t t h i s s h o u l d h a v e h a p p e n e d is n o t s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e m o d e r n p h y s i c s r e s e a r c h is c o n c e r n e d a l m o s t e x c l u sively with q u a n t u m s y s t e m s , such as nuclei, e l e m e n t a r y particles, or e l e c t r o n s i n a s o l i d . T h u s , t h e r e is a c o n s i d e r a b l e a d v a n t a g e t o t h e s t u d e n t g o i n g i n t o t h e s e fields t o b e i n t r o d u c e d t o q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c s a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e in his u n d e r g r a d u a t e c a r e e r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , this a d v a n t a g e h a s b e e n g a i n e d a t t h e e x p e n s e of d r o p p i n g t h e s t u d y of m a n y a r e a s of classical physics from the curriculum. W e are n o w confronted with a s i t u a t i o n in w h i c h p h y s i c s g r a d u a t e s m a y h a v e l i t t l e o r n o a w a r e n e s s of t h e g r e a t b o d y of k n o w l e d g e o f fluid m e c h a n i c s a n d e l a s t i c i t y w h i c h w a s g a i n e d b e f o r e t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h i s c e n t u r y .
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O r d i n a r i l y , t h i s w o u l d b e u n f o r t u n a t e f r o m a c u l t u r a l p o i n t of v i e w , b u t w o u l d b e of l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . T h e e m p l o y m e n t s i t u a t i o n m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , h o w e v e r , g i v e s t h e q u e s t i o n of e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s e fields s o m e u r g e n c y , s i n c e it is p r e c i s e l y in t h e s e a r e a s t h a t m o s t of t h e a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h will b e d o n e . T h i s p o i n t w a s b r o u g h t h o m e t o m e m o s t f o r c e f u l l y w h e n I b e c a m e i n v o l v e d in s o m e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s i n medicine, and discovered to m y chagrin that I did not possess the b a c k g r o u n d n e c e s s a r y t o m a k e m e a n i n g f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n s in m a n y a r e a s of the research. After reflecting on t h e s e p r o b l e m s , I d e c i d e d t o try to p u t t o g e t h e r a c o u r s e of l e c t u r e s w h i c h w o u l d a t t e m p t , in o n e s e m e s t e r , t o allow g r a d u a t e s a n d a d v a n c e d u n d e r g r a d u a t e s in p h y s i c s t o l e a r n a b o u t t h e s e fields. T h e r e s t r i c t i o n t o a o n e s e m e s t e r c o u r s e h a s t h e a d v a n t a g e t h a t it d o e s n o t u n d u l y d i s t o r t t h e o r d i n a r y c o u r s e s c h e d u l e s w h i c h a s t u d e n t is expected to carry, and the obvious disadvantage associated with trying to c o v e r a l o t of m a t e r i a l i n a s h o r t t i m e . M y c o l l e a g u e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of V i r g i n i a r e s p o n d e d t o t h i s i d e a w i t h a g r e a t d e a l of e n t h u s i a s m a n d s u p p o r t , f o r w h i c h I a m d e e p l y in t h e i r d e b t , a n d t h e c o u r s e w a s o f f e r e d u n d e r t h e t i t l e " T o p i c s i n C l a s s i c a l P h y s i c s . " T h i s b o o k is a n o u t g r o w t h of the course, w h i c h h a s b e e n given for the past three years. T h e p u r p o s e of t h i s t e x t is t w o f o l d . F i r s t , a n a t t e m p t is m a d e t o s h o w t h e s t u d e n t t h a t t h e r e is n o e s s e n t i a l n e w k n o w l e d g e w h i c h h e m u s t master to learn about c o n t i n u u m m e c h a n i c s . In fact, the basic equations a r e s i m p l y t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s of l a w s which he already knows to new s i t u a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n is s i m p l y a d i s g u i s e d f o r m of N e w t o n ' s second law. S e c o n d , it is s h o w n t h a t o n c e t h e s e f e w b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s a r e u n d e r s t o o d , t h e y c a n b e a p p l i e d t o a n a l m o s t u n b e l i e v a b l e n u m b e r of s y s t e m s w h i c h a r e s e e n in n a t u r e . T h u s , o n c e t h e l a w s g o v e r n i n g t h e m o t i o n of n o n v i s c o u s fluids a r e u n d e r s t o o d , w e c a n e q u a l l y w e l l d i s c u s t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e g a l a x y ( a s i n C h a p t e r 2) o r n u c l e a r fission ( a s in C h a p ter 7). T o e m p h a s i z e t h e s e c o n d p o i n t , a l a r g e n u m b e r of e x a m p l e s f r o m m a n y fields o f p h y s i c s h a v e b e e n c o l l e c t e d i n t h e t e x t . P a r t l y t h i s i s i n t e n d e d t o g i v e t h e flavor of d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e s e fields, a n d p a r t l y it is i n t e n d e d t o c o l l e c t , in o n e c o n v e n i e n t l o c a t i o n a n d in o n e c o h e r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t , p r o b l e m s f r o m a s m a n y p h y s i c s - r e l a t e d fields a s p o s s i b l e . C l e a r l y , e a c h r e a d e r will h a v e h i s o w n t a s t e a s t o w h i c h e x a m p l e s s h o u l d h a v e b e e n included and which omitted. Space considerations alone would decree t h a t s o m e i m p o r t a n t a r e a s of p h y s i c s w o u l d h a v e t o b e left o u t . T h u s , t h e

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d i s c u s s i o n of s t e l l a r s t r u c t u r e i g n o r e s m a g n e t i c a n d t h e r m a l e f f e c t s , t h e d i s c u s s i o n of b l o o d flow i g n o r e s d i f f u s i o n p r o c e s s e s , e t c . A n i n s t r u c t o r u s i n g t h i s b o o k a s a t e x t c a n , of c o u r s e , s u p p l y h i s o w n e x a m p l e s if h e s o desires. T h e g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t is t o i n t r o d u c e a p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e first, w i t h a n e m p h a s i s o n t h e n a t u r e of t h e p r i n c i p l e a n d its c o n n e c t i o n t o t h i n g s a l r e a d y familiar t o t h e s t u d e n t , a n d t h e n t o a p p l y the principle to some interesting with fluids in motion, Chapters system. 5 , 6, a n d Sometimes 7 with this is d o n e in and s e p a r a t e c h a p t e r s (e.g., C h a p t e r 4 deals w i t h t h e f o r m a l i s m for dealing applications), s o m e t i m e s i n t h e s a m e c h a p t e r s ( e . g . , C h a p t e r 11 i n t r o d u c e s t h e p r i n c i p l e s of s t a t i c s i n e l a s t i c s o l i d s a n d a p p l i e s t h e m t o g e o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s ) . T h e mathematical appendices completeness. T h e c o m p l e t i o n of a b o o k l i k e t h i s is c l e a r l y n o t t h e w o r k of a s i n g l e individual. M a n y thanks are due both to m y colleagues and to the students w h o a c t e d a s s u b j e c t s for this e x p e r i m e n t in p h y s i c s t e a c h i n g . t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e subject. Norman Both groups made many valuable suggestions which I have incorporated into S p e c i a l m e n t i o n s h o u l d b e m a d e of m y c o l l e a g u e s in t h e w o r k o n t h e u r i n a r y d r o p s p e c t r o m e t e r ( s e e C h a p t e r 14), R o g e r s R i t t e r a n d Z i n n e r , M . D . , w h o first i n t r o d u c e d m e t o t h e f a s c i n a t i n g field of m e d i c a l research, and to G. Aiello and P . Lafranee, w h o h a v e b e e n working and learning with us. Finally, I w o u l d like t o t h a n k M r s . M a r y G u t s c h for her invaluable Jeanne assistance in putting t h e m a n u s c r i p t together, as well as for h e r refusal t o b e i n t i m i d a t e d b y t h e a m o u n t of w o r k i n v o l v e d , a n d m y w i f e , W a p l e s , f o r h e r h e l p i n t h e final s t a g e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Charlottesville, Virginia
J. S. TREFIL

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and Author University) in the is an for Associate Advanced extensively recently. a n d h a s h e l d visiting p o s i t i o n s at several m a j o r l a b o r a t o r i e s in t h a t field. in the applications of medicine. to Stanford Fellow Professor Physics Center Studies at t h e University of Virginia.The James S. Trefil of (Ph. M o r e he has become interested radiobiology.D. H e has p u b l i s h e d in t h e a r e a of t h e o r e t i c a l h i g h e n e r g y p h y s i c s .. . and physics t o r e s e a r c h in t h e fields of u r o l o g y . and has contributed cardiology.

1 Introduction to the Principles of Fluid Mechanics Little drops of water Little grains of sand Make the mighty ocean And the pleasant land. o r t h e m o t i o n of t i d e s o n t h e e a r t h . STEVENSON A Child's Garden of Verses F l u i d s a p p e a r e v e r y w h e r e a r o u n d u s i n n a t u r e . w h i c h t r e a t s t h e n u c l e u s a s a fluid. a n d b e c a u s e t h e m a i n u t i l i t y of fluid m e c h a n i c s is t h e a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p a f o r m a l i s m w h i c h d e a l s s o l e l y w i t h a f e w m a c r o s c o p i c q u a n t i t i e s l i k e p r e s s u r e . I n t h i s s e c t i o n of t h e b o o k . w e a r e in r e a l i t y d e a l i n g w i t h a s y s t e m w h i c h h a s m a n y p a r t i c l e s w h i c h i n t e r a c t w i t h e a c h o t h e r . a n d t h u s r e p l a c e s t h e p r o b l e m of c a l c u l a t i n g t h e 1 . t h e first s u c c e s s f u l m o d e l of t h e f i s s i o n of h e a v y e l e m e n t s w a s t h e liquid d r o p m o d e l of t h e n u c l e u s . t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f fluid m e c h a n i c s h a v e o f t e n b e e n f o u n d u s e f u l i n m a k i n g m o d e l s of s y s t e m s w i t h c o m p l i c a t e d s t r u c t u r e w h e r e i n t e r a c t i o n s ( e i t h e r n o t k n o w n o r v e r y difficult t o s t u d y ) t a k e p l a c e b e t w e e n t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s . i g n o r i n g t h e d e t a i l s of t h e p a r t i c l e i n t e r a c t i o n s . w e shall d i s c u s s s o m e of t h e b a s i c l a w s w h i c h g o v e r n t h e b e h a v i o r of f l u i d s . a n d l o o k a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s e l a w s t o v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l s y s t e m s . b u t t h a t it c a n successfully b e applied t o s y s t e m s as different as t h e a t o m i c n u c l e u s o n t h e o n e h a n d . B e c a u s e in d e a l i n g w i t h a fluid. T h u s . L. P e r h a p s t h e m o s t a m a z i n g i d e a t h a t w i l l b e d e v e l o p e d i s t h a t fluid m e c h a n i c s i s n o t l i m i t e d in i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s t o d i s c u s s i n g t h i n g s l i k e t h e f l o w o f fluids in l a b o r a t o r i e s . R. a n d t h e g a l a x y o n t h e o t h e r . W e s h a l l s e e t h a t g o o d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of t h e w o r k i n g s of m a n y d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of p h y s i c a l s y s t e m s c a n b e d e r i v e d i n t h i s w a y .

I n d e e d . t h e classical p i c t u r e will b e a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o r r e c t p r o v i d e d t h a t w e d o n o t l o o k a t t h e fluid i n t o o fine a d e t a i l . W h i l e t h i s m a y s e e m s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . T h i s l a w takes the form (l. t o c o n s i d e r t o t a l t i m e d e r i v a t i v e s o f q u a n t i t i e s w h i c h d e s c r i b e t h e fluid e l e m e n t s . t h e n . S o l o n g a s w e t a l k a b o u t c l a s s i c a l m a c r o s c o p i c fluids. t h e s t r u c t u r e of a fluid w i l l n o t b e c o n t i n u o u s . w e d o n o t m e a n t o imply that the v o l u m e really tends to zero. O f course. t h a t r e a l f l u i d s a r e m a d e u p o f a t o m s a n d m o l e c u l e s . W e a r e l e d n a t u r a l l y .) N o w t h e d e f i n i t i o n of a t i m e d e r i v a t i v e is (1. O u r m o d e r n k n o w l e d g e of a t o m i c p h y s i c s t e l l u s . A c l a s s i c a l fluid is u s u a l l y d e f i n e d a s a m e d i u m w h i c h is i n f i n i t e l y d i v i s i b l e . a t a t i m e t + A* it w i l l b e a t a n e w p o s i t i o n . 1. of c o u r s e . b u t v e r y l a r g e c o m p a r e d t o t h e d i m e n s i o n s of t h e c o n s t i t u e n t a t o m s o r m o l e c u l e s . l e t u s c o n s i d e r s o m e q u a n t i t y / a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a fluid e l e m e n t ( f o r d e f i n i t e n e s s . w h e n w e i n t r o d u c e " i n f i n i t e s i m a l " v o l u m e e l e m e n t s of t h e fluid. w e w i l l h a v e t o k n o w h o w t o w r i t e N e w t o n ' s s e c o n d l a w f o r a n e l e m e n t of t h e fluid. T h e n .l) w h e r e m i s t h e m a s s of t h e e l e m e n t .1. T h i s m e a n s . f o r e x a m p l e . THE CONVECTIVE DERIVATION If w e a r e g o i n g t o d e s c r i b e t h e m o t i o n of fluids. ( S e e F i g .2) .A. this treatment gives only a very rough approximation to reality. w e c o u l d t h i n k of p r e s s u r e o r e n t r o p y o r v e l o c i t y ) . T o s e e w h y t h i s is s o . N e v e r t h e l e s s . but merely that the v o l u m e e l e m e n t is v e r y s m a l l c o m p a r e d t o t h e o v e r a l l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e fluid. b u t it is n o n e t h e l e s s a v e r y u s e f u l w a y of a p p r o a c h i n g t h e p r o b l e m . if t h e e l e m e n t i s a t a p o s i t i o n x a t a t i m e t. I t is n o t a t all u n u s u a l f o r c o s m o l o g i s t s t o c o n s i d e r " i n f i n i t e s i m a l " v o l u m e e l e m e n t s w h o s e sides a r e m e a s u r e d in m e g a p a r s e c s ! A. w h a t i s " i n f i n i t e s i m a l " is l a r g e l y a m a t t e r of t h e k i n d o f p r o b l e m o n e i s w o r k i n g o n . a n d t h a t if w e g o t o s m a l l e n o u g h s c a l e .2 Introduction to the Principles of Fluid Mechanics i n t e r a c t i o n s of all o f t h e p r o t o n s a n d n e u t r o n s w i t h t h e m u c h s i m p l e r p r o b l e m o f c a l c u l a t i n g t h e p r e s s u r e s a n d s u r f a c e t e n s i o n s i n a fluid. t h e f a c t t h a t t h e fluid e l e m e n t is in m o t i o n m a k e s it s o m e w h a t m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d t h a n it w o u l d s e e m a t first g l a n c e .A. t h e r e s h o u l d b e n o difficulty i n m a k i n g t h i s s o r t of a p p r o x i m a t i o n .

I t is c a l l e d t h e c o n v e c t i v e d e r i v a t i v e . (This notation is a trivial e x a m p l e of t h e m e t h o d of C a r t e s i a n t e n s o r s w h i c h is d i s c u s s e d i n A p p e n d i x I.The Convective Derivation 3 Fig.5) w h e r e w e h a v e u s e d t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e g r a d i e n t o p e r a t o r i n t h e l a t t e r e q u a l i t y .4) But. 1. W e s e e t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t in g e n e r a l t h e f u n c t i o n / d e p e n d s o n x. b y definition. F o r m a l l y .A.6) . m e a n s t h a t s o m e c a r e m u s t b e e x e r c i s e d i n t a k i n g the derivative. The movement of the volume element. t h e t o t a l d e r i v a t i v e of t h e f u n c t i o n / w i t h r e s p e c t t o t i m e is j u s t t h t (1. w h e r e v is t h e i c o m p o n e n t of t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e fluid e l e m e n t . T h e r e f o r e .1.) If w e d i v i d e t h r o u g h t h e a b o v e b y dt.3) w h e r e t h e i n d e x i i n d i c a t e s w h i c h c o m p o n e n t of t h e v e c t o r x i s b e i n g differentiated. a n d i s u s u a l l y written (1. T h i s t o t a l d e r i v a t i v e o c c u r s f r e q u e n t l y i n fluid m e c h a n i c s .A. w e c a n u s e t h e c h a i n r u l e of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t o w r i t e (1.A. a n d i s g i v e n a s p e c i a l n a m e .A. w e find (1. w h i c h is i t s e l f a f u n c t i o n of t i m e .

t h e n t h e n e t f o r c e o n t h e e l e m e n t is F = _ [ ( p + A P ) A .(AP)A. (l. w h e r e o n e w a l l o f t h e c o n t a i n e r is a m o v a b l e p i s t o n . w h e r e V is t h e v o l u m e . W e k n o w a p r e s s u r e ( d e f i n e d a s a f o r c e p e r u n i t a r e a ) is e x e r t e d u n i f o r m l y e v e r y w h e r e i n s i d e a fluid.PA] = . 1. w h e r e t h e p r e s s u r e will b e less). a n d n o t e t h a t A x A = V . If w e m u l t i p l y a n d d i v i d e t h e r i g h t . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e v • V t e r m in t h e c o n v e c t i v e derivative. T h e n t h e p r e s s u r e a s s e e n b y a n o b s e r v e r r i d i n g a r o u n d o n t h e e l e m e n t w i l l v a r y a s a f u n c t i o n of t i m e f o r t w o r e a s o n s — ( i ) t h e r e will b e s o m e v a r i a t i o n in p r e s s u r e d u e t o t h e m o t i o n of t h e p i s t o n ( t h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e first t e r m i n t h e c o n v e c t i v e d e r i v a t i v e ) .2.). .4 Introduction to the Principles of Fluid Mechanics T o fix t h i s i d e a f i r m l y i n m i n d .B. a n d (ii) t h e c h a n g e s i n p r e s s u r e r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e l e m e n t m o v e s t o d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s of t h e fluid. N o w l e t t h e f u n c t i o n / b e t h e p r e s s u r e e x p e r i e n c e d b y a p a r t i c u l a r fluid e l e m e n t .l) w h e r e t h e m i n u s sign d e n o t e s t h a t t h e f o r c e a c t s in s u c h a w a y as t o c a u s e a flow f r o m r e g i o n s o f h i g h e r p r e s s u r e t o r e g i o n s of l o w e r p r e s s u r e . it m a y b e r i s i n g t o t h e t o p o f t h e fluid. ^ —*| Forces on a volume element. c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e : S u p p o s e w e h a v e a fluid m o v i n g a r o u n d i n a c o n t a i n e r . w h e r e t h e p r e s s u r e m a y b e d i f f e r e n t ( e . t h e n N e w t o n ' s l a w a p p l i e d t o t h e volume element reads 0 0 K Fig. B. g . 1.h a n d side of t h e e q u a t i o n b y Ax.2. If w e c o n s i d e r a fluid e l e m e n t of l e n g t h A x a n d a r e A ( s e e F i g . THE EULER EQUATION T h e first f u n d a m e n t a l e q u a t i o n of h y d r o d y n a m i c s c o m e s f r o m a n a p p l i c a t i o n of N e w t o n ' s s e c o n d l a w ( F = ma) t o fluid e l e m e n t s . .

B.B. a n d r e c a l l t h a t t h e c u r l of the gradient vanishes. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY O n e of t h e b a s i c p r e c e p t s of c l a s s i c a l p h y s i c s is t h a t m a t t e r c a n n e i t h e r b e c r e a t e d n o r d e s t r o y e d . or.B.3) where F first is a n y e x t e r n a l f o r c e o n t h e fluid e l e m e n t . A . A n a l t e r n a t e f o r m of t h e e q u a t i o n c a n b e d e r i v e d if w e u s e t h e r e s u l t of P r o b l e m 1.d i m e n s i o n a l form (1. T h u s . s u c h a s g r a v i t y . w h i c h . T h i s e q u a t i o n of h y d r o d y n a m i c s i s k n o w n a s t h e Euler e x t fundamental equation. t h e y w o u l d a p p e a r o n the r i g h t . g gravity) w e r e acting on the fluid e l e m e n t . w h e n s u b s t i t u t e d into E q .5) If w e t a k e t h e c u r l of b o t h s i d e s of t h i s e q u a t i o n .1 t h a t (1. C. W e s h o u l d a l s o n o t e t h a t if f o r c e s o t h e r t h a n p r e s s u r e ( e .B.4.h a n d s i d e o f t h e e q u a t i o n .6) T h e s e t w o a l t e r n a t e f o r m s of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n s w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y b e useful in dealing w i t h p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l p r o b l e m s .B.The Equation of Continuity 5 o r .2) T h e a c c e l e r a t i o n t e r m of t h e left-hand side i n v o l v e s a total d e r i v a t i v e s o it s h o u l d r e a l l y b e u n d e r s t o o d a s a c o n v e c t i v e d e r i v a t i v e i n t h e s e n s e oi S e c t i o n l . in t h r e e .3) gives (1. (1. w e get (1.B. T h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s p r i n c i p l e t o fluid s y s t e m s . t h e final f o r m of N e w t o n ' s s e c o n c l a w a p p l i e d t o a fluid e l e m e n t i s (1. i n t e r m s of t h e d e n s i t y p = m / V o .

T h e n i n a t i m e Af. z. Flow through a closed surface in a fluid. y. C o n s i d e r a l a r g e v o l u m e o f t h e fluid V ( s e e F i g . T h e m a s s of fluid i n s i d e t h e v o l u m e is j u s t 0 N o w i n g e n e r a l fluid w i l l b e flowing i n a n d o u t a c r o s s t h e s u r f a c e S w h i c h b o u n d s t h e v o l u m e V .C. T h i s i s a r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e r e b e n o s u c h t h i n g a s a s o u r c e o r 0 Fig. w h i c h is u s u a l l y c a l l e d t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y .3) m = p(v A t ) dS s o t h e t o t a l m a s s outflow p e r u n i t t i m e is j u s t 0 n n n (l. w e h a v e a d o p t e d t h e u s u a l c o n v e n t i o n of w r i t i n g t h e s u r f a c e e l e m e n t a s a v e c t o r w h o s e l e n g t h i s e q u a l t o t h e a r e a of t h e e l e m e n t . T h e c o n s e r v a t i o n of m a s s w h i c h w e d i s c u s s e d a b o v e r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e t i m e r a t e of c h a n g e of t h e m a s s in t h e v o l u m e V b e e q u a l t o t h e o u t f l o w of m a s s .l) w h e r e i n t h e s e c o n d f o r m of t h e i n t e g r a l . c o n s i d e r a n e l e m e n t of s u r f a c e dS. a n d w h o s e d i r e c t i o n is n o r m a l t o t h e surface element. T o find o u t w h a t t h i s flow i s . y. f) a n d w h e r e t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e fluid e l e m e n t s i s g i v e n b y \(x. 1. 1. z.3. S u p p o s e t h e fluid n e x t t o t h e s u r f a c e e l e m e n t h a s a v e l o c i t y v n o r m a l t o t h e s u r f a c e . S u p p o s e w e h a v e a fluid w h o s e d e n s i t y (in g e n e r a l a f u n c t i o n of t h e c o o r d i n a t e s a n d t h e t i m e ) is g i v e n b y p(x. t). .6 Introduction to the Principles of Fluid Mechanics w i l l l e a d u s t o o u r s e c o n d e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n . T h e t o t a l m a s s o f fluid i n t h e c y l i n d e r i s ( s e e F i g . all o f t h e fluid i n a c y l i n d e r of l e n g t h v A t a n d a r e a dS w i l l c r o s s t h e s u r f a c e e l e m e n t i n t i m e A t . 1.3).

i n e l e c t r o m a g n e t i s m o n e a l w a y s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t e l e c t r i c a l c h a r g e is c o n s e r v e d .C. I n t h i s c a s e . so t h a t w e h a v e | £ + V . it f o l l o w s t h a t t h e (1.C.7) T h i s is p r e c i s e l y t h e s a m e e q u a t i o n t h a t o n e e n c o u n t e r s in e l e c t r o m a g n e t i s m .6) (1.The Equation of Continuity 7 s i n k of a c l a s s i c a l fluid. (1.C. t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y t a k e s a particularly simple form V-v = 0 S u p p o s e w e d e f i n e a fluid c u r r e n t d e n s i t y b y i = pv. w e s h a l l o f t e n d e a l w i t h incompressible fluids. I n o u r a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s e q u a t i o n . t h e r e q u i r e m e n t of t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n of m a s s i s c a l l e d t h e equation of continuity. i s t h a t j u s t a s w e p o s t u l a t e d t h a t fluid m a s s c a n n e i t h e r b e c r e a t e d n o r d e s t r o y e d . (l C3) - S i n c e t h i s m u s t b e t r u e f o r a n y v o l u m e i n s i d e a fluid. t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n w h i c h w e d i s c u s s e d i n a p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . p l a y s t h e r o l e o f o n e of t h e b a s i c e q u a t i o n s of h y d r o d y n a m i c s . w h e r e p is t h e c h a r g e d e n s i t y a n d j is e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t .C. T h e r e a s o n f o r t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e e q u a t i o n s .5) ff+V-j = 0. M a t h e m a t i c a l l y .4) I n t h i s f o r m . of c o u r s e . It will p l a y a n e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e in o u r d e v e l o p m e n t of fluid m e c h a n i c s a n d . (1. s o t h a t t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n of m a s s c a n b e w r i t t e n Jv [f -H +v dy=o 0 i n t e g r a n d itself m u s t v a n i s h .C. w e w r i t e ^ Ol f Jv 0 P dV= \ JS pvdS.( p v ) = 0. O u r s e c o n d . T h e s e a r e fluids f o r w h i c h t h e d e n s i t y c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d a c o n s t a n t .2) but Gauss' law says that f pvdS = I IV 0 V(pv)dV. T h e n t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y t a k e s t h e f o r m (1.

ik i k ik by (l. i n a n a l o g y t o o u r d e r i v a t i o n of t h e c o n t i n u i t y e q u a t i o n . 0 ik k t h th I k .C. T h e r e f o r e .C. a n d h e n c e r e p r e s e n t s a n e t o u t f l o w of m o m e n t u m . If w e a d d t h i s u p o v e r all o f t h e e l e m e n t s i n a v o l u m e V .C.11) T h i s t e n s o r i s c a l l e d t h e momentum flux tensor.8 Introduction to the Principles of Fluid Mechanics e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n .h a n d s i d e of t h e a b o v e e q u a t i o n is j u s t t h e t i m e r a t e o f c h a n g e o f t h e I c o m p o n e n t o f t h e m o m e n t u m o f t h e fluid p e r u n i t v o l u m e . T h u s . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s n a m e is q u i t e s i m p l e . W e shall u s e this m o m e n t u m t e n s o r f o r m of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n w h e n w e i n t r o d u c e t h e i d e a of v i s c o s i t y l a t e r .10) w h e r e w e h a v e d e f i n e d t h e t w o i n d e x t e n s o r 7r I I * =P8 +pv v . t h e n . I n t h e C a r t e s i a n t e n s o r n o t a t i o n of A p p e n d i x A . t h e t i m e r a t e of c h a n g e o f t h e m o m e n t u m i n t h e v o l u m e V is t h e i n t e g r a l o f n dS o v e r t h e s u r f a c e . I I m u s t b e t h e m o m e n t u m flux in t h e I d i r e c t i o n o v e r t h e k s u r f a c e e l e m e n t .12) Tli dS . k k w h e r e t h e s e c o n d e q u a l i t y f o l l o w s f r o m G a u s s ' l a w .8) S i n c e t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y g i v e s and (1. W e k n o w t h a t t h e m o m e n t u m o f a v o l u m e e l e m e n t i s j u s t ( p V ) v s o t h a t t h e l e f t .C.C.9) this c a n b e r e w r i t t e n in t h e f o r m (1. w e g e t 0 t h 0 (1. t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n c a n be written (1. c a n b e t h o u g h t of a s a s p e c i a l c a s e of a m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e of p h y s i c s w h i c h a r i s e s w h e n e v e r c o n s e r v e d q u a n t i t i e s o c c u r in n a t u r e .

P (1.l) w h e r e ft i s t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l . it c a n n o t b e s o l v e d . t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g o n a fluid e l e m e n t w i l l b e (i) t h e p r e s s u r e a n d (ii) t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e r e s t of t h e s t a r . T h e r e a d e r is p r o b a b l y f a m i l i a r w i t h o n e s u c h e q u a t i o n a l r e a d y . w e find V " (p V P ) = " = " 47rGp * ( L D * 4 ) T h i s is t h e e q u a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d h a v e t o b e s a t i s f i e d if t h e s t a r w e r e t o b e i n a s t a t e o f e q u i l i b r i u m . w e k n o w that for a gravitational force. W e k n o w t h a t H is r e l a t e d t o t h e d e n s i t y of m a t t e r b y Poisson's equation Vn 2 = 4iTGp. If w e t a k e t h e d i v e r g e n c e of b o t h s i d e s of t h i s e q u a t i o n .D.A Simple Example: The Static Star 9 D. T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e k i n d o f fluid i n t h e s t a r .B. of c o u r s e . T h e e x t r a i n f o r m a t i o n is essentially a s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t h e k i n d o f fluid o f w h i c h t h e s y s t e m is m a d e . A SIMPLE EXAMPLE: THE STATIC STAR T h e s i m p l e s t a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n . I n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . (1. t h e i d e a l gas law. s i n c e it r e l a t e s t w o s e p a r a t e q u a n t i t i e s — t h e p r e s s u r e a n d t h e d e n s i t y . (1.Vft. where R is a c o n s t a n t a n d T is t h e t e m p e r a t u r e .D. s i n c e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of fluids w i l l e x e r t d i f f e r e n t p r e s s u r e w h e n k e p t a t t h e s a m e d e n s i t y . (1. W e shall s e e t h a t t h e t w o equations w h i c h w e h a v e derived d o not themselves completely specify t h e s y s t e m w i t h w h i c h w e a r e d e a l i n g . If w e t h i n k o f a s t a t i c s t a r .D.2) N o w t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n in t h e s t a t i c c a s e r e d u c e s t o —VP = .5) . w i l l b e f o r t h e c a s e w h e r e v = 0. t h e s t a t i c c a s e . b u t a n o t h e r p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n will b e n e e d e d .3). b u t f o r t h e m o m e n t . w e w i l l l o o k a t m a n y e x a m p l e s of s t a t i c s y s t e m s . T h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n p r e s s u r e a n d d e n s i t y i s c a l l e d a n equation of state. w e c a n write e x t F e x t = -pVa (l. h o w e v e r . In general. l e t u s b e g i n b y c o n s i d e r i n g a simplified m o d e l for a star. which says P=RpT. A s it s t a n d s .D.3) w h i c h i s j u s t t h e o r d i n a r y b a l a n c e of f o r c e s e q u a t i o n f r o m N e w t o n i a n m e c h a n i c s . T h i s s e c o n d f o r c e is a n e x a m p l e of w h a t w a s c a l l e d F in E q . W h a t is n e e d e d is a r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o .

t h e e q u a t i o n of e q u i l i b r i u m r e d u c e s t o (1. that (1.D.E. w e after s o m e manipulation. s o t h a t find.l) If w e t a k e t h e i n n e r p r o d u c t of t h e v e c t o r v w i t h t h i s e q u a t i o n .vn P t h e n t h e c o n v e c t i v e d e r i v a t i v e of H w i l l b e (1. .6) S p e c i f i c s o l u t i o n s o f t h i s e q u a t i o n a r e left t o t h e p r o b l e m s . w e will d i s c u s s t h e e n e r g y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f l u i d s . L e t u s c o n s i d e r a fluid i n a n e x t e r n a l field.E. E. ENERGY BALANCE IN A FLUID F o r t h e s a k e of c o m p l e t e n e s s .E. a l t h o u g h w e s h a l l h a v e f e w o c c a s i o n s t o u s e t h i s c o n c e p t in s u b s e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n s .E.10 Introduction to the Principles of Fluid Mechanics F o r a s t a r c o m p o s e d of a n i d e a l g a s a t c o n s t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e .4) If w e n o t e t h a t t h e t o t a l k i n e t i c e n e r g y of all o f t h e fluid e l e m e n t s i s j u s t . s u c h a s g r a v i t y .3) so that (1. s o t h a t t h e f o r c e is j u s t F = a n d t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n is (l.2) If w e a s s u m e t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l ft i s i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e t i m e .

4) o v e r t h e v o l u m e V gives (1. t h e n . T h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a r e (i) m a t t e r c a n n e i t h e r b e c r e a t e d n o r d e s t r o y e d a n d (ii) N e w t o n ' s s e c o n d l a w o f m o t i o n . T h i s f o r c e t i m e s t h e v e l o c i t y is s i m p l y t h e r a t e a t w h i c h t h e p r e s s u r e i s d o i n g w o r k o n t h e fluid w h i c h is c r o s s i n g t h e s u r f a c e e l e m e n t . w e a r e left w i t h t h e e q u a t i o n (1. . r e s p e c t i v e l y . SUMMARY I n t h i s c h a p t e r . (1. t h a t t h e a b o v e e q u a t i o n is s i m p l y t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t e n e r g y b e c o n s e r v e d — t h a t t h e r a t e o f c h a n g e o f t h e e n e r g y of a fluid s y s t e m m u s t e q u a l t h e r a t e a t w h i c h w o r k is d o n e a c r o s s t h e b o u n d a r i e s . T h u s . (1.7) T h e q u a n t i t y in t h e i n t e g r a n d h a s a s i m p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . W e s e e . T h e r i g h t . h o w e v e r .E.E.Summary 11 a n d t h e t o t a l p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y is pttdV.5) w h e r e t h e l e f t . P dS is j u s t t h e f o r c e a c t i n g a c r o s s t h e s u r f a c e e l e m e n t dS ( t h i s f o l l o w s f r o m t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e p r e s s u r e a s a f o r c e p e r u n i t a r e a ) . T e r m s s u c h a s t h i s a r e f a m i l i a r f r o m o t h e r b r a n c h e s of p h y s i c s .6) T h e s e c o n d (volume) integral on the right vanishes for an incompressible fluid. T h e p r i n c i p l e s g i v e r i s e t o t h e e q u a t i o n s of c o n t i n u i t y a n d t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n s . T h e s e laws are seen to follow from s o m e very simple physical principles. w e h a v e i n t r o d u c e d t h e b a s i c l a w s of fluid m o t i o n . we have 0 f PvdS+f P(V-v)dV. If w e i n t e g r a t e b y parts. Of c o u r s e . t h e n integrating E q . r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . this is n o t a n e w r e s u l t in t h e s e n s e t h a t w e k n o w t h a t e n e r g y m u s t b e c o n s e r v e d .E.h a n d s i d e of t h e e q u a t i o n .h a n d s i d e r e p r e s e n t s t h e t o t a l t i m e r a t e of c h a n g e of t h e k i n e t i c p l u s p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y of t h e fluid s y s t e m .E. it is c o m f o r t i n g t o s e e a f a m i l i a r l a w emerge from our formalism. N e v e r t h e l e s s .

S h o w that for an ideal gas at c o n s t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e .12 Introduction to the Principles of Fluid Mechanics W e saw that these t w o equations b y themselves did not completely define t h e p h y s i c s of t h e s i m p l e s t a t i c star. i s a n e q u a t i o n of s t a t e . T h i s p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n . that P =gp(h-z) 0 + Po. T h i s . w h e r e z is t h e vertical c o o r d i n a t e a n d P is t h e p r e s s u r e at a height h. w e w i l l s p e a k o f a n i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid—a fluid f o r w h i c h p = c o n s t . s h o w that GijlGlmn 5j m 8j n &i 8j . b u t t h a t o n e m o r e p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n w a s n e c e s s a r y . U s i n g t h e m e t h o d of C a r t e s i a n t e n s o r notation. a l a r g e n u m b e r o f p h y s i c a l p r o b l e m s c a n b e t r e a t e d . t o o .4). . in t h e f o r m of t h e e q u a t i o n of s t a t e . O n t h e b a s i s of t h e s e v e r y s i m p l e p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . a n d it is t o s o m e o f t h e s e e x a m p l e s t h a t w e n o w turn. 1. S h o w that for a fluid of density p at rest in a gravitational field w h e r e t h e acceleration d u e t o gravity at e a c h point in t h e fluid is .2. w a s i n r e a l i t y a s p e c i f i c a t i o n of t h e k i n d of fluid t h a t c o m p o s e d t h e s y s t e m .( ^ \-sin0 c o s sin 0 \ cos0/ (a) Verify b y explicit geometrical c o n s t r u c t i o n that t h e v e c t o r v = ai + bj t r a n s f o r m s according t o E q .4.A. A rotation in t h e jc-y plane t h r o u g h an angle 6 is r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e matrix r . (1. and that t h e p r e s s u r e is c o n s t a n t along lines of c o n s t a n t z. I n m u c h of w h a t f o l l o w s . PROBLEMS 1.1. V • (A x B) = B • (V x A) .g. L e t us consider v e c t o r s a n d t e n s o r s defined in t h e x-y plane.e. A r e t h e r e a n y values of y in t h e poly tropic equation of state P = Kp for w h i c h physical solutions are possible? y 1. n m a n d p r o v e t h e following identities • V t r = v x (V x v) + (v • V )v.A • (V x B) 1. that they require infinite densities at s o m e point in t h e star). t h e only solutions t o t h e e q u a t i o n of equilibrium for a star are u n p h y s i c a l (i.3.

a n d E and B are t h e values of t h e electrical a n d magnetic fields w h i c h are p r e s e n t . (b) T h e e q u a t i o n for t h e density is 2 (c) If t h e density is t a k e n to b e s y m m e t r i c a b o u t t h e plane z = 0 where (Hint: and T h e c h a n g e of variables p = p A(£) 0 1. is indeed a t e n s o r of s e c o n d r a n k . (a) C o n s i d e r a fluid w h i c h h a s m a s s density p a n d c h a r g e density o\ W r i t e d o w n t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n for t h e motion of s u c h a fluid in t h e c a s e w h e r e t h e fields E a n d B are fixed b y s o m e m e c h a n i s m external t o t h e fluid. w h e r e q is t h e value of t h e c h a r g e . C . is F = qE + ^ v x B . w h i c h w a s defined in E q .7). c is a c o n s t a n t (equal t o t h e s p e e d of light).Problems 13 (b) Verify b y explicit calculation and c o n s t r u c t i o n that t h e quantity U . l l ) .6. T h e force o n a m o v i n g c h a r g e .6. A n i m p o r t a n t t h e r m o d y n a m i c p r o p e r t y of a material is t h e e n t r o p y p e r unit v o l u m e .8. so that Poisson's equation becomes ik a n d a s s u m e further t h a t t h e fluid is at a c o n s t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e . A n adiabatic reaction is defined as a r e a c t i o n for w h i c h t h e e n t r o p y of a . C a r r y out t h e e n e r g y b a l a n c e p r o b l e m of Section l . a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r y of e l e c t r o d y n a m i c s .5. E for t h e fluid d e s c r i b e d in P r o b l e m 1. 1. 5.7. (b) W h a t is t h e e q u a t i o n of continuity for p ? for cr? 1. C o n s i d e r a fluid w h e r e t h e density varies only with t h e z . 1.c o o r d i n a t e . so t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n of state is P = c p. I n t e r p r e t t h e n e w t e r m s w h i c h a p p e a r in t h e a n a l o g u e of E q . (1.E. T h e n s h o w that (a) c is t h e velocity of s o u n d in t h e fluid. ( l .

assuming that t h e e a r t h ' s surface is flat and d o e s not r o t a t e . ( l .a x i s . Calculate t h e a m o u n t of m o m e n t u m flow a c r o s s this surface p e r unit time b y simple m e c h a n i c s a n d t h r o u g h t h e u s e of t h e m o m e n t u m flux t e n s o r defined in E q .14 Introduction to the Principles of Fluid Mechanics s y s t e m d o e s not c h a n g e . . N(r). It w a s d i s c o v e r e d that t h e r e are particles a r o u n d t h e earth w h i c h c o m e from t h e sun. 1. b u t w h i c h is parallel t o t h e x . C o n s i d e r t h e a t m o s p h e r e as an isothermal gas w h i c h h a s an equation of state given b y p = a + bP. Explain w h e r e t h e t e r m " e x p o n e n t i a l a t m o s p h e r e " arises. A s s u m i n g that t h e o c e a n is m a d e u p of incompressible fluid. (b) It can b e s h o w n that t h e t e m p e r a t u r e as a function of radius should go rouehlv as s S h o w that in this c a s e . D e t e r m i n e t h e p r e s s u r e as a function of height in such a s y s t e m . w h e r e ps v is called t h e entropy flux density. (a) Consider a model in w h i c h the wind is t a k e n to b e t h e low-density tail of the solar m a s s distribution. 1. so that P = 2NkT 9 w h e r e N is t h e n u m b e r of particles p e r unit v o l u m e . A spherical b a t h y s p h e r e of radius JR and m a s s M d e s c e n d s into t h e o c e a n . 1. and that their equation of state is that of an ideal gas.» o o .12. h o w far will it sink? W o r k t h e s a m e p r o b l e m for a balloon rising into t h e air. •(ps) + V . O n e of t h e m o s t interesting p h e n o m e n a d i s c o v e r e d in t h e last q u a r t e r c e n t u r y is that of t h e solar wind. S h o w that for an adiabatic reaction. p( ) a p p r o a c h e s a c o n s t a n t which is n o n z e r o . l l ) . s h o w that t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n requires that w h e r e M is t h e m a s s of t h e sun and M t h e m a s s of a molecule.9. as o p p o s e d t o a h y d r o s t a t i c p h e n o m e n o n (as might b e g u e s s e d from t h e n a m e ) . C . t h e n u m b e r of particles p e r unit v o l u m e . r becomes (c) S h o w that as r . If w e a s s u m e that the solar particles are static. 1. Consider a fluid of density p moving with velocity v along t h e z-axis. S h o w that t h e results are t h e s a m e .10.( p s v ) = 0. Imagine a surface of a r e a dA w h i c h is inclined at an angle 6 to t h e z-axis. B o t h p a r t s (b) and (c) s h o w t h a t t h e solar w i n d m u s t b e a h y d r o d y n a m i c . infinite as r-»oo.11.

This book was written in the heyday of classical physics (1879) and revised by the author in 1932. A Treatise on Hydrodynamics.13. A complete modern exposition of hydrodynamics. Calculate t h e force acting on t h e plate. This text applies the ideas of hydrodynamics to traffic flow. A readable book with many examples worked out. calculate t h e f o r c e p e r unit a r e a at t h e b o t t o m of t h e G r a n d C o u l e e D a m . 1954. Hydrodynamics. well-known texts. C o n s i d e r a jet of fluid of velocity v a n d m a s s M p e r unit length incident on a plate a s s h o w n in t h e figure. M. It is somewhat heavy going for the modern reader. A s s u m i n g t h a t w a t e r is a fluid of c o n s t a n t d e n s i t y . S.14. b u t t h e plate is a r r a n g e d in s u c h a w a y that t h e m a g n i t u d e of t h e fluid velocity d o e s not c h a n g e . many of the texts cited as references in later chapters contain sections dealing with the basic laws of hydrodynamics. Prigogine and R. Kinetic Theory of Vehicular Traffic. L. 1945. Fluid Mechanics. T h e jet l e a v e s t h e plate at an angle 6 t o its original direction. Lifshitz. American Elsevier. New York. W h y is it t h i c k e r at t h e b o t t o m t h a n at t h e t o p ? 1. many of which are standard. D. I. REFERENCES There are a number of readable books in the field of hydrodynamics. . Herman. This is t h e principle of t h e t u r b i n e . Bell and Son. London. Ramsey. Pergamon Press. Landau and E. A. however. and illustrates the remarks made in the Introduction concerning the wide applicability of hydrodynamics. The student learning the subject will probably find the mathematical development a little terse. London. mainly because of the large number of examples which are worked out. Lamb. Dover Publications. New York.References 15 1. In addition to the above. Some texts of this sort which might be valuable to the reader are H. It is an interesting text. but a large number of topics are covered. G. because it does not use vector notation. 1971. 1959.

2 Fluids in Astrophysics There are more things in heaven and earth. b u t w h e r e t h e m u t u a l g r a v i t a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n of t h e p a r t i c l e s of t h e fluid f o r o n e a n o t h e r i s t a k e n into a c c o u n t . Horatio. W e shall begin b y investigating t h e possible equilibrium s h a p e s that a s t a r c a n h a v e . l i k e all a p p r o x i m a t i o n s . a n d . Than are dreamt of in your philosophy. a n d . i n d e e d . it i s g o o d f o r s o m e s y s t e m s a n d n o t s o 16 . w e c a n n o w begin to look at s o m e interesting e x a m p l e s of s y s t e m s in n a t u r e . T h i s s o u n d s v e r y m u c h like a simple m o d e l for a n object like a s t a r . t h e m a i n a p p l i c a t i o n s of w h a t w e w i l l d e v e l o p in t h i s c h a p t e r h a v e b e e n in t h e field of a s t r o n o m y . W e w i l l b e g i n b y c o n s i d e r i n g a u n i f o r m fluid w h i c h is r o t a t i n g f r e e f r o m e x t e r n a l f o r c e s . or w h e t h e r a star with a certain shape could rotate with a given frequency. W e s h a l l s e e t h a t it is p o s s i b l e t o m a k e d e f i n i t e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t w h e t h e r a s t a r c o u l d h a v e a certain shape. EQUATIONS OF MOTION O n t h e b a s i s o f t h e b a s i c p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h w e i n v e s t i g a t e d in t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . Scene V SOME APPLICATIONS TO ASTROPHYSICS A. w e shall c o n c e r n o u r s e l v e s in this c h a p t e r w i t h a fluid w h i c h h a s a c o n s t a n t d e n s i t y . T h i s is a n a p p r o x i m a t i o n . E x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d . a n d t h e n d i s c u s s t h e q u e s t i o n of s t a b i l i t y . WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Hamlet. Act I.

so that the v e l o c i t y of t h e fluid is e v e r y w h e r e z e r o .a x i s ( t h i s s o m e w h a t c l u m s y n o t a t i o n is s t a n d a r d f o r t h i s p r o b l e m ) . L e t u s c o n s i d e r a m a s s e l e m e n t in a fluid b o d y ( s e e F i g . 2. Coordinates for volume elements in a rotating body. w h e r e fi is t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l potential. A n o b s e r v e r in t h i s s y s t e m w i l l s e e t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r c e s p e r u n i t m a s s a c t i n g o n a fluid e l e m e n t : (1) t h e p r e s s u r e f o r c e . h o w e v e r . T h e p r o b l e m of c a l c u l a t i n g t h e m o t i o n of t h e fluid p a r t i c l e s is t h e n r e d u c e d t o t h e m u c h s i m p l e r p r o b l e m of b a l a n c i n g f o r c e s . o r hydrostatics. g i v e n b y . 2 .V O . 2 Fig.1. a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e fixed in t h e b o d y ( t h e s e a r e c a l l e d b o d y a x e s i n c l a s s i c a l m e c h a n i c s ) . (3) t h e c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e .a x i s . 1 ) . a n d l e t co b e t h e p e r p e n d i c u l a r d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e e l e m e n t t o t h e z . P (2) t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e . L e t t h e b o d y b e r o t a t i n g w i t h a n g u l a r f r e q u e n c y co a b o u t t h e z . L e t r b e t h e v e c t o r w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e e l e m e n t r e l a t i v e t o t h e c e n t e r of t h e b o d y . g i v e n b y co co.— V P . D . . In this s y s t e m . s o t h a t t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n a n d t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y w i l l c o m p l e t e l y d e f i n e t h e fluid m o t i o n . L e t u s n o w g o t o a s e t of a x e s w h i c h a r e r o t a t i n g w i t h f r e q u e n c y co. I t s h o u l d b e p o i n t e d o u t . in t h e s p i r i t of S e c t i o n l . g i v e n b y . t h e b o d y a p p e a r s t o b e at rest.Equations of Motion 17 g o o d f o r o t h e r s . t h a t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a n e q u a t i o n of s t a t e f o r t h e s y s t e m .

Differentiating E q .3) w h e r e / ( y . z) is a n i n t e g r a t i o n " c o n s t a n t " a s f a r a s a n e q u a t i o n in x is c o n c e r n e d . s o w e can determine something about the arbitrary functions by demanding that t h e r i g h t . t h e remaining E u l e r e q u a t i o n s c a n b e integrated t o give T h e l e f t .h a n d s i d e o f e a c h e q u a t i o n r e d u c e t o t h e s a m e f u n c t i o n of t h e coordinates.2) I n all of o u r a p p l i c a t i o n s .A. In fact. i n t e r m s o f t h e x-y-z s y s t e m of c o o r d i n a t e s o) y 2 (2. w e h a v e m a d e t h e s i m p l i f y i n g a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e d e n s i t y is n o t a f u n c t i o n of t h e c o o r d i n a t e s . 2 (2.^ V P . I n t h i s c a s e .A.h a n d s i d e o f all of t h e s e e q u a t i o n s is t h e s a m e q u a n t i t y . t h e first equation can be integrated to give (2.V f t .1) o r . j u s t a s in o r d i n a r y d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s t h e r e is n o w a y of excluding an additive constant from solutions except by applying boundary values. o n e can readily see that only the choice .18 Fluids in Astrophysics P u t t i n g t h e s e t o g e t h e r .3) w i t h r e s p e c t t o x c a n c o n v i n c e t h e r e a d e r t h a t t h e r e is n o w a y of e x c l u d i n g s u c h a n a d d i t i v e f u n c t i o n t o t h e s o l u t i o n . (2. In a similar w a y . w e find f o r t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n -a> <5 = .A.A.

A.4). T h e total mass enclosed within a s p h e r e of r a d i u s r is j u s t M ( r ) = 3*rr p.A.2. THE ROTATING SPHERE A s a first e x a m p l e of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of S e c t i o n 2 . (2.B.The Rotating Sphere 19 w h e r e C is a c o n s t a n t w i l l d o t h i s .2) Putting this into E q .B. W e begin b y calculating H.1) s o t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l is j u s t (2.2). . H e n c e w e find f o r t h e i n t e g r a t e d f o r m of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n t h e r e s u l t (2. A w e s h a l l c o n s i d e r a s p h e r e of r a d i u s a r o t a t i n g w i t h a n g u l a r f r e q u e n c y co a b o u t a n a x i s ( s e e Fig. the gravitational potential at a point inside the sphere a distance r from the center.4) Fig.B. 2. (2. 2.B. w e find (2. A rotating sphere.4) B.3) I t t h e n f o l l o w s t h a t t h e s u r f a c e s of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e w i l l b e g i v e n b y t h e equation const. 3 (2.

w h i c h w e t a k e t o lie a l o n g o n e of t h e m a j o r a x e s of t h e e l l i p s e . w h e r e it will b e l e s s e a s y t o f o l l o w . if co = 0. C. T h e c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e t e n d s t o t h r o w o u t material n e a r t h e e q u a t o r m o r e t h a n at t h e p o l e s . it is n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e b o d y b e a s u r f a c e of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e . t h e b o d y c a n b e r o t a t e d w i t h o u t c h a n g i n g its s h a p e . e . T h e e q u a t i o n f o r t h e s u r f a c e is g i v e n b y x 2 + y + z 2 2 = a \ C l e a r l y . (3) A s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r o n e of t h e s e s u r f a c e s c o u l d c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e a c t u a l s u r f a c e of t h e b o d y . w e m u s t (1) C a l c u l a t e t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l i n s i d e t h e fluid. C o n s i d e r s u c h a b o d y r o t a t i n g w i t h f r e q u e n c y co a b o u t i t s z . A . ( 2 . O t h e r w i s e t h e r e w i l l b e a p r e s s u r e g r a d i e n t b e t w e e n t w o p o i n t s o n t h e s u r f a c e a n d t h e r e will n o t b e a n e q u i l i b r i u m .5) i .B. t h e n a n e q u i l i b r i u m i s p o s s i b l e — i . .a x i s . o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e s i m p l e s t r o t a t i n g b o d y — a s p h e r e — s h o w s t h a t it c a n b e in a s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m o n l y f o r t h e t r i v i a l c a s e of n o r o t a t i o n .20 Fluids in Astrophysics N o w i n o r d e r t o h a v e a s t a b l e r o t a t i o n . T h i s m e a n s that w e shall h a v e to t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n t o m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d g e o m e t r i e s if w e w a n t t o l o o k a t m o r e r e a l i s t i c c a s e s . e . (2) I n s e r t t h i s p o t e n t i a l i n t o E q . T h u s . If t h e a n s w e r t o t h e l a s t s t e p i s y e s . 4 ) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s u r f a c e s of constant pressure. T h e p h y s i c a l r e a s o n f o r t h i s is q u i t e s i m p l e . t h e m e t h o d w e u s e d w i l l b e r e p e a t e d f o r m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d g e o m e t r i e s . T o r e v i e w : t o s e e if t h e r e is a n e q u i l i b r i u m p o s s i b l e f o r a r o t a t i n g fluid. so most rotating bodies can be expected to have a somewhat " s q u a s h e d " a p p e a r a n c e . ELLIPSOIDS T h e s i m p l e s t p o s s i b l e e q u i l i b r i u m s h a p e f o r a r o t a t i n g g r a v i t a t i n g fluid o n c e t h e s p h e r e h a s b e e n e l i m i n a t e d is t h a t of a n e l l i p s o i d . A l t h o u g h in t h e c a s e of a s p h e r e t h e o n l y s o l u t i o n t o o u r e q u a t i o n is t h e t r i v i a l o n e o f co = 0 . t h e s u r f a c e will c o i n c i d e w i t h a s u r f a c e of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e o n l y if (2.

Xo).Ellipsoids 21 z Fig.A. W e c a n n o w p r o c e e d a s w e d i d in t h e c a s e of t h e s p h e r e . j 3 .C. / 2 (2. 2.2) w h i c h f o r t h e s a k e of c o n v e n i e n c e w e c a n w r i t e a = irpG(a x 0 2 + py 0 2 + joz 2 . a n d xo0 0 .3) where (2. t h e i n t e g r a t e d E u l e r e q u a t i o n s .2) f o r t h e s p h e r e is j u s t (2. (2 . p u t t i n g t h e a b o v e e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y i n t o E q . In Appendix B.4).4) a n d w h e r e j3 .C.1) where A = R ( a + A ) 0 ? + A)(c + A)l . (2 . 2 2 2 . w e s h o w that the gravitational potential analogous to E q .3. (2.C. w h i c h in t h i s c a s e is g i v e n b y t h e expression 0 0 I n s u c h a p r o c e d u r e . The rotating ellipsoid. a n d d e m a n d i n g t h a t a s u r f a c e of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e l l i p s e . 7 0 . a n d ^ are similarly defined.B . 7 0 .C. t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s h a p e of t h e e l l i p s o i d i s c o n t a i n e d in t h e c o n s t a n t s a .

5) T h e s u r f a c e s of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e c a n b e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h i s b y s e t t i n g t h e r i g h t . It is called t h e M a c l a u r i n ellipsoid.C.7) T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o a b o d y in w h i c h t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e a x i s of r o t a t i o n a r e c i r c l e s . T h e p r o l a t e s p h e r o i d is left t o P r o b l e m 2.6) A c a s e of p a r t i c u l a r s i m p l i c i t y is t h a t of t h e e l l i p s o i d o f r e v o l u t i o n . I n o r d e r f o r o n e o f t h e s e s u r f a c e s t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e l l i p s o i d . where we have (2. 7 ) b e c a u s e n o m a t t e r w h a t v a l u e o f £ w e p i c k . a n d r e p r e s e n t s t h e n e x t s t e p in g e o m e t r i c a l c o m p l i c a t i o n after t h e s p h e r e .C. W e can n o w write d o w n the structure constants directly (2. with the potential for t h e becomes ellipsoid. ( 2 . ( 2 . 2 2 2 2 .8) w h e r e w e h a v e u s e d t h e c h a n g e of v a r i a b l e s c + A =(a -c )a . C . It should b e n o t e d t h a t w e a r e a l r e a d y anticipating a result w h i c h w e s h a l l d e r i v e l a t e r w h e n w e w r i t e t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a a n d c a s w e d o in E q . C .22 Fluids in Astrophysics T h e integrated Euler equation.h a n d s i d e of E q . (2. c will a l w a y s b e l e s s t h a n o r e q u a l t o a a n d b. T h u s w e a r e c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y o b l a t e s p h e r o i d s . (2.3 a t t h e e n d of t h e chapter.C. 5 ) e q u a l t o a c o n s t a n t .C. it is n e c e s s a r y t h a t (up to a c o m m o n multiplicative constant).

w e s e e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r o r n o t e q u i l i b r i u m c a n b e e s t a b l i s h e d d e p e n d s o n l y o n £. F o r t h i s simplified g e o m e t r y . a n d t h e b o d y will b e in a s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m f o r t h a t v a l u e of T h e s h a p e of t h e r i g h t .h a n d c a l c u l a t i n g it b y n o t i n g t h a t a s £ . t h e y n e e d n o t h a v e t h e s a m e f r e q u e n c y of rotation). a g i v e n r a t i o b e t w e e n m a j o r a n d m i n o r a x e s ) will h a v e t h e s a m e r a t i o o f f r e q u e n c y of r o t a t i o n t o 2 7 r G p a t e q u i l i b r i u m ( b u t s i n c e 2 7 r G p d e p e n d s o n t h e d e n s i t y . w e c a n s i m p l y i n c o r p o r a t e x° i n t o it. t h e n E q . (2. T h u s . y = 2 ( £ + ! ) ( ! .11) c a n b e satisfied. t h e s i z e o f t h e e l l i p s e d o e s n o t m a t t e r a t all p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e a x e s are s u c h t h a t E q . w h e t h e r a n e l l i p s o i d i n u n i f o r m r o t a t i o n c a n b e i n e q u i l b r i u m ) . as £ .h a n d s i d e .9) T h e s t r u c t u r e c o n s t a n t \o c o u l d b e c o m p u t e d a s w e l l . c o t 1 side a p p r o a c h e s zero from the positive side. £ . (2.10) which reduces to the = f c o t " ^ ^ l)-3f . 4 ) c o n t a i n s a n a r b i t r a r y c o n s t a n t a n y w a y . e .C.C. w h i c h i s r e l a t e d t o a ratio of l e n g t h s o f m a j o r a n d m i n o r a x e s o f t h e e l l i p s e .h a n d s i d e s of t h e e q u a t i o n a s a f u n c t i o n of £. A .> °o £ actually side can b e guessed without ? cor f 1 so that the right-hand Similarly. 1 2 (2. points which can be made about this important e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d i t i o n . T o find o u t w h e t h e r s u c h a s o l u t i o n e x i s t s ( i . 2 0 (2.C.e. w e c a n l o o k a t a g r a p h of t h e r i g h t a n d l e f t . ( 2 . F i r s t . a p l a n e t or a g a l a x y w i t h a g i v e n £ (i. If t h e l i n e w h i c h represents the left-hand side intersects the c u r v e which represents the r i g h t .11) will h a v e a s o l u t i o n . t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e s u r f a c e of e l l i p s o i d c o r r e s p o n d s t o a s u r f a c e of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e r e d u c e s t o (2. T h u s .£ arc cot f).» TT/2 SO t h a t t h e r i g h t . goes .11) w h e n t h e v a l u e s of a There are two 0 and 7 0 c o m p u t e d earlier are substituted.Ellipsoids 23 to carry out the integrals.» 0 . Similarly.C.h a n d s i d e g o e s t o z e r o as (7r/2)£ This m e a n s that the right-hand side starts from zero.C. b u t s i n c e E q .

w h i c h s a y s t h a t it is i m p o s s i b l e f o r a n y b o d y t o b e i n e q u i l i b r i u m if it is r o t a t i n g f a s t e r t h a n a c r i t i c a l f r e q u e n c y co . T h e s i t u a t i o n is s k e t c h e d i n F i g . T h i s is a s p e c i a l c a s e of a m o r e g e n e r a l r e s u l t w h i c h w e p r o v e i n A p p e n d i x C . 2.h a n d s i d e n e e d n o t d e p e n d o n £ a t all ( a l t h o u g h f o r m o s t c a s e s of p h y s i c a l i n t e r e s t .a n d l e f t . t h e centrifugal f o r c e will b e c o m e t o o g r e a t . t h e l e f t .4. Plot of the right-hand side of Eq. F o r t h e l i n e l a b e l e d " 3 " . C . ( 2 . it t u r n s o u t t h a t t h e v a l u e of t h e r i g h t . s o it will a p p e a r o n t h e f i g u r e a s a s t r a i g h t l i n e . t h e m a x i m u m f r e q u e n c y at w h i c h a M a c l a u r i n ellipsoid c a n r o t a t e is of t h e o r d e r of V27rpG. T h e c a s e s e p a r a t i n g t h e s e t w o r e g i m e s i s t h e l i n e l a b e l e d " 2 " . T h u s .h a n d s i d e s of E q .h a n d s i d e of E q . h o w e v e r .24 Fluids in Astrophysics positive. w h e r e co \2iTpG is j u s t e q u a l t o t h e m a x i m u m v a l u e o f t h e r i g h t . a n d h e n c e f o r a s o l u t i o n t o e x i s t f o r w h i c h a n e l l i p s o i d c a n r o t a t e in e q u i l i b r i u m . (2. 2 2 B y e x p l i c i t c a l c u l a t i o n s . and returns to zero. a n d t h e fluid w i l l fly a p a r t .h a n d s i d e a t i t s m a x i m u m is 0 . value of the function © Fig. it will b e i m p o s s i b l e for t h e ellipsoid t o r o t a t e in e q u i l i b r i u m . it w i l l — s e e b e l o w ) . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t c a s e s . I n t h e c a s e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e l i n e l a b e l e d " 1 " . (2. a n d n o s o l u t i o n t o o u r p r o b l e m will e x i s t . 2 2 4 . I n g e n e r a l . A s co i s i n c r e a s e d .C. if co l2irpG is l a r g e e n o u g h . 1 1 ) t o b e e q u a l .4. so that there m u s t be a m a x i m u m s o m e w h e r e in b e t w e e n . w h e r e co i s d e f i n e d b y c c co — 2 2irpG. 1 1 ) . C . it is p o s s i b l e f o r t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n t o o v e r c o m e t h e c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e a n d h o l d t h e fluid t o g e t h e r . ( 2 . t h i s is n o t t h e c a s e . it is p o s s i b l e f o r t h e r i g h t .12) P h y s i c a l l y .C. s o t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l c a s e o c c u r s w h e n In o t h e r w o r d s . 2. w e c a n t h i n k of t h i s r e s u l t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y : W h e n a m a s s is r o t a t i n g s l o w l y . 11) as a function of £ .

C.C. C .C. d o e s n o t s h e d m u c h l i g h t o n t h e p r o b l e m of c l a s s i c a l s t e l l a r s t r u c t u r e . Since w e are dealing with an i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid.C. w h i l e it is v a l i d i n t h e g e n e r a l c a s e .17) w h e r e w e h a v e defined (2.15) w h e r e w e h a v e w r i t t e n e v e r y t h i n g in t e r m s o f t h e c o n s e r v e d q u a n t i t i e s M . 1 5 ) f o r co a n d s u b s t i t u t i n g i n t o E q . 1 1 ) .18) T h e p o i n t of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n is t h a t w h e r e a s i n g e n e r a l t h e f r e q u e n c y of rotation and the parameter £ can be regarded as independent.14) s o t h a t t h e a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m is (2. T h e v o l u m e of a n e l l i p s o i d of r e v o l u t i o n is j u s t (2. 2 which can be written (2.16) = ^ c o t ^ ( 3 ^ + l ) .3 ^ . C . w h e n w e r e q u i r e t h a t m a s s a n d a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m b e c o n s e r v e d . a n d L a n d t h e p a r a m e t e r £.a x i s i s (2. w e n e e d t o r e a l i z e t h a t w h e n w e d i s c u s s a m a s s of fluid r o t a t i n g in a v a c u u m . ( 2 .13) w h i l e t h e m o m e n t of i n e r t i a a b o u t t h e z .C. S o l v i n g E q . These are the mass and the angular m o m e n t u m . w e find (2. ( 2 . t h e r e are two important quantities which must be conserved. V. T o u n d e r s t a n d w h y . t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n of m a s s r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e v o l u m e b e fixed a s w e l l .C.Ellipsoids 25 T h i s r e s u l t . t h i s is n o l o n g e r .

W e c a n p r o c e e d a s b e f o r e . C .41 g / c m .» 0 c o r r e s p o n d s t o a flattened out " p a n c a k e . w h i c h h a s m e a n d e n s i t y 5. s i n c e it d e p e n d s o n l y o n t h e i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s ) .and left-hand sides of Eq. £ . w h i c h h a s m e a n d e n s i t y 1. w h i c h tells u s that as w e spin a b o d y f a s t e r a n d f a s t e r . 2 2 c T h e r e s u l t in t h e figure i s p h y s i c a l l y r e a s o n a b l e . it is 3 co = 7 .C.52 g / c m . C . a n d co b e c o m e s a f u n c t i o n of £. a s L i s d e c r e a s e d . it m u s t b e k e p t f i r m l y in m i n d t h a t a l t h o u g h it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e will b e a s o l u t i o n t o E q . ( 2 .26 Fluids in Astrophysics t h e c a s e .7). c F o r t h e c a s e of t h e e a r t h . a n d r e p r e s e n t s t h e configuration at w h i c h a given m a s s e l l i p s o i d w i t h a f i x e d a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m will r o t a t e i n e q u i l i b r i u m . 2. " so that this a g r e e s w i t h o u r intuition. 2. (2.5 x 10~ s e c " .C. g r a p h i n g t h e r i g h t . 7 x l ( T s e c ~ \ 4 c right-hand side Fig. w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s to the ellipsoid a p p r o a c h i n g a sphere. Plot of the right. c r i t i c a l f r e q u e n c y is 3 this coc = 1. 2 5 x 1 0 s e c = 1. s i n c e a s L i s i n c r e a s e d . 3 1 w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o a p e r i o d of = 4 . 1 6 ) . W e s e e t h a t f o r e a c h L . 1 1 ) is s a t i s f i e d o r n o t . t h e r e is o n e a n d o n l y o n e e q u i l i b r i u m c o n f i g u r a t i o n f o r t h e ellipsoid.h a n d s i d e s of E q . t h e c o n s t r a i n t t h a t co m u s t b e l e s s t h a n co c o n t i n u e s t o r e s t r i c t t h e p o s s i b l e v a l u e s of L w h i c h m a y b e a c h i e v e d for a given m a s s . it will t e n d t o f l a t t e n o u t . (2. 1 6 ) .5 w h e r e t h e s t r a i g h t l i n e r e p r e s e n t s t h e quantity L / L ( w h i c h i s n o w t r u l y i n d e p e n d e n t of £. O f c o u r s e . £ .8 h r .a n d l e f t .16). ( 2 . T h i s is t r u e w h e t h e r t h e e q u i l i b r i u m e q u a t i o n ( 2 . . 1 6 ) f o r a n y L . S i m i l a r l y . C . a s in E q . T h e p o i n t of i n t e r s e c t i o n is t h e s o l u t i o n w h i c h w e s e e k . 3 w h i l e f o r t h e s u n . ( 2 . a s s h o w n in F i g .5. C . F r o m E q .* 0 .

5 h r . E.16.D. F o r t h e e a r t h .12)) c = 0. S u p p o s e w e w a n t t o k n o w h o w r e a l i s t i c s u c h a n a p p r o x i m a t i o n c o u l d b e .Jacobi Ellipsoids 27 w h i c h is a p e r i o d of T c = 8 . JACOBI ELLIPSOIDS A n e l l i p s o i d of r e v o l u t i o n i n w h i c h all t h r e e a x e s a r e n o t e q u a l i s c a l l e d a Jacobi ellipsoid. THE EARTH AS A FLUID In later a p p l i c a t i o n s .C. w e c a n i n d e e d t r e a t t h e e a r t h a s a fluid m a s s ( e v e n t h o u g h w e k n o w it t o b e s o l i d ) . w e shall often w i s h t o t r e a t t h e e a r t h itself a s a fluid m a s s . 6 so that f = 12.059. (2. O n e m e a s u r e of s u c h a n a p p r o x i m a t i o n w o u l d b e t o c a l c u l a t e i t s r o t a t i o n a l f r e q u e n c y f r o m E q . ( 2 . s o t h a t if w e c a n b e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h a t s o r t o f a c c u r a c y . F o r such a configuration.1) W e c a n c o m p a r e t h i s t o t h e o b s e r v e d f r e q u e n c y ( t a k i n g <a f r o m E q . a n d t o c o m p a r e it w i t h t h e a c t u a l f r e q u e n c y of r o t a t i o n .2) T h e s e t w o a g r e e t o a b o u t 2 0 % . b o t h of t h e s e b o d i e s r o t a t e a t f r e q u e n c i e s w e l l b e l o w t h e c r i t i c a l frequency given above.048. predicted (2.378 x 1 0 m 6 and c = 6.357 x 1 0 m . 4 T h u s . which gives = 0. 1 1 ) . w e h a v e a = b = 6. observed (2. 1 5 x 10 s e c = 22. D.D. t h e equilibrium conditions . W e s h a l l u s e t h i s r e s u l t l a t e r w h e n w e c a l c u l a t e t h e free v i b r a t i o n s of t h e e a r t h . C .

t h e s e c o n d t e r m i n t h e i n t e g r a n d v a n i s h e s . t h e n t h i s c o n d i t i o n is a u t o m a t i c a l l y satisfied. (2. a n d w e h a v e f o u n d t h e e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d i t i o n s f r o m S e c t i o n 2 . 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 2 a n d E q . W e c a n t h e n put t h e s e values into E q .3) and evaluate the frequency which c o r r e s p o n d s to this configuration. w e w i l l s h o w t h a t a s o l u t i o n m u s t e x i s t . configuration there b a l a n c e t h e forces at p o i n t p r o c e e d j u s t a s w e d i d in t h e c a s e of t h e but recalling the result that for e a c h equilibrium i s j u s t o n e f r e q u e n c y of r o t a t i o n w h i c h w i l l j u s t the surface. If a ^ b.1) b y b subtracting gives ( a . C .3) Similarly. the integral m u s t b e positive as well.4) T h e s e c o n d of t h e s e e q u a t i o n s is i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e f r e q u e n c y . (2. w e will c o n s i d e r t h e v a l u e o f t h e i n t e g r a l f o r t w o different c a s e s .E. a n d c w h i c h s a t i s f y it.1) (2. 5 ) .E. multiplying E q . b . w e find (2.E. a n d . C a s e (i) c = 0.5) If a = b ( t h e c a s e f o r t h e M a c l a u r i n e l l i p s o i d ) .2) W e could at this Maclaurin ellipsoid. I n s t e a d of s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m e x p l i c i t l y .28 Fluids in Astrophysics c a n b e c a s t in t h e f o r m : (2. T o s e e t h i s .E. (2. T h u s .b ) = 0.4).E. w e c a n a s k t h e q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r it i s e v e r p o s s i b l e t o s a t i s f y t h e c o n d i t i o n in E q .2) b y a 2 and then (2. w e w i l l h a v e t h e equilibrium configuration.E. P u t t i n g t h e integral f o r m s for t h e s t r u c t u r e c o n s t a n t s in E q . E . ( 2 . s i n c e A is always positive. C a s e (ii) . h o w e v e r .j 8 ) a b + y c ( a . if w e c a n find a s e t of v a l u e s f o r a. (2. w e subtract the a b o v e equations to get (2.E. I n t h i s c a s e .E.E.

while for s o m e r e g i o n of r ( w h i c h v a r i e s f r o m o n e g a l a x y t o t h e n e x t ) t h e r e i s c o n s t a n t v e l o c i t y r o t a t i o n . 6 . s o t h e i n t e g r a l i n this case must be negative. These curves are essentially a p l o t of t h e v e l o c i t y of a p a r t i c l e i n t h e g a l a x y a s a f u n c t i o n of i t s d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f r o t a t i o n . all t h r e e t y p e s of r o t a t i o n a r e s e e n in n a t u r e . T h i s is t h e s c a l i n g r e s u l t w h i c h w e s a w earlier for t h e M a c l a u r i n ellipsoid. r (ii) " C o n s t a n t v e l o c i t y " r o t a t i o n . 0 (iii) " K e p l e r i a n " r o t a t i o n . t h e r o t a t i o n b e c o m e s s o l i d . 2 I n f a c t .Rotation of the Galaxy 2 2 2 2 29 I n t h i s c a s e . (2. a n d g i v e s v{r) oc l/Vr. (2. O n e p r o b l e m of s o m e c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t centers around the galactic rotation curves. in w h i c h p a r t i c l e s f a r f r o m t h e c e n t e r s e e a g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e = Gm lr w h i c h j u s t b a l a n c e s t h e c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e . t h e equilibrium rotational frequency can b e calculated using E q . t h e s e c o n d w i l l a l w a y s b e g r e a t e r t h a n t h e first. A t v e r y s m a l l r. a n d c a t t h i s p o i n t will g i v e t h e e q u i l i b r i u m v a l u e s . 2 . 2 2 2 F. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 T h u s . F o r s o m e n u m e r i c a l r e s u l t s . W e c a n divide E q . t h e r e a d e r is r e f e r r e d t o L a m b ( C h a p t e r X I I ) . a n d n o t o n t h e a c t u a l m a g n i t u d e of t h e d i m e n s i o n s of t h e rotating body. t h e first t e r m in t h e i n t e g r a n d b e c o m e s a b l(a b + ( a + b ) A + A ) w h i l e t h e s e c o n d b e c o m e s a b l(a b + (a + b )k). in w h i c h e v e r y p a r t i c l e i n t h e g a l a x y h a s t h e s a m e s p e e d (and h e n c e different angular frequencies). 2 2 2 2 O n e further point should b e m a d e . i n w h i c h e v e r y p a r t i c l e i n t h e g a l a x y h a s t h e s a m e a n g u l a r f r e q u e n c y a s t h e g a l a x y a s a w h o l e . W e s e e t h a t a t v e r y l a r g e d i s t a n c e s ( w h e r e t h e p a r t i c l e s s e e t h e r e s t of t h e galaxy as a point) w e get the e x p e c t e d Keplerian revolution. F r o m t h e s e v a l u e s . ROTATION OF THE GALAXY A n i n t e r e s t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n of w h a t h a s b e e n d o n e s o f a r is t o l o o k a t t h e g r o s s s t r u c t u r e o f t h e g a l a x y . it m u s t p a s s t h r o u g h z e r o .E. T h e equilibrium d e p e n d s only on r e l a t i v e s i z e s . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of r o t a t i o n curves that one can imagine: (i) " S o l i d b o d y " r o t a t i o n . b.E. s o t h a t v ( r ) oc . A t s o m e i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t .3).5) b y (a b c ) a n d o b t a i n a f o r m of t h e e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d i t i o n w h i c h d e p e n d s o n l y o n t h e r a t i o s bja a n d cja. C l e a r l y . w e h a v e a s i t u a t i o n in w h i c h t h e i n t e g r a l p r o c e e d s f r o m a p o s i t i v e v a l u e a t c = 0 t o a n e g a t i v e o n e a t c = a b l(a + b ). In t h i s c a s e . A " t y p i c a l " r o t a t i o n c u r v e ( s u c h a s t h a t f o r o u r o w n g a l a x y ) is s h o w n i n F i g . v(r) = v . a n d t h e v a l u e s of a.

s o w e w i l l w a n t t o d r o p . A typical galactic rotation curve. T h u s . H o w e v e r . b u t t h e g a l a x y is m u c h w i d e r t h a n it is h i g h . w e shall see that t h e main information which can be gained from studying galactic rotation c u r v e s h a s t o d o w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of m a t t e r i n a g a l a x y . t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e d e n s i t y of t h e fluid be constant. N o w t h e g a l a x y is o b v i o u s l y a b o d y w h i c h is r o t a t i n g freely u n d e r its o w n gravitational attraction. W e can state this supposition with s o m e w h a t m o r e rigor b y noting that t h e quantities like p r e s s u r e a n d gravitational potential c a n b e e x p e c t e d t o v a r y q u i t e r a p i d l y in t h e z . b o d y .000 Fig. A side view of a typical galaxy. 2. w e c a n n e g l e c t d e r i v a t i v e s of t h e s e q u a n t i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o x a n d y.30 Fluids in Astrophysics V(r) r Fig. T h i s l e a d s u s t o s u p p o s e t h a t w e c a n r e p l a c e t h e a c t u a l p r o b l e m of c a l c u l a t i n g t h e s u r f a c e c o n d i t i o n s for t h e r a t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d g e o m e t r y of t h e r e a l g a l a x y b y t h e m u c h s i m p l e r p r o b l e m of c a l c u l a t i n g f o r a t w o . b u t s h o u l d v a r y m u c h m o r e s l o w l y in t h e x — y p l a n e .000 » 1.F. T h e g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e o f o u r g a l a x y is p i c t u r e d i n F i g . f o r t h e m o m e n t . M o s t of t h e m a s s is c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a c e n t r a l c o r e .7 (all d i s t a n c e s i n l i g h t y e a r s ) . 2.1) 80. It s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e galaxies in n a t u r e w h i c h a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y s o l i d b o d y a s o p p o s e d t o t h e o n e s h o w n a b o v e .d i r e c t i o n i n t h e g a l a x y . T h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n t h e n b e e n e s (2.d i m e n s i o n a l d i s k r o t a t i n g a b o u t a n a x i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e p l a n e of t h e disk. 2. w h i c h is predominantly constant velocity.6.7. so that the m e t h o d s w e h a v e developed for treating s u c h b o d i e s are a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e . .

F. W e d o this b y calculating t h e p o t e n t i a l at r d u e t o a p o i n t a t r ' . w e s h o w t h a t a d i s k w i t h a u n i f o r m m a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n l e a d s .4) w h e r e M ( r ' ) is t h e m a s s p e r u n i t a r e a at t h e p o i n t r ' .8. m o s t of t h e m a t t e r i n t h e g a l a x y is l o c a t e d n e a r t h e p l a n e z = 0 .) (2. t o s o l i d b o d y r o t a t i o n . for e x a m p l e . a t l e a s t a t s m a l l r. t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of m a s s i n t h e g a l a x y . a n d t h e n a d d i n g u p o v e r all r \ ( S e e F i g . 2.2) I n P r o b l e m 1. a s T h u s .F.5 it w a s s h o w n t h a t e q u a t i o n s of t h i s t y p e l e a d t o a d e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a t f a l l s off. T h e Euler e q u a t i o n for a particle a distance r f r o m t h e c e n t e r ( n e g l e c t i n g d e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e p r e s s u r e w i t h r e s p e c t t o r) is j u s t (2. a n d t h e q u a n t i t y t h a t a p p e a r s i n t h e d e n o m i n a t o r of t h e i n t e g r a n d i s j u s t t h e d i s t a n c e |r .Rotation of the Galaxy 31 w h e r e r is t h e v e c t o r i n t h e x .r'|. T h e P o i s s o n e q u a t i o n i s (2. I n P r o b l e m 2. w e n e e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l a t r d u e t o t h e o t h e r m a s s e l e m e n t s in t h e disk. t o find t h e r o t a t i o n a l f r e q u e n c y ( a n d h e n c e t h e v e l o c i t y ) of t h e p o i n t a t r. . a t l a r g e z.8.F. w e s e e t h a t t h e f o r m of r o t a t i o n c u r v e t h a t a g i v e n g a l a x y w i l l h a v e d e p e n d s v e r y s t r o n g l y o n M ( r ) . 2. Coordinates for a volume element in a rotating galaxy. R e c a l l i n g t h a t t h e v e l o c i t y of a p o i n t i n t h e d i s k d e p e n d s o n d f t / d r .y p l a n e . N o w consider s u c h a disk. L e t u s e x a m i n e s o m e o t h e r Fig.2.3) T h u s . a n d o u r a p p r o x i m a t i o n ( r e p l a c i n g t h e g a l a x y b y a d i s k ) will b e a g o o d o n e .

s o t h a t t h e force balance equation becomes w h i c h is t h e c u r v e f o r p u r e s o l i d b o d y r o t a t i o n . 2. F . simple examples to see what conclusions w e can draw about the relation b e t w e e n t h e m a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n in a galaxy. H o w c a n w e understand this? . if w e i m a g i n e t h e g a l a x y s t a r t i n g o u t a s a f l a t t e n e d M a c l a u r i n ellipsoid. H o w e v e r .9.F. a n d its r o t a t i o n c u r v e . unlike that w h i c h i s s e e n f o r a l a r g e n u m b e r of g a l a x i e s . ( 2 . I n o t h e r w o r d s . t h e m a s s e n c l o s e d in e a c h column would be w h e r e A i s t h e a r e a of t h e c o l u m n . w e a l r e a d y h a v e a n e x p r e s s i o n for t h e p o t e n t i a l of a M a c l a u r i n ellipsoid. t h e m a s s p e r u n i t a r e a i n t h e d i s k is j u s t (2. b u t in s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e m a s s in e a c h c o l u m n w o u l d b e c o n s e r v e d .x o ) . T h u s . L e t u s b e g i n b y a s k i n g h o w o n e w o u l d g o a b o u t r e p l a c i n g o n e of o u r e q u i l i b r i u m s h a p e s — s a y a M a c l a u r i n e l l i p s o i d — b y a flat d i s k . 2 2 p 0 0 S i n c e w e a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a d i s k . The mass distribution derived from a Maclaurin ellipsoid. 2. H = 7r (<* r + y z . N o w w e could go a h e a d and put this 0 m a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t o t h e p o t e n t i a l i n t e g r a l i n E q .5) w h e r e w e h a v e written 2cp = M . i n c l u d i n g o u r o w n .9) a n d t h e n i m a g i n e e a c h c o l u m n c o l l a p s e d i n t o t h e p l a n e z = 0. 3 ) a n d w o r k it o u t . If w e t a k e a n e l l i p s o i d a n d i m a g i n e it b r o k e n u p i n t o c o l u m n s ( s e e F i g . w e c a n s e t z = 0 in t h e a b o v e .32 Fluids in Astrophysics * K V 2 ** * 1 ^ y A a — ^ Fig. w e w o u l d get p u r e solid b o d y rotation.

6) discussed T h i s .F. ( 2 .3). of c o u r s e . (2. of c o u r s e . O n t h e o t h e r hand. b u t is a n i n t e r e s t i n g p r o b l e m i n itself. F . T h e q u e s t i o n of w h y a g a l a x y s h o u l d a s s u m e o n e m a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n s t e a d o f a n o t h e r is o n e w h i c h c a n n o t b e t r e a t e d w i t h t h e s i m p l e m e t h o d s w e h a v e a t o u r d i s p o s a l a t t h i s p o i n t . although singular and therefore not completely r e a s o n a b l e . t h e n . W e c a n p u t this distribution into E q . it w a s n a t u r a l t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r t h e y c o u l d b e c o m p o s e d of a fluid in e q u i l i b r i u m s h o u l d h a v e c o m e u p . that different m a s s distributions lead to different rotation l a w s . F . S u c h a d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l . W e see. ( 2 . find t h a t which means that (rco) 2 = v = 2 2irGy. W h e n t h e s c i e n c e of fluid m e c h a n i c s w a s first d e v e l o p e d . G. a t l e a s t d o e s h a v e t h e p r o p e r t y of m a k i n g t h e g a l a x y m o r e m a s s i v e n e a r its c e n t e r . b e p o o r l y r e p r e s e n t e d b y a s m o o t h d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e t y p e g i v e n in E q . instead. w h i l e t h o s e w h i c h are m o r e u n i f o r m t e n d t o favor solid b o d y rotation. S u p p o s e w e t r i e d a d i s t r i b u t i o n l i k e M(r) = 0 (r>R). a n d t h a t m a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n s w h i c h p l a c e m o s t of t h e m a s s n e a r t h e c e n t e r of t h e g a l a x y t e n d t o f a v o r c o n s t a n t v e l o c i t y r o t a t i o n .The Ringsof Saturn 33 O n e w a y is t o n o t e t h a t t h e m a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n M ( r ) i n E q . and.F. with an appreciable percentage of i t s m a s s l y i n g a t r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l d i s t a n c e s f r o m t h e g a l a c t i c c e n t e r . THE RINGS OF SATURN A s t r o n o m e r s h a v e p u z z l e d o v e r t h e r i n g s of S a t u r n e v e r s i n c e t h e y w e r e d i s c o v e r e d . is t h e c o n s t a n t v e l o c i t y r o t a t i o n w h i c h w a s above. This distribution. 5 ) . T h e p r o b l e m c a n b e s t a t e d a s f o l l o w s : I m a g i n e a c e n t r a l b o d y of m a s s M s u r r o u n d e d b y a n a n n u l u s of e l l i p t i c a l c r o s s s e c t i o n r o t a t i n g w i t h f r e q u e n c y co a b o u t t h e . 5 ) is a c t u a l l y p r e t t y u n i f o r m o v e r l a r g e d i s t a n c e s in t h e g a l a x y . w e k n o w that our galaxy has a core. (2. p r o c e e d i n g j u s t a s b e f o r e .

of c a l c u l a t i n g fl ) R R directly. w e c a n treat t h e a n n u l u s (at least for t h e p u r p o s e a s a n i n f i n i t e c y l i n d e r of e l l i p t i c a l c r o s s s e c t i o n s .34 Fluids in Astrophysics — • H = — D E * Z Fig. as w e did the potential for t h e e l l i p s o i d . 2 0 (2. w h i l e t h e s e c o n d ( w h i c h w e h a v e y e t t o c a l c u l a t e ) r e p r e s e n t s t h e p o t e n t i a l d u e t o t h e r e s t of t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e annulus.1) w h e r e t h e first t e r m r e p r e s e n t s t h e p o t e n t i a l a t a p o i n t i n t h e a n n u l u s d u e t o t h e a t t r a c t i o n of t h e c e n t r a l b o d y . a = irpG(a x 0 2 + y z ). of c o u r s e . b o d y a s s h o w n i n F i g .G.10.G.2) In this case. b u t w e c a n g e t it m u c h m o r e e a s i l y if w e n o t e t h a t u n d e r t h e (2. Side view of the rings of Saturn.G.3) where and . 2. Let us further assume that T h e potential O which must be inserted into the Euler equation can be written (2. W e c o u l d .10.1). c a l c u l a t e £l c o n d i t i o n s in E q . 2.G. w h o s e s u r f a c e is g i v e n b y t h e e q u a t i o n (2.

6) T h u s . T h i s m e a n s t h a t (2. t h e s u r f a c e s of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e w i l l n e v e r c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e s u r f a c e of t h e a n n u l u s .5) i. b u t d e t e r m i n e d b y E q . w e h a v e c o n s i d e r e d o n l y t h e q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r o r n o t a fluid m a s s c o u l d b e in e q u i l i b r i u m .G. w e m u s t h a v e which gives the equilibrium condition as (2. t h e a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n is n o . t h e r o t a t i n g ring will b e in e q u i l i b r i u m . T h i s i s a d e p a r t u r e f r o m o u r p r e v i o u s r e s u l t s . H e r e t h e c f r e q u e n c y is c o m p l e t e l y fixed b y t h e c e n t r a l b o d y . r e g a r d l e s s of i t s s h a p e .4) w h e r e w e h a v e d r o p p e d t e r m s h i g h e r t h a n s e c o n d o r d e r in x ID a n d z / D . W e s e e i m m e d i a t e l y t h a t u n l e s s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of t h e t e r m l i n e a r in x v a n i s h e s . a n d it t u r n s o u t t h a t t h e o n e t r e a t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s . in w h i c h a n e q u i l i b r i u m w a s p o s s i b l e a t a n y f r e q u e n c y u p t o co . B u t t h e r e a r e b o t h u n s t a b l e a n d s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i a . 5 ) ) . H a v e w e . t h a t t h e r e is o n l y o n e f r e q u e n c y at w h i c h t h e a n n u l u s c a n r o t a t e . W e n o t e in p a s s i n g t h a t this f r e q u e n c y is p r e c i s e l y t h a t w h i c h a satellite in o r b i t a r o u n d t h e c e n t r a l m a s s w o u l d h a v e . U p t o t h i s p o i n t i n t h e t e x t . I n o r d e r f o r t h e s u r f a c e s of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e s u r f a c e of t h e r i n g .G.e.G. ( 2 . f o u n d t h e s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e r i n g s of S a t u r n ? U n f o r t u n a t e l y . G . t h e n .The Ringsof Saturn 35 T h e i n t e g r a t e d E u l e r e q u a t i o n is t h e n (2. p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e r a t i o a/c c a n b e adjusted to satisfy this c o n d i t i o n ( w h e r e co i s n o l o n g e r f r e e .

) H e n c e . various physical s y s t e m s w e r e examined.2. T h e fact that t h e outer surface of t h e sun r o t a t e s slowly h a s c a u s e d m a n y p r o b l e m s in a s t r o p h y s i c s . t h e d y n a m i c a l p r o b l e m of c a l c u l a t i n g t h e m o t i o n of s u c h fluids c a n b e r e p l a c e d b y t h e s t a t i c p r o b l e m of b a l a n c i n g p r e s s u r e . i n s e r t t h i s i n t o t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n . PROBLEMS 2 . including ellipsoids (such as the earth). 1 . Mestel. disks (such as the galaxy). 0 M(r) = 0 S h o w that this leads to an expression for angular frequency given b y (Hint: Y o u may find t h e following c h a n g e of c o o r d i n a t e s useful r' sin 6' = s sin ip. R. unlike t h e earth. Consider a galaxy which h a s a m a s s distribution given by M(r) = Mo (r < Ro). and rings (such as t h o s e a r o u n d Saturn). I n P r o b l e m 3.) 0 . a n d d e m a n d t h a t a s u r f a c e of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e s u r f a c e of t h e b o d y . c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e . (r>R ). s h o w that in the limit r/R -+0. I n t h i s w a y . S h o w that. it is s h o w n t h a t a s m a l l p e r t u r b a t i o n of t h e c e n t e r of t h e r i n g will l o w e r t h e e n e r g y of t h e r i n g s y s t e m . t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n of treating t h e sun as a rotating ideal fluid d o e s not give good a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e o r y and o b s e r v a t i o n for ctf/co .2. a n d it w a s f o u n d t o b e p o s s i b l e t o find e q u i l i b r i u m c o n f i g u r a t i o n s f o r e a c h shape. T h e c o n c e p t of s t a b i l i t y i s . c 2.A. r — r' cos 6' = s cos ip. this distribution gives a solid b o d y rotation just like the Maclaurin ellipsoid. T h e m e t h o d of c a l c u l a t i n g e q u i l i b r i u m s h a p e s f o r s u c h b o d i e s is q u i t e s i m p l e in p r i n c i p l e ( a l t h o u g h s o m e t i m e s c o m p l i c a t e d mathematically). Monthly Notices 126. fluid SUMMARY W e h a v e s e e n t h a t b y g o i n g t o a f r a m e r o t a t i n g w i t h a fluid m a s s . s o t h a t a fluid r i n g of t h e t y p e w e h a v e d i s c u s s e d w o u l d n o t s u r v i v e l o n g in n a t u r e .S. a n d g r a v i t a t i o n . (Hint: Y o u might w a n t t o consult L .36 Fluids in Astrophysics of t h e f o r m e r v a r i e t y . a v e r y i m p o r t a n t o n e in m e c h a n i c s . a n d w e will n o w t u r n t o a full d i s c u s s i o n of it. 553 (1963). h o w e v e r . W e simply calculate the gravitational potential for the b o d y .

which tells u s that centrifugal force will t e n d t o pull a rotating b o d y out at t h e e q u a t o r . .A . consider a sphere of gas of m a s s M and angular m o m e n t u m L. (c) F o r a b o d y like t h e sun. solve for f and h e n c e co.7. 2 . which is nearly spherical. This c o r r e s p o n d s to our intuition. (a) If w e c o n s e r v e M and L. P r o v e that a rotating b o d y in equilibrium m u s t b e symmetrical t h r o u g h its c e n t e r a n d perpendicular t o t h e axis of rotation. As an e x a m p l e of this p r o c e s s . find t h e electrostatic potential at t h e points inside an ellipsoid which h a s a charge a per unit v o l u m e .3. write an e x p r e s s i o n for t h e density of t h e gas in t h e final state as a function of t h e p a r a m e t e r £ (b) H e n c e write o n e (complicated) equation for f itself. w e k n o w that t h e r e is a lot of d u s t in t h e galaxy w h i c h c a n b e d e t e c t e d only by looking at light which h a s c o m e t h r o u g h it.4) for such a s y s t e m . (2 . since not all m a t t e r is l u m i n o u s a n d t h e r e f o r e visible. A very serious p r o b l e m in a s t r o n o m y is determining h o w m u c h m a t t e r t h e r e is in t h e u n i v e r s e . t h u s leading t o oblate s h a p e s . S u p p o s e w e also o b s e r v e d a rotation c u r v e given by V = cr. T h e theories of t h e s u n ' s formation which are n o w a c c e p t e d suggest that t h e sun c o n d e n s e d out of a gas which w a s initially rotating. 2.6. S u p p o s e in a distant galaxy w e o b s e r v e d a density of luminous m a t t e r w h e r e R is t h e radius of t h e galaxy. S u p p o s e that this sphere collapses b y s o m e p r o c e s s which w e d o not follow t o a Maclaurin ellipsoid w h o s e major axis is of length a. Find an e x p r e s s i o n for TJ .Problems 37 2. the ratio of luminous to n o n l u m i n o u s m a t t e r from t h e s e experimentally d e t e r m i n e d n u m b e r s . (Hint: this w e r e not t r u e . F o r e x a m p l e . t h e frequency of rotation. h o w m u c h did t h e sun speed u p w h e n contracting? 2.) 2. (d) If t h e original cloud w a s t h e size of t h e solar s y s t e m .9. (b) H e n c e find t h e surfaces of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e . U s i n g the m e t h o d s of A p p e n d i x B . the p r e s s u r e at the points on t h e surface at c o l u m n through t h e fluid perpendicular t o t h e plane could not b e a b o u t a plane S h o w t h a t if t h e tips of a equal. Calculate t h e angular m o m e n t u m of t h e sun and of t h e entire solar s y s t e m .4. S h o w that it is impossible for a prolate spheroid to b e in equilibrium.8. C o n s i d e r an ellipsoid which h a s a charge density <x per unit v o l u m e and a matter density 0 per unit v o l u m e . W h i c h bodies carry most of t h e angular m o m e n t u m ? 2. 2.5. (a) Derive t h e e x p r e s s i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g to E q . and write d o w n t h e condition which tells w h e t h e r t h e ellipsoid can b e in equilibrium.

it w a s p r e s u m a b l y f o r m e d in t h e s a m e w a y . (2. H o w would E q . Are any near this limit? 2. Gordon and Breach. Cox and R. An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure.11. 1957.38 Fluids in Astrophysics (c) Define a n e w critical f r e q u e n c y for t h e charged ellipsoid. T. It has s o m e t i m e s b e e n suggested that the galaxies are moving a w a y from e a c h other b e c a u s e of a small electrostatic charge on e a c h galaxy. and h e n c e should r o t a t e with about t h e s a m e speed. and as m a n y of t h e planets as you can. L e t us call this planet K r y p t o n for definiteness. O n e t h e o r y for t h e formation of t h e asteroid belt (which is not a c c e p t e d today) is that t h e asteroids are t h e result of t h e disruption of a planet. If this w e r e s o . Lamb. w h a t w o u l d its density h a v e t o b e to h a v e it disrupt b e c a u s e of the m e c h a n i s m s discussed in this c h a p t e r ? A r e t h e r e any materials of this density k n o w n ? A r e t h e y p r e v a l e n t in t h e asteroid belt? REFERENCES A discussion of stability of gravitating fluids is given in H. Hydrodynamics (cited in Chapter 1). and a r g u e as follows: Since t h e planet w a s near t h e e a r t h and M a r s . C a n it ever b e z e r o ? Give a physical interpretation of this result.10. Dover Publications. .12. Principles of Stellar Structure. New York.3) b e changed if this w e r e so? U n d e r w h a t conditions would t h e galactic rotation c u r v e for a charged and u n c h a r g e d galaxy b e the s a m e ? 2. the sun.F. John P. For more detailed presentations of the principles of stellar structure. 1968. New York. 2. Chandrasekar. Calculate the critical frequency of the e a r t h . Giugli. see S.

W e h a v e . in o t h e r w o r d s . 39 . A b a l l o n a flat t a b l e t o p w o u l d b e a n e x a m p l e of s u c h a system. F o r a s y s t e m t o b e in s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i u m . W e have not asked whether the equilibrium configurations which w e h a v e f o u n d w e r e s t a b l e . A b a l l s i t t i n g o n t o p o f a hill w o u l d b e a n e x a m p l e o f a u n s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i u m . s i n c e s m a l l c h a n g e s of p o s i t i o n w o u l d r e s u l t in t h e b a l l b e i n g d r i v e n f a r t h e r a n d f a r t h e r f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m . w e m u s t n o t o n l y h a v e a s i t u a t i o n in w h i c h f o r c e s a r e in b a l a n c e . r a t h e r t h a n f a r t h e r a w a y f r o m it. l o o k e d o n l y f o r s i t u a t i o n s in w h i c h it w a s p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h e q u i l i b r i u m .3 The Idea of Stability Bright star. T h i s is a s i t u a t i o n in w h i c h m o v e m e n t a w a y f r o m t h e e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n r e s u l t s in n o f o r c e s b e i n g e x e r t e d a t all. T h e c l a s s i c e x a m p l e o f s u c h a s y s t e m i s a m a s s o n t h e e n d of a n u n s t r e t c h e d s p r i n g . b u t w h e r e s m a l l d e v i a t i o n s of t h e s y s t e m f r o m t h e e q u i l i b r i u m m u s t g e n e r a t e f o r c e s w h i c h t e n d t o d r i v e t h e s y s t e m b a c k t o w a r d its equilibrium configuration. A n y m o v e m e n t of t h e m a s s a w a y f r o m this e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n r e s u l t s in t h e s p r i n g e x e r t i n g a f o r c e pulling (or p u s h i n g ) t h e m a s s b a c k t o w a r d its original position. INTRODUCTION U p to this point w e h a v e only been c o n c e r n e d with questions related to t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of b a l a n c i n g f o r c e s in fluid m a s s e s . were I as steadfast as thou art! JOHN KEATS Sonnet written on a blank page in Shakespeare's poems A. A t h i r d t y p e of e q u i l i b r i u m — n e u t r a l e q u i l i b r i u m — c a n b e d e f i n e d b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o . Let us n o w try to formulate these ideas more quantitatively.

.2. In this simple e x a m p l e . w e m u s t a s k h o w t h e s y s t e m b e h a v e s if w e m o v e s l i g h t l y a w a y f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m — i . e . A n e x a m p l e of s u c h a s u r f a c e is p i c t u r e d i n F i g . s o w e s e e t h a t t h e c h a n g e in V a s w e m o v e a w a y f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m is g o v e r n e d b y t h e s i g n of t h e s e c o n d d e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e p o t e n t i a l . s o t h a t t h e e q u i l i b r i u m i s s t a b l e ... 1 .) = V(q . t h e t e r m l i n e a r in t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t TJ.. T h u s .. If t h i s t e r m is n e g a t i v e . I n t h e e x a m p l e of t h e p a r t i c l e o n t h e s p r i n g . that at equilibrium x t T o i n v e s t i g a t e s t a b i l i t y .. the potential as a f u n c t i o n of t h e t w o p a r a m e t e r s q a n d A w o u l d b e a s u r f a c e in t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s .e.3) N o w f r o m t h e e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d i t i o n . q l m .40 The Idea of Stability L e t u s b e g i n w i t h a s y s t e m in w h i c h t h e k i n e t i c e n e r g y c a n b e n e g l e c t e d .. q .2) expand the potential near the . l0 q . l e t u s c o n s i d e r o n l y t h o s e p e r t u r b a t i o n s in w h i c h q is v a r i e d w h i l e A is h e l d fixed. w e s e e t h a t t h e s y s t e m is s t a b l e a t t h e p o i n t P a g a i n s t p e r t u r b a t i o n s in w h i c h A is h e l d fixed. 3 .) where the qi a r e s o m e c o o r d i n a t e s . T o fix t h e s e i d e a s m o r e firmly. l e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e c a s e of a p o t e n t i a l w h i c h d e p e n d s o n o n l y o n e c o o r d i n a t e q a n d o n o n e o t h e r p a r a m e t e r A. A . 3 . T h e n t h e c o n d i t i o n f o r e q u i l i b r i u m is t h a t t h e forces o n t h e s y s t e m cancel—i. 3. 3 . . w e e q u i l i b r i u m p o i n t in a T a y l o r s e r i e s V(q x (3. t h e s e w o u l d b e t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e particle and the spring constant.. W e will c o n s i d e r o t h e r t y p e s of p e r t u r b a t i o n s l a t e r .A. If t h e t e r m b i l i n e a r in TJ is p o s i t i v e . if w e l e t qi T o m a k e such an investigation. h o w e v e r . a n d t h e e q u i l i b r i u m will b e u n s t a b l e . a p l a n e a t fixed A g i v e s a c u r v e o f V v e r s u s q w h i c h l o o k s l i k e F i g . t h e n m o v i n g a w a y f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m t e n d s t o i n c r e a s e t h e e n e r g y of t h e s y s t e m ..) i0 (3. e i t h e r b y i n s p e c t i o n o r f r o m E q . T o b e g i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n of s t a b i l i t y .. A t t h e p o i n t P . t h e n s m a l l d e v i a t i o n s t e n d t o d e c r e a s e t h e e n e r g y of t h e s y s t e m . is z e r o . . a n d w h e r e t h e p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y c a n b e w r i t t e n a s V(q .A.

Introduction

41

Fig. 3.1.

Potential surface as a function of two parameters.

In t e r m s of o u r s p r i n g e x a m p l e , at this p o i n t , t h e s p r i n g will t e n d t o pull t h e system back into equilibrium. A t t h e p o i n t Q, t h e s i t u a t i o n is s o m e w h a t different. H e r e t h e c u t t h r o u g h t h e potential surface at c o n s t a n t A yields a g r a p h like Fig. 3.3, so that t h e s y s t e m is u n s t a b l e a g a i n s t p e r t u r b a t i o n s w i t h c o n s t a n t A a t t h i s p o i n t . T h e transition b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o c a s e s o c c u r s at A, w h e r e t h e potential s u r f a c e l o o k s l i k e F i g . 3.4. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s n e u t r a l e q u i l i b r i u m , w h e r e t h e s e c o n d d e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e p o t e n t i a l v a n i s h , s o t h a t d i s p l a c e m e n t s of t h e s y s t e m d o n o t c h a n g e i t s e n e r g y a t all. T h u s , t h e p o t e n t i a l s u r f a c e w e h a v e d r a w n a s a n e x a m p l e i l l u s t r a t e s all of t h e t y p e s of s t a b i l i t y d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . I t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s a n o t h e r v e r y i m p o r t a n t p o i n t a b o u t stability. T o see this point, let u s go b a c k t o o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e p o i n t P . P r e v i o u s l y , w e h a d c o n s i d e r e d o n l y t h o s e p e r t u r b a t i o n s i n w h i c h w e c h a n g e d q s l i g h t l y , b u t h e l d A fixed. L e t u s n o w c o n s i d e r t h e o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e — l e t u s c o n s i d e r a p e r t u r b a t i o n in w h i c h q is h e l d fixed a n d A i s v a r i e d ( t h i n k , f o r e x a m p l e , o f h o l d i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e

q Fig. 3.2. Potential surface at P for fixed A. Fig. 3.3.

Q

Potential surface at Q for fixed A.

42

The Idea of Stability

A

Fig. 3.4.

Potential surface at A for fixed A.

Fig. 3.5.

Potential surface at P for fixed q.

p a r t i c l e a t t h e e n d of a s p r i n g fixed, b u t h e a t i n g t h e s p r i n g s o t h a t t h e s p r i n g c o n s t a n t c h a n g e s ) . A t P , this c o r r e s p o n d s to looking at a p l a n e p e r p e n d i c u lar t o t h e q-axis, in w h i c h c a s e w e h a v e Fig. 3.5. I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s y s t e m a t P w a s s t a b l e a g a i n s t t h e first t y p e of p e r t u r b a t i o n b u t u n s t a b l e a g a i n s t t h e s e c o n d ! T h i s is a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p o i n t w h e n d i s c u s s i n g s t a b i l i t y — o n e m u s t a l w a y s s p e c i f y a g a i n s t w h i c h t y p e s of p e r t u r b a t i o n t h e s y s t e m is stable. T h e r e a r e m a n y s y s t e m s ( w e shall c o n s i d e r o n e in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n ) w h i c h a r e s t a b l e a g a i n s t o n e t y p e of p e r t u r b a t i o n , but unstable against another. In our two-dimensional example, then, w e w o u l d s a y t h a t a p o i n t w a s a p o i n t of s t a b i l i t y if a n d o n l y if t h e s e c o n d d e r i v a t i v e s of V w e r e p o s i t i v e i n e v e r y d i r e c t i o n a r o u n d t h e p o i n t , o r , e q u i v a l e n t l y , t h e p o t e n t i a l e x h i b i t e d a m i n i m u m in e v e r y p o s s i b l e p l a n e drawn through the point. If t h i s w e r e n o t t h e c a s e , s m a l l t h e r m a l f l u c t u a t i o n s w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y m o v e t h e s y s t e m slightly in t h e d i r e c t i o n in w h i c h t h e p o t e n t i a l w o u l d b e l o w e r , a n d , o n c e s t a r t e d , n o t h i n g c o u l d b r i n g it b a c k ( t h i s i s s i m i l a r t o a b a l l r o l l i n g d o w n a h i l l — i t t a k e s o n l y a s m a l l p u s h t o s t a r t it g o i n g ) . O u r e x a m p l e h a s c o n c e r n e d itself o n l y w i t h a p o t e n t i a l w h i c h d e p e n d s o n t w o v a r i a b l e s . I n g e n e r a l , p o t e n t i a l s will d e p e n d o n m a n y m o r e v a r i a b l e s t h a n t h i s . F o r e x a m p l e , a p a r t i c l e m o v i n g in t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s a t t a c h e d t o t h r e e s p r i n g s w o u l d d e p e n d o n s i x v a r i a b l e s — t h e x, y, z c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e particle and the three spring constants. T h e potential would then b e a surface i n a s e v e n - d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e . T h e i d e a of finding m i n i m a a n d m a x i m a , a n d t h e o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s of s t a b i l i t y d i s c u s s e d f o r t h e s i m p l e e x a m p l e a b o v e , h o w e v e r , is still a p p l i c a b l e , a n d p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l w a y t o v i s u a l i z e t h e problem. L e t u s n o w t u r n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e v o l u t i o n of s y s t e m s i n t i m e . W e g o back to our simple two-dimensional example, and suppose that n o w w e deal w i t h a p i e c e of t h e p o t e n t i a l s u r f a c e w h i c h l o o k s l i k e F i g . 3.6. T h e l i n e XYZ n o w r e p r e s e n t s a line of e x t r e m a of t h e s u r f a c e . T h e p o i n t Z r e p r e s e n t s a s t a t e of t h e s y s t e m w h i c h is u n s t a b l e a g a i n s t a n y p e r t u r b a t i o n , w h i l e t h e p o i n t X r e p r e s e n t s a t r u l y s t a b l e s t a t e . N o w if w e s t a r t t h e s y s t e m off a t s o m e p o i n t L , w h i c h is n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a p o i n t of e q u i l i b r i u m o r s t a b i l i t y , t h e s y s t e m will e v o l v e in t i m e , j u s t a s a b a l l p l a c e d o n t h e s i d e of a

Stability of the Maclaurin Ellipsoid

43

9

Fig. 3.6.

The evolution of a system along a potential surface.

hill w i l l s t a r t r o l l i n g . L e t t h e l i n e LM r e p r e s e n t t h e s t a t e s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e s y s t e m p a s s e s (it m i g h t b e h e l p f u l t o v i s u a l i z e t h i s i n t e r m s of a p a r t i c l e o n a s p r i n g — w h e n t h e s p r i n g c o n s t a n t is c h a n g e d b y h e a t i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e p a r t i c l e w i l l c h a n g e . T h i s l e a d s t o n e w v a l u e s of A a n d q, a n d h e n c e t o a n e w s t a t e of t h e s y s t e m , r e p r e s e n t e d b y a n e w p o i n t o n t h e surface). If t h e p o i n t M h a p p e n s t o fall o n t h e c u r v e XYZ b e t w e e n X a n d Y, t h e n t h e s y s t e m h a s a c h a n c e of a c h i e v i n g s t a b i l i t y , w h i l e if it f a l l s b e t w e e n Y a n d Z , it d o e s n o t . ( A g a i n , t h i n k i n g of t h e m o t i o n of t h e s y s t e m a s a b a l l r o l l i n g a r o u n d o n t h e p o t e n t i a l s u r f a c e will h e l p t o v i s u a l i z e this point.) I t is i n t e r e s t i n g t o a s k w h a t h a p p e n s if t h e p o i n t M f a l l s e x a c t l y o n t h e p o i n t of n e u t r a l e q u i l i b r i u m Y. I n t h i s c a s e , t h e s y s t e m c a n " c h o o s e " s t a b i l i t y o r instability. T h e s i t u a t i o n is similar t o b a l a n c i n g a ball o n a p o i n t a n d a s k i n g w h i c h w a y it w i l l f a l l . T h e a n s w e r d e p e n d s o n a l a r g e n u m b e r of f a c t o r s — t h e p r e c i s e w a y in w h i c h t h e b a l l w a s p l a c e d , s l i g h t m o v e m e n t s of t h e a i r o r v i b r a t i o n s of t h e f l o o r , e t c . S u c h e f f e c t s , w h i l e c a l c u l a b l e i n p r i n c i p l e , a r e u s u a l l y r e g a r d e d a s r a n d o m f a c t o r s b e y o n d t h e r a n g e o f a n a l y s i s . B u t it is c l e a r t h a t a t t h e p o i n t Y, a s l i g h t d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s y s t e m t o w a r d Z w i l l r e s u l t in i n s t a b i l i t y of t h e s y s t e m , w h i l e a s l i g h t d e v i a t i o n t o w a r d X w i l l r e s u l t in s t a b i l i t y .

B.

STABILITY OF THE MACLAURIN ELLIPSOID
we of we of

A s a n e x a m p l e of t h e d i s c u s s i o n of s t a b i l i t y i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , e x a m i n e the Maclaurin ellipsoid's stability against a certain t y p e perturbation. Before doing so, however, w e have to r e m e m b e r that w h e n a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a r o t a t i n g g r a v i t a t i n g fluid, t h e e n e r g y is m a d e u p b o t h

44

The Idea of Stability

k i n e t i c a n d p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n j u s t p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y , a s it w a s in t h e s i m p l i f i e d m o d e l w e c o n s i d e r e d in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . T h u s , t h e condition for an equilibrium b e c o m e s (3.B.1) w h i l e t h e c o n d i t i o n f o r s t a b i l i t y is (3.B.2) T h e s e n e w c o n d i t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e f a c t t h a t e v e r y s y s t e m will t e n d t o m o v e t o w a r d a s t a t e of l o w e s t t o t a l e n e r g y . We shall c o n s i d e r a very restricted class of perturbations: those perturbations which (i) c o n s e r v e a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m , (ii) p r e s e r v e t h a t g e o m e t r y of t h e M a c l a u r i n perturbations which keep two axes equal), (iii) k e e p t h e d e n s i t y c o n s t a n t . ellipsoid (i.e. those

T h e first r e s t r i c t i o n i s v e r y r e a s o n a b l e if w e t h i n k of t h i n g s l i k e s t e l l a r b o d i e s , since a n y p e r t u r b a t i o n in s u c h a s y s t e m h a s to c o m e f r o m within t h e s y s t e m itself, a n d h e n c e p r e s e r v e a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m . T h e s e c o n d r e s t r i c t i o n will b e i m p o s e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h e d i s c u s s i o n f o r mathematical simplicity. T h e k i n e t i c e n e r g y of t h e s y s t e m i n t e r m s of t h e a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m L is just (3.B.3)
2

w h e r e I is t h e m o m e n t of i n e r t i a a b o u t t h e a x i s o f r o t a t i o n a n d is g i v e n b y

T h e p o t e n t i a l c a n b e c a l c u l a t e d in a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d m a n n e r ( s e e P r o b l e m

in

tn

he

(3.B.4) w h e r e t h e s y m b o l s a r e d e f i n e d i n C h a p t e r 2. L e t u s b e g i n b y n o t i n g t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n of s t a b i l i t y of a n e l l i p s o i d n o w c o m e s d o w n t o finding m i n i m a i n t h e f u n c t i o n E = T + V. I n g e n e r a l , t h i s is a f u n c t i o n of a, b, a n d c. H o w e v e r , r e q u i r e m e n t (iii) m e a n s t h a t if a a n d b a r e

Stability of the Maclaurin Ellipsoid

45

c h a n g e d , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t of c o n s t a n t v o l u m e t h e n d e t e r m i n e s t h e v a l u e of c. T h u s , E will b e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a f u n c t i o n of a a n d b o n l y . L a t e r , w e s h a l l i m p o s e r e s t r i c t i o n (ii) a n d c o n s i d e r t h e c a s e a = b o n l y . F o r t h e m o m e n t , h o w e v e r , let u s k e e p t h e m o r e g e n e r a l c a s e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . W e c o u l d , of c o u r s e , c a l c u l a t e t h e v a l u e of E f o r e v e r y v a l u e of a a n d b a n d l o o k f o r m i n i m a . W e c a n g e t a n a n s w e r in t h e c a s e of t h e M a c l a u r i n ellipsoid w i t h o u t such a complicated p r o c e d u r e , h o w e v e r . Write E(a,

b)= T + V.

N o w a s a - > o°, w e w o u l d h a v e a s i t u a t i o n in w h i c h t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e e l l i p s e w a s s p r e a d o u t o v e r all s p a c e , s o w e w o u l d e x p e c t V - » 0 . C l e a r l y , in t h i s l i m i t T -> 0 [ s e e E q . (3 . B .3)] a s w e l l , s o t h a t E -> 0. A s i m i l a r a r g u m e n t h o l d s f o r t h e l i m i t b -»<». F r o m t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r V in E q . ( 3 . B . 4 ) , w e s e e t h a t if e i t h e r a - » 0 o r b - » 0 , V - * 0 . If a ^ O , t h e n E(a,b)*Hb ( s i m i l a r l y , if b - * 0 , E(a, b) <* 1 /a ). T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n E(a, b) m u s t l o o k l i k e F i g . 3.7 in t h e r e g i o n s d e a l t w i t h a b o v e .
2 2

If w e r e s t r i c t o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e M a c l a u r i n e l l i p s o i d , w e w a n t o n l y t h e p l a n e c o n t a i n i n g t h e l i n e a = b. N o t e t h a t b y r e s t r i c t i n g o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s plane, w e are only considering stability against p e r t u r b a t i o n s w h i c h leave t h e l e n g t h s of t h e t w o m a j o r a x e s e q u a l , a n d w e will b e u n a b l e t o s a y a n y t h i n g a b o u t p e r t u r b a t i o n s w h i c h c h a n g e t h e s e l e n g t h s d i f f e r e n t l y . H o w e v e r , in t h i s p l a n e , t h e f u n c t i o n E(a,b) c a n b e s k e t c h e d o u t . W e k n o w t h a t it m u s t (1) b e c o m e i n f i n i t e a s a = b - > 0 , (2) g o t o z e r o a s a = b - » o ° , a n d (3) f r o m S e c t i o n 2 . C , w e k n o w t h a t t h e r e is o n e a n d o n l y o n e p o i n t of e q u i l i b r i u m — i . e . o n l y o n e p o i n t a t w h i c h dE/da = 0 . T h i s m e a n s t h a t E(a, b) i n t h i s c a s e m u s t l o o k l i k e F i g . 3 . 8 , w h i c h m e a n s t h a t t h e M a c l a u r i n e l l i p s o i d is s t a b l e

Fig. 3.7.

The energy for a Maclaurin ellipsoid as a function of a and b.

46

The Idea of Stability

E

•a =b Fig. 3.8. The energy surface along the line a = b.

a g a i n s t p e r t u r b a t i o n s in w h i c h a = b. F r o m t h e a r g u m e n t s o f a r , w e c a n d r a w n o c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e s t a b i l i t y a g a i n s t o t h e r t y p e s of p e r t u r b a tions. I n f a c t , t h e M a c l a u r i n e l l i p s o i d is s t a b l e a g a i n s t all p e r t u r b a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g b u l k c h a n g e s o f t h e r e l a t i v e s i z e of t h e a x e s , a s a r e t h e J a c o b i e l l i p s o i d s . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e m i n i m u m in t h e a = b p l a n e s h o w n a b o v e is a c t u a l l y a m i n i m u m in t h e s u r f a c e E ( a , b), a n d n o t a s a d d l e p o i n t . O t h e r m i n i m a in t h e s u r f a c e w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d , of c o u r s e , t o t h e J a c o b i e l l i p s o i d s . F o r c o m p l e t e n e s s , it s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e s e e l l i p s o i d s , w h i l e s t a b l e a g a i n s t p e r t u r b a t i o n s w h i c h l e a v e t h e d e n s i t y of t h e fluid u n c h a n g e d , a r e u n s t a b l e a g a i n s t fluctuations i n t h i s d e n s i t y . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p o i n t w h i c h w a s m a d e e a r l i e r — t h a t it is p o s s i b l e f o r a s y s t e m t o b e s t a b l e a g a i n s t o n e t y p e of p e r t u r b a t i o n b u t n o t a g a i n s t a n o t h e r .

SUMMARY
T h e q u e s t i o n of t h e s t a b i l i t y of a fluid s y s t e m w a s d i s c u s s e d . T h e g e n e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t a s y s t e m b e in s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i u m is t h a t e v e r y p o s s i b l e p e r t u r b a t i o n o f t h e s y s t e m l e a d t o a s t a t e o f h i g h e r t o t a l e n e r g y . I t is a l w a y s p o s s i b l e , of c o u r s e , t h a t a s y s t e m c o u l d b e s t a b l e a g a i n s t o n e t y p e of p e r t u r b a t i o n , b u t u n s t a b l e a g a i n s t a n o t h e r . T h e s t a b i l i t y of t h e M a c l a u r i n e l l i p s o i d w a s i n v e s t i g a t e d , a n d it w a s s h o w n t h a t t h e e q u i l i b r i u m configurations d e r i v e d in t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r w e r e i n d e e d stable against p e r t u r b a t i o n s w h i c h k e e p t h e d e n s i t y of t h e fluid c o n s t a n t .

PROBLEMS
3.1. Given t h e expression for t h e potential inside of an ellipsoid from A p p e n d i x B , find t h e total gravitational potential energy of such a b o d y , and h e n c e verify E q . (3 .B .4). 3.2. A full discussion of t h e stability of t h e rings of Saturn would b e a long undertaking. H o w e v e r , t h e r e is a relatively simple calculation that can b e d o n e t o

Y ) . t h e e n e r g y of t h e s y s t e m is lowered. including b o t h electrical and gravitational c o n t r i b u t i o n s . of m a s s m and m l o c a t e d a d i s t a n c e JR apart and rotating a b o u t t h e c o m m o n c e n t e r of m a s s with frequency co. and radius D c e n t e r e d o n an attracting b o d y of m a s s M. (a) Calculate t h e total potential energy in s u c h a s y s t e m . 3. Consider a Maclaurin ellipsoid of m a s s density p a n d c h a r g e density <x. (0.0) (0. and a charge Q (of t h e s a m e sign) is located at t h e origin. in w h i c h a particle at t h e point (L.L) Fig. A n interesting kind of instability is occasionally e n c o u n t e r e d in dealing with binary star s y s t e m s . C o n s i d e r a situation as s h o w n in Fig. (b) Are t h e r e any other points of equilibrium in t h e p l a n e ? (c) A r e t h e s e p o i n t s stable or u n s t a b l e equilibria? 3. L ) is a t t a c h e d t o t w o springs of equal spring c o n s t a n t s k and u n s t r e t c h e d length L. Consider a solid ring of circular c r o s s section a. 3. 3. they are unlikely t o b e stable if t h e y are fluid). 3.Problems 47 s h o w t h e instability of t h e rings if w e a s s u m e that t h e rings are solid (clearly. (a) Give an a r g u m e n t leading t o t h e conclusion that co = (b) S h o w that t h e potential at any point in s p a c e is given b y . so that t h e system is u n s t a b l e . S h o w that if t h e c e n t e r of t h e ring is displaced slightly from t h e c e n t e r of t h e attracting b o d y . if t h e rings c a n n o t b e stable if solid.3.9. C o n s i d e r t w o stars.5.) 3. (a) Calculate t h e potential energy of t h e s y s t e m if t h e particle is m o v e d t o an arbitrary point (X.6.9.8. m a s s m.4. R e p e a t t h e analysis of P r o b l e m 3. (b) U n d e r w h a t conditions will such an ellipsoid b e stable? (Hint: Y o u m a y wish to refer to P r o b l e m 2.4 for t h e c a s e w h e n t h e particle carries a c h a r g e q.

. Y= r/x. P r o d u c e an a r g u m e n t that for s o m e value of q. w e speak of having r e a c h e d Roche' s limit. Y. Clarendon Press.48 The Idea of Stability w h e r e t h e arbitrary point is (X. and r and r' are t h e distances from t h e m a s s e s t o t h e point. Oxford. Z ) . S. New York. W h e n this h a p p e n s . Becker. b e t w e e n the stars. see Robert A. (c) S h o w that if w e define X= r\. Chandrasekar. in which m a s s will b e exchanged. and t h e potential b e c o m e s (d) M a k e a sketch of t h e potential in part (c) for various values of q. it should b e possible for a particle to go from t h e gravitational field of o n e star to that of t h e other without expending energy. Hydrodynamics and Hydromagnetic Stability. 1961. 1954 (Chapter 5). McGraw-Hill. Z = rv. REFERENCES For a general discussion of the stability of physical systems. Introduction of Theoretical Mechanics.

t) ( s e e F i g . a f u n c t i o n of b o t h p o s i t i o n a n d t i m e .1) 49 . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t o e a c h p o i n t in s p a c e w e c a n a s s i g n a v e c t o r w h i c h c a n b e . T h i s c o l l e c t i o n of v e l o c i t i e s is r e f e r r e d t o a s a velocity field. z ) in t e r m s of t h e v e l o c i t y v e c t o r a n d its d e r i v a t i v e s at t h e origin b y u s i n g a T a y l o r expansion (4. in g e n e r a l . t h e n a v o l u m e e l e m e n t l o c a t e d at c o o r d i n a t e s (x. HERACLITUS A. w e h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y t h e c a s e of h y d r o s t a t i c s . z. 4 .4 Fluids in Motion No man steps into the same river twice. It is p o s s i b l e t o w r i t e d o w n t h e v e l o c i t y a t t h e p o i n t (x. THE VELOCITY FIELD U p t o t h i s p o i n t . E v e n t h e c a s e of r o t a t i n g s t a r s w a s t r e a t e d b y g o i n g t o a r o t a t i n g f r a m e of r e f e r e n c e . t h e s t u d y of hydrodynamics. If w e t h i n k of t h e fluid a s b e i n g c o m p o s e d of infinitesimal v o l u m e e l e m e n t s . 1 ) . y.A. y. in w h i c h t h e fluid w h i c h c o m p r i s e d t h e s t a r w o u l d n o t b e in m o t i o n . W e n o w t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m o r e g e n e r a l c a s e of m o v i n g f l u i d s . y. z ) will h a v e s o m e v e l o c i t y v ( x . T h e first t h i n g w h i c h w e s h a l l h a v e t o d e c i d e is h o w t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e m o t i o n of t h e fluid. w h i c h d e a l s w i t h s t a t i o n a r y f l u i d s .

3) where t + S + C. Vi(x.1.4) is r e l a t e d t o t h e d i v e r g e n c e of t h e v e l o c i t y field ( i . B y a d d i n g a n d s u b t r a c t i n g t h e s a m e t h i n g t o t h e t e r m i n s i d e of t h e s u m m a t i o n .A.z)1 ^ ( 0 . E q . t h i s c a n b e c a s t in t h e f o r m (4.A.50 Fluids in Motion (0. 0 .2) T h u s .o r d e r t e r m s in t h i s e x p a n s i o n a n d e x p r e s s t h e v e l o c i t y field n e a r t h e o r i g i n in t e r m s of t h e d e r i v a t i v e s of t h e v e l o c i t y . t (4. ( 4 . t h e s u m m a t i o n c o n v e n t i o n is n o t u s e d ) .A. e . If w e c o n f i n e o u r a t t e n t i o n t o a s m a l l n e i g h b o r h o o d n e a r t h e o r i g i n . A . 0 ) = Au.0) Fig.0. dvjdxi t h e d i v e r g e n c e V • vL is o n e p i e c e of (4. The velocity field. 1 ) c a n b e w r i t t e n in t h e f o r m (in t h i s e q u a t i o n .5) . y. t h e c h a n g e in v e l o c i t y a s w e m o v e f r o m o n e p o i n t in t h e fluid t o a n o t h e r c a n b e w r i t t e n a s t h e s u m of t h r e e p a r t s . w e c a n i g n o r e h i g h e r . 4. a n d z a r e s m a l l . = D (4.A. y. s o t h a t x.

L ) r y in t h e y . a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g t e r m . t o a p h y s i c a l p i c t u r e of w h a t s o r t of fluid m o t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v e l o c i t y fields w i t h d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of p r o p e r t i e s . 3 . s o t h a t ( r e s t r i c t i n g o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t w o .A. a n d C . S. . (L. F o r e x a m p l e . (4. w h i c h s h a l l b e c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e g i v e n v e l o c i t y field itself.0) Fig. 4 . it w i l l b e p o s s i b l e t o g o f r o m t h e r a t h e r f o r m a l d e f i n i t i o n of a v e l o c i t y field w h i c h w e h a v e g i v e n a b o v e . w e s h a l l s e e t h a t t h e r e is a n intimate relationship between the expression V x v and rotational motion in t h e fluid. a n d (0. W e s h a l l t h e n c o m p u t e t h e v e l o c i t y a t e a c h c o r n e r of t h e s q u a r e in t e r m s o f D .2. a n d b e t w e e n t h e e x p r e s s i o n V • v a n d c h a n g e s of d e n s i t y . w e s h a l l h a v e t h e s i t u a t i o n in F i g . 4. a t t i m e r. F o r e x a m p l e . 2 ) . t h e p o i n t (0. h a v i n g c a l c u l a t e d D .The Velocity Field 51 is r e l a t e d t o t h e c u r l of t h e field. 4 .d i m e n s i o n a l flow). T h u s .0) The initial square in a moving fluid. T h u s . x L ) T in t h e x-direction.6) will j u s t b e called t h e " s y m m e t r i c p a r t . T h e t e c h n i q u e w h i c h w e shall u s e t o a c c o m p l i s h this will b e t o c o n s i d e r f o u r p o i n t s in t h e fluid a t t i m e t = 0 ( s e e F i g .L) (L. E a c h p o i n t will h a v e m o v e d a c e r t a i n infinitesimal d i s t a n c e . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s w i l l b e o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h of t h e o t h e r p o i n t s . and a distance Ay = i ? ( 0 . S. in w h i c h e a c h p o i n t in s p a c e is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a v e c t o r .d i r e c t i o n . L ) will h a v e m o v e d a d i s t a n c e A x = v (0.L) (0. W e s h a l l t h e n a s k w h a t t h e f o u r p o i n t s l o o k l i k e a n i n f i n i t e s i m a l t i m e r l a t e r . " T h e p u r p o s e of w r i t i n g in t h i s r a t h e r c u m b e r s o m e w a y i s t o t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d w h a t d i f f e r e n t s o r t s of v e l o c i t y field c o r r e s p o n d t o in t e r m s of p h y s i c a l m o v e m e n t of t h e fluid.

w e c a n i m m e d i a t e l y v i s u a l i z e t h e t y p e of m o t i o n w h i c h is b e i n g e x e c u t e d b y t h e fluid. i n w h i c h v e l o c i t y fields a r e c h o s e n s o t h a t o n l y o n e o f t h e t h r e e t e r m s i n Av t is n o n z e r o . w i t h o u t c a l c u l a t i n g D . t h a t t h e d i v e r g e n c e a n d t h e c u r l of t h e v e l o c i t y field p l a y a s p e c i a l r o l e i n d e s c r i b i n g fluid flow. T h i s will r e s u l t in a v e l o c i t y c o n f i g u r a t i o n like t h a t s h o w n in F i g . . F o r t h i s field.L)r. O f c o u r s e . (L + V (L. (4. L)T. a n d C . 4. ^(0.3. w e c o u l d d o t h i s d i r e c t l y .L)T) y f |/(M0. W e s h a l l p r o c e e d b y l o o k i n g a t t h r e e e x a m p l e s .52 Fluids in Motion (v {0.0)T.4.A. b y t a k i n g t h e v e l o c i t i e s at t h e p o i n t s of t h e s q u a r e d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e v e l o c i t y field. L)r) (L + v (L.0)T)| / Fig. W e s h a l l s e e i n l a t e r s e c t i o n s .4. 0)T. a n d h e n c e it is i m p o r t a n t t o d e s c r i b e fluid m o t i o n i n t h e w a y w e h a v e a b o v e . w e h a v e Fig. The velocity field for Example I. L + v (0.7) Vy =0. L)r) The final configuration of the square. Example I C o n s i d e r a v e l o c i t y field i n t w o d i m e n s i o n s g i v e n b y v = x Cx. v (0.L x y x + v (L. 4. h o w e v e r . 4. S. X y i — C f r o m t h e v e l o c i t y field.

a v e l o c i t y field w h i c h p o s s e s s e s a n o n z e r o d i v e r g e n c e w i l l g i v e r i s e t o m o t i o n w h i c h c a n b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s a s t r e t c h i n g a l o n g o n e of t h e m a j o r a x e s . T h e s q u a r e at t i m e r will t h e n a p p e a r a s in F i g . s i n c e w e k n o w t h a t f o r a n i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid. = D z = 0.The Velocity Field 53 (L. s o t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e of a d i v e r g e n c e i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e m u s t b e a c h a n g i n g d e n s i t y in o r d e r for c o n t i n u i t y t o b e satisfied. b u t n o fluid c r o s s e s t h e b o u n d a r i e s . w e s e e t h a t s u c h a c h a n g e of d e n s i t y m u s t o c c u r . T h i s is q u i t e a r e a s o n a b l e r e s u l t .5.0) Fig.c o m p o n e n t s of t h e v e l o c i t y a t e a c h of t h e f o u r p o i n t s a r e g i v e n by 1 ^ ( 0 . x v (L L) x 9 = CL (4. P i c t o r i a l l y .8) 9 v (L. (4.A. 4 . t > ( 0 . t h e x . s i n c e t h e a r e a b o u n d e d b y t h e l i n e s i n t h e a b o v e figure c h a n g e s . T h u s . 5 . t o o . and C. 0 ) = 0.A.9) . = Si = D y The final configuration for Example I. T h u s . s o t h a t t h e d e n s i t y must decrease. x 0) = C L . x D = V CX. t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y b e c o m e s V • v = 0. 4. L ) = 0. Example II C o n s i d e r a v e l o c i t y field g i v e n b y v = Cy.

W e s e e . y T h e s q u a r e at t i m e r will t h e n a p p e a r a s in F i g . I i CiT J CLT y CLT Fig. The velocity field for Example II.0) = 0 = t > . L ) . w h i c h has S =Cy. b u t t h i s t i m e a l o n g some axis other than a coordinate axis.c o m p o n e n t s of v e l o c i t y a t t h e p o i n t s of t h e i>.a n d y . y v (L. 4 . x Sy Q = Dt = square are CX. A . T h i s w i l l r e s u l t in a v e l o c i t y c o n f i g u r a t i o n l i k e t h a t s h o w n in F i g . 6 . The final configuration for Example II.6. 10) v (0.7. y (4. 4.L) x = CL = = v (L. 4. 0 ) . t h a t a v e l o c i t y field c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a n o n z e r o s y m m e t r i c p a r t a l s o c o r r e s p o n d s t o a u n i f o r m s t r e t c h i n g o f t h e fluid.L)=CL x v (UL).(0. S =0.0). ( 0 .7. .54 Fluids in Motion y X Fig. 4. t h e n . Z F o r s u c h a field. t h e x. v (U x 0) = 0 = t > ( 0 .

4. y v (L. The velocity field for Example III. c o n s i d e r a v e l o c i t y field g i v e n b y Vx = Cy. A . T h e v e l o c i t i e s of t h e c o r n e r s of t h e s q u a r e a r e n o w t>x(0. t h e e x i s t e n c e of CLT [ CLT rV*' CLT Fig. 4 . y t >. T h u s . . 11) Vy = - T h i s w i l l r e s u l t in a v e l o c i t y c o n f i g u r a t i o n l i k e t h a t s h o w n i n F i g . A .0) y v (L. 9 . C. L) = CL = v (L. S i m p l e g e o m e t r y s h o w s t h a t t h i s v e l o c i t y field c o r r e s p o n d s t o a r o t a t i o n of t h e s q u a r e a r o u n d t h e o r i g i n .= C Cy=~C y.The Velocity Field 55 Example III A s a final e x a m p l e . ( 0 . ( 4 . 8 . x (4. X. L ) . CX. 4 .0) = 0 = ! > ( 0 . 12) = -CL = v (L.8.(0.9. 4. a n d h a s A = Si = 0.L). The final configuration for Example III. x 0) = 0 = i . y T h e s q u a r e a t t i m e t w i l l t h e n a p p e a r a s in F i g . \ Fig. 0 ) . w i t h n o c h a n g e in a r e a .L).

A l m o s t all of t h e e x a m p l e s w h i c h w e s h a l l c o n s i d e r w i l l i n v o l v e p o t e n t i a l flow. F r o m E q s .B.B. THE VELOCITY POTENTIAL W e h a v e s e e n t h a t if w e k n o w t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e fluid e l e m e n t s i n a v o l u m e a s a f u n c t i o n of t h e p o s i t i o n . w e c a n m a k e s o m e v e r y g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e t y p e of fluid m o t i o n w h i c h o c c u r s . ( 4 . 3 ) . W e shall h a v e r e p e a t e d r e c o u r s e t o this future examples. W i t h t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . if t h e field is s u c h t h a t V x v = 0. i r r o t a t i o n a l flow is s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d t o a s potential flow. B.v = 0. 1) a n d ( 4 . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d .B.B.3) where < / > is a s c a l a r f u n c t i o n c a l l e d t h e velocity potential. (4. t h e v e l o c i t y c a n b e w r i t t e n v = V<£.56 Fluids in Motion t h e c u r l of a v e l o c i t y field c o r r e s p o n d s t o r o t a t i o n a l m o t i o n . 2 (4. w e c a n n o w l o o k a t s o m e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s o f fluid flow. (This is v e r y similar t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n of a m a g n e t i c s c a l a r p o t e n t i a l i n e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c t h e o r y in t h e s t a t i c c a s e w h e r e V x B = 0 . if t h e field is s u c h that V .2) t h e n n o r o t a t i o n a l m o t i o n i s a l l o w e d i n t h e fluid.5)] . w e h a v e V <f> = 0 . I n p a r t i c u l a r . I t is c l e a r t h a t if w e h a v e i r r o t a t i o n a l flow. F o r o b v i o u s r e a s o n s . s u c h a flow is c a l l e d irrotational flow.4) w h i c h is result in Let us w e start just L a p l a c e ' s e q u a t i o n . w r i t e d o w n t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n i n t e r m s of t h e v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l . s o B = V<£ . (4. If w i t h t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n in t h e f o r m [see E q . w h i c h is f o r t u n a t e . a n d o n l y m o t i o n s w h i c h c o n s e r v e d e n s i t y a r e a l l o w e d . s i n c e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of a v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l a l l o w s u s t o w o r k w i t h s c a l a r r a t h e r t h a n vector quantities. m A n i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t c a n b e w r i t t e n d o w n in t h e special c a s e of p o t e n t i a l flow of a n i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid. j u s t a s t h e e x i s t e n c e of a d i v e r g e n c e of a s y m m e t r i c p a r t c o r r e s p o n d s t o s t r e t c h i n g motion. (4.) T h u s . (1.1) t h e fluid d e n s i t y c a n n o t c h a n g e . B . B .B.

S i n c e it is o n l y v w h i c h c a n b e m e a s u r e d . w e c a n a l w a y s a d d o r s u b t r a c t a n y f u n c t i o n of t i m e t o a n y v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l w i t h o u t c h a n g i n g a n y of t h e p h y s i c s of t h e p r o b l e m .B.8) If.B.6) w h e r e / ( t ) i s a n a r b i t r a r y f u n c t i o n of t i m e .B. a l t h o u g h it m a y v a r y f r o m p o i n t t o p o i n t ) . In P r o b l e m 4.The Velocity Potential 57 t h e n t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n of Vcp f o r v y i e l d s ( r e c a l l i n g t h a t t h e c u r l o f t h e g r a d i e n t vanishes) (4. in g e n e r a l . h a v e . (4. If w e h a v e a p o t e n t i a l <f> w h i c h g i v e s r i s e t o a v e l o c i t y field v. s i n c e o n l y p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s c a n b e m e a s u r e d .4. a situation w h e r e t h e velocity at a n y given point d o e s not d e p e n d explicitly o n t h e t i m e . (4. w i t h o u t l o s s of g e n e r a l ity. e . i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g i r r o t a t i o n a l . t h e f l o w h a s a c h i e v e d s t e a d y s t a t e ( i .9) w h i c h is a s p e c i a l c a s e of t h e Bernoulli of s h o w i n g t h a t t h e q u a n t i t y equation. w e n e e d t o n o t i c e a n i m p o r t a n t p r o p e r t y of t h e v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l . it c a n . w e c a n write = const. and corresponds to the f r e e d o m t o p i c k t h e z e r o of a p o t e n t i a l w h e r e v e r w e like.B. T h e r e f o r e .7) w i l l g i v e r i s e t o e x a c t l y t h e s a m e v e l o c i t y field. t h e p r o b l e m is t h e s a m e e v e r y w h e r e a l o n g a s t r e a m l i n e i n t h e fluid is g i v e n . t h e n a n y p o t e n t i a l of t h e f o r m 4>' = <l> + J " / ( * ' ) * ' (4. T h i s is t h e m o s t g e n e r a l f o r m of t h e B e r n o u l l i e q u a t i o n . i n g e n e r a l . T h i s is completely analogous to the fact that w e can always add a constant term to a gravitational potential without changing any forces. a n d p l a y s t h e r o l e of a n i n t e g r a t i o n " c o n s t a n t .B.5) s o t h a t . " T o d e a l w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n f(t). a n d t h i s reduces to (4. t h e n dcp/dt = 0. a n d s t a t e s t h a t w h i l e t h i s q u a n t i t y m u s t b e c o n s e r v e d a l o n g a s t r e a m l i n e .

STABILITY OF FLOW I n C h a p t e r 3 . w e w o u l d d e s c r i b e t h e s i t u a t i o n o n t h e left a s u n s t a b l e b e c a u s e a s w e m o v e a w a y f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m . a l t h o u g h it is u s u a l l y m o r e c o n v e n i e n t t o m a k e t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s w h i c h a l l o w u s t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r a s y s t e m is s t a b l e o r u n s t a b l e in a d i f f e r e n t w a y . T h e a d v a n t a g e of t h i s t e c h n i q u e is t h a t it a l l o w s u s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e q u e s t i o n of s t a b i l i t y d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n . t h e n x(t). a s m a l l d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s y s t e m f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m w i l l r e s u l t in t h e b a l l m o v i n g f a r a w a y f r o m t h e t o p of t h e hill ( s i n c e a s m a l l d i s p l a c e m e n t w i l l c a u s e it t o r o l l d o w n ) . T o u n d e r s t a n d t h i s n e w l i n e of a t t a c k a n d c o n n e c t it t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n of C h a p t e r 3. F o r t h e s p e c i a l c a s e of i r r o t a t i o n a l motion. w e s a w t h a t a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p r o p e r t y of fluid s y s t e m s i n equilibrium w a s stability. t h e e n e r g y of t h e s y s t e m is lowered.10). let u s c o n s i d e r t h e c a s e of a ball rolling o n a s u r f a c e ( s e e Fig. T h i s s a m e s o r t of r e a s o n i n g c a n b e a p p l i e d t o fluid flow p a t t e r n s a s w e l l . it w a s u n s t a b l e . T h u s . w o u l d b e stable. this c o u l d b e u n d e r s t o o d i n t e r m s o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e e n e r g y s u r f a c e .d e p e n d e n t d e p a r t u r e s f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m ( t h e o r i g i n of t h e s e s m a l l p e r t u r b a t i o n s is d i s c u s s e d in C h a p t e r 3 ) .10. w h i l e if t h e e n e r g y d e c r e a s e d . since m o v e m e n t a w a y from the equilibrium configuration raises the total energy. . t h e n it w a s s t a b l e . w e h a v e s h o w n that this quantity must not only b e conserved along a given streamline. F o r t h e s t a b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . T h e situation on t h e right.h a n d d i a g r a m . but must b e the s a m e for every s t r e a m l i n e i n t h e fluid. The idea of stability. h o w e v e r . t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n a r e s u c h t h a t x(t) s t a y s s m a l l ( t y p i c a l l y . I n C h a p t e r 3 . t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e b a l l . t h e s y s t e m w i l l p e r f o r m small-scale oscillations around the equilibrium point).58 Fluids in Motion d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s f o r d i f f e r e n t s t r e a m l i n e s . W e s a w that for static or semi-static s y s t e m s . w i t h o u t Fig. t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n of t h e s y s t e m m u s t b e s u c h t h a t if I a l l o w s m a l l . will e v e n t u a l l y b e c o m e q u i t e l a r g e . t i m e . 4. T h e n e w r e a s o n i n g w h i c h w e s h a l l a p p l y t o t h e fluid flow p r o b l e m is a s f o l l o w s : I n t h e l e f t . If t h e s y s t e m w a s o n e in w h i c h t h e e n e r g y i n c r e a s e d a s w e m o v e d a w a y f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m . h o w e v e r . 4. C. h o w e v e r .

w i l l t h e d i s t o r t i o n s t e n d t o s m o o t h o u t o r s t a y s m a l l . T h e subscript "0" refers to the equilibrium pressure and the P ' terms are the 2 Fig. a n d t h e e q u i l i b r i u m c o n f i g u r a t i o n is o b v i o u s l y t h e c a s e w h e r e t h e i n t e r f a c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o fluids i s s i m p l y t h e z = 0 p l a n e .3) and the system would indeed " r u n a w a y " w h e n a small perturbation w a s applied. a n d of t h e f o r m co = co — i\coi\. t h e t w o fluids m e e t . l e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e " t a n g e n t i a l i n s t a b i l i t y " i n fluid flow. 4. . R (4. = P. let u s a s s u m e t h a t t h e s u r f a c e is s l i g h t l y d i s t o r t e d . T o s e e h o w t h i s i d e a w o r k s in t h e c a s e of a fluid. (4. t h e y w o u l d r e q u i r e t h a t co b e c o m p l e x .C. t h e y w o u l d r e q u i r e t h a t co b e r e a l . If w e d i s t o r t t h e i n t e r f a c e s l i g h t l y .11) m e a s u r e t h e d e v i a t i o n of t h e s u r f a c e f r o m i t s e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n . h o w e v e r . 4. w i t h t h e u p p e r fluid m o v i n g w i t h v e l o c i t y v . if w e a s s u m e d t h a t x(t) form x(t)~e .1) t h e n f o r t h e s t a b l e c a s e . o r will t h e y g r o w a n d d i s r u p t t h e flow? x 2 0 T o a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n . W h e n t h e s u r f a c e is d i s t o r t e d . F o r e x a m p l e .11.C. A t t h e p l a n e z = 0.Stability of Flow 59 c a l c u l a t i n g e n e r g y a t all. i<ot w a s of t h e (4. of d e n s i t y p a n d p .o + P'i.4) w h e r e P i a n d P a r e t h e p r e s s u r e s in t h e r e g i o n s of fluids 1 a n d 2 . P ' = P » + P . s o t h a t w e w i l l h a v e P . The deformation at the interface between two fluids. all o f t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s in t h e s y s t e m w i l l c h a n g e b y a s m a l l a m o u n t a s w e l l . T h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h w e c a n a s k c o n c e r n s t h e s t a b i l i t y of t h e e q u i l i b r i u m . a n d l e t £ ( s e e F i g .C. L e t t h e r e b e t w o fluids.C.2) s o t h a t t h e t i m e d e p e n d e n c e of x(t) would be 1 xin-e^e ^'. F o r t h e u n s t a b l e c a s e . w h e n w e s o l v e d t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n f o r co. ' (4.

0 but since at equilibrium.C. a n d w i l l r e i n t r o d u c e it a t t h e e n d of t h e s o l u t i o n . o u r final w o r k i n g e q u a t i o n s w i l l b e l i n e a r . s o if w e find a s o l u t i o n f o r t h e g e n e r a l t e r m in s u c h a s u m . t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n is (4. e a c h c o m p o n e n t of w h i c h h a s a b e h a v i o r T h e r e f o r e . A s w e s h a l l s e e . V • v = 0.8) (4. H o w e v e r . S i m i l a r l y . a r e simply V •v = 0 and (4.9) . 0 we have V • v' = 0 . z. S i m i l a r l y . a l t h o u g h in t h i s c a s e t h e e q u i l i b r i u m v e l o c i t y in r e g i o n 2 is z e r o . t) = f ( z ) e P'(x y. a n d s e t t i n g v = 0. ( 4 .5) iikx wt = P'(z)e -"\ V(z)e ' \ v ' ( x .t) 9 iikx l ( t o —\ (4. w i t h o u t l o s s of g e n e r a l i t y . 2 2 0 (4.60 Fluids in Motion s m a l l c h a n g e s in t h e e q u i l i b r i u m v a l u e c a u s e d b y t h e s m a l l d i s t o r t i o n of t h e s u r f a c e . y. y.z. Pi -> P .7) W e s h a l l s o l v e t h e s e e q u a t i o n s e x p l i c i t l y i n r e g i o n 1. w e c a n c o n s i d e r o n l y t h e c a s e €(x. t) = s i n c e a n y m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d f u n c t i o n s of x a n d t c a n b e e x p r e s s e d a s a s e r i e s of t e r m s of t h i s t y p e . T h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n .6) T h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y b e c o m e s V • v = V • v 4.C.C. 4 ) a r e c o m p l i c a t e d f u n c t i o n s of t h e p o s i t i o n a n d t i m e . F o r n o t a t i o n a l s i m p l i c i t y . n o t i n g t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n in r e g i o n 2 c a n b e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h i s b y l e t t i n g pi -> p . applied s e p a r a t e l y t o e a c h r e g i o n . x 2 I n g e n e r a l . t h e final r e s u l t will s i m p l y b e a s u m of s u c h s o l u t i o n s ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s E a n d F ) .C. w e w i l l d r o p t h e s u b s c r i p t " 2 " w h i l e s o l v i n g t h e e q u a t i o n .V • v' = 0. z.C. all o f t h e s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s i n E q . C . v a n d v r e f e r t o t h e fluid v e l o c i t i e s . w e k n o w t h a t e a c h c a n b e e x p a n d e d in a F o u r i e r s e r i e s .

V ) v ~ 0 . First.11) T h e r e are t w o further simplifications w h i c h can b e m a d e . is c a l l e d l i n e a r i z a t i o n . s o t h a t S e c o n d l y . w e find t h a t (4. ( 4 . w h i l e all o f t h e o t h e r t e r m s i n t h e e q u a t i o n a r e of first o r d e r .C. C .C.C. w e n o t e t h a t w e a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a s i t u a t i o n in w h i c h small p e r t u r b a t i o n s t o e q u i l i b r i u m a r e b e i n g m a d e .C. T h i s t e c h n i q u e .15) . If w e t a k e t h e d i v e r g e n c e of E q .10) so that (4. w e can write (v' . 12) a n d u s e t h e c o n t i n u i t y c o n d i t i o n t h a t V • v ' = 0 .12) W e see that t h e small perturbation approximation leaves u s with a linear equation relating the velocity a n d t h e p r e s s u r e .C. a n d is u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y throughout physics.13) If w e s u b s t i t u t e t h e a s s u m e d f o r m of P ' f r o m E q .Stability of Flow 61 T h i s c a n b e c o n s i d e r a b l y simplified b y n o t i n g t h a t at e q u i l i b r i u m (4. t h i s e q u a t i o n is m u c h e a s i e r t o s o l v e t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l o n e . 2 (4. O f c o u r s e . to give (4. T h e t e r m (v' • V)v' i n t h e a b o v e e q u a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e o f s e c o n d o r d e r i n s m a l l n e s s . w h i c h w e h a v e u s e d h e r e i n t h e c o n t e x t of a h y d r o d y n a m i c s p r o b l e m .14) w h i c h m e a n s t h a t t h e m o s t g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n f o r P ' ( z ) is j u s t P ' ( z ) = Ae~ kz +Be \ k (4. w e find a n e q u a t i o n f o r t h e s m a l l a d d i t i o n t o t h e e q u i l i b r i u m pressure V P'=0. rather t h a n t h e original n o n l i n e a r o n e . 5 ) i n t o t h i s r e s u l t .C. f o r s m a l l d e v i a t i o n s f r o m equilibrium. T h u s . C . ( 4 . w e n o t e t h a t vo is a c o n s t a n t .

C. w e m u s t h a v e B = 0.\ kz iikx wt 2 (4.C.C.C. w h i c h . C .C.C. w e m u s t h a v e P\ = so that — pi(a) — kvo) 2 P'2. t h e v e l o c i t y of a p a r t i c l e a t t h e s u r f a c e .5)] b e c o m e s f (4. I n o t h e r words.16) S i m i l a r r e a s o n i n g in r e g i o n 2. £. t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e s u r f a c e ( w h i c h is in t h e z . w e n o t e t h a t D £ IDt. it is n e c e s s a r y t o r e l a t e t h e p r e s s u r e t o t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s u r f a c e . (4.C.d i r e c t i o n .d i r e c t i o n o n l y ) m u s t b e t h e s a m e a s v' .C.22) = co p . s o t h a t i n r e g i o n 1. C .C. w e find t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e i n r e g i o n 1 at surface must be just the (4. s i n c e £ is a v e c t o r i n t h e z .20) A similar a r g u m e n t for region 2 yields (4. (4.18) T o r e l a t e t h i s t o t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t £. z (4.23) .19) T a k i n g t h i s w i t h E q . w h e r e z is n e g a t i v e . 2 2 (4. these constants must be determined by the boundary conditions. 1 8 ) .62 Fluids in Motion w h e r e A a n d B a r e u n d e t e r m i n e d c o n s t a n t s . a n d t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n o n t h e p r e s s u r e m u s t b e P[ = A e ~ V k c k x _ f t > 0 . 12)] i n r e g i o n 1 ( a g a i n . A s in a n y d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n . (4. I n o r d e r t o p r o c e e d f u r t h e r . w i t h t h e a s s u m e d f o r m s f o r v' a n d P [ E q .17) where A a n d C a r e c o n s t a n t s still t o b e d e t e r m i n e d . W e b e g i n b y w r i t i n g d o w n t h e z . d r o p p i n g t h e s u b s c r i p t d u r i n g t h e d e r i v a t i o n ) .21) N o w at the surface. ( 4 . g i v e s P' =Ce e . ( 4 .c o m p o n e n t o f t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n [ E q . One b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n i s t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e m u s t s t a y finite.

C l e a r l y . 4 . f o r l a r g e t. B e f o r e l e a v i n g t h i s t o p i c . (4. t h e f a c t t h a t w e h a v e s h o w n t h a t t h e t i m e d e p e n d e n c e of t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n is e x p o n e n t i a l m a y a t first s i g h t a p p e a r u n s e t t l i n g . E q . t h e q u e s t i o n of s t a b i l i t y of a s y s t e m d e p e n d s o n t h e t y p e of a p p l i e d p e r t u r b a t i o n . I n t e r m s of F i g . F i r s t .Stability of Flow 63 w h i c h c a n b e s o l v e d f o r co t o g i v e = a •+• ifi. T h i s a c t u a l l y is n o t t h e c a s e .C. o u r r e s u l t s t e l l u s h o w t h e b a l l w i l l r o l l off . 1 2 . 2 4 ) w o u l d give H o w e v e r . C . t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r of p o i n t s w h i c h s h o u l d b e e m p h a s i z e d . 1 2 ) . ( 4 .C.C. t h e n a t a l a t e r t i m e . w e h a d t o m a k e t h e linearization h y p o t h e s i s t o g e t E q . a n y s m a l l p e r t u r b a t i o n of t h e s u r f a c e w i l l b e e x p e c t e d t o g r o w w i t h t i m e a n d t h e s y s t e m will b e u n s t a b l e . I t is a l w a y s p o s s i b l e for a s y s t e m t o b e s t a b l e a g a i n s t o n e t y p e of p e r t u r b a t i o n w h i l e being unstable against another. If vo is t h e i n i t i a l p e r t u r b a t i o n . T h e p o i n t is t h a t o u r l i n e a r i z e d e q u a t i o n s t e l l u s h o w t h e s y s t e m b e h a v e s in t i m e n e a r e q u i l i b r i u m . s o t h a t t h e e x p o n e n t i a l l y g r o w i n g s o l u t i o n will n o l o n g e r b e valid.24). w e s e e t h a t it is i n d e e d p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t a b i l i t y of a s y s t e m d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n .24) P'. t h e m o s t g e n e r a l f o r m of t h e t i m e d e p e n d e n c e of t h e q u a n t i t i e s v'. s i m p l y b y a s s u m i n g small t i m e . a s c a n b e s e e n b y e x a m i n i n g t h e v e l o c i t y v'. T h u s . (4. either. in o r d e r t o d e r i v e E q . b u t o n c e t h e s y s t e m is f a r f r o m equilibrium. t h e d e v i a t i o n s f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m will a p p r o a c h infinity after a l o n g e n o u g h t i m e . a s w a s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 3 . t h i s a p p r o x i m a t i o n i s n o l o n g e r v a l i d .d e p e n d e n t d e v i a t i o n s f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m . a n d s e e i n g w h a t s o r t of t i m e d e p e n d e n c e is i m p o s e d o n t h e s y s t e m b y t h e e q u a t i o n s a n d t h e b o u n d a r y conditions. w e h a v e t o g o b a c k t o t h e original nonlinear e q u a t i o n s for a s o l u t i o n . 2 T h u s . a n d § w i l l b e De e iat pt +Ee e' iut 2 i (4.25) s o t h a t f o r a n y v a l u e s of p i a n d p e x c e p t t h e t r i v i a l c a s e w h e r e p i = 0 o r p = 0 . ( 4 . C . S e c o n d . s i n c e s u c h a d e p e n d e n c e s e e m s t o i m p l y t h a t n o m a t t e r h o w small t h e initial d e f l e c t i o n s of t h e s u r f a c e a r e .

An illustration of a system which behaves differently near equilibrium than it does far from equilibrium. t i m e . 4. t h e n it i s u n s t a b l e . . o n c e i n t r o d u c e d . I t is a r g u e d t h a t if t h e e q u a t i o n s i m p l y t h a t a p e r t u r b a t i o n .12. A s s u m i n g irrotational flow. Consider an imaginary surface 2 inside of a fluid. and h a s a small opening a distance z d o w n from t h e t o p of t h e fluid.d e p e n d e n t p e r t u r b a t i o n s of e q u i l i b r i u m . C o n s i d e r a container on t h e e a r t h which is filled t o a height h with a fluid of density p.1. a n d a p p l y i n g t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n t o t h e p e r t u r b e d s y s t e m is d e v e l o p e d . a n d t h e t e c h n i q u e of e x a m i n i n g a fluid flow i n e q u i l i b r i u m . 4. g r o w s w i t h t i m e . PROBLEMS 4. of t h e hill. b u t o n c e w e g e t a w a y f r o m t h e hill. t h r o u g h w h i c h a fluid s t r e a m c a n e m e r g e . calculate t h e velocity of t h e s t r e a m just outside t h e e n t r a n c e (neglect t h e effect of t h e outflow on t h e height h). a n d w e c a n n o t s a y t h a t t h e ball will k e e p rolling f o r e v e r . t h e s i t u a t i o n c h a n g e s . a n d v e l o c i t y fields w i t h z e r o d i v e r g e n c e o r s y m m e t r i c p a r t c o r r e s p o n d t o m o t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e r e is n o c h a n g e in d e n s i t i e s .64 Fluids in Motion t t=0 Fig.2. T h e c o n c e p t of s t a b i l i t y of f l o w is i n t r o d u c e d . (a) S h o w that t h e total flow out t h r o u g h t h e surface is w h e r e d/dn is t h e derivative n o r m a l t o t h e surface. SUMMARY T h e v e l o c i t y field i s d e f i n e d . I t i s s h o w n t h a t v e l o c i t y fields w h i c h h a v e n o c u r l c o r r e s p o n d t o fluid m o t i o n s i n w h i c h n o r o t a t i o n i s p r e s e n t . i n t r o d u c i n g s m a l l . T h i s t e c h n i q u e is a p p l i e d t o t h e t a n g e n t i a l flow i n s t a b i l i t y p r o b l e m .

y plane. (c) H e n c e s h o w that if t h e fluid w e r e of infinite e x t e n t . It c a n b e p i c t u r e d easily b y imagining a small needle inserted into t h e m o v i n g fluid. T h e d y e will m a r k t h e fluid in a line w h i c h will h a v e t h e p r o p e r t y of a streamline. we would have to have <p = const. E x c e p t for t h e c a s e c = 0. Consider t h e rings to b e a flat sheet of t h i c k n e s s 2c.5).s t a t e flow. and a thin s t r e a m of d y e being emitted from t h e needle. d o e s it follow that t h e c o n s t a n t in t h e a b o v e e x p r e s s i o n m u s t b e t h e s a m e for neighboring streamlines? (Hint: W r i t e t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n in t h e form of E q . c e n t e r e d on t h e x . 4. (a) S h o w that t h e gravitational potential of t h e p e r t u r b e d fluid is sin mxe mc (e mz + e~ ) mz . F r o m y o u r proof. W h y d o e s a flag w a v e in t h e b r e e z e ? 4. C a r r y out t h e pictorial analysis given in Section 4. A streamline is defined t o b e a line w h i c h is e v e r y w h e r e tangent t o t h e velocity of t h e fluid. t h e quantity |pu + P + 2 pn m u s t b e t h e s a m e e v e r y w h e r e along a given streamline. L e t t h e density of t h e fluid b e p. a n d <p w e r e n o t infinite anywhere. 4.5. This is a special c a s e of Liouville T h e o r e m of m a t h e m a t i c a l analysis. 2 4.3. so that v = c(r). e r w h e r e c(r) is an arbitrary function. w h e r e 7] V. s h o w that it is not possible t o define a velocity potential for s u c h a flow. = lirpcA = A c o s mx.7. (1.Problems 65 (b) U s e (a) t o s h o w that cp c a n n o t h a v e a m a x i m u m or m i n i m u m a n y w h e r e inside of t h e fluid.6. and t a k e t h e gradient of t h e e q u a t i o n in t h e direction of a streamline. S h o w from t h e E u l e r equation that. and let t h e fluid e x p e r i e n c e a small p e r t u r b a t i o n s u c h that e a c h plane of t h e fluid w h i c h w a s level before t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n is n o w displaced b y a d i s t a n c e TJ. a n d is axially s y m m e t r i c . for general s t e a d y . 2 x Vy = CX . z V = V = 0. L e t u s r e c o n s i d e r t h e rings of S a t u r n p r o b l e m from t h e point of view of fluid stability. C o n s i d e r a flow of fluid w h i c h is in t h e z -direction.4. e v e r y w h e r e .A for t h e velocity field v = Cy .B.) 4 .

Define a function if/ b y t h e e q u a t i o n s stream (a) S h o w that such a definition automatically satisfies t h e equation of continuity. Consider t w o planes meeting at an (acute) angle at t h e origin. 4. t h e equation for t h e s t r e a m function is V V = 0.66 Fluids in Motion inside t h e fluid and V = 2 2TT CA P sin mxe (e +mz mc + e~ ) mc outside.10.1 . S h o w that if all of t h e forces acting on t h e fluid can b e written as t h e gradient of a potential. If w e define a complex potential in t e r m s of t h e s t r e a m function and velocity potential as w = <f> + iif/.4c. that the circulation is c o n s e r v e d . that i. (b) S h o w that for irrotational flow. (Hint: Y o u will w a n t t o u s e c o m p l e x variable t e c h n i q u e s on this problem.lirpcA 2 2mc sin mx mc mz x [2cm . 1 1 .e~ + e~ (e + e~ )l mz (c) H e n c e s h o w that t h e s y s t e m is unstable if A = — >5.9. W e can define a quantity called t h e circulation as w h e r e t h e integral is u n d e r s t o o d t o go o v e r a n y closed p a t h in t h e fluid. 4.8. Consider t h e two-dimensional flow of an incompressible fluid. c 4. (b) Calculate t h e p r e s s u r e in t h e fluid to b e P = 2irp(c 2 . (c) S h o w that t h e s t r e a m function is c o n s t a n t along any streamline. (a) W r i t e d o w n t h e b o u n d a r y conditions at t h e t w o planes. . S u p p o s e an incompressible fluid is undergoing potential flow in t h e c o r n e r f o r m e d b y t h e s e planes.e.z ) 4. (a) s h o w that w is an analytic function. (b) H e n c e (or otherwise) show that t h e flow of fluid out of an a p e r t u r e extending into t h e fluid in a large container (this is called B o r d a ' s m o u t h p i e c e ) will c o n t r a c t half t h e width of t h e a p e r t u r e .) 4 .

The author found the books by Ramsey and Lamb especially readable. (d) S h o w that t h e e q u a t i o n of motion for t h e s p h e r e in t h e fluid is just w h e r e F is t h e external force. ) 4. (a) S h o w that t h e velocity potential (assuming t h e fluid t o b e at rest far from t h e s p h e r e is . calculate t h e p r e s s u r e at t h e surface of t h e s p h e r e . D o e s this s e e m r e a s o n a b l e (see C h a p t e r 8)? REFERENCES All of the general texts cited in Chapter 1 contain discussions of the velocity potential.12. and make the assignments t. t h e r e is n o net force on t h e s p h e r e . a n d a a n d p a r e t h e densities of t h e s p h e r e a n d t h e fluid.14. (c) F r o m t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n . (c) Calculate t h e velocities of t h e flow a n d s k e t c h t h e m o u t . 4. .d i m e n s i o n a l potential flow of an incompressible fluid is (a) I n t e r p r e t t h e c o n s t a n t C in t e r m s of t h e p r e s e n c e or a b s e n c e of s o u r c e s of fluid in t h e s y s t e m . respectively. cp-*V. and the discussion of tangential instabilities in the Landau and Lifschitz text particularly good. a t h e conductivity a n d V is t h e voltage. (c) H e n c e suggest an e x p e r i m e n t a l m e t h o d for m e a s u r i n g t h e flow of a fluid past irregular o b s t a c l e s . t h e radial c o o r d i n a t e . This says that in t h e a b s e n c e of an external agent. (b) S k e t c h t h e lines of flow a r o u n d t h e s p h e r e . (d) Find t h e streamlines b y calculating t h e s t r e a m functions.13. S h o w that t h e s t r e a m function a n d velocity potential w h i c h a r e d u e t o t h e motion of a circular cylinder of radius a m o v i n g with velocity ( / p a r a l l e l t o t h e x-axis are (Hint: C o n s i d e r a c o m p l e x potential of t h e form w = A / Z . C o n s i d e r n o w a s p h e r e of radius a m o v i n g t h r o u g h a fluid with velocity v. w e get e q u a t i o n s w h i c h are identical t o t h e h y d r o d y n a m i c equation. (b) S h o w that if in this c a s e w e consider a two-dimensional electrical s y s t e m . w h e r e j is t h e c u r r e n t density. 4. S h o w that t h e equation for t h e velocity potential for t h e t w o .References 67 (b) Find t h e solution t o t h e e q u a t i o n s of motion a n d t h e b o u n d a r y conditions t o lowest p o w e r in r.->crj.

I n g e n e r a l . 5. If w e l e t g o . f o r e x a m p l e . it w i l l b e m o v i n g w i t h s o m e v e l o c i t y . t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e r e s t o r i n g f o r c e i n t h e s p r i n g leads to the familiar simple h a r m o n i c motion. I n t h i s c h a p t e r .1). o r t i d a l . T h u s . b u t w h e n it g e t s t h e r e . t h e s p r i n g w i l l r e t u r n t o i t s e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n . t h e w e i g h t w i l l e x e r t a f o r c e w h i c h p u l l s t h e w e i g h t b a c k . Scene IV A. w e shall c o n s i d e r t h r e e s u c h w a v e m o t i o n s . T h e o r i g i n of t h e n a m e " l o n g w a v e s " will b e c o m e o b v i o u s l a t e r i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n .5 Waves in Fluids What dreadful noise of waters in mine ears! WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE King Richard III. T h u s it will o v e r s h o o t t h e e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n . L e t u s c o n s i d e r a b o d y of u n i f o r m fluid w h o s e u n p e r t u r b e d h e i g h t is h ( s e e F i g . T h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h f l u i d s i s q u i t e s i m i l a r . s o t h a t t h e a c t u a l s u r f a c e i s a t a h e i g h t y = h + r/. C o n s i d e r a w e i g h t o n a s p r i n g . w e c a n t h i n k of w a v e m o t i o n a s t h e r e s u l t of t w o o p p o s i n g f o r c e s a c t i n g o n a b o d y . w a v e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n . a n d m o v e o n u n t i l t h e s p r i n g is c o m p r e s s e d e n o u g h t o c a u s e it t o r e v e r s e i t s d i r e c t i o n . If a force is a p p l i e d w h i c h moves the weight away from its equilibrium p o s i t i o n . s 68 . LONG WAVES O n e of t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of t h e m o t i o n of fluids is t h e w i d e v a r i e t y of w a v e s w h i c h c a n b e g e n e r a t e d a n d s u s t a i n e d i n t h e m . b u t whose s u r f a c e is f o r s o m e r e a s o n p e r t u r b e d . b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e l o n g . Act I.

1) w h i l e t h e x-component is (5. w e a r e g o i n g t o h a v e t o a p p e a l t o s o m e of t h e p h y s i c s in t h e p r o b l e m s w e a r e t r y i n g t o s o l v e . t h e fluid e l e m e n t s i n t h e s u r f a c e w i l l b e p u l l e d d o w n w a r d b y g r a v i t y . 2 T o get a r o u n d this p r o b l e m . in w h i c h c a s e t h e e x t r a f o r c e w o u l d b e t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n of t h e m o o n . T o m a k e t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e ideas i n t r o d u c e d in C h a p t e r 4 m o r e definite. The perturbed surface of a fluid. w i t h o n e a d d i t i o n . 5 . whose c o m p o n e n t s ( s e e F i g . T h e n if 1 7 > 0 . a n d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n is n o n l i n e a r is t h e m a i n r e a s o n t h a t a d v a n c e s in h y d r o d y n a m i c s a r e s o difficult t o m a k e ( s e e P r o b l e m 5. Thus. t h e fluid p r e s s u r e w i l l t e n d t o e x e r t a n upward force.1) a r e F a n d F . T h e q u a n t i t y v w h i c h a p p e a r s in t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e m o t i o n of a v o l u m e e l e m e n t i n a .2).1).Long Waves 69 Fig. 5.1. w e will a c t u a l l y w o r k o u t t h e p r o b l e m m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . s o t h a t t h e r e is a f o r c e p g p e r u n i t v o l u m e i n t h e y-direction. T h e y . T h e most i m p o r t a n t difficulty is t h a t t h e y a r e n o n l i n e a r . w h i l e if 1 7 < 0. t h e y c o n t a i n t e r m s i n the convective derivative which are proportional to both v and v. L e t u s f u r t h e r m o r e s u p p o s e t h a t t h i s fluid is in a g r a v i t a t i o n a l field o n t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h .c o m p o n e n t of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n i s t h e n (5. W e w i l l n e e d t h e s e r e s u l t s i n C h a p t e r 6 w h e n w e d i s c u s s t h e t h e o r y of t h e t i d e s . x y L e t u s c o n s i d e r a n i n f i n i t e s i m a l v o l u m e e l e m e n t of fluid a t a h e i g h t y in t h e fluid ( s e e F i g .A. Such e q u a t i o n s a r e v e r y difficult t o s o l v e .A. b u t a n a d d i t i o n a l f o r c e per unit volume F.2) These equations as they stand are pretty complicated. L e t u s c o n s i d e r w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n t h e r e is n o t o n l y a g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e a c t i n g o n t h e fluid. 5. w e might expect that w e would see harmonic motion in this s y s t e m . T h a t i s .

2 If w e a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a s y s t e m l i k e t h e t i d e s . this r e d u c e s E q . (5. T h i s is s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d a quasi-static approxim a t i o n .h a n d s i d e o f E q . I t is a n a p p r o x i m a t i o n w h i c h will b e m a d e m a n y t i m e s in t h i s t e x t .70 Waves in Fluids fluid. a n d w e c a n e x p e c t t h e r a t e of c h a n g e o f t h a t v e l o c i t y t o b e e v e n s m a l l e r . t h e v e l o c i t y i n t h e y .d i r e c t i o n is q u i t e s m a l l . this a p p r o x i m a t i o n c a n b e m o s t easily analyzed after w e h a v e solved t h e a p p r o x i m a t e equations. Physically. t h e l e f t .6) .y ) . A . A .d i r e c t i o n is s o s l o w t h a t w e c a n t a k e it t o b e s u c h t h a t h y d r o s t a t i c e q u i l i b r i u m i s m a i n t a i n e d a t all t i m e s a s f a r a s t h e y . T h e r e f o r e . A .A. 1 ) w h i c h r e p r e s e n t t h e a t t r a c t i o n of t h e m o o n will b e q u i t e s m a l l c o m p a r e d t o t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e of t h e e a r t h . T h i s c a n b e s e e n b y t h i n k i n g a b o u t a w a v e t r a v e l i n g a l o n g a r o p e . s o t h a t E q . w e r e a l i z e t h a t t h e fluid w i l l m o v e . W i t h t h i s final a p p r o x i m a t i o n . a n d w e w i l l w r i t e (5. it m a k e s s e n s e t o set (5. a n d a m o u n t s t o s a y i n g t h a t t h e m o t i o n i n t h e y . t y p i c a l l y . W e will s e e e x a c t l y w h a t p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i s i m p l i e d b y E q .5) L i k e the r e a s o n i n g leading to E q .A. ( 5 . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o s a y i n g t h a t s i n c e v is s m a l l . A n y g i v e n s e g m e n t of t h e r o p e m o v e s o n l y a s m a l l a m o u n t u p a n d d o w n a s t h e w a v e g o e s b y . W e a r e going t o a s s u m e t h a t a similar situation h o l d s in d e a l i n g w i t h w a v e s i n fluids.A. (5. b u t t h e w a v e itself m a y m o v e v e r y q u i c k l y .A.A.4) N o w if w e c o n f i n e o u r a t t e n t i o n t o s y s t e m s l i k e t h e t i d e s .4) t o a h y d r o s t a t i c e q u a t i o n .3) in t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n . T h u s . N o w t h i s v e l o c i t y c a n b e q u i t e s m a l l .A.d i r e c t i o n o v e r a c o u r s e o f m a n y h o u r s . 1 ) w i l l b e given by y (5. 4 ) v a n i s h e s . (5. t h e r e is still a n o t h e r a p p r o x i m a t i o n w h i c h w e c a n m a k e o n t h i s e q u a t i o n .m o t i o n is c o n c e r n e d . W e s h a l l s e e t h a t t h i s is a v a l i d a p p r o x i m a t i o n p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e d e p t h of t h e fluid i s m u c h l e s s t h a n t h e w a v e l e n g t h of t h e w a v e . If w e t h i n k of t h e t i d e s .3). ( 5 .3) later in this s e c t i o n . so that the equation can b e integrated directly to give P-Po = g P ( h + . v (5. w e c a n d r o p t e r m s of o r d e r v . t h e n t h e t e r m s F in E q .A. a d i s t a n c e of s e v e r a l y a r d s in t h e y . e v e n t h o u g h t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e w a v e in t h e fluid m a y b e l a r g e . ( 5 .

2). 2 ) . W e c o u l d . t h e c o n d i t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y . a n d c o n s i d e r t w o p l a n e s a d i s t a n c e dx a p a r t . 5. v a n d 17. 5 . I n m o s t c a s e s . A . ( 1 . A .h a n d s i d e of E q . The idea of continuity and the perturbed surface. w h i c h is t h a t in t h i s c a s e t h e p r e s s u r e m u s t b e a c o n s t a n t a t y = h + T J .A. b e c a u s e w e w a n t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e v a r i a b l e 17. w e will find it e a s i e r t o g o t h r o u g h t h e d e r i v a t i o n of t h e e q u a t i o n f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r g e o m e t r y in F i g . 5. 4 ) . 1 . . T h i s s h o u l d b e f a m i l i a r f r o m t h e d i s c u s s i o n of s t e l l a r s t r u c t u r e i n C h a p t e r 2. T h e m a s s of fluid c o n t a i n e d b e t w e e n t h e p l a n e s p e r u n i t l e n g t h in t h e z . s o t h a t w e c a n e l i m i n a t e t h e p r e s s u r e b e t w e e n these t w o equations to get (5.7) T h e l e f t .Long Waves 71 w h e r e P is t h e p r e s s u r e of t h e m e d i u m a b o v e t h e fluid.A. ( 5 . 0 In E q . 6 ) w i t h r e s p e c t t o JC t o g e t (5.9) x ' x x + dx Fig. H o w e v e r . W e c a n e l i m i n a t e o n e of t h e m b y r e c o u r s e t o t h e r e m a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n w h i c h w e c a n a p p l y t o fluids in g e n e r a l .2. (5. of c o u r s e .h a n d s i d e of t h i s e x p r e s s i o n i s p r e c i s e l y w h a t a p p e a r s o n t h e r i g h t .A.A.8) T h i s e q u a t i o n still c o n t a i n s t w o u n k n o w n s . C . w e h a v e a r e a d y i n c o r p o r a t e d o n e b o u n d a r y condition. t h i s will j u s t b e t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e . s i m p l y w r i t e it d o w n a s i n E q .6).d i r e c t i o n is j u s t (h +17 ) p dx s o t h a t t h e t i m e r a t e of c h a n g e of m a s s in t h e v o l u m e is g i v e n b y (5. ( 5 . x C o n s i d e r a w a v e m o v i n g b y a p o i n t x ( s e e F i g . W e c a n d i f f e r e n t i a t e E q .

a n d m u s t b e t h e r a t e o f c h a n g e of m a s s in E q . ( 5 .10) f o r t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y f o r t h e i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid in t e r m s of v a n d TJ. T h u s .A. t h e o n l y w a y t h e a m o u n t of m a s s c a n c h a n g e i s f o r s o m e fluid t o flow o u t a c r o s s t h e p l a n e s . T h i s . in t u r n .A. A .t) = f(x-ct\ (5. If w e d i f f e r e n t i a t e E q . 10) w i t h r e s p e c t t o t a n d E q . A . ( 5 . r e p r e s e n t e d b y 17.A. ( 5 . T h e a m o u n t of fluid flowing a c r o s s t h e l e f t . w e c a n e l i m i n a t e v f r o m o u r e q u a t i o n s . A .72 Waves in Fluids H o w c a n t h e m a s s c h a n g e ? If w e a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a n i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid. so that V (x. 8 ) w i t h r e s p e c t t o x.11) I n t h e c a s e w h e r e t h e r e is n o f o r c e e x c e p t t h e e a r t h ' s g r a v i t a t i o n a l field. will c a u s e t h e l e v e l of fluid. (5.14) w h e r e / is a n y w a v e s h a p e .13) T h e e q u a t i o n h a s f o r i t s s o l u t i o n a n y f u n c t i o n of t h e t r a v e l i n g w a v e f o r m . 12) w h i c h is s i m p l y t h e w a v e e q u a t i o n f o r a w a v e w h o s e v e l o c i t y is c = vgh. T h e a m o u n t flowing a c r o s s t h e r i g h t . T h u s . a n d g e t x x (5.h a n d p l a n e is s i m i l a r l y w h e r e w e h a v e d r o p p e d h i g h e r . p x w h e r e w e h a v e d r o p p e d t h e t e r m rjv a s b e i n g s e c o n d o r d e r i n s m a l l p a r a m e t e r s . w e s e e t h a t t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n a n d t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y l e a d d i r e c t l y t o a w a v e e q u a t i o n f o r t h e d e v i a t i o n of t h e s u r f a c e of a fluid f r o m . A . t h e n e t i n f l o w o r o u t f l o w is t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o x q u a n t i t i e s .h a n d p l a n e is x [h + r](x)]pv (x) x « h v (x).A. E q u a t i n g these quantities gives (5. this b e c o m e s ( 5 .o r d e r t e r m s in t h e T a y l o r series e x p a n s i o n of v . 4 ) . t o d r o p .

17) w h e r e A is t h e w a v e l e n g t h of t h e w a v e . w h e r e w e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e y .s t a t i c limit.5). (5. 19) .A. A . T h e n a typical velocity for a particle at t h e surface w o u l d b e (5. w h i c h a l l o w e d u s t o d r o p t h e n o n l i n e a r t e r m s in t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n . T h u s . w e n o t e that h a d w e not u s e d E q . I s this a p p r o x i m a t i o n really valid? T o e x a m i n e t h i s q u e s t i o n . L e t r b e t h e t i m e it t a k e s a w a v e t o g o p a s t t h e p o i n t . ax <^A. T h e n w e e x p e c t t h a t t h e first t e r m i n t h e c o n v e c t i v e d e r i v a t i v e w i l l provided that T.3).A. A . 16) s i n c e t h e v e l o c i t y g o e s f r o m z e r o t o v i n t i m e t.A. S i n c e t h i s c o n d i t i o n is e a s i l y m e t b y m o s t w a v e s . L e t u s begin with E q . w e w o u l d h a v e typically ( 5 .6) b y P .A. w e w i l l h a v e x w i l l b e of t h i s o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e a s w e l l . w e w o u l d h a v e t o r e p l a c e E q . A . The next question which we must e x a m i n e is t h e v a l i d i t y of the a p p r o x i m a t i o n s w h i c h led u s t o this result.P 0 = gp(h+r -y) 1 + pI ( 5 . w e c a n d r o p t h e t e r m i n (v • V ) v .A. 18) I n o t h e r w o r d s . T o e x a m i n e this a p p r o x i m a t i o n . c o n s i d e r a w a v e g o i n g b y a g i v e n p o i n t in t h e fluid. w h e n e v e r t h e w a v e l e n g t h of t h e w a v e is l o n g c o m p a r e d t o t y p i c a l d i s t a n c e s w h i c h p a r t i c l e s i n t h e fluid m o v e w h i l e t h e w a v e g o e s b y . m ( 5 .Long Waves 73 i t s flat e q u i l i b r i u m c o n f i g u r a t i o n w h e n t h a t fluid i s u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f its o w n p r e s s u r e a n d g r a v i t y . (5. (5. (5. T h e s e c o n d i m p o r t a n t a p p r o x i m a t i o n w a s s t a t e d in E q .15) I t is r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t v be roughly ( 5 .5). w e shall n o t r e f e r t o this a p p r o x i m a t i o n again. B y a similar a r g u m e n t . b u t w e will u s e it t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e d i s c u s s i o n .e q u a t i o n c o u l d b e t r e a t e d in t h e q u a s i . A . a n d l e t T / x b e m a the m a x i m u m height above h which the surface attains.

A.21) T h u s . ( 5 . b y definition. w e c a n A finally >h. w e c o u l d d e r i v e a w a v e e q u a t i o n f o r n .d i r e c t i o n b y /3. t h e first t e r m o n t h e l e f t . write as (5. t h e q u a s i .20) s i n c e in t h a t c a s e . a n d i t s m i n i m u m v a l u e w i l l b e of o r d e r gprj.20 b e c o m e s w h i c h . A . F o r e x a m p l e . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e w o u l d b e w a v e s a p p r o a c h i n g a b e a c h . N o w if w e d e n o t e t h e y m a x i m u m a c c e l e r a t i o n of a p a r t i c l e i n t h e y . ( 5 . 19) w i l l h a v e i t s m i n i m u m n e a r t h e s u r f a c e . w e s a w t h a t if w e m a d e a s e r i e s of a p p r o x i m a t i o n s o n t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n s a n d t h e e q u a t i o n s of c o n t i n u i t y . 5. w h i l e t h e d e p t h of t h e o c e a n is o n l y a f e w k i l o m e t e r s . this w o u l d clearly b e a valid a p p r o x i m a t i o n .s t a t i c a p p r o x i m a t i o n is v a l i d p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e w a v e l e n g t h of t h e w a v e s i n q u e s t i o n a r e m u c h g r e a t e r t h a n t h e d e p t h of t h e fluid. B.y ) h a s i t s l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e v a l u e a t y = 0. SURFACE WAVES IN FLUIDS I n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . W e c a n n o w p r o c e e d u s i n g t h e s a m e t y p e of a r g u m e n t s t h a t w e r e u s e d b e f o r e . 2 1 ) . A . t h e m a x i m u m c o r r e c t i o n is l e s s t h a n t h e m i n i m u m of t h e t e r m t o w h i c h it is b e i n g c o m p a r e d . w e c a n a l w a y s d r o p t h e c o r r e c t i o n t e r m p r o v i d e d t h a t (5. if w e w e r e dealing with tides.A.74 Waves in Fluids w h e r e t h e l a s t t e r m r e p r e s e n t s t h e e f f e c t of v . since the l e n g t h of t h e t i d a l b u l g e i s o n t h e o r d e r of t h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e of t h e e a r t h . s i n c e a t s o m e p o i n t t h e d e p t h of t h e fluid will b e c o m e s m a l l e n o u g h t o s a t i s f y E q .A. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . A . T h u s . 13). T = A/c. If t h e t y p i c a l a c c e l e r a t i o n is w h e r e . u s i n g E q .h a n d s i d e of E q . t h e n w e h a v e w h e r e the second inequality follows from the fact that the expression (h +17 . T h e r e a r e m a n y e x a m p l e s of s u c h c a s e s ( s o m e of w h i c h a r e g i v e n in t h e p r o b l e m s a t t h e e n d of t h e c h a p t e r ) . t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s u r f a c e f r o m . t h e n E q . ( 5 .

t h e n . T h e most important assumption was the long-wave approxim a t i o n . s o t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n f o r t h e p o t e n t i a l is V </>=0. ( 5 . F o r p r o b l e m s of t h i s t y p e . (5. g u e s s t h a t it is p o s s i b l e t o find s o l u t i o n s of E q s . 1 ) a n d ( 5 . Such w a v e s typically h a v e w a v e l e n g t h s of t h e o r d e r o f t e n s o r h u n d r e d s of f e e t . If w e m a k e t h e u s u a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t w e c a n d r o p s e c o n d . A .B. I n t h i s s e c t i o n . in t h e f o r m of E q . T h i s m e a n s t h a t w e will h a v e t o g o t h r o u g h t h e d e r i v a t i o n w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t of E q .o r d e r t e r m s in t h e v e l o c i t y .1) T h e u s e of t h i s e q u a t i o n a l r e a d y i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y . 5 ) .3) the to b e determined.2) H o w e v e r . b u t it i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e m a n y c a s e s w h e r e it i s n o t . B . (5.B. w e c o m b i n e d t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n a n d t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y t o d i s p l a y t h e w a v e e q u a t i o n e x p l i c i t l y . If w e w e r e t o c o n s i d e r w a v e s o n t h e o c e a n o r a l a k e . a n d v e r i f y t h a t t h i s is i n d e e d t h e c a s e b y d i r e c t s u b s t i t u t i o n i n t o t h e a b o v e t w o e q u a t i o n s . t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n e n t e r s o n l y in t h a t it d e t e r m i n e s t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e fluid s u r f a c e . I n t e r m s of t h e v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l .cot). T h e r e .l i k e s o l u t i o n . it is v e r y c o n v e n i e n t t o u s e t h e v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l defined in S e c t i o n 4 . t h i s is g i v e n in E q . (5. t h i s is j u s t (5. T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s v a l i d i n m a n y c a s e s of i n t e r e s t . ( 4 . 3 ) . w h i c h is m u c h l e s s t h a n t h e d e p t h o f t h e w a t e r .B. B . Putting this into . t h e long-wave length approximation would not apply. ( 5 . L e t u s .A.4) . B . W e s h a l l s e e t h a t in t h i s c a s e . s o t h a t t h e o n l y o t h e r e q u a t i o n w h i c h w e n e e d t o w r i t e d o w n is t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n . f o r e x a m p l e . w e s h a l l p r o c e e d b y assuming t h a t <f> h a s a w a v e .Surface Waves in Fluids 75 equilibrium.B. 2 (5. t h e r o l e w h i c h t h i s e q u a t i o n will n o w p l a y is s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t t h a n in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . 2 ) of t h e f o r m 4 > = f(y) w h e r e / ( y ) is s o m e f u n c t i o n Laplace equation gives c o s (kx . L e t u s a s s u m e t h a t w e a r e d e a l i n g w i t h i r r o t a t i o n a l flow of a n i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid.3) a l l o w s u s t o n e g l e c t t h e vertical m o t i o n of t h e fluid e l e m e n t s . w h i c h .f c 7 ( y ) = 0. B .

w e find (5.6) physically.B. t h e p r e s s u r e m u s t b e e q u a l t o P . and / ( y ) = 2 A cosh(fcy).c o n s t .7) a n d if w e d r o p all b u t t h e first t e r m i n t h e e x p a n s i o n a s b e i n g of s e c o n d o r d e r in small q u a n t i t i e s . A t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h . T o state this condition at t h e p e r t u r b e d s u r f a c e .5) T o proceed further. . w e need to impose the boundary conditions.B. it h a s a v e l o c i t y g i v e n b y v = d(pldy) =h+^ y y B u t the v o l u m e element at the s u r f a c e m u s t b e m o v i n g w i t h j u s t t h e v e l o c i t y itself. ( 5 .B . (5. T h i s m e a n s t h a t so A = .B. At the b o t t o m o f t h e fluid.8) or.76 Waves in Fluids w h i c h m e a n s t h a t t h e m o s t g e n e r a l f o r m o f / ( y ) is f(y) = Ae ky + Be~ \ k (5.2).B. a n d at t h e s a m e t i m e define t h e c o n s t a n t in E q .B. t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e . w e shall h a v e t o m a k e u s e of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n in t h e f o r m (5.7) a p p r o p r i a t e l y . n o fluid c a n c r o s s t h e b o t t o m b o u n d a r y .9) N o w if w e c o n s i d e r a v o l u m e e l e m e n t j u s t a t t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e fluid. The second boundary condition is j u s t as simple (5.B. but s o m e w h a t m o r e difficult m a t h e m a t i c a l l y . I t s t a t e s t h a t a t t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e fluid. B . E q . s o t h a t a t y = h +17. a t y = 0 . s i n c e . w e k n o w t h a t v — d<frl dy — 0 . . w e c a n t a k e ft = gy 4 .B. differentiating (5. w h i c h i s 4 -drj/dt. 2 ) b e c o m e s + gh + gr] = c o n s t N o w t h e s e c o n d t e r m o n t h e left c a n b e e x p a n d e d (5. 0 w h i c h w e t a k e t o b e a c o n s t a n t . b y y d e f i n i t i o n .

B. t h e g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n for t h e v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l is j u s t <t> =2A c o s h (ky) c o s (kx .8) t o get c o s h (ky) s i n (kx cot) (5. is t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n a t t h e u p p e r s u r f a c e ( t h e a n a l o g u e of v (0) = 0 . s i n c e t h e s o l u t i o n s t o L a p l a c e ' s e q u a t i o n a r e u n i q u e .B.14) w h i c h d e s c r i b e s a w a v e t r a v e l i n g in t h e J C .x x > 1 x < 1 A >h (5.d i r e c t i o n . t h e n .B. ( 5 . w e u s e t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n E q .12) T h u s .Surface Waves in Fluids 77 T h u s .13) a n d .B. 1 1 ) p r o v i d e d t h a t y ay = gk t a n h ( k h ) . (5. w e find t h a t w e c a n s a t i s f y E q .15) where we have written k = Recalling that 2rr/\.B. E q u a t i o n ( 5 .cot) (5. w h e n t h e d e p t h of t h e fluid .10) or (5.B.B. t h i s is t h e o n l y s o l u t i o n . B . T o find t h e s u r f a c e d i s p l a c e m e n t . t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n a t t h e l o w e r s u r f a c e ) w h i c h o u r a s s u m e d s o l u t i o n h a s t o s a t i s f y . in t h e l o n g w a v e l e n g t h l i m i t . tanh x = we find 1 . 2 (5. a s i n t h e d e r i v a t i o n of E q . a s w e e x p e c t e d . 6 ) . ( 5 . I n s e r t i n g t h e s o l u t i o n in E q s . H o w e v e r . B . 8 ) . w e h a v e r e p l a c e d all q u a n t i t i e s w h i c h a r e t o b e e v a l u a t e d a t t h e s u r f a c e y = h + TJ b y q u a n t i t i e s e v a l u a t e d a t t h e s u r f a c e of e q u i l i b r i u m y = h. B .B. T h e v e l o c i t y is g i v e n b y (5.16) c T h u s .w a v e r e s u l t w h i c h w e d e r i v e d in t h e l a s t s e c t i o n . ( 5 . w e r e c o v e r t h e l o n g . 1 1 ) . B . B . 8 ) a n d ( 5 .11) w h e r e . w e h a v e at the surface (5.

B . W h i l e t h i s m a y b e a p e r f e c t l y a d e q u a t e d e s c r i p t i o n in t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e fluid. w e find t h a t t h e v e l o c i t y d e p e n d s o n t h e w a v e l e n g t h itself. t h i s m e a n s t h a t w e m u s t h a v e t h e e n t i r e fluid i n v o l v e d i n t h e w a v e . First. M o r e i m p o r t a n t . v = 2kA y x s i n h (ky) c o s (kx — cot). T h i s is t h e o r i g i n of t h e n a m e " s u r f a c e w a v e " a n d of t h e d e p e n d e n c e of t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e e q u a t i o n s of fluid m e c h a n i c s o n t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n d e p t h a n d w a v e l e n g t h . w e h a v e considered only pressure and external forces a c t i n g o n p a r t i c l e s o f t h e fluid. T h e r e are several conclusions w h i c h c a n b e d r a w n from this. it is w e l l k n o w n t h a t t h e r e a r e f o r c e s o n t h e s u r f a c e of a fluid w h i c h t e n d t o o p p o s e a n y i n c r e a s e in s u r f a c e a r e a — a n y " s t r e t c h i n g " of t h e s u r f a c e . w h i c h i s a r e s u l t w h i c h w e h a v e n o t encountered before.78 Waves in Fluids is c o m p a r a b l e t o o r s h o r t e r t h a n t h e w a v e l e n g t h . T h u s . F r o m t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e velocity potential. s i n c e it w a s o u r first b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n ) . o r A / 2 7 T . w h i c h i s g i v e n b y E q . w e s h a l l s e e t h a t t h i s s u r f a c e w a v e p h e n o m e n o n is n o t u n i q u e t o fluids. c o s h (ky) s i n (kx cot). ( 5 . e a c h p a r t i c l e i s s e e n t o d e s c r i b e a n e l l i p s e i n t h e x-y p l a n e . A q u e s t i o n w h i c h w e m i g h t w e l l a s k a t t h i s s t a g e i s w h y t h e r e l a t i o n of t h e d e p t h t o t h e w a v e l e n g t h of t h e w a v e s h o u l d b e i m p o r t a n t .B.d i r e c t i o n t o c o s h ky ( s e e P r o b l e m 5. w e s e e t h a t t h e d i s t u r b a n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e w a v e f a l l s off l i k e a h y p e r b o l i c f u n c t i o n a s w e g o b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e . a n d t h e l e n g t h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s fall off i s l/k. O n e c o u l d s a y t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e of a w a v e r e q u i r e s t h e c o o p e r a t i o n of t h e fluid a t t h e s u r f a c e t o a d e p t h a b o u t e q u a l t o t h e w a v e l e n g t h of t h e w a v e . a n d t h e a x i s i n t h e x . " T.d i r e c t i o n b e i n g p r o p o r t i o n a l t o s i n h ky. E .17) a t a n a r b i t r a r y p o i n t i n t h e fluid. I n S e c t i o n 1 2 . I n t h e l o n g w a v e l e n g t h l i m i t . b u t e x i s t s i n s o l i d s a s w e l l .3). T o a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n . v = — 2kA (5. w i t h t h e a x i s i n t h e y . at y = 0 . l e t u s c a l c u l a t e t h e v e l o c i t i e s of v o l u m e e l e m e n t s in t h e fluid a t s o m e d e p t h y [ t h i s v e l o c i t y i s n o t t o b e c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e w a v e . t h e v e r t i c a l m o v e m e n t v a n i s h e s ( t h i s w a s t o b e e x p e c t e d . t h e d i s t u r b a n c e i s c o n f i n e d t o s o m e t h i n g l i k e a d i s t a n c e of o n e w a v e l e n g t h f r o m t h e s u r f a c e . a n d i s d e f i n e d b y t h e w o r k n e c e s s a r y t o i n c r e a s e . T h i s f o r c e i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d t h e " s u r f a c e t e n s i o n . 1 5 ) ] . T h u s . SURFACE TENSION AND CAPILLARY WAVES U p to this point. C.

d i v i d e s a r e g i o n filled w i t h fluid f r o m a r e g i o n e m p t y of t h e fluid. t h e s e f o r c e s a r e e x e r t e d i n all d i r e c t i o n s . C o n s i d e r t h e e l e m e n t t o h a v e u n p e r t u r b e d l e n g t h s 811 a n d 8l a n d r a d i i of c u r v a t u r e Ri a n d R ( s e e F i g . For a molecule on the surface.3. T h e i m b a l a n c e of p r e s s u r e s c a u s e s t h e s u r f a c e t o e x p a n d . C .1) t h e a r e a of a s u r f a c e b y a n a m o u n t dS dW=TdS. b y d e f i n i t i o n . 1 ) a b o v e . however. F o r a m o l e c u l e i n t h e i n t e r i o r . T h u s . 2 . g i v i n g r i s e t o r e l a t i o n ( 5 . 5. and h e n c e w o r k must be done against the attractive f o r c e s . a n d t h e r e f o r e c a n c e l o u t on the average. W e s h o u l d n o t e t h a t in t e r m s of t h i s p i c t u r e . w h e t h e r t h e f o r c e i s m o l e c u l a r in o r i g i n ( a s in t h e s e c t i o n ) o r is a c o n s e q u e n c e of n u c l e a r i n t e r a c t i o n s ( a s i s t h e c a s e o f t h e l i q u i d d r o p m o d e l of t h e n u c l e u s w h i c h w e shall d i s c u s s later) will n o t affect t h e e x i s t e n c e of a s u r f a c e f o r c e . T h e s i m p l e s t w a y t o p i c t u r e t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s f o r c e is t o n o t e ( s e e F i g . 5. 5. t h e e x i s t e n c e of s u r f a c e t e n s i o n i s s t r i c t l y a g e o m e t r i c a l e f f e c t — i t a r i s e s b e c a u s e a s u r f a c e .Surface Tension and Capillary Waves 79 Fig. a n d t h e r e i s a n e t i n w a r d force. T h e n . let u s e x a m i n e t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o b l e m : A s u r f a c e finds i t s e l f w i t h p r e s s u r e P i o n o n e s i d e a n d P o n t h e o t h e r . Molecular forces and surface tension. I n o r d e r t o q u a n t i f y t h e a b o v e r e m a r k s o n s u r f a c e t e n s i o n . these forces are all d i r e c t e d i n w a r d t o w a r d t h e b o d y of t h e fluid.C. w o r k m u s t b e d o n e a g a i n s t T.3) t h a t t h e r e a r e u s u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e ( c o h e s i v e ) f o r c e s o n t h e m o l e c u l a r l e v e l in a fluid w h i c h t e n d s t o m a k e it s t a y t o g e t h e r . s i n c e 2 2 2 2 we have W=TdA = TdUdl (a+p). t h e s u r f a c e t e n s i o n .4) a n d l e t t h e l e n g t h s of t h e s i d e s a f t e r s t r e t c h i n g b e g i v e n b y 8U(1 + a) a n d 6 / ( l + j3). by the relation (5. Increasing the surface area corresponds to putting more particles into the surface. I n t h e p r o c e s s .

</>' y=0 Fig. B u t t h e e x i s t e n c e of a f o r c e i n t h e s u r f a c e w h i c h c o u l d b a l a n c e a f o r c e d u e t o a n i m b a l a n c e in p r e s s u r e m e a n s t h a t w e m u s t b e m o r e c a r e f u l . 2 ) n o w t e l l s u s t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n a t t h e s u r f a c e is n o l o n g e r t h a t P is c o n s t a n t . t h e w o r k d o n e b y t h e p r e s s u r e in d i s p l a c i n g s u r f a c e a d i s t a n c e dx is j u s t (P -P0 2 dhdhdx. This n e w force i n t r o d u c e s a r a t h e r different p r o b l e m at the surface. w e h a v e always u s e d the condition that a s u r f a c e w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a c o n s t a n t v a l u e of t h e p r e s s u r e . C . so that (5. t h e n .C. l e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e s i t u a t i o n s h o w n in F i g . a s b e f o r e . a n d t h a t c h a n g e s in c u r v a t u r e a l o n g t h e s u r f a c e w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e c h a n g e s in t h e p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e a c r o s s it. . T u r n i n g o u r a t t e n t i o n n o w t o t h e e f f e c t of s u r f a c e t e n s i o n o n t h e t y p e of w a v e s w e h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s i n g .2) T h u s . b u t t h a t p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e c u r v a t u r e of t h e s u r f a c e . The displacement of a surface by pressure differentials. t h e b a s i c e q u a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e P'. If w e l e t <f> a n d <f>' r e p r e s e n t t h e v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l s in t h e t w o fluids. 5. 5 . The perturbed interface between two fluids. U p to this point. w e find t h a t t h e s u r f a c e f o r c e is q u i t e l a r g e w h e n t h e s u r f a c e is sharply c u r v e d .i n f i n i t e fluids of d e n s i t i e s p a n d p ' h a v e a n i n t e r f a c e a t t h e p l a n e y = 0.5.80 Waves in Fluids dx 1 d/i(1 +a) Fig. the O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . 5. w h e r e t w o s e m i . E q u a t i o n ( 5 .4. 5 .

9) B y E q .C.11) . (5. w e s e e t h a t t h e r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e in t h e z-direction is j u s t (5.C.6) same (5. C . ky +D'*T k y A s u s u a l .C. (5. W e find )A s i n (kx — cot) and J A s i n (kx — cot).8) With these solutions for the velocity potentials.3) find (5. F r o m F i g . (5. t h e n t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t a n e l e m e n t in t h e s u r f a c e m o v e a t t h e v e l o c i t y a s t h e s u r f a c e itself g i v e s (5.C.1 which yields (5. F r o m t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e v e l o c i t i e s s t a y finite a t y = ± °°. 5 .10) (5. ( 5 .C. w e d e n o t e b y 1 7 t h e d e v i a t i o n of t h e s u r f a c e f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m . w e can n o w solve the E u l e r e q u a t i o n f o r t h e p r e s s u r e o n e a c h s i d e of t h e s u r f a c e . w e find C ' = D ' = 0. a s b e f o r e .C.4) a n d .C. t h i s is s u p p o s e d t o b e r e l a t e d t o t h e s u r f a c e t e n s i o n a n d t h e c u r v a t u r e of t h e s u r f a c e . that 1 7 = A s i n (kx . cot).Surface Tension and Capillary Waves 81 potentials are V > = 0. f o l l o w i n g t h e s t e p s in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . w e w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n s t a n t s C a n d C \ D a n d D' f r o m t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s . 5 . a n d w e a s s u m e .5) If.C.C.cot). w e 4>' = (C'e <f>=(De ky + Ce~ ) ky c o s (kx ) c o s (kx - cot). f o l l o w i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e of t h e p r e v i o u s section. 2 ) .

C.9) a n d (5. a n d w e will h a v e (5. (5.C.2) gives.15) w h e r e t h e s e c o n d e q u a l i t y f o l l o w s f r o m t h e d e f i n i t i o n k = lirlk. 5. the condition that (5. W e s e e t h a t if w e t a k e t h e l i m i t w e get p ' = T = 0. is g i v e n b v (5. (5. ( 5 . 1 5 ) will b e c o m e u n i m p o r t a n t . after s o m e cancellation. t h e s e c o n d t e r m will d o m i n a t e c o m p l e t e l y .10) into E q .12) w h e r e t h e s e c o n d a p p r o x i m a t e e q u a l i t y is t r u e f o r s m a l l d e f o r m a t i o n s of t h e s u r f a c e .B.17) A p i c t o r i a l w a y of r e p r e s e n t i n g t h i s is t o p l o t c F i g . since o u r intuition tells u s t h a t t h e p r o b l e m w e a r e w o r k i n g in this s e c t i o n s h o u l d r e d u c e t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n in t h i s l i m i t .14) we see that (5.C.16) w h i c h is p r e c i s e l y t h e r e s u l t f o r s u r f a c e w a v e s i n a fluid of i n f i n i t e d e p t h [see E q .13) If w e r e c a l l t h a t t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e w a v e . a n d t h e w a v e will l o o k l i k e a n o r d i n a r y s u r f a c e w a v e . C . w e k n o w t h a t t h e o t h e r r a d i u s i s g i v e n by (5. nothing depends on the z -coordinate. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d .16)].C. a t v e r y s m a l l w a v e l e n g t h s . 2 versus wavelength (see .C. S u b s t i t u t i n g E q s . a s o p p o s e d t o v e l o c i t y of t h e fluid p a r t i c l e s .C.82 Waves in Fluids since by hypothesis.C. (5.C. F r o m Problem 5. r e g a r d l e s s of t h e p r e s e n c e of s u r f a c e t e n s i o n . T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f i n t e r e s t i n g c o n s e q u e n c e s of t h i s r e s u l t .C. (5. T h i s gives u s s o m e confidence that our results are c o r r e c t . o r f r o m e l e m e n t a r y c a l c u l u s .6). t h e s e c o n d t e r m in E q . A r e l a t e d c o n s e q u e n c e c o m e s if w e n o t e t h a t f o r v e r y l a r g e w a v e l e n g t h s .7.

The small wavelength part corresponds to capillary waves. a n d c a p i l l a r y w a v e s . w h e n w e d i s c u s s n u c l e a r f i s s i o n . w h e n w e d i s c u s s s o m e applications to medicine. b u t r e p r e s e n t s t h e t y p e s of w a v e s m o s t c o m m o n l y e n c o u n t e r e d in p h y s i c a l situations. W e will s e e o t h e r e x a m p l e s of s u r f a c e t e n s i o n e f f e c t s in C h a p t e r 8. 1 6 ) . F o r s u c h w a v e s . t h e e x i s t e n c e of s u r f a c e t e n s i o n is l a r g e l y i r r e l e v a n t . 5. w e h a v e t h e o r d i n a r y s u r f a c e w a v e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . b u t w i t h s m a l l ruffles s u p e r i m p o s e d o n t h e m . 1 . T h e s e i n c l u d e l o n g w a v e s . T h e ruffles a r e . in f a c t . I n r e g i o n 1. s u r f a c e w a v e s . in w h i c h t h e v e r t i c a l m o t i o n of t h e fluid c a n b e i g n o r e d s o l o n g a s t h e d e p t h of t h e fluid is m u c h l e s s t h a n t h e w a v e l e n g t h . where the frequency of the wave is . T h i s t y p e of w a v e is g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d a capillary wave. o n e o f t e n s e e s t h e u s u a l l a r g e w a v e s . o r ripple. c a p i l l a r y w a v e s w h i c h a r e c a u s e d b y t h e w i n d ( s e e P r o b l e m 5 . I n r e g i o n 2. w e h a v e a n e w t y p e of w a v e . A plot of velocity versus wavelength. a n d a r e t y p i c a l l y of s h o r t w a v e l e n g t h . in w h i c h t h e d i s t u r b a n c e of t h e w a v e d i m i n i s h e s w i t h d e p t h in t h e fluid. SUMMARY W e h a v e s e e n t h a t a s a c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n a n d t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y t h a t t h e r e a r e a w i d e v a r i e t y of w a v e s p o s s i b l e i n f l u i d s . PROBLEMS 5 . w h i c h d e p e n d o n t h e e x i s t e n c e of s u r f a c e t e n s i o n . T h i s d o e s n o t e x h a u s t t h e n u m b e r of p o s s i b l e w a v e s in f l u i d s . w h o s e e x i s t e n c e is a d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s u r f a c e f o r c e s . and the long wavelength part to surface waves.6. S h o w that there are wavelike disturbances (for long waves) possible on a canal of rectangular cross section and uniform depth. T h e r e a d e r h a s p r o b a b l y a l r e a d y o b s e r v e d c a p i l l a r y w a v e s in n a t u r e . W h e n a w i n d is b l o w i n g o n a l a k e o r t h e o c e a n .Problems 83 c 2 A Fig. a n d in C h a p t e r 14.

and is similar t o t h e p h e n o m e n o n of w a t e r sloshing a r o u n d in a b a t h t u b .v = 0. 1 w h e r e C is a c o n s t a n t .84 Waves in Fluids w h e r e / is t h e length and h t h e d e p t h of t h e canal. and (2) L a k e E y r e . T h a t is.A.4.2. (5. or river e s t u a r y . Australia.B.5. C o n v i n c e yourself that this is t r u e b y looking at several different fluids. w e shall write t h e e q u a t i o n of continuity as V . and n is an integer. (a) S h o w that in t h e c a s e of a canal in which the b r e a d t h b and d e p t h h vary along t h e length of t h e canal. . An oscillation of this t y p e on a surface. s h o w that t h e motion described b y a fluid element is indeed the ellipse described in t h e text. Given t h e e q u a t i o n s for t h e velocity of fluid e l e m e n t s of a surface w a v e in E q . In m a n y p a r t s of this text. 5 . / = C/ (x). 2 / = / l + / 2 is not necessarily a solution. including water. and then adding c o m p o n e n t s t o g e t h e r ? 5. U s i n g a r e a s o n a b l e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s c h e m e . S h o w that if t h e elevation at t h e o c e a n is given by 0 TJ = A cos at. as a s y s t e m in which t h e d e p t h varies uniformly from h at t h e o c e a n to z e r o at a d i s t a n c e a from t h e o c e a n . 5. (b) S h o w that if f^x) is a solution. In Section 5. (c) Could w e solve s u c h an equation b y solving for o n e F o u r i e r c o m p o n e n t . the equation for long w a v e s b e c o m e s W e can m a k e a simple model of a tidal inlet. and w h o s e b r e a d t h varies from bo to z e r o o v e r t h e s a m e r a n g e .17). 5.3. and f are solutions t o this equation. is called a seiche. for e x a m p l e . T h e physical r e a s o n for this is b a s e d on t h e fact that the v o l u m e of m o s t fluids is relatively insensitive to c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . T o see w h y such e q u a t i o n s are difficult to solve. calculate t h e period of a seiche in (1) L a k e G e n e v a . which can b e excited by e a r t h q u a k e s . Switzerland. w e d i s c u s s e d nonlinear e q u a t i o n s briefly. is not necessarily a solution. consider t h e equation (a) S h o w that if / . w e shall u s e the incompressible fluid a p p r o x i m a tion.

E q u a t i o n (5.cot) or sin (kx .B and 5. w e a s s u m e d a form for t h e velocity potential a n d t h e surface d i s t u r b a n c e of t h e form c o s (kx . 5. S h o w that t h e final results in E q s .15) are u n c h a n g e d if w e u s e this exponential form. In Sections 5.C.9.B. S h o w that t h e radius of c u r v a t u r e of a c u r v e y(x) is given by 0 5. s h o w that 5. S u p p o s e that 10-foot b r e a k e r s are coming in off t h e o c e a n at t h e rate of o n e e v e r y 10 s e c o n d s .cot). (5. in which t h e u p p e r region is a v a c u u m . F r o m t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n of m a s s . W h a t would t h e slope of t h e b e a c h h a v e t o b e so that (1) t h e long-wave solution is valid.B. D e r i v e an e x p r e s s i o n for t h e velocity of t h e w a v e in this c a s e . t h e e q u a t i o n of continuity is . and (b) S h o w that if t h e b r e a d t h is c o n s t a n t . 0 w h e r e s < 1.7. so that p ' = 0. 5. S h o w that if t h e velocities are small. 5.6. t h e elevation varies as 1 7 = AJ (2V/CX) c o s at.10.C. (5.Problems 85 t h e elevation in t h e e s t u a r y is given b y w h e r e x is t h e c o o r d i n a t e measuring distance from t h e o c e a n . S u p p o s e also that t h e d e p t h of t h e lower fluid is h.10) can b e derived in a n o t h e r w a y .8. Q (c) C o n s i d e r t h e sloping b o t t o m of a b e a c h as t h e canal of variable d e p t h in this p r o b l e m . 15) in t h e limit T -* 0. C o n s i d e r t h e case of t h e t y p e s h o w n in Fig. (a) A s s u m e that t h e density of a fluid is given b y p = p ( l + s). t h e s e w a v e s can exist only in c o m p r e s s i ble fluids. but t h e d e p t h varies as a b o v e . Unlike t h e w a v e s considered in the text. A n o t h e r c o m m o n l y u s e d form would b e e " * " " .C.5. and (2) t h e surf n e a r t h e b e a c h is at least t h r e e feet high? 5. and s h o w that it r e d u c e s t o E q . An i m p o r t a n t t y p e of w a v e w h i c h can p r o p a g a t e in a fluid is t h e sound wave. while t h e surface tension of t h e lower fluid is T. C o n s i d e r an e l e m e n t of surface dS w h i c h will m o v e an a m o u n t AT} in t h e vertical direction in time At.15) and (5.

pi. at large r. (c) S h o w that a w a v e of t h e t y p e derived in part (b) is. in fact. S u p p o s e further that t h e velocity potential. If 0i is t h e angle of t h e refracted w a v e . S u p p o s e that t h e r e are t w o media. (b) S u p p o s e that a plane w a v e of f r e q u e n c y co is incident at an angle 0 to the n o r m a l from t h e u p p e r m e d i u m .10).10). (a) W r i t e t h e e q u a t i o n s governing cp and s in e a c h m e d i u m . Write d o w n t h e e q u a t i o n w h i c h g o v e r n s t h e propagation of a s o u n d w a v e in a spherically s y m m e t r i c uniform m e d i u m (see P r o b l e m 5. 2 0 5. a w a v e in which t h e density of t h e fluid is changing periodically with time. s e p a r a t e d b y t h e plane x = 0. A ' . s h o w that (c) If A. reflected.86 Waves in Fluids (b) F r o m t h e E u l e r equation. (b) S h o w that if a s o u r c e at r = 0 c a u s e s a velocity potential which varies as l n lot <p ~ e . S h o w that t h e only s o u n d w a v e s that can exist in a closed t u b e of length L are t h o s e for which t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e particles at a point x is given by D i s c u s s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of an organ pipe. s h o w that (d) W h e n will t h e r e b e n o reflected w a v e ? 5. s h o w that where c = dp/dp) . 5. and refracted w a v e s at t h e interface. and velocity of s o u n d in t h e first m e d i u m are cp\. S h o w that this s a m e equation holds t r u e for plane w a v e s . a w a v e for w h i c h v = cs. and t h e b o u n d a r y conditions which can b e e x p e c t e d t o hold at t h e interface (see P r o b l e m 5. and c. that t h e velocity potential for an outgoing w a v e will h a v e t h e form (c) S h o w that m e a n w o r k d o n e b y t h e s o u r c e is .13. density. H e n c e s h o w that c must b e t h e velocity of s o u n d in t h e fluid. (a) S h o w that t h e e q u a t i o n s for <f> and s yield. and Ai are t h e amplitudes of t h e incident. with similar definitions for t h e s e c o n d m e d i u m .12.11.

and of d e p t h h. In particular.15. including the ship's wake and tidal waves. S u p p o s e that t h e b o t t o m is m a n i p u l a t e d so that its d i s p l a c e m e n t from a plane is given b y 7} = A cos (cot - kx).17. U ^ 6.5 m / s e c will c a u s e t h e w a v e s to b e b l o w n into spindrift. C o n s i d e r a fluid of density p and surface t e n s i o n T in a b o x of d e p t h h with a flexible b o t t o m . where 5. the text by Lamb. given t h e k n o w n velocity of long w a v e s c = Vgh. 9.C. C a n w e ever get a situation in w h i c h w a v e s travel against t h e w i n d ? I n t e r p r e t this result.C for t h e c a s e in w h i c h t h e u p p e r m e d i u m is moving with velocity U with r e s p e c t t o t h e lower m e d i u m . radius a. (d) H o w would you p r e v e n t the coffee from spilling o v e r ? 5. Y o u h a v e p r o b a b l y h a d t h e e x p e r i e n c e of walking s o m e w h e r e with a cupful of coffee a n d h a v e o b s e r v e d t h e standing w a v e s w h i c h c a n b e set u p in s u c h a system. and 10.References 87 5. (b) D e t e r m i n e t h e values of k which satisfy t h e b o u n d a r y conditions. (c) W h a t is t h e value of U for w h i c h t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n at t h e surface will b e u n s t a b l e ? S h o w that for w a t e r . (a) If t h e c u p is of circular c r o s s section. contains a large number of physically interesting examples of wave motion. S h o w that a fluid in s p a c e (with n o gravitational field a r o u n d ) will form itself into a s p h e r e .14. . (c) D e t e r m i n e t h e frequency^of oscillation of t h e w a v e s . 5. (5. (a) S h o w t h e E q .15) is n o w r e p l a c e d b y (b) This is clearly a model for w a v e s g e n e r a t e d b y t h e wind. in Chapters 8. S h o w that t h e surface of t h e fluid will b e given b y y = A' c o s ((ot — kx). R e t r a c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t in Section 5. REFERENCES All of the general texts cited in Chapter 1 contain discussions of fluid waves. H e n c e c o m m e n t on t h e p r o s p e c t s of m a n u f a c t u r i n g ball bearings in sattelites.16. s h o w that t h e general standing w a v e on it is of t h e form r] ~ AJ (kr) n cos nO cos at.

" Traditional English Ballad A. I t is 88 . 6 . T h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l a t t h e p o i n t P d u e t o t h e m o o n is j u s t (6. For the good ship stands waiting for the next flowing tide And if ever I return again. Cons i d e r t h e g e o m e t r y s h o w n in F i g . w e s h o w e d t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e m o t i o n of fluids admit wavelike solutions. "Take it. I will make you my bride. H o w e v e r .A. I n t h i s c h a p t e r . t h i s is n o t t h e p o t e n t i a l w h i c h w e w o u l d h a v e t o u s e if w e w i s h t o c a l c u l a t e t h e t i d e s . 1 . that your heart may be true. dearest Nellie. I n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r . w e will l o o k a t o n e t y p e of w a v e — t h e l o n g w a v e — a n d s h o w h o w t h e w a v e s a r e g e n e r a t e d a n d h o w t h e y m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d t o b e h a v e in s o m e s i m p l e m o d e l s of t h e o c e a n s .6 The Theory of the Tides A ring from his finger he hastily drew Saying. t h e m o o n a l s o a c c e l e r a t e s t h e e a r t h a s a w h o l e . L e t u s b e g i n o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e t h e o r y of t h e t i d e s b y w o r k i n g o u t a n a p p r o x i m a t e expression for t h e potential w h i c h describes this attraction. but w e did not address ourselves to the question of h o w s u c h m o t i o n s m i g h t b e g e n e r a t e d . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s is t h a t in a d d i t i o n t o e x e r t i n g a f o r c e o n t h e w a t e r a t t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . THE TIDAL FORCES T h e t i d e s h a v e a l w a y s p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e in h u m a n a f f a i r s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y k n o w n t h a t t h e t i d e s a r e c a u s e d b y t h e e f f e c t s of t h e m o o n ' s g r a v i t a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n o n t h e w a t e r in t h e o c e a n s .1) w h e r e r is t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e c e n t e r of t h e e a r t h t o P .

Tides at the Equator

89

D

M

r

Fig. 6.1.

The configuration of the earth and the moon.

o n l y t h e n e t a c c e l e r a t i o n , of c o u r s e , w h i c h w o u l d b e m e a s u r e d b y a n o b s e r v e r a t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h . T h e a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h e c e n t e r of t h e e a r t h b e c a u s e of t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e m o o n is (6.A.2) w h e r e w e h a v e w r i t t e n t h e f o r c e a s t h e d e r i v a t i v e of a f u n c t i o n , w h i c h w e c a n n o w r e g a r d a s a p o t e n t i a l , t h a t t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e m o t i o n of t h e e a r t h , a n d x is a u n i t v e c t o r in t h e x - d i r e c t i o n . T h u s , t h e n e t g r a v i t a t i o n a l potential a t P—the n e t p o t e n t i a l w h i c h will a c t u a l l y b e f e l t b y the water—is just (6.A.3) W e h a v e w r i t t e n t h i s a s H , t h e d i s t u r b i n g p o t e n t i a l , t o d i s t i n g u i s h it f r o m f l , t h e p o t e n t i a l a t P d u e t o t h e m o o n . N o w in p r a c t i c e , w e k n o w t h a t r/D ^ 1 , s o w e c a n e x p a n d H t o l o w e s t o r d e r in r/D t o g e t
D M D

(6.A.4)

w h e r e w e h a v e l e t r = a in t h e final s t e p , a n d t h u s r e s t r i c t e d o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h . W e h a v e a l s o s e t t h e z e r o of H a t - G M / D . I t is t h i s p o t e n t i a l w h o s e d e r i v a t i v e s a r e t h e " e x t r a " f o r c e s w h i c h w e r e i n t r o d u c e d in E q s . ( 5 . A . 1 ) a n d ( 5 . A . 2 ) . I n f a c t , w e h a v e
D

(6.A.5)

B.

TIDES AT THE EQUATOR

A s a first e x a m p l e of a t h e o r y of t h e t i d e s , l e t u s c o n s i d e r a c a s e i n w h i c h t h e g e o m e t r y is a s s i m p l e a s p o s s i b l e , s o t h a t w e c a n s e e t h e p h y s i c s of t h e s i t u a t i o n c l e a r l y . L e t u s c o n s i d e r a n o b s e r v e r a t t h e

90

The Theory of the Tides

e q u a t o r , a n d let u s a s s u m e t h a t t h e m o o n lies d i r e c t l y a b o v e t h e e q u a t o r at all t i m e s . L e t u s f u r t h e r m o r e n e g l e c t t h e d y n a m i c a l e f f e c t s of t h e e a r t h ' s r o t a t i o n (i.e. n e g l e c t centrifugal a n d C o r i o l i s f o r c e s ) , a n d let t h e o n l y e f f e c t of t h i s r o t a t i o n b e a n a p p a r e n t m o v e m e n t of t h e m o o n ( a s s e e n b y o u r o b s e r v e r ) a r o u n d t h e e a r t h o n c e e a c h d a y . W e will a l s o a s s u m e t h a t t h e e a r t h is a u n i f o r m s p h e r e c o v e r e d w i t h a n o c e a n of u n i f o r m d e p t h , a n d i g n o r e t h e p r e s e n c e of l a n d m a s s e s . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e a n g l e S w h i c h a p p e a r s in E q . ( 6 . A . 4 ) — t h e a n g l e b e t w e e n t h e v e c t o r t o t h e point P at w h i c h t h e tides are being m e a s u r e d a n d t h e v e c t o r t o t h e m o o n — w i l l lie i n t h e p l a n e of t h e e q u a t o r . T h i s greatly simplifies t h e g e o m e t r y , s i n c e t h e angle ® n o w c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e a n g l e of l o n g i t u d e a t t h e e q u a t o r ( s e e F i g . 6.2). T h e c o m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h a r i s e w i t h t h e m o r e g e n e r a l c a s e will b e d i s c u s s e d in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n s . W e s h a l l s e e , in f a c t , t h a t t h e m a i n m a t h e m a t i c a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h a p p e a r in t h e L a p l a c e t h e o r y of t h e t i d e s h a v e t o d o w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a n g l e © b e t w e e n t h e r a d i u s t o t h e p o i n t of o b s e r v a t i o n a n d t h e r a d i u s t o t h e m o o n is n o t , in g e n e r a l , s o e a s i l y e x p r e s s i b l e in t e r m s o f o t h e r a n g l e s in t h e problem. In deriving the l o n g - w a v e e q u a t i o n , E q . (5.A.11), w e u s e d Cartesian c o o r d i n a t e s . F o r a n o b s e r v e r o n t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h , t h e a p p a r e n t v e r t i c a l a n d h o r i z o n t a l w o u l d b e t h e x- a n d y - a x e s s h o w n in F i g . 6.2. S i n c e it is o n l y t h e x-component of t h e e x t r a f o r c e w h i c h e n t e r s E q . ( 5 . A . 11), w e h a v e

(6.B.1) w h e r e w e h a v e u s e d t h e g e o m e t r i c a l i d e n t i t y dx = ad<f> a n d s e t 0 = <j>. If w e i n s e r t E q . ( 6 . B . 1 ) i n t o E q . ( 5 . A . 1 1 ) , w e find (6.B.2) y

D

Fig. 6.2.

The coordinates for the discussion of long waves.

Tides at the Equator

91

F r o m t h e t h e o r y of i n h o m o g e n e o u s d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s ( s e e A p p e n d i x E ) , w e k n o w t h a t t h e m o s t g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n of E q . ( 6 . B . 2 ) c a n b e written 7] = 7] + TJP,
H h x

(6.B.3)

w h e r e r) r e p r e s e n t s t h e s o l u t i o n t o t h e e q u a t i o n w i t h F = 0 ( t h e h o m o g e n e o u s s o l u t i o n ) a n d TJP r e p r e s e n t s t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n f o r t h e equation with the forcing term. I n w h a t f o l l o w s w e s h a l l n o t i n c l u d e t h e t e r m TJH i n o u r s o l u t i o n s , b u t look only for t h e particular solutions t o the equations. T h e r e a s o n for this lies w i t h o u r p h y s i c a l intuition, a n d n o t w i t h t h e m a t h e m a t i c s . W e k n o w that w e h a v e ignored p r o c e s s e s (such as friction and visc o s i t y ) b y w h i c h a r e a l fluid w i l l l o s e e n e r g y . W e k n o w , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a d i s t u r b a n c e i n t h e fluid will t e n d t o d i e o u t u n l e s s s o m e o u t s i d e a g e n c y is present which adds energy continuously to the system. In the case w e are c o n s i d e r i n g , t h i s o u t s i d e a g e n c y i s , of c o u r s e , t h e m o o n . T h u s , w e k n o w t h a t t h e o n l y l o n g - t e r m d i s t u r b a n c e s w h i c h will b e p r e s e n t i n t h e o c e a n s will b e t h o s e r e p r e s e n t e d b y T J , w h i l e t h e d i s t u r b a n c e s r e p r e s e n t e d b y f) will t e n d t o d i e o u t w i t h t i m e . I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h i s s a m e s o r t of t r e a t m e n t of l o n g - a n d s h o r t - t e r m e f f e c t s i s o f t e n e n c o u n t e r e d i n e l e c t r i c a l circuits, w h e r e the h o m o g e n e o u s solutions are customarily referred to as transients, and the particular solutions are referred to as steady-state solutions.
p h

If w e let co b e t h e f r e q u e n c y of t h e m o o n a b o u t t h e e a r t h a s o b s e r v e d from the point P, then </> = cot, (6.B.4)

w h e r e w e s e t t h e z e r o of t i m e w h e n t h e m o o n i s d i r e c t l y o v e r t h e p o i n t P . co, of c o u r s e , s h o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o a p e r i o d of 2 4 h o u r s . E q u a t i o n ( 6 . B . 4 ) m e a n s t h a t w e c a n e l i m i n a t e t h e v a r i a b l e cp f r o m E q . ( 6 . B . 2 ) a n d g e t (6.B.5)

w h i c h is e a s i l y s o l v e d t o g i v e (6.B.6) T h e r e a r e t w o i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s of t h i s s o l u t i o n of t h e t i d a l e q u a t i o n s at t h e e q u a t o r w h i c h w e s h o u l d n o t e . First, w e o b s e r v e t h a t t h e w a t e r l e v e l a t a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t will r e a c h i t s m a x i m u m v a l u e t w i c e a d a y — e v e n t h o u g h t h e m o o n t r a v e r s e s i t s p a t h o n l y o n c e in t h e s a m e p e r i o d of t i m e .

92

The Theory of the Tides

T h i s f e a t u r e of t h e t i d e s — t h a t t h e y a r e s e m i - d i u r n a l — w i l l r e a p p e a r w h e n w e discuss the L a p l a c e t h e o r y later. P e r h a p s m o r e i n t e r e s t i n g is t h e f a c t t h a t if w e l o o k a t t = 0, t h e t i m e w h e n t h e m o o n is d i r e c t l y o v e r h e a d , TJ will a t t a i n e i t h e r i t s m a x i m u m o r m i n i m u m v a l u e , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e s i g n of gh—eo a . W e recall that c = gh is t h e v e l o c i t y of a l o n g w a v e , a n d w e s e e t h a t 00a is t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e m o o n ' s " s h a d o w " o n t h e e a r t h . If w e t a k e t h e e a r t h t o h a v e a r a d i u s of 4 0 0 0 k m , a n d t h e a v e r a g e d e p t h of t h e o c e a n a s 4 k m , w e e a s i l y s e e t h a t
2 2 2

c <oj a ,
2 2 2

(6.B.7)

s o t h a t , in f a c t , t h e t i d e is i n v e r t e d — i . e . , w e h a v e a l o w t i d e w h e n t h e m o o n is d i r e c t l y o v e r h e a d . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s is s i m p l y t h e f a c t t h a t a s t h e m o o n g o e s a r o u n d , it a t t r a c t s t h e w a t e r t o w a r d it, f o r m i n g a t i d a l b u l g e o n t h e earth. T h i s tidal bulge, h o w e v e r , c a n n o t k e e p u p with t h e m o o n , a n d l a g s b e h i n d . O u r c a l c u l a t i o n s g i v e a l a g of 180°, s o t h a t l o w t i d e o c c u r s w h e n t h e m o o n is d i r e c t l y o v e r h e a d . T h u s , f o r a n o c e a n of u n i f o r m d e p t h a n d a m o o n c o n s t r a i n e d t o o r b i t exactly over the equator, the equatorial tides would be semi-diurnal and inverted. In fact, w e k n o w that the major tides are semi-diurnal, although t h e p r e s e n c e of v a r i a b l e d e p t h in t h e o c e a n a n d l a n d m a s s e s c o m p l i c a t e s t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of r e a l t i d e s c o n s i d e r a b l y . B u t t h e m a i n f e a t u r e s of t h e d i s c u s s i o n in t h i s s e c t i o n , w h i c h i n v o l v e t h e e f f e c t of t h e l u n a r d i s t u r b i n g p o t e n t i a l o n t h e l o n g w a v e s in t h e o c e a n , will c a r r y t h r o u g h in t h e m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d c a l c u l a t i o n s d o n e in l a t e r s e c t i o n s . It s h o u l d b e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a l t h o u g h w e h a v e a l w a y s r e f e r r e d t o " l u n a r f o r c e s , " in p o i n t of f a c t e v e r y b o d y c a p a b l e of e x e r t i n g a g r a v i t a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n a t t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e is c a p a b l e of c a u s i n g a t i d e , a n d , in f a c t , s o l a r t i d e s a r e e a s i l y s e e n . T h i s is t r e a t e d in m o r e d e t a i l i n P r o b l e m 6.1.

C.

THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION WITH ROTATION

I n t h e t r e a t m e n t of t h e e q u a t o r i a l t i d e s in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , t w o i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of t h e p r o b l e m of t i d e s h a v e b e e n i g n o r e d . O n e of t h e s e , t h e c o m p l i c a t e d d e p e n d e n c e of t h e a n g l e © o n t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e p r o b l e m , will b e t r e a t e d in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . T h e o t h e r i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s w h i c h w e m u s t c o n s i d e r a r e t h e d y n a m i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s of t h e r o t a t i o n of t h e e a r t h . I n S e c t i o n 2 . A , w e s a w t h a t if w e w e n t t o a coordinate system which was rotating with a body, an extra force a p p e a r e d . In the static case, this w a s the familiar centrifugal force. Since

The Equations of Motion with Rotation

93

t h e m e a s u r e m e n t of t i d e s i n v o l v e s m o v i n g fluids o n t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h , w e will h a v e t o e x p a n d t h i s c o n c e p t s o m e w h a t . W e k n o w t h a t if a f o r c e a c t s i n a n i n e r t i a l s y s t e m in s u c h a w a y a s t o p r o d u c e a n a c c e l e r a t i o n a , t h e n t h a t s a m e f o r c e a c t i n g in a r o t a t i n g c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m will p r o d u c e a n a p p a r e n t a c c e l e r a t i o n g i v e n b y
0

a = a - 2 co x v - w X ( w X r ) 0

(6.C.1)

w h e r e co is t h e f r e q u e n c y of r o t a t i o n of t h e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m . If w e a r e s i t t i n g in a c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m fixed o n t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h , t h e n w e c a n t a k e dco/dt = 0. T h e t w o " e x t r a " t e r m s in t h e a b o v e e q u a t i o n a r e t h e n t h e f a m i l i a r c e n t r i f u g a l a n d C o r i o l i s f o r c e s . I t is c u s t o m a r y t o t r e a t t h e s e t e r m s , w h i c h a c t u a l l y a r i s e b e c a u s e of t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m , as forces (usually given s o m e n a m e like a p p a r e n t or ficticious forces) w h e n w e write N e w t o n ' s laws. Once these extra forces are i n c l u d e d , w e c a n e a s i l y s e e t h a t t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n , w h i c h is j u s t N e w t o n ' s second law, b e c o m e s (6.C.2) T o u n d e r s t a n d t h i s e q u a t i o n , c o n s i d e r t h e s y s t e m s h o w n in F i g . 6 . 3 . T h e point P r e p r e s e n t s t h e spot at w h i c h t h e tides are being m e a s u r e d , t h e r a d i u s of t h e e a r t h is t a k e n t o b e a, a n d t h e a n g l e s 6 a n d cf> g i v e t h e l o c a t i o n of P . T h e l e n g t h co is t h e p e r p e n d i c u l a r d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e a x i s o f rotation (taken to be the z-axis) to P. This s o m e w h a t c u m b e r s o m e n o t a t i o n i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , s t a n d a r d f o r t h i s t y p e of s y s t e m . 0)

Fig. 6.3.

Polar coordinates for the discussion of tidal waves.

94

The Theory of the Tides

I n S e c t i o n 2 . A , w e t r e a t e d t h e c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e b y d i r e c t i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n f o r t h e s t a t i c c a s e . I n t h i s p r o b l e m , t h e fluid i s i n m o t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h , s o w e c a n n o t i n t e g r a t e s o easily. W e can, h o w e v e r , perform an equivalent operation b y noting that

w X ( w X r ) = OJ COP,
2

(6.C.3)

w h e r e p i s a u n i t v e c t o r p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e z - a x i s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of P . A s i m p l e m a n i p u l a t i o n ( s e e P r o b l e m 6.3) t h e n g i v e s (6 .C .4) T h u s , the centrifugal force combined with other terms on p r o c e e d a s in Section 5.A a n d derivative, the Euler equation term can b e written as a gradient, and t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e of E q . ( 6 . A . 2 ) . If w e d r o p t h e (v • V)v t e r m i n t h e c o n v e c t i v e can be written (6 .C .5) w h e r e t h e p o t e n t i a l i s a c t u a l l y t h e s u m of t w o t e r m s ft = n
e e

+ n .
D

(6 .C .6)
D

W e h a v e written fl for the potential d u e to the earth's gravitation, and f l is t h e d i s t u r b i n g p o t e n t i a l d u e t o t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e m o o n d e r i v e d i n Section 6.A. I n t h e c a s e of l o n g w a v e s ( s e e S e c t i o n 5 . A ) , w e f o u n d it v e r y c o n v e n i e n t t o d i s c u s s t h e y - c o m p o n e n t o n t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n first. T h e g e n e r a l s c h e m e of t h i n g s i s t o s o l v e t h e y - e q u a t i o n f o r t h e q u a n t i t y w h o s e g r a d i e n t a p p e a r s o n t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e of E q . (6 .C .5), a n d t h e n i n s e r t t h i s i n t o t h e r e m a i n i n g e q u a t i o n s . T h e y - e q u a t i o n is vJ .C.7) If w e n o w i n v o k e t h e l o n g - w a v e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s t h a t w e r e i n t r o d u c e d in S e c t i o n 5 . A , w e w i l l s e t t h e l e f t - h a n d s i d e of t h i s e q u a t i o n e q u a l t o z e r o . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e m o t i o n in t h e y - d i r e c t i o n is s l o w e n o u g h t o b e r e g a r d e d a s q u a s i - s t a t i c . If w e t h e n i n t e g r a t e t h e r i g h t - h a n d side from s o m e arbitrary point y t o t h e point y = h +t] (which w e again t a k e t o b e t h e s u r f a c e of t h e fluid), w e h a v e (6.C.8)

The Equations of Motion with Rotation

95

A n u m b e r of p o i n t s c a n b e m a d e a b o u t t h i s r e s u l t . F i r s t , j u s t a s w e d r o p p e d F in E q . ( 5 . A . 11), w e will i g n o r e £l w i t h r e s p e c t t o O i n t h i s e q u a t i o n . S e c o n d , t h e q u a n t i t y f l - \co co is t h e p o t e n t i a l w h i c h w o u l d b e felt b y a s t a t i o n a r y b o d y a t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h , a n d is u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e " a p p a r e n t g r a v i t y . " If w e e x p a n d t h i s q u a n t i t y a t y = h + TJ in a T a y l o r s e r i e s a b o u t y = h, w e h a v e
y D e 2 2 e

= c o n s t . + grj. ( E q . ( 1 6 . C . 8 ) ) is t h e n j u s t

(6.C.9)

T h e final r e s u l t f o r t h e i n t e g r a t e d y - c o m p o n e n t of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n

(6.C.10) S u b s t i t u t i n g t h i s r e s u l t i n t o t h e r i g h t - h a n d side of E q . (6.C.5), w e t h e 6 c o m p o n e n t of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n t o b e (6.C.11) and (6.C.12) for t h e - c o m p o n e n t , w h e r e w e h a v e d r o p p e d t e r m s in v . T h e r e m a i n i n g e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n w h i c h m u s t b e w r i t t e n d o w n is c o n t i n u i t y . I n S e c t i o n 5 . A , w e s a w t h a t it w a s s i m p l e r t o d e r i v e t h e e q u a t i o n f r o m t h e s t a r t f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r g e o m e t r y in q u e s t i o n . T h e d e r i v a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of c a l c u l a t i n g t h e a m o u n t of fluid in a n i n f i n i t e s i m a l s l i c e of v o l u m e , a n d t h e n n o t i n g t h a t a n y fluid w h i c h e n t e r s o r l e a v e s t h e v o l u m e m u s t r e s u l t in a c h a n g e of h e i g h t ( a n d t h e r e f o r e a c h a n g e of 17) of t h e fluid i n t h e v o l u m e .
y

find

T h e s a m e technique can b e applied for the g e o m e t r y appropriate to the s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h , a l t h o u g h it i s a l i t t l e m o r e difficult t o v i s u a l i z e i n t h i s c a s e . W e c a n imagine t h e infinitesimal v o l u m e e l e m e n t , w h i c h w a s a s i m p l e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l s l i c e in S e c t i o n 5 . A t o b e a b o d y e x t e n d i n g u p w a r d r a d i a l l y f r o m t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h , s o t h a t i t s h e i g h t is m e a s u r e d i n t e r m s o f t h e c o o r d i n a t e y. I n t h e u n p e r t u r b e d s t a t e , t h i s b o d y w o u l d b e filled t o a h e i g h t h w i t h fluid. L e t t h e p e r i m e t e r of t h e b o d y b e d e l i n e a t e d b y a r c s ( s e e F i g . 6.4), o n e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a n infinitesimal i n c r e m e n t i n 0, a n d t h e o t h e r t o a n i n f i n i t e s i m a l i n c r e m e n t i n <p. T h i s

96

The Theory of the Tides

Fig. 6.4.

The idea of continuity in polar coordinates.

s h o u l d b e f a m i l i a r t o t h e r e a d e r , s i n c e it is t h e s t a n d a r d v o l u m e e l e m e n t in s p h e r i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s . W i t h t h i s g e o m e t r y , it is r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d t o r e p e a t t h e d e r i v a t i o n of S e c t i o n 5 . A t o g e t (6.C.13) f o r t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y ( s e e P r o b l e m 6.4).

D.

TIDES AT THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH

I n t h e e q u a t o r i a l t h e o r y of t h e t i d e s , w e a s s u m e d t h a t b o t h t h e m o o n a n d t h e point at w h i c h the tides w e r e t o b e o b s e r v e d w e r e on the equator, s o t h a t t h e a n g l e & i n F i g . 6.2 c o u l d b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e a n g l e cf> in o u r n e w c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m . F o r t h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m o f finding t h e t i d e s a t a n a r b i t r a r y p o i n t o n t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h , t h i s is n o l o n g e r p o s s i b l e . I n f a c t , if w e s a y t h a t t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e r a d i u s v e c t o r t o t h e m o o n i s g i v e n b y t h e a n g l e s A a n d a w h i l e t h e r a d i u s v e c t o r t o t h e p o i n t P is g i v e n b y 6 a n d cf> ( s e e F i g . 6.5), t h e n c o s 0 = c o s A c o s 6 + sin A sin < / > c o s ( a + c/>). (6.D.1)

W e c a n n o w insert this into t h e equation for t h e disturbing potential, E q . (6.A.4), a n d p u t t h e resulting e x p r e s s i o n for Q into E q s . (6.C.11) a n d (6.C.12) t o get t h e e q u a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e tides. B e f o r e doing so, h o w e v e r , it will b e p r o f i t a b l e t o d i s c u s s t h e f o r m f o r t h e d i s t u r b i n g
D

Tides at the Surface of the Earth

97

Fig. 6.5.

The angles involved in the general theory of the tides.

potential which results from this manipulation. Recalling that (6.D.2) where M is t h e m a s s of t h e e a r t h , a n d defining (6.D.3) we have

e

H s i n 2A s i n 26 c o s ( a + cp) H s i n A s i n 6 c o s 2(a + cp)
2 2

= F, + F + F .
2 3

(6.D.4)

T h u s , w e s e e t h a t t h e d i s t u r b i n g p o t e n t i a l c a n b e t h o u g h t of a s c o n s i s t i n g of t h r e e s e p a r a t e t e r m s . S i n c e e a c h of t h e s e t e r m s p l a y s t h e s a m e r o l e a s t h e i n h o m o g e n e o u s t e r m i n E q . ( 6 . B . 2 ) , it i s r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t e a c h is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s e p a r a t e m o t i o n of t h e fluid, a n d t h e t o t a l m o t i o n of t h e fluid w i l l b e t h e s u m o f t h e t h r e e s e p a r a t e m o t i o n s . T h i s p r o p e r t y of d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s i s d i s c u s s e d i n A p p e n d i x E , a n d w e will s e e s o m e e x p l i c i t e x a m p l e s l a t e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n . F o r t h e m o m e n t , h o w e v e r , l e t u s a s s u m e t h a t t h i s is t h e c a s e a n d p r o c e e d w i t h t h e discussion. W e s e e t h a t t h e t i m e d e p e n d e n c e s of F F , a n d F a r e all q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . If P is f i x e d , t h e n 6 a n d cp d o n o t v a r y w i t h t h e t i m e . S i n c e a is
u 2 3

98

The Theory of the Tides

t h e p r o j e c t i o n of t h e m o o n ' s s h a d o w o n t o t h e e q u a t o r i a l p l a n e , w e m u s t have a ~ cot, (6.D.5)

w h e r e co is t h e f r e q u e n c y of t h e e a r t h ' s r o t a t i o n . O v e r t h e p e r i o d o f a d a y o r s o , A, t h e a n g l e o f d e c l i n a t i o n of t h e m o o n , i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o n s t a n t . T h u s , t o a first a p p r o x i m a t i o n , F is a c o n s t a n t t e r m , F is a t e r m w h i c h v a r i e s a s c o s cot a n d w o u l d h e n c e g i v e r i s e t o a o n c e - a - d a y ( d i u r n a l ) t i d e , w h i l e F v a r i e s a s c o s 2cot, a n d is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t w i c e - a - d a y (semi-diurnal) tide.
x 2 3

I n f a c t , w e k n o w t h a t t h e e a r t h ' s r o t a t i o n a x i s is t i l t e d a t a b o u t 23° w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p l a n e of t h e m o o n ' s o r b i t , s o t h e a n g l e A will h a v e a t i m e d e p e n d e n c e w h o s e f r e q u e n c y will b e a b o u t a m o n t h . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e " c o n s t a n t " H c o n t a i n s a f a c t o r 1 / D , w h e r e D is t h e d i s t a n c e t o t h e m o o n . D itself c h a n g e s w i t h t i m e o v e r o n e l u n a r r e v o l u t i o n , c o r r e s p o n d ing to t h e fact that t h e m o o n a n d t h e e a r t h d e s c r i b e elliptical orbits a b o u t t h e i r c o m m o n c e n t e r of m a s s . T h u s , t h e s i m p l e s t a t e m e n t s g i v e n a b o u t t i m e d e p e n d e n c e s in t h e a b o v e p a r a g r a p h a r e n o t strictly t r u e . It is c l e a r , h o w e v e r , t h a t w h a t e v e r t h e t i m e d e p e n d e n c e of t h e a n g l e A a n d t h e p a r a m e t e r H, t h e y a r e v e r y s l o w c o m p a r e d t o t h e t i m e d e p e n d e n c e of t h e a n g l e a. H e n c e , i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e t i d e s d u e t o F a n d F , w e c a n r e g a r d b o t h of t h e s e a s c o n s t a n t s , b u t a s c o n s t a n t s w h o s e v a l u e s m a y c h a n g e o v e r m a n y p e r i o d s of t h e t i d e , a n d w h i c h m u s t t h e r e f o r e b e a d j u s t e d b e f o r e u n d e r t a k i n g n u m e r i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s . T h i s i d e a is u s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d b y writing
3 2 3

F and F
f

2

= H " c o s ( « + </>) = H" c o s 2(a 4- <f>),

(6.D.6) (6.D.7)

3

w h e r e H" a n d H " a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o n s t a n t s . I n w h a t f o l l o w s , w e s h a l l ignore the monthly tides associated with Fi, although they are k n o w n to exist and h a v e b e e n measured. W e k n o w t h a t in d e a l i n g w i t h c o m p l i c a t e d e q u a t i o n s , it is o f t e n b e s t t o isolate v a r i o u s t e r m s for c o n s i d e r a t i o n . W e will t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n i n w h i c h n / g in E q . ( 6 . D . 4 ) is r e p l a c e d b y e i t h e r F o r F , w h i c h , f o r t h e s a k e o f c o n v e n i e n c e , w e w i l l w r i t e a s F*. L e t u s d e n o t e b y Tj, t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s u r f a c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t e r m F*. T h e E u l e r equations are
D 2 3

(6.D.8)

12) itJVj. + 2coi?E c o s 6 w h e r e w e h a v e defined 6. a n d E q .9) yields iave — Itov* cos 6 (6.D.D. respectively.14) and (6. t) = v+(6)e +\ r .9) I n g e n e r a l . and therefore quite easy to solve. <t>. S i m p l e a l g e b r a ( s e e P r o b l e m 6. ( 6 .D.D.5) t h e n y i e l d s (6. 5 ) w h i c h g i v e s t h e a n g l e a a s a f u n c t i o n of t i m e . 3 s = 2. 4>.t) = 7 (6)e +\ i(Tt+s 1 (6. ct>. 2 cr = 2 co. t h e r e f o r e .D.10) for F 2 and F . t h e t a n d <p d e p e n d e n c e o f F Ft ~ where we used the definitions e^'+v^ of the sine and cosine in t e r m s of will b e of t h e f o r m f e x p o n e n t i a l s .8) a n d (6.D.13) These equations are n o w algebraic. 3 I t b e c o m e s n a t u r a l . o~i a n d St a r e C7 2 = co. w e s e e . 3 (6. w a s t o r e d u c e t h e c o m p l e x i t y of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n s . s = 1.D. u p o n substitution into E q s .11) w h i c h .15) . t o l o o k f o r s o l u t i o n s of t h e f o r m ( d r o p ping the subscript i for convenience) ve(6.Tides at the Surface of the Earth 99 and (6.D.t) = v (0)e " *\ H t+s e iiat+M v+(6. D . ( 0 .D. T h e n e t e f f e c t of t h e a s s u m p t i o n w h i c h w e m a d e a b o u t t h e f o r m o f t h e s o l u t i o n . (6.

t h e diurnal tidal d i s p l a c e m e n t .14) a n d (6. t h e d e p t h of t h e o c e a n a t t h e p o i n t P . ) B u t of c o u r s e . w e find (h(0)v (6) e s i n 0 ) + isft(0 )i ?*(0 )J.D. T h e r e is. C . w e have 2 Since F 2 = H" s i n 0 c o s 0e * +\ iia + (6. 2 0 (6.D. ( 6 . T h i s a p p r o x i m a t i o n i s n o t v a l i d f o r t h e r e a l e a r t h .17) ( N o t e t h a t m is n o t a m a s s .100 The Theory of the Tides w h e r e w e h a v e defined 6.D. o n e d e p t h law w h i c h does allow explicit solutions f o r b o t h r] a n d 173.D. F o r a n arbitrary d e p t h l a w (by w h i c h w e m e a n t h e d e p e n d e n c e of h o n 6 a n d </>). B .18). L e t u s begin b y calculating TJ .16) and (6. 2 ) was. w e m u s t d o m o r e t h a n j u s t s o l v e t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n s if w e a r e t o h a v e a s o l u t i o n .15).D. it i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o d o t h i s e x p l i c i t l y a l t h o u g h it c a n b e done numerically.D.D. If w e p u t o u r a s s u m e d f o r m s of t h e s o l u t i o n i n t o E q . ( 6 . h o w e v e r . i s a f u n c t i o n of 6 o n l y . t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n s . T h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m of t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e t i d e s c a n n o w b e s e e n t o involve solving E q .20) it is n a t u r a l t o a s s u m e a f o r m of s o l u t i o n T ? = C c o s 0 s i n 6e * +\ iia + 2 (6. F o r this case. (6.21) . of c o u r s e . or its m o r e general f o r m w h i c h includes a < / > d e p e n d e n c e in t h e d e p t h .D. (6. a n y m o r e t h a n t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n of u n i f o r m d e p t h i n E q . (6.D.19) T h i s is a c t u a l l y n o t a b a d a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o t h e o c e a n s o n t h e e a r t h — a t l e a s t it k e e p s t h e i d e a of t h e o c e a n s a t t h e p o l e s b e i n g s h a l l o w e r t h a n those at the equator. S u p p o s e w e c o n s i d e r a n o c e a n w h o s e d e p t h i s g i v e n b y 2 h(6) = h sin e. 1 3 ) .18) w h e r e w e h a v e a s s u m e d t h a t h. W e m u s t s o l v e a n d s a t i s f y t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y a s w e l l .

c a l c u l a t i o n s of s e m i . w e find s i n c e / = \ t h a t (6. of c o u r s e .D.D. w e p r o c e e d in a n a l o g y t o E q . D . ( 6 . w e find -H" a sin 6 c o s 0e +\ iiajt+ (6.8. w e find and inserting these into the equation of (6.d i u r n a l t i d e s in a n o c e a n of u n i f o r m d e p t h g i v e n o n i n v e r t e d t i d e s f o r s o m e l a t i t u d e s . 3 .25) and Proceeding as before c o n t i n u i t y . D . 2 3 ) a n d ( 6 .D.13). b e g i v e n b y T/P = r / + r /3. s o t h a t r/ is n e g a t i v e w h e n t h e m o o n is d i r e c t l y o v e r h e a d .D. I n P r o b l e m 6. D .D.D. ( 6 . 1 4 ) a n d (6.D.18). W e n o t e t h a t t h e s e m i .D. D . _ _ (6.15) quickly yields v= e icrC m . C o m p a r i n g E q s .24) If w e a g a i n t u r n t o t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n s . b u t t h i s q u e s t i o n is e x a m i n e d in m o r e d e t a i l in P r o b l e m 6. recalling t h e definition in E q . 2 1 ) t o a s s u m e t h a t 3 r)3 = B s i n 6 e *" *>. (6. T h i s i s n o t a g e n e r a l r e s u l t f o r all h(f3.26. ( 6 .D. t h i s p r o b l e m i s d e a l t h w i t h f u r t h e r .23) can Turning n o w to the semi-diurnal tide associated with F .Tides at the Surface of the Earth 101 P u t t i n g t h i s i n t o t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n s in t h e f o r m of E q s . 2 (6.27) s o t h a t a n o b s e r v e r will s e e b o t h a daily a n d a t w i c e daily t i d e .22) and I n s e r t i n g this i n t o E q . F o r e x a m p l e . for the d i s p l a c e m e n t d u e to the semi-diurnal tide. 2 6 ) w e w o u l d e x p e c t t h e s e t i d e s t o b e r o u g h l y of e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e . 2 i(2 +2 (6. (6.7. h o w e v e r .d i u r n a l t i d e is still i n v e r t e d . T h e t o t a l d i s p l a c e m e n t a t t h e p o i n t P w i l l .

t h e r e is no d i u r n a l t i d e a t all. 6. w h e r e q = 0 . a daily tide. c o m p a r e t h e m a x i m u m tide d u e to t h e m o o n with tides d u e t o (a) t h e sun. w e s h o w t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d a b o v e a p p l i e d t o a n o c e a n w h o s e d e p t h is g i v e n b y h ( 0 ) = hod ~ q c o s 0 ) 2 (6. .D. F o r s o m e s i m p l e f o r m s of t h e d e p t h l a w f o r t h e o c e a n s . It a l s o e x p l a i n s w h y n o d i u r n a l t i d e s a p p e a r e d in S e c t i o n 6. ) C a n w e u n d e r s t a n d t h i s f e a t u r e of t h e t i d e s o n t h e b a s i s of o u r simple theories? I n P r o b l e m 6. Verify E q . PROBLEMS 6. b o r n a n d raised in t h e M i d w e s t . w h e n w e c o n s i d e r e d e q u a t o r i a l tides in a n o c e a n of c o n s t a n t d e p t h .29) W e n o t e i m m e d i a t e l y t h a t f o r a n o c e a n of u n i f o r m d e p t h . T h u s .1. T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n w a s o n e of t h e g r e a t t r i u m p h s of t h e L a p l a c e t h e o r y .A. the diurnal and s e m i .102 The Theory of the Tides Finally. w e w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e d i u r n a l t i d e s h o u l d b e g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d . t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e r o t a t i o n of t h e e a r t h . T h i s a t t r a c t i o n i s t h e c a u s e of t h e t i d e s . w e k n o w for real tides on the real earth.4) and s h o w h o w it is related t o E q . F o r t h e c a s e of equitorial tides.4).28) yields a diurnal tide for w h i c h (6. (6.2.C. t h e d i u r n a l t i d e e x i s t s o n l y i n s o f a r a s the ocean departs from complete uniformity. l e a r n e d this fact w h e n h e b e g a n studying tides b y listening to late-night radio reports from N o r f o l k . W e find that the semi-diurnal tides are the most important.d i u r n a l t i d e s a r e n o t of e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e .B.6.3. T h e m a j o r t i d e s c o m e t w i c e a d a y . (b) Jupiter. SUMMARY T h e n e t g r a v i t a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n a t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e m o o n i s g i v e n b y t h e d i s t u r b i n g p o t e n t i a l . S o m e s i m p l e g e o m e t r y s h o w s t h a t t i d e s a t a n a r b i t r a r y p o i n t w i l l b e of t h r e e t y p e s — a m o n t h l y tide. it is p o s s i b l e t o s o l v e f o r t h e s e t i d e s e x p l i c i t l y . ( T h e a u t h o r . (2. W o u l d equatorial tides b e inverted on V e n u s or on M a r s (assuming that t h e y had o c e a n s of t h e s a m e d e p t h s as o u r o w n ) ? 6. and (c) Alpha C e n t a u r i . a n d a semi-diurnal tide.D. Since the oceans are a p p r o x i m a t e l y u n i f o r m .

Consider t h e p r o b l e m of continuity in spherical c o o r d i n a t e s . find t h e smallest value of h such that t h e tide is not inverted.7.D. 2 2 dd dep. (6. calculate t h e ratio of t h e m a x i m u m values of t h e diurnal and semi-diurnal tides as a function of longitude. 6. t + d ) .5.4. 6.Problems 103 6.14) and (6. 6. 0 6. ( a . (a) S h o w that t h e a m o u n t of fluid in t h e b o d y at any time is M = pa dOco dcp (h +r/).8. Consider t h e e a r t h to b e a sphere of radius a w h i c h is c o v e r e d by an o c e a n of uniform d e p t h h which is m u c h less t h a n a. M a k e a r o u g h sketch of t h e results.D. Verify E q s .19). (b) S h o w that t h e n e t flux t h r o u g h t h e walls of length a dO is (vehco) dd dep.19). show that t h e diurnal d i s p l a c e m e n t is given b y H" s i n 0 c o s 0 e . 6. F o r t h e d e p t h law in E q . F o r a d e p t h law of t h e form h(6) = foo(l-4 cos 0). (6. . as s h o w n in Fig.D.13). (6. F o r t h e d e p t h law of E q .C. s h o w that t h e e q u a t i o n of continuity is (b) If w e neglect Coriolis and centrifugal f o r c e s .and cpc o m p o n e n t s of t h e E u l e r equation are and respectively. (6.D.6. L e t 1 7 b e t h e deviation of t h e d e p t h of the o c e a n from uniformity. show that the 0.4.15). (a) U s i n g t h e m e t h o d s of P r o b l e m 6. 6.4.9. (c) S h o w that t h e net flux t h r o u g h t h e walls of length a sin 0 dcp is -(v^ha) (d) H e n c e verify E q .

A. s h o w t h a t t h e only solutions w h i c h are possible are t h o s e for w h i c h m 2 /3 = /(/ + l). 1954. (a) Continuing with t h e e x a m p l e of t h e flooded e a r t h in t h e p r e v i o u s p r o b l e m s . The following texts are also quite useful. lm w h e r e Yi is t h e spherical h a r m o n i c defined in A p p e n d i x F . s h o w that if a disturbing potential is p r e s e n t .) E v a l u a t e ai for t h e first t h r e e values of /.104 The Theory of the Tides (c) H e n c e s h o w t h a t 6. McGraw-Hill.9 will h a v e a t e r m a d d e d . find t h e particular solution to this e q u a t i o n for t h e first t h r e e / v a l u e s . respectively. Introduction to Theoretical Mechanics. t h e Euler e q u a t i o n s in P r o b l e m 6. t h e solution for 1 7 will b e of t h e form r) * Y (e.11. (b) D e r i v e t h e n e w w a v e e q u a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e n e w E u l e r e q u a t i o n s . . and u s e t h e r e c u r s i o n relation for L e g e n d r e polynomials given in A p p e n d i x F to s h o w t h a t T/ will b e infinite unless t h e L e g e n d r e series terminates. and s h o w that it can b e written in t h e form (Hint: U s e t h e e x p a n s i o n in spherical h a r m o n i c s discussed in A p p e n d i x F. S k e t c h t h e results. (d) Consider a plane t h r o u g h t h e e a r t h at <f> = 0.10. Calculate t h e frequencies for t h e first four m o d e s for t h e e a r t h . (b) If w e define = (a I toe) .9. Hydrodynamics (cited in Chapter 1) has an excellent discussion of the theory of the tides. m REFERENCES H.) (c) T h e s e allowed frequencies are associated with t h e normal modes of oscillation. to t h e 6 and <f> e q u a t i o n s . Lamb. S k e t c h t h e value of 1 7 as a function of 6 for t h e first few n o r m a l m o d e s . s h o w t h a t using t h e t e c h n i q u e of separation of variables outlined in A p p e n d i x F . (a) F o r t h e w a v e e q u a t i o n derived in P r o b l e m 6. Becker. R. (Hint: C o n s i d e r t h e c a s e w h e r e c o s 8 = + 1 . New York. (c) U s i n g t h e t h e o r y of i n h o m o g e n e o u s equation outlined in A p p e n d i x E .<j>)e^. 6.

along with a discussion of how measurements are made. there is a readable and complete discussion of equations of motion in accelerated frames. 1957. and of the actual structure of the ocean. Chapter 3 of this text contains a very nice description of the use of spherical harmonics applied to the problem of tides on the earth. New York. 1962. and waves. C. An Introduction to Physical Oceanography. New York.References 105 In Chapter 11. and of the Coriolis and centrifugal forces. . Addison-Wesley. Pergamon Press. New York. An excellent descriptive text on the motion of the oceans. von Arx. Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres. Walter Kauzmann. Quantum Chemistry. Contains an excellent discussion of the tidal equations with rotation. Eckart. 1962. Academic Press. William S. currents.

g .2) 106 .A. D . w e s a y t h a t f o r s o m e p u r p o s e s it is r e a s o n a b l e t o t r e a t t h e e a r t h a s if it w e r e a u n i f o r m l i q u i d . t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e c e n t e r t o t h e p e r t u r b e d s u r f a c e w i l l b e ( s e e F i g . If w e i g n o r e t h e r o t a t i o n of t h e e a r t h for t h e d i s c u s s i o n in this s e c t i o n . If t h e e a r t h in i t s u n p e r t u r b e d s t a t e i s a s p h e r e of r a d i u s a a n d d e n s i t y p . W e will s h o w in this s e c t i o n t h a t a liquid s p h e r e w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m oscillations a b o u t its e q u i l i b r i u m c o n f i g u r a t i o n .A.7 Oscillations of Fluid Spheres: Vibrations of the Earth and Nuclear Fission He felt the earth move out and away from under them. f o r s o m e r e a s o n . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o a s k w h a t w o u l d h a p p e n t o s u c h a s p h e r e if. t h e n in a p e r t u r b e d s t a t e . it w e r e s l i g h t l y d e f o r m e d ( e . t h e n t h e e q u i l i b r i u m configuration of t h e e a r t h w o u l d b e a s p h e r e . b y a n e a r t h q u a k e ) a n d t h e n a l l o w e d t o r e s p o n d .<f>)- (7.1) I t is a l w a y s p o s s i b l e t o e x p a n d t h e f u n c t i o n £ ( 0 . T h i s p h e n o m e n o n .1) r = a + ao. . 7. cp) in t e r m s of s p h e r i c a l harmonics (see A p p e n d i x F) (7. h a s recently b e e n m e a s u r e d b y geophysicists. ERNEST HEMINGWAY For Whom the Bell Tolls A. s i m i l a r t o t h e r i n g i n g of a bell. FREE VIBRATIONS OF THE EARTH I n S e c t i o n 2 .

w e can write im (7.A. 2 (7. t h e e q u a t i o n w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s t h e v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l is j u s t V <f> = 0 .A. a s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s u r f a c e w a v e s i n S e c t i o n 5 .A.6) w h e r e .B. (5. W e n o w t u r n t o t h e p r o b l e m of finding w h e t h e r o r n o t w e c a n find w a v e l i k e s o l u t i o n s f o r £. t h e d e v i a t i o n of t h e s u r f a c e of t h e s p h e r e f r o m .5) which can be written (7. (5.3) w h i c h for a spherical g e o m e t r y has the solution (see A p p e n d i x F) S i n c e w e w a n t $ t o b e b o u n d e d at r = 0. T h u s .B.Free Vibrations of the Earth 107 w h e r e w e h a v e i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e s u m o v e r m i n t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n of A s in S e c t i o n 4 . w e m u s t h a v e B = 0 (this c o r r e s p o n d s t o u s i n g t h e " b o t t o m " b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n in E q .A.10) t o b e (7. B .6)—in t h i s c a s e t h e c o n d i t i o n is t h a t a t t h e o r i g i n t h e v e l o c i t y is finite).4) where s is d e f i n e d in a m a n n e r s i m i l a r t o £i. B . w e h a v e evaluated t h e b o u n d a r y equation at the u n p e r t u r b e d surface. Euler t T h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n a t t h e o u t e r s u r f a c e is g i v e n b y t h e e q u a t i o n as in E q .

7) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x i s t e n c e of o s c i l l a t i o n s a n d t h e i r f r e q u e n c y . T h u s . d e p e n d i n g o n w h e t h e r t h e a c t u a l s u r f a c e is a b o v e or b e l o w the u n p e r t u r b e d surface at a given point. W e w i l l s o l v e t h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m o f finding t h e p o t e n t i a l a t a p o i n t r j u s t a b o v e t h e u n p e r t u r b e d s u r f a c e of t h e s p h e r e . If s u c h s o l u t i o n s a r e f o u n d . a n d l a t e r l e t r . w e s h a l l s e e h o w t o r e l a t e t h i s v a r i a b l e d e n s i t y t o t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s u r f a c e . 7. B .h a n d s i d e i s t h e p o t e n t i a l a t r d u e t o t h e s p h e r e .A.H > a ( a s is a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o u r p r o c e d u r e o f e v a l u a t i n g all b o u n d a r y conditions at the u n p e r t u r b e d surface). ( 5 .A. a n d t h e s e c o n d t e r m (still t o b e c a l c u l a t e d ) r e p r e s e n t s t h e / \ \ \ shell Fig. a n d t h e o t h e r t h e p o t e n t i a l a t r d u e t o a t h i n s p h e r i c a l s h e l l of v a r i a b l e d e n s i t y p ( 0 . w e u s e t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n in t h e f o r m (7. t h e n a n o b s e r v e r a t t h a t p o i n t w o u l d o b s e r v e t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s in t h e e a r t h t h a t w e a r e d i s c u s s i n g . F o r t h e m o m e n t . £. I n o r d e r t o u s e t h i s e q u a t i o n .2.108 Oscillations of Fluid Spheres e q u i l i b r i u m a t a g i v e n p o i n t . 2 ) ] . w e h a v e t o find t h e p o t e n t i a l d u e t o a d i s t o r t e d s p h e r e .2)—one t h e potential at r d u e to an u n p e r t u r b e d s p h e r e of r a d i u s a. Coordinates for breaking the sphere into a central core plus a shell. s (7. A s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s u r f a c e w a v e s [ s e e E q . L a t e r . . cp). h o w e v e r .8) w h e r e t h e first t e r m of t h e r i g h t . W e s h a l l find t h e p r o b l e m t o b e c o n s i d e r a b l y s i m p l i f i e d if w e b r e a k t h e potential into t w o parts (see Fig. h o w e v e r . w e s i m p l y n o t e t h a t t h e d e n s i t y of t h e s h e l l c a n b e e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e . 7.

9) w h e r e . s Ps(0\ = H JL Y (0\ LM 4>') = 2 L P^- (7 .10) M I t i s a s t a n d a r d m a t h e m a t i c a l r e s u l t t h a t t h e t e r m \/R E q .A . T h e a m o u n t of e x c e s s m a s s is j u s t p £ d o \ { Fig.3.A .A .A. 9 ) . 12) A l l w e n e e d t o d o n o w is d e t e r m i n e t h e s u r f a c e d e n s i t y of t h e s h e l l p l\ a n d w e will h a v e t h e p o t e n t i a l d u e t o a d i s t o r t e d s p h e r e . 11) w h e r e y is t h e a n g l e b e t w e e n r a n d r' ( s e e F i g . b e c a u s e w e are considering only small vibrations. and h e n c e very thin shells. j u s t a s w e e x p a n d e d £ i n E q . If w e t a k e t h e s e r e s u l t s a n d p u t t h e m b a c k i n t o E q .3. w e find t h a t n EII e v a l u a t e d a t t h e u n p e r t u r b e d s u r f a c e of t h e s p h e r e i s SH (7.2).1 t o c a r r y o u t t h e i n t e g r a l s o v e r t h e a n g l e s 0 ' a n d <f)'. T h e s h a d e d a r e a r e p r e s e n t s t h e e x c e s s m a s s in t h e s u r f a c e e l e m e n t d u e t o t h e d i s t o r t i o n of t h e s u r f a c e .Free Vibrations of the Earth 109 p o t e n t i a l a t r d u e t o t h e r e s t of t h e s h e l l . T h i s i s (7. b e i n g a f u n c t i o n of 6' a n d <£>'.9) c a n b e w r i t t e n a s w h i c h a p p e a r s in (7. T h e s u r f a c e d e n s i t y . 7. 7. w e c a n regard p (0'. 7.2). (7 . ( 7 . L e t t i n g r = a.</>') as a surface m a s s density. Situation at the surface of the distorted sphere. . C o n s i d e r Fig. A . w e c a n u s e t h e r e s u l t s of P r o b l e m 7. c a n b e e x p a n d e d i n t e r m s of s p h e r i c a l h a r m o n i c s . A . (7 . A .

A . i n a g e n e r a l e x c i t a t i o n . w e find (7. b u t h a d t o s e t r = a + £ i n E q . T h u s . L e t u s l o o k a t t h e first f e w t e r m s i n . i n d e e d . 14). 14) i s t h e t o t a l p o t e n t i a l a t t h e p o i n t r. w i t h f r e q u e n c y of oscillation given b y ( 7 . A . 6 ) . t h e e q u a t i o n of a h a r m o n i c o s c i l l a t o r . W e a r e n o w r e a d y t o u s e t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n at t h e s u r f a c e t o d e t e r m i n e the equation for U s i n g o u r p r e s c r i p t i o n of e v a l u a t i n g all t e r m s a t t h e u n p e r t u r b e d surface. A . 17) w h i c h i s . T h i s m e a n s t h a t ( 7 . O f c o u r s e . A . and using the (7.110 Oscillations of Fluid Spheres ( s ) which we must equate to p shell. w e find to time. 16) Differentiating this equation with respect b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n i n E q . A . 18) A n o b s e r v e r at t h e s u r f a c e . W e l e a v e a s a n e x e r c i s e f o r t h e r e a d e r t h e p r o b l e m of w h y w e s e t r = a i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of ft eii. w e w o u l d e x p e c t all p o s s i b l e f r e q u e n c i e s t o b e e x c i t e d . ( 7 . A . A . will s e e oscillations c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e a b o v e f r e q u e n c i e s if f o r s o m e r e a s o n t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h is e v e r distorted. ( 7 . L e t t i n g r i n t h e first t e r m b e a + f. 13) where O is d e f i n e d i n E q . 12). and using t h e condition that the p r e s s u r e at the s u r f a c e m u s t b e a c o n s t a n t . A . ( 7 . a n d then keeping only first-order t e r m s i n £. 15) w h e r e w e h a v e u s e d t h e i d e n t i t y \ irap = g. a n d t h e a c t u a l d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s u r f a c e w o u l d b e s o m e s o r t of s e r i e s . t h e n . t h e m a s s i n a s u r f a c e e l e m e n t of t h e ( 7 . A . w e find sh f ( 7 . w h e r e t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f e a c h t e r m i n t h e s e r i e s a r e g i v e n b y t h e a b o v e e q u a t i o n . D A .

x T h u s . THE LIQUID DROP MODEL OF THE NUCLEUS Throughout this text. t h e l o w e s t o b s e r v a b l e oscillation w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o / = 2. or r = a + a ( 3 c o s 0 .1 ) ( w e w i l l i g n o r e t h e d e p e n d e n c e o n <j> f o r s i m p l i c ity). T h i s t y p e of d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s u r f a c e w o u l d correspond to r = a + a cos 0 which would correspond to an overall d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s p h e r e . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o a distortion s u c h as t h a t s h o w n in Fig. 7.4).The Liquid Drop Model of the Nucleus 111 Fig. 7. 7. s u c h a s e r i e s ( c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e l o w e s t v a l u e s o f / ) . to = 0 and no time-dependent displacements would be observed.6 0 m i n u t e p u l s e s o b s e r v e d a f t e r t h e e a r t h q u a k e of 1 9 6 0 ! Chilean B. The distortion corresponding to / = 1.4. P e r h a p s n o w h e r e is t h a t f a c t s o s u r p r i s i n g a s i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t s o m e of t h e e a r l i e s t i d e a s a b o u t t h e a t o m i c n u c l e u s w e r e Fig. w h i c h has a frequencv 2 2 T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o a t i m e b e t w e e n p u l s e s a t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h of about _ w h i c h is c l o s e t o t h e 3 . F o r / = 1. w e h a v e emphasized the fact that hydrodynamics is a s u b j e c t w h i c h c a n b e a p p l i e d o v e r a w i d e r a n g e o f p h y s i c a l p h e n o m e n a . F o r / = 0 .5. to = 0 a l s o .5. a n d c o u l d n o t b e d e t e c t e d b y a n o b s e r v e r a t t h e s u r f a c e ( s e e F i g . . The lowest observable oscillation for a liquid sphere. 7.

If o n e d o e s n o t w a n t t o g e t i n v o l v e d i n t h e i m p o s s i b l e p r o b l e m of d e s c r i b i n g t h e m o t i o n of e a c h p a r t i c l e in d e t a i l . w e s a w t h a t o n e w a y t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r a s y s t e m i s s t a b l e a g a i n s t s o m e p e r t u r b a t i o n is t o s e e w h e t h e r t h a t p e r t u r b a t i o n i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s t h e e n e r g y of t h e s y s t e m . b u t a c t u a l l y it is n o t . I t is t o t h e s e m o d e l s t h a t w e n o w turn our attention. T h e liquid d r o p model r e p r e s e n t s s u c h a zero-order a p p r o x i m a t i o n to the b e h a v i o r of l a r g e n u c l e i . ) S u c h a f o r c e w o u l d .B. g i v e r i s e t o a s u r f a c e t e n s i o n i n t h e n u c l e a r " f l u i d . w e s h o w e d h o w t h e e x i s t e n c e of a n a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e b e t w e e n t h e c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t i c l e s of a l i q u i d g a v e r i s e t o a s u r f a c e f o r c e . o n e treats the system as an ensemble. and discusses only the gross properties. i g n o r i n g t h e d e t a i l e d s t r u c t u r e a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e . I t m a y s e e m s t r a n g e t h a t t h e c l a s s i c a l t h e o r y of fluids s h o u l d h a v e a n y t h i n g t o d o w i t h n u c l e a r e f f e c t s . T h e p r o b l e m of d e s c r i b i n g a n u c l e u s m a d e u p of m a n y i n t e r a c t i n g n u c l e o n s is in m a n y w a y s s i m i l a r t o t h e p r o b l e m of d e s c r i b i n g a g a s m a d e u p of m a n y i n t e r a c t i n g p a r t i c l e s . I n t h e c a s e of t h e l i q u i d . ( T h e s e a r e t h e " s t r o n g i n t e r a c t i o n s " w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e o n e of t h e m a j o r fields of i n v e s t i g a t i o n in m o d e r n p h y s i c s . it i s n a t u r a l t o t r y t o a p p r o x i m a t e a n y s y s t e m w i t h a c o m p l e x i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e b y a fluid. " T h e s t a b i l i t y of t h e n u c l e u s i s t h u s s e e n t o b e a r e s u l t of t h e c o m p e t i t i t o n b e t w e e n t h e C o u l o m b electrostatic forces. w h o s e c o m p e t i t i o n w a s t h e m a i n p o i n t of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n o u r s t u d y of s t a r s i n C h a p t e r 2. S i n c e a fluid i s t h e s i m p l e s t s y s t e m i n w h i c h t h i s a v e r a g i n g p r o c e s s i s d o n e . o n e u s e s t h e r m o d y n a m i c s o r fluid m e c h a n i c s . A n u c l e u s is m a d e u p o f p r o t o n s a n d n e u t r o n s . t h e n u c l e u s w o u l d h a v e t o fly a p a r t b e c a u s e of t h e C o u l o m b r e p u l s i o n b e t w e e n p r o t o n s . 7 . L e t u s t a k e a n a r b i t r a r y d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e s u r f a c e s u c h a s t h a t s h o w n in F i g . l e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e s t a b i l i t y of n u c l e i b y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d e f o r m a t i o n of a n u c l e u s w h o s e r a d i u s w h e n u n d i s t u r b e d is a . 1 . s o t h a t if t h e r e w e r e n o f o r c e s p r e s e n t o t h e r t h a n e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c o n e s . and the strong interactions giving rise to a surface tension. T h e r e f o r e .r a n g e a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e s b e t w e e n t h e n u c l e o n s .112 Oscillations of Fluid Spheres b a s e d o n c o n c e p t s of fluid m e c h a n i c s . which tends to hold the nucleus together. s o t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e c e n t e r t o t h e s u r f a c e is j u s t (7. I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n of s u r f a c e t e n s i o n . a n d w h o s e s t r o n g i n t e r a c t i o n s g i v e r i s e t o a s u r f a c e t e n s i o n T. which tend to blow the nucleus apart. T h e e x i s t e n c e of n u c l e i is t h u s e v i d e n c e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e of s h o r t .) I n o u r d i s c u s s i o n of s t a b i l i t y i n C h a p t e r 3 .1) . of c o u r s e . (These t w o forces play similar roles t o gravity and c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e .

w h i c h is g i v e n b y E s the = TS. w e shall r e p l a c e t h e d e f o r m e d s p h e r e b y a s p h e r e of r a d i u s a a n d a s p h e r i c a l s h e l l w h o s e t h i c k n e s s is s m a l l c o m p a r e d t o t h e r a d i u s of t h e s p h e r e ( s e e F i g . w e w i l l b e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e n e r g y of a c h a r g e d i s t r i b u t i o n in t h e p o t e n t i a l .6) A s i n t h e p r o b l e m i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e p o t e n t i a l of a d e f o r m e d s p h e r e w a s calculated.2) w h e r e S is t h e t o t a l s u r f a c e a r e a .7) c w h e r e t h e i n t e g r a t i o n is u n d e r s t o o d t o e x t e n d o v e r t h e e n t i r e d e f o r m e d s p h e r e . (7. b u t in c a l c u l a t i n g s t a b i l i t y in t h e w a y w e a r e d o i n g it.4) t h e n t h e c h a n g e in s u r f a c e e n e r g y a c c o m p a n y i n g d e f o r m a t i o n i s j u s t (7. 3 .The Liquid Drop Model of the Nucleus 113 This distortion h a s t w o c o m p e t i n g effects. a n d n o t i n t h e p o t e n t i a l itself. so w e d e c r e a s e t h e C o u l o m b effects. w e m o v e t h e c h a r g e s farther apart f r o m e a c h other. 2 s (7. B . s o t h a t t h e c h a r g e d e n s i t y is j u s t (7. a n d .5) F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c a l c u l a t i n g t h e C o u l o m b e n e r g y of t h e d e f o r m e d s p h e r e .B. 1 ) is (7. T h i s p r o b l e m is similar in m a n y r e s p e c t s t o t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e p o t e n t i a l of t h e d e f o r m e d e a r t h in S e c t i o n 7 .B. w e i n c r e a s e t h e s u r f a c e e n e r g y .B. ( 7 . T h e i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o e f f e c t s w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e s t a b i l i t y of t h e system.B. w h e r e e i s t h e c h a r g e o n a s i n g l e p r o t o n ) is s p r e a d o u t u n i f o r m l y o v e r t h e s p h e r e .B. W e w i l l find it e a s i e r t o t r e a t t h e s y s t e m a s if t h e t h i n s h e l l a n d t h e . First. A . it is s h o w n t h a t t h e s u r f a c e a r e a of a s p h e r e d e f o r m e d a c c o r d i n g t o E q .2). b y increasing s u r f a c e a r e a . 7.B. s e c o n d . I n P r o b l e m 7 . The Coulomb energy can be written E = j pftdV.3) If w e w r i t e t h e s u r f a c e e n e r g y of t h e u n d e f o r m e d s p h e r e a s E ° = 4ira T. w e a s s u m e t h a t t h e total c h a r g e of t h e n u c l e u s ( w h i c h w e shall call Ze. (7.

m .13) w h e r e dco r e p r e s e n t s t h e i n t e g r a l o v e r t h e s o l i d a n g l e .14) w h e r e w e h a v e u s e d t h e o r t h o g o n a l i t y p r o p e r t i e s of t h e s p h e r i c a l h a r m o n i c s t o e l i m i n a t e t h e l i n e a r t e r m i n a\ a n d t o c o l l a p s e t h e d o u b l e s u m in t h e q u a d r a t i c t e r m (see A p p e n d i x F ) . a n d t h e d e n s i t y of t h e s h e l l ( s e e F i g . 7. T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e C o u l o m b e n e r g y in t h e u n d i s t o r t e d s t a t e a n d t h e d i s t o r t e d s t a t e is t h e n s s AE T h e c a l c u l a t i o n of E t o t h e s p h e r e is j u s t 3 C = E 2 + E . the C o u l o m b energy would b e m a d e u p of t h r e e t e r m s : t h e s e l f .114 Oscillations of Fluid Spheres sphere w e r e t w o separate entities.e n e r g y of t h e s p h e r e . given by (7.B. g i v e n b y (7.e n e r g y of t h e s h e l l . (7.B.B.3) a s p . N o t e t h a t in t h e e v e n t R < a.8) t h e s e l f .9) and t h e interaction e n e r g y b e t w e e n t h e s p h e r e a n d t h e shell. T h e p o t e n t i a l a t t h e s h e l l d u e (7. 3 (7.10) w h e r e w e h a v e w r i t t e n t h e p o t e n t i a l of t h e s p h e r e a s f l . t h e i n t e g r a l o v e r r' w i l l c h a n g e s i g n . g i v e n b y (7.B. s o t h a t w e n e e d n o t w o r r y a b o u t w h e t h e r t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n p u s h e s R o u t o r p u l l s it i n .B. t h e p o t e n t i a l of t h e s h e l l a s fl .B. C a r r y i n g out the integral over the radial variable.11) is r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e .12) so that (7. In this case.B.

d e p e n d i n g o n w h e t h e r t h e s e c o n d t e r m ( r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e C o u l o m b e n e r g y ) i s g r e a t e r o r l e s s t h a n t h e first Fig. ( 7 . a n d t h e n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of E itself. B . S i n c e in t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of E .17) C o m b i n i n g E q s . 1 4 ) . n w i l l a p p e a r i n s i d e a n o t h e r i n t e g r a l w h i c h w i l l d e p e n d o n R-a.15) W e s e e t h a t fl will d e p e n d o n R-a. 7 . Coordinates for calculating a Coulomb potential for deformed nuclei.B. t h e s e l f . 7. w e find t h a t t h e t o t a l e n e r g y c h a n g e in t h e s y s t e m w h e n a n infinitesimal d e f o r m a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e is (7. A . w e find (7. 6 . w e see that w e can write 2 s 2 (7. t h e p o t e n t i a l a t a p o i n t i n t h e s h e l l d u e t o t h e r e s t of t h e s h e l l . B . B . s l m 3 s P r o c e e d i n g a s i n t h e s t e p s l e a d i n g t o E q .B. it will b e sufficient t o k e e p o n l y l o w e s t .B. a n d ( 7 .o r d e r t e r m s in t h e a b o v e e x p r e s s i o n . 12).16) so that (7.e n e r g y of t h e s h e l l .B. c a n b e s p l i t i n t o t w o p a r t s — t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of H . 3 ) .18) T h i s will b e p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e .The Liquid Drop Model of the Nucleus 115 T h e c a l c u l a t i o n of E . h e n c e will b e l i n e a r in t h e s m a l l p a r a m e t e r a . . ( 7 .6. ( 7 . 1 7 ) . F r o m F i g .

O t h e r k i n d s o f i n s t a b i l i t i e s w h i c h w o u l d b r e a k u p a n u c l e u s a r e p r o c e s s e s in w h i c h t h e n u c l e u s w o u l d e m i t a n y of a n u m b e r o f p a r t i c l e s .B. A .19) A v 0 T h i s is. a n d o n l y a f e w n u c l e i i n n a t u r e a c t u a l l y e x h i b i t it. I t is o n e p r o c e s s w h i c h gives rise to natural radioactivity. s h o u l d b e r e l a t e d t o t h e n u c l e a r n u m b e r A. a n d o n l y if 0 .20) W e k n o w . T h u s . a.B. and are not i n c l u d e d in t h e liquid d r o p m o d e l . 1 8 ) will b e p o s i t i v e . Z . Finally. L e t u s e x a m i n e t h i s stability c r i t e r i o n a s a f u n c t i o n of t h e t o t a l n u m b e r of p r o t o n s a n d n e u t r o n s i n t h e n u c l e u s . a n d will b e d i s c u s s e d in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . it is s h o w n t h a t t h i s l e a d s t o a p r e d i c t i o n f o r t h e l a r g e s t s t a b l e n u c l e u s w h i c h is p o s s i b l e i n n a t u r e . I n P r o b l e m 7 . T h i s is w h a t w e e x p e c t e d w h e n w e r e m a r k e d e a r l i e r t h a t t h e s t a b i l i t y of t h e s y s t e m w o u l d d e p e n d o n t h e interplay between these t w o forces.116 Oscillations of Fluid Spheres ( r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s u r f a c e t e n s i o n ) . of c o u r s e . b e c o m e s l a r g e c o m p a r e d t o t h e n u m b e r of p r o t o n s a n d n e u t r o n s . F o r / = 2 d e f o r m a t i o n s . in fact. a n d t h e c o n s t a n t r is 1. ( 7 . of n u c l e a r s i z e .2 x 1 0 c m . w e n o t e t h a t t h e stability criterion in E q . a = r A \ (7. s p o n t a n e o u s f i s s i o n is o n l y o n e k i n d of i n s t a b i l i t y t h a t a n u c l e u s c a n h a v e . t h e o b s e r v e d l a w g e n e r a l l y g i v e n a v a l u e of a b o u t this m e a n s that t h e e x p r e s s i o n for h e n c e t h e n u c l e u s will b e s t a b l e . W e c a n w r i t e w h e r e p i s t h e d e n s i t y of n u c l e o n s i n t h e n u c l e u s . t h e n u c l e u s w i l l b e u n s t a b l e if t h e r e l a t i v e a m o u n t of p r o t o n s . f r o m t h e d i s c u s s i o n of C h a p t e r 3 t h a t if t h e s y s t e m i s u n s t a b l e a g a i n s t o n e p e r t u r b a t i o n . w h i c h g i v e r i s e t o t h e s u r f a c e t e n s i o n . If t h e s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n is n o t m e t . B . t h e n it w i l l n o t b e a b l e t o s u r v i v e i n nature. T h i s is k n o w n as spontaneous fission. A E i n E q . 4 .B. S u c h processes must be treated quantum mechanically. T h i s l e a d s u s t o e x p e c t t h a t t h e r a d i u s o f t h e n u c l e u s .1 3 (7.20) c a n b e w r i t t e n . O f c o u r s e . (7. however. t h e n w e e x p e c t t h a t t h e n u c l e u s w i l l u n d e r g o l a r g e o s c i l l a t i o n s a n d e v e n t u a l l y b r e a k u p .

H o w e v e r . / when or (7.s i z e d f r a g m e n t s . C . (7. 1) s o t h a t t h e n e t e n e r g y c h a n g e is AE T h i s will b e a m i n i m u m =4WTA 2 / 3 -E .C. 6 ) ] . L e t u s c o n s i d e r w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n . d e f i e d t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s . w h e n u r a n i u m u n d e r g o e s fission. R e m e m b e r t h a t any n u c l e u s c a n b e s p l i t u p . t h e q u e s t i o n of w h y n u c l e i s h o u l d . one with N nucleons. L e t u s u s e t h e liquid d r o p m o d e l of t h e n u c l e u s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n t o s e e if w e c a n c o m e t o s o m e q u a l i t a t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h o w e n e r g y c a n b e d e r i v e d f r o m fission. a s a first a p p r o x i m a t i o n . L e t us a s s u m e for simplicity that the nucleus breaks u p into t w o fragments. g . L e t u s a l s o . it s h o u l d split i n t o t w o e q u a l . w h i c h p o s s i b l e final state has the lowest energy.B. W e c a n a s k first w h a t k i n d s of b r e a k u p a r e e n e r g e t i c a l l y f a v o r e d . for s o m e r e a s o n .Nuclear Fission 117 w h e r e E i a n d E ° a r e g i v e n in E q s . T h e p a r a m e t e r x is c a l l e d t h e fissionability parameter. Y e t t h e u s e of t h e fission p r o c e s s i n r e a c t o r s h a s b e e n w i d e s p r e a d . u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y . NUCLEAR FISSION T h e p r o b l e m o f t h e fission o f h e a v y e l e m e n t s h a s . a n u c l e u s is split u p . i g n o r e t h e C o u l o m b e n e r g y i n t h e final s t a t e [ t h i s w i l l b e a g o o d a p p r o x i m a t i o n u n l e s s w e a r e c l o s e t o t h e s t a b i l i t y l i m i t ( s e e P r o b l e m 7 . T h e s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n j u s t t e l l s u s w h i c h n u c l e i w i l l n o t b r e a k u p s p o n t a n e o u s l y .B. e .8) a n d (7.4).2) T h u s . T h e n t h e final e n e r g y of t h e s y s t e m after t h e split u p will b e E f = Airro T[N 2 m + (A . L e t u s a s s u m e t h a t t h e final p r o d u c t i s t h e t w o s p h e r e s s e p a r a t e d b y a g r e a t d i s t a n c e . and the other with A-N. ( 7 .N ) 2 / 3 ]. T h i s is actually n o t t h e c a s e ( e . t h e e n d p r o d u c t s a r e c l u s t e r e d s o t h a t w h e n o n e f r a g m e n t is a r o u n d A = 9 0 t h e o t h e r is a r o u n d A = 140). i . T h i s is o n e of t h e m a i n difficulties o f t h e l i q u i d d r o p m o d e l — o n e o f i t s f a i l u r e s . . t h e l i q u i d d r o p m o d e l p r e d i c t s t h a t w h e n a n u c l e u s b r e a k s u p . a n d is s o m e t i m e s u s e d in d i s c u s s i o n s of fission. s C.

t h e s y s t e m is s t a b l e .4) s o t h a t w h e n x > 0 . . into t w o equal f r a g m e n t s . e a c h w i t h h a l f t h e p r o t o n s a n d n e u t r o n s o f t h e p a r e n t n u c l e u s .74x). 7. The energy surface for a fissionable nucleus. 7. b e c a u s e w e h a v e s h o w n a b o v e t h a t t h e s y s t e m i s s t a b l e a g a i n s t s m a l l p e r t u r b a t i o n s u n t i l x > 1. s (7. i n order for b r e a k u p to occur. H o w e v e r . Fig. it will b e a b l e t o o v e r c o m e t h e p o t e n t i a l b a r r i e r . w e c a n i m a g i n e t h e t o t a l e n e r g y of t h e s y s t e m a s a f u n c t i o n of p e r t u r b a t i o n p a r a m e t e r t o l o o k l i k e F i g . S c h e m a t i c a l l y .3) T h u s .26-0. 3 5 t h e s y s t e m c a n g o t o a final s t a t e of l o w e r e n e r g y t h a n t h e original s t a t e . b e c a u s e a l t h o u g h it is w r o n g in s o m e d e t a i l s .7. h o w e v e r . a n d t h e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h h a v e b e e n a d v a n c e d d e p e n d i n a v e r y c r i t i c a l w a y o n d e t a i l s of t h e q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c s of m a n y b o d y s y s t e m s .118 Oscillations of Fluid Spheres g o t o u n e q u a l f r a g m e n t s h a s b e e n t h e s u b j e c t of a l o n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h e t h e o r y of h e a v y n u c l e i . If a n a m o u n t of e n e r g y E o n is a d d e d t o t h e s y s t e m . W h a t is t h e final e n e r g y of t h e s y s t e m ? (7. W e w i l l still u s e t h e m o d e l . is t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o n s t a b i l i t y t e l l u s w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n small p e r t u r b a t i o n s a r e a p p l i e d t o t h e s y s t e m . B u t this is c o n f u s i n g . t h e n .7. of c o u r s e . t h e e n e r g y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b r e a k u p of t h e s y s t e m c a n b e w r i t t e n i n t e r m s of t h e fissionability parameter as = E °(0. it n e v e r t h e l e s s r e p r o d u c e s t h e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s o f n u c l e a r s t r u c t u r e q u i t e well in a v e r y simple w a y . a n d fissi E a. the perturbations m u s t b e very large indeed. h o w e v e r .C.C. L e t u s s u p p o s e that a n u c l e u s splits u p . H o w can these t w o seemingly contradictory results be reconciled? T h e a n s w e r . F o r s m a l l p e r t u r b a t i o n s .

a n d u s e it. F i r s t . a n d t h e n t r y i n g t o d e c i d e h o w fission w i l l p r o c e e d f o r r e a l nuclei. L o o k u p t h e addition t h e o r e m for spherical h a r m o n i c s . i n i t i a t e f u r t h e r r e a c t i o n s . indeed. T h i s a s p e c t o f t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d is o n l y n o w b e g i n n i n g t o b e e x p l o r e d . SUMMARY A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f fluids w h i c h w e r e d e v e l o p e d i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s t o s p h e r i c a l fluid s y s t e m s l e a d s t o t w o i n t e r e s t i n g p r e d i c t i o n s . to s h o w that Y L M ( 0 ' . I n d u c e d fission is t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e b y w h i c h a fission r e a c t o r w o r k s .1. T h e e n e r g y r e l e a s e d is t h e n A E ( s e e P r o b l e m 7 . w h i c h h a s a n e n e r g y A E s t a t e . T h e b e h a v i o r of t h e s y s t e m c l o s e t o e q u i l i b r i u m n e e d n o t b e r e l a t e d s i m p l y t o t h e b e h a v i o r of t h e s y s t e m f a r f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m . a n d v e r y little is k n o w n a b o u t it a t p r e s e n t . w h i c h i s a n e x a m p l e of a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h d e v i a t i o n s f r o m the small perturbation. T h i s w a s u s e d t o d i s c u s s t h e p r o c e s s o f n u c l e a r fission. it i s p o s s i b l e t o s u s t a i n a c o n t i n u o u s fission p r o c e s s from which energy can be extracted. If t h e n u c l e u s i n q u e s t i o n is U 2 3 5 . t o g e t h e r with the p r o p e r t i e s of t h e spherical h a r m o n i c s d i s c u s s e d in A p p e n d i x F . 5 ) . linear theory w h i c h w e h a v e b e e n presenting are important. 0 ' ) P / ( c o s y ) d ( c o s 6) dcf> • . a c h a r g e d fluid u n d e r t h e i n fluence o f s u r f a c e t e n s i o n ( s u c h a s a n u c l e u s ) w i l l fission s p o n t a n e o u s l y f o r c e r t a i n v a l u e s of t h e c h a r g e . a fluid ( s u c h a s t h e e a r t h ) a c t i n g u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e of i t s o w n g r a v i t y will e x e c u t e p e r i o d i c v i b r a t i o n s a b o u t e q u i l i b r i u m if d e f o r m e d a n d t h e n r e l e a s e d . S e c o n d . about any system described b y nonlinear equilibrium).Problems 119 fall t o t h e s t a t e d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . B This discussion illustrates an important point about h y d r o d y n a m i c s (and. i n t u r n . B b e l o w t h e initial M o s t of t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h o n f i s s i o n h a s t o d o w i t h m a p p i n g o u t t h e complicated energy surfaces which correspond to various deformations of t h e n u c l e u s . T h i s is c a l l e d induced fission. S i n c e s o m e o f t h i s e n e r g y is r e l e a s e d i n t h e f o r m of n e u t r o n s . t h e n a n e u t r o n s t r i k i n g t h e n u c l e u s c a n s u p p l y t h e e n e r g y n e e d e d t o p u t t h e n u c l e u s o v e r t h e t o p of t h e p o t e n t i a l b a r r i e r . w h i c h c a n . PROBLEMS 7 .

8). H o w d o e s this c o m p a r e t o t h e actual value of this n u m b e r ? 7. e s t i m a t e t h e period of t h e I = 2 free oscillations of t h e m o o n .1). and calculate t h e largest value of Z / A w h i c h a n u c l e u s c a n h a v e a n d still b e stable.C. (7. .A.3. (Hint: W h a t is t h e relation b e t w e e n A and Z a r o u n d u r a n i u m ? ) 7.2. (a) F r o m E q .C. (7. s h o w t h a t H e n c e s h o w t h a t t h e direction cosines of t h e d e f o r m e d surface are where (b) H e n c e s h o w that t h e c h a n g e in surface a r e a of an infinitesimal v o l u m e e l e m e n t is (c) Integrate t o obtain t h e surface a r e a in t h e form 7 . H o w d o t h e y c o m p a r e with t h o s e of t h e e a r t h ? 7.120 Oscillations of Fluid Spheres 7.5.7. (7. Verify t h e e x p r e s s i o n for E x in E q .1) will n o t affect t h e conclusion of E q . Find a good value to t h e surface tension T of a n u c l e u s .4. H o w w o u l d E q .B. Calculate t h e e n e r g y w h i c h will b e released if t h e n u c l e u s U235 is m a d e t o u n d e r g o fission. a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e liquid d r o p m o d e l is c o r r e c t in stating that t h e final state will b e t w o identical nuclei.B. and therefore r e p r e s e n t an instability? R e l a t e this t o t h e r e s u l t s of Section 7. (7.6. 7. 17) b e altered? A r e t h e r e values of Q for which the frequencies of vibration will b e c o m p l e x .2) for h e a v y nuclei. (7. Given that t h e gravitational attraction at t h e surface of t h e m o o n is approximately \ t h a t at t h e e a r t h . S u p p o s e t h a t t h e e a r t h h a d a total charge Q spread uniformly t h r o u g h its v o l u m e .8.B. H o w d o e s this c o m p a r e t o t h e actual stability of h e a v y e l e m e n t s ? 2 7. L e t u s consider t h e surface of a d e f o r m e d s p h e r e . S h o w t h a t including t h e C o u l o m b effect in E q .

Nicolis. A review of the latest ideas in the theory of fission.C. 1964 A survey of nuclear fission. This should give an overview of the field. 320 (1972). Cambridge. Clarendon Press. Physics Today 25. E. Chapter 14 gives the theory of oscillation for a solid earth. Y. numbers 11 and 12 (1972). Prigogine. and a survey of observations. H. C. They give a discussion of how a living system which is far from the equilibrium of its consituents might arise by processes similar to that considered in Section 7.References 121 REFERENCES K. C. I. Brack. An Introduction to the Theory of Seismology. Damgaard. V. J.P. U. Theories of Nuclear Fission. Bullen. and A. M. S. M. Oxford. Wong. Lawrence Willets. 1965. .. Strutinsky. Reviews of Modern Physics 44. A. Jensen. Babloyantz. Pauli. G.

s o t h a t it c o u l d b e q u i c k l y a c c e l e r a t e d . e q u i v a l e n t l y . C l e a r l y . t h e r e w o u l d b e n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n p r e s s u r e g r a d i e n t s t o o p p o s e t h e m o t i o n of t h e e l e m e n t . t h e fluid i n t h e u p p e r l a y e r w i l l k e e p m o v i n g i n d e f i n i t e l y . t h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o c o l l i s i o n s in w h i c h t h e m o m e n t u m of a m o l e c u l e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e f o r c e i s r e v e r s e d . e v e n if n o f o r c e s a r e a c t i n g o n 122 .8 Viscosity in Fluids Slow as molasses in January Southern folk saying A. W e h a v e a r g u e d t h a t t h i s is a v a l i d w a y t o p r o c e e d in m a n y c a s e s . there are m a n y p h e n o m e n a for w h i c h t h e " i d e a l fluid" will s i m p l y n o t p r o v i d e a n a d e q u a t e d e s c r i p t i o n . i n w h i c h m o m e n t u m c a n b e t r a n s f e r r e d . a f o r c e of t h i s t y p e m u s t a l w a y s b e n o r m a l t o t h e s u r f a c e o n w h i c h it is b e i n g e x e r t e d . h o w e v e r . c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e : L e t t h e r e b e a fluid o f d e p t h h w h i c h is n o t m o v i n g . I n a n i d e a l fluid. THE IDEA OF VISCOSITY U p t o t h i s p o i n t . T o s e e t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of a fluid. is t h r o u g h t h e p r e s s u r e g r a d i e n t . L e t a n o t h e r l a y e r of i d e n t i c a l fluid b e f l o w i n g a c r o s s t h e t o p of t h e s t a t i o n a r y l a y e r a t a v e l o c i t y v. t h e o n l y w a y in w h i c h a f o r c e c a n b e g e n e r a t e d o r . F o r a c l a s s i c a l i d e a l fluid. A s might b e e x p e c t e d . O n t h e a t o m i c l e v e l . w e h a v e i g n o r e d m a n y of t h e p r o p e r t i e s of r e a l fluids w h i c h m i g h t s e r v e t o c o m p l i c a t e o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of s i m p l e s y s t e m s . I n a d d i t i o n . if w e w e r e s o m e h o w a b l e t o r e a c h i n t o a n i d e a l fluid a n d a p p l y a f o r c e t o a s i n g l e fluid e l e m e n t .

O u r i n t u i t i o n t e l l s u s . t h e n m o m e n t u m t r a n s f e r s c o u l d o c c u r o n l y in a d i r e c t i o n n o r m a l t o t h e i n t e r f a c e b e t w e e n t h e fluids. ( A s a m a t t e r of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t . r a t h e r t h a n in a real situation. T o an observer on the element w h o k n e w n o t h i n g o f a t o m i c s t r u c t u r e . If o n l y p r e s s u r e f o r c e s c o u l d b e e x e r t e d . T o u n d e r s t a n d h o w viscosity w o r k s at the atomic level.1) F r o m t h e p o i n t of v i e w of t h e v o l u m e e l e m e n t o n w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s f o r c e s ( p r e s s u r e . etc. in w h i c h m o m e n t u m c o u l d b e t r a n s f e r r e d in a n y d i r e c t i o n . S u p p o s e w e t h o u g h t a b o u t a m o r e r e a l i s t i c a t o m i c p i c t u r e .A. a n d n o r m a l t o it. b e s p e e d e d u p b y c o l l i s i o n s . consider a c o l l i s i o n b e t w e e n t w o a t o m s i n t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e . w h i l e t h e a t o m s in t h e u p p e r l a y e r w o u l d . a c o m m o n w a y of t h i n k i n g a b o u t v i s c o s i t y in c l a s s i c a l t e r m s is t o i m a g i n e t h e fluid flow a s b e i n g m a d e u p o f . W h e n w e p u t t h i n g s t h i s w a y . o n the average. T h e p h e n o m e n o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h this f o r c e is called viscosity. t h a t would eventually slow down and stop. it w o u l d experience a net deceleration. be slowed down.The Idea of Viscosity 123 it. I n o r d e r t o c o m e t o s o m e b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of v i s c o s i t y . an additional force. or. T h i s m e c h a n i s m is s i m i l a r t o t h e p h e n o m e n o n of f r i c t i o n in m e c h a n i c s . i n w h i c h N e w t o n ' s s e c o n d l a w o f m o t i o n w a s a p p l i e d t o a n i n f i n i t e s i m a l e l e m e n t of t h e fluid to give the equation (8. in a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r e s s u r e . t h e e x i s t e n c e of v i s c o s i t y will b e a n a d d i t i o n a l w a y i n w h i c h t h e m o m e n t u m of t h e e l e m e n t c a n b e c h a n g e d . t h e t o p l a y e r This means that there must be different from t h e p r e s s u r e . it is c l e a r t h a t t h e a s s u m p t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i d e a l fluids a r e r a t h e r a r t i f i c i a l . t h e a t o m i n t h e m o v i n g fluid w o u l d r e t a i n . l e t u s r e t u r n t o t h e d e r i v a t i o n s of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n i n C h a p t e r 1. o n t h e a v e r a g e . g r a v i t y . s o m e w a y of e x e r t i n g f o r c e s w h i c h a r e w h i c h a c t along a s u r f a c e . T h e net result would be that the relative velocity between the two layers would be reduced (eventually) to zero. T o see w h y this s h o u l d b e s o .) a r e a c t i n g . t h i s w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e d u e t o s o m e s o r t of i n t e r n a l f o r c e g e n e r a t e d w i t h i n t h e fluid. h o w e v e r . b y N e w t o n ' s s e c o n d law. o n t h e a v e r a g e . j u s t a s t h e f r i c t i o n a l f o r c e g e n e r a t e d w h e n a b l o c k of w o o d s l i d e s a c r o s s a t a b l e s l o w s d o w n t h e b l o c k . a v e l o c i t y v). T h e t e r m u s u a l l y u s e d t o d e s c r i b e s u c h a s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t t h e fluid i s c a p a b l e of e x e r t i n g a shear force. B e c a u s e of t h e c o l l i s i o n s b e t w e e n m o v i n g a n d s t a t i o n a r y a t o m s . c o n s i d e r a n e l e m e n t i n t h e m o v i n g fluid w e d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . a n d t h e m o m e n t u m of e a c h a t o m a l o n g t h e i n t e r f a c e w o u l d h a v e t o r e m a i n c o n s t a n t ( e s s e n t i a l l y . T h e n t h e a t o m s in t h e l o w e r l a y e r w o u l d .

is o n e e x a m p l e of a s t r e s s t e n s o r . ik T h e t o t a l f o r c e p e r u n i t m a s s a c t i n g o n a v o l u m e e l e m e n t is j u s t (8.A.1.1). a n d p u t in o n t h e left-hand side. if w e c a n d e t e r m i n e w h a t t h e t e n s o r cr i s .) T h e e x i s t e n c e of t h i s e x t r a f o r c e . a n d v i s c o s i t y a s b e i n g t h e friction b e t w e e n t h e sheets.A.h a n d s i d e of E q . t h e v i s c o u s f o r c e c a n b e d e r i v e d i m m e d i a t e l y .A. A fluid element in a generalized volume enclosed in a surface S. W e s h a l l s e e l a t e r ( C h a p t e r 12) t h a t o. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g w e c a n s a y a b o u t t h e f o r m t h a t this e x t r a t e r m in t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n m u s t t a k e o n g e n e r a l g r o u n d s ? It t u r n s o u t t h a t t h e r e is a g r e a t d e a l t h a t c a n b e said. I n a n y c a s e . T h e first t h i n g t h a t w e n o t e a b o u t t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n i n t h e f o r m (8. 8. o r m o m e n t u m t r a n s f e r . ( 8 . c o n s i d e r a m a s s o f fluid o f v o l u m e V a n d s u r f a c e S ( s e e F i g . b u t it t u r n s o u t t o b e e a s i e r t o d i s c u s s t h e t e n s o r tr t h a n t h e f o r c e itself. m e a n s t h a t t h e r e m u s t b e a n a d d i t i o n a l t e r m i n t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n . if n o o u t s i d e f o r c e s a r e a c t i n g o n t h e fluid.4) s o t h a t . 1 ) .124 Viscosity in Fluids a s e r i e s of s h e e t s s l i d i n g o v e r e a c h o t h e r . F o r t h e s a k e of d e f i n i t e n e s s . t h e t o t a l f o r c e a c t i n g o n t h e fluid is j u s t (8. b u t w e c o u l d j u s t a s w e l l t r e a t it a s a m o m e n t u m c h a n g e . 8. A . .2) is t h a t w e c a n a l w a y s w r i t e t h e e x t r a f o r c e a s T h i s i s p u r e l y a f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n . a n d p u t it o n t h e r i g h t . lk ik ik T o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p h y s i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e t e n s o r cr .5) Fig. w e w i l l t r e a t v i s c o s i t y a s a f o r c e .

it r e p r e s e n t s t h e m o m e n t u m t r a n s f e r r e d a c r o s s t h e s u r f a c e S b y i n e l a s t i c collisions of t h e a t o m s n e a r t h e s u r f a c e .A. w h i c h v a n i s h if t h e v e l o c i t y is a c o n s t a n t . (8. (8. if w e a s k o u r s e l v e s t h e q u e s t i o n " U n d e r w h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s will w e e x p e c t n o v i s c o u s f o r c e s t o be p r e s e n t ? " Clearly. w e c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e viscous force.A. w e c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e t e n s o r m u s t v a n i s h if u = to x r. W e c a n l e a r n a g r e a t d e a l a b o u t t h e t e n s o r cr. It is c l e a r l y j u s t t h e f o r c e e x e r t e d a c r o s s t h e s u r f a c e S b y t h e v i s c o u s f o r c e s w h i c h a c t i n t h e fluid. T h i s situation c a n arise in t w o w a y s : k (i) t h e fluid i s m o v i n g e v e r y w h e r e w i t h t h e s a m e v e l o c i t y u . w e s a w t h a t t h e term (8.6) c o u l d b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s t h e s u m of t h e p r e s s u r e f o r c e s a c t i n g a c r o s s t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e fluid a n d t h e m o m e n t u m c a r r i e d a c r o s s t h e s u r f a c e b y t h e fluid m o t i o n . from our previous descriptions.12). as in E q . I n C h a p t e r 1.7) h a s a similar i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h e t e r m s i n t h e s u r f a c e i n t e g r a l s h o u l d l o o k f a m i l i a r . I n m i c r o s c o p i c t e r m s . s i n c e t h e n t h e r e w o u l d b e n o n e t g a i n o r l o s s o f e n e r g y b y a n y p a r t of t h e fluid d u e t o inelastic a t o m i c collisions. T h e o n l y c o m b i n a t i o n s o f d e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e v e l o c i t y w h i c h satisfy these t w o conditions are and . b u t m u s t d e p e n d o n t h e v e l o c i t y t h r o u g h t e r m s l i k e dUildx and d Uildx dXj. (ii) t h e fluid i s i n a s t a t e of u n i f o r m r o t a t i o n . w e expect the v i s c o u s f o r c e s t o b e a b s e n t w h e n e v e r t h e fluid i s m o v i n g i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e r e i s n o r e l a t i v e v e l o c i t y b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e fluid. s o t h a t u = w x r.C..8) F r o m t h e a b s e n c e o f v i s c o s i t y i n t h e first c a s e . and hence the tensor a cannot depend on the velocity itself.A. f o l l o w s f r o m G a u s s ' l a w . (1. w h e r e co is t h e r o t a t i o n a l frequency.. T h e a d d i t i o n a l t e r m w h i c h w e n o w h a v e a d d e d . ik k 2 k F r o m t h e s e c o n d c a s e .The Idea of Viscosity 125 w h e r e t h e last s t e p .

f o l l o w i n g t h e l e a d of W i l l i a m of O c c a m . or "multiplicity is not to be posited without necessity. W e h a v e n o r e a s o n t o e x p e c t t h a t s u c h t e r m s w i l l n o t b e p r e s e n t in tr . b u t it m u s t b e b o r n e i n m i n d t h a t it m a y n o t b e valid in e v e r y p r o b l e m . t w e will a s s u m e that w e are entitled to use the simplest possible theory w e can w r i t e d o w n ( c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s (i) a n d (ii). a l a r g e n u m b e r of t e r m s i n v o l v i n g s e c o n d a n d h i g h e r d e r i v a t i v e s of t h e v e l o c i t y . t h e tWilliam of Occam (or Ockham). it h a s b e e n f o u n d t h a t t h e s i m p l e t h e o r y . T h i s w i l l b e a g o o d a p p r o x i m a t i o n f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h w e w i s h t o m a k e .A.126 Viscosity in Fluids a n d . a s s u m e d t h a t t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s of v i s c o s i t y d o n o t d e p e n d o n p o s i t i o n i n t h e fluid. T h e r e f o r e . of c o u r s e ) u n t i l w e a r e f o r c e d t o d o o t h e r w i s e b y t h e d a t a .9) w h e r e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s TJ a n d £ a r e c a l l e d c o e f f i c i e n t s of v i s c o s i t y . I n f a c t .7 i n t e r m s of t h e s t r e s s t e n s o r . . b u t it is c l e a r t h a t o u r t h e o r y w o u l d b e m u c h s i m p l e r if t h e v i s c o u s f o r c e s d e p e n d e d o n l y o n t h e first d e r i v a t i v e s of t h e v e l o c i t y . of c o u r s e . W e h a v e w r i t t e n cr in t h e s e c o n d f o r m b e c a u s e t h i s i s t h e w a y it is u s u a l l y f o u n d d i s c u s s e d in t e x t b o o k s ." which is usually known as Occam's razor. i n f a c t . 9 ) .e. 10) i s v a l i d . fluids f o r w r r h t h e equation (8. He put forward the philosophical dictum "pluritas non est ponenda sine necessitate". in w h i c h t h e v i s c o u s f o r c e i s a s s u m e d t o d e p e n d o n l y o n t h e first d e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e v e l o c i t y . i. 1280-1349. A . He was an Oxford philosopher who had a rather exciting life. A . a n d h e n c e a r e r e a l l y n e g l e c t i n g t h i n g s l i k e a p o s s i b l e d e p e n d e n c e of t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o n t e m p e r a t u r e o r o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s i n t h e fluid. w e h a v e . i s a p e r f e c t l y a d e q u a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e m o t i o n of f l u i d s . lk I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d i n p a s s i n g t h a t b y w r i t i n g t h e m o s t g e n e r a l f o r m of oi n E q . ik I n m o s t of t h e w o r k w h i c h w e h a v e d o n e u p t o t h i s p o i n t . b u t p e r h a p s n o t s o g o o d for g a s e s . w e h a v e c o n f i n e d o u r a t t e n t i o n t o i n c o m p r e s s i b l e f l u i d s . It is frequently cited in cases such as this when there is no inescapable reason to neglect complications. A n a l t e r n a t e d e r i v a t i o n of t h i s r e s u l t is g i v e n in P r o b l e m 12. F o r t h e c a s e of i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluids. ( 8 . ik T h i s m e a n s t h a t w e c a n w r i t e t h e m o s t g e n e r a l t e n s o r in t h e f o r m (8. including a trial by the Pope at Avignon for heresy. W e a r g u e d t h a t t h i s is a g o o d a p p r o x i m a t i o n f o r l i q u i d s .

1) U n d e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s o u t l i n e d f o r t h i s p r o b l e m ( s t e a d y s t a t e flow a n d t h e velocity being only in t h e z-direction a n d d e p e n d i n g only o n t h e radial c o o r d i n a t e ) . in a m o r e familiar v e c t o r f o r m becomes ( 8 . w h e n w e c o n s i d e r flow o f t h e b l o o d i n a r t e r i e s .1).c o m p o n e n t of t h e N a v i e r .d i r e c t i o n ( a l t h o u g h w e a l l o w the possibility that t h e z-velocity m a y d e p e n d o n t h e coordinate r ) a n d t h a t t h e r e is n o d e p e n d e n c e o n t h e a z i m u t h a l angle (this f o l l o w s f r o m t h e s y m m e t r y of t h e p r o b l e m ) . 12) w h i c h . T h e a b o v e f o r m a p p l i e s only t o i n c o m p r e s s i b l e f l u i d s . ( 8 . w e s h a l l c o n s i d e r t h e ramifications of allowing t h e walls t o b e elastic). If t h e fluid i s c o m p r e s s i b l e .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n t h e n c a n b e w r i t t e n (8. L e t u s c o n s i d e r a v i s c o u s fluid flowing t h r o u g h a p i p e of circular c r o s s s e c t i o n w h o s e walls a r e p e r f e c t l y rigid ( l a t e r . L e t u s further s u p p o s e that t h e s y s t e m is in a steady state. t h e t e r m s o n t h e left-hand side of t h e N a v i e r . VISCOUS FLOW THROUGH A PIPE (Poisieulle Flow) A n e x a m p l e o f v i s c o u s flow w h i c h o c c u r s o f t e n i n p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n i s t h e flow o f a fluid t h r o u g h a p i p e . A . B. 10) i s n o t v a l i d . 11) so t h a t t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n is ( 8 . A . A . 13) w h e r e v = r\lp i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d t h e kinematic viscosity coefficient. t h e n a m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d f o r m of t h e e q u a t i o n c o u l d b e d e r i v e d ( s e e P r o b l e m 8. b u t it w i l l b e s u f f i c i e n t f o r u s t o r e m e m b e r t h a t it i s s i m p l y N e w t o n ' s s e c o n d l a w a p p l i e d t o a fluid i n w h i c h i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n . T h i s e q u a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d t h e Navier-Stokes e q u a t i o n . o r v i s c o s i t y .S t o k e s .Viscous Flow through a Pipe 127 viscous force becomes ( 8 . T h e z . s o t h a t E q .B. a n d that t h e v e l o c i t y o f t h e fluid i s e v e r y w h e r e i n t h e z . i s k n o w n t o e x i s t . A .

a x i s is a p l a n e of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e . B .3) E q u a t i o n (8. 2 If w e t h i n k f o r a m o m e n t a b o u t t h e fluid n e a r t h e w a l l of t h e t u b e . I n t h e c a s e of v i s c o s i t y . this implies that t h e p r e s s u r e d r o p in t h e z-direction m u s t b e uniform. W e s a w i n t r e a t i n g n o n v i s c o u s fluids t h a t t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n a t a s o l i d s u r f a c e w a s t h a t t h e c o m p o n e n t of v e l o c i t y n o r m a l t o the surface had to vanish. it i s n e c e s s a r y t o i m p o s e b o u n d a r y conditions to determine these constants.B. 2 ) t h e n becomes (8.B.6) w h e r e d a n d C a r e c o n s t a n t s of i n t e g r a t i o n . t h i s b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n d o e s n o t s e e m a d e q u a t e .B. w e can require that t h e v e l o c i t y b e e v e r y w h e r e finite. In this case.c o m p o n e n t of t h e e q u a t i o n y i e l d s (8.c o m p o n e n t (8. i m p l i e s t h a t e a c h p l a n e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e z . w e w i l l r e a l i z e t h a t t h e a t o m s i n t h e fluid w i l l c o l l i d e w i t h t h e a t o m s i n t h e wall.5) which can be integrated to give (8.B.B. A s w i t h a n y d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n . t o g e t h e r with t h e r e q u i r e m e n t that t h e p r e s s u r e not d e p e n d o n t h e a n g l e <p. E q u a t i o n ( 8 . T o d e t e r m i n e t h e o t h e r c o n s t a n t . s i n c e w e a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a fluid i n w h i c h e n e r g y t r a n s f e r c a n t a k e p l a c e b e c a u s e of t h e e x i s t e n c e of i n e l a s t i c c o l l i s i o n s a t t h e atomic level.3). T h i s r e q u i r e m e n t is m e t b y s e t t i n g Ci = 0. it i s n e c e s s a r y t o s p e c i f y t h e v e l o c i t y s o m e w h e r e e l s e . and w e h a v e for the z . h o w e v e r . i n c l u d i n g t h e p o i n t r = 0. but that the component along the surface could b e a r b i t r a r y .4) w h e r e A P i s t h e p r e s s u r e d r o p i n a l e n g t h A/. or (8.2) w h i l e t h e r .B.128 Viscosity in Fluids equation vanish. In t h e idealized c a s e w h e r e t h e a t o m s in t h e wall a r e p e r f e c t l y rigid . S i n c e w e a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a n i n f i n i t e l y l o n g p i p e .

t h e v e l o c i t y is z e r o a t t h e w a l l s .Viscous Flow through a Pipe 129 ( i . S u c h a s i t u a t i o n is u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s P o i s i e u l l e flow. t h e n . W e r e a l i z e . 8. e . w h e r e t h e y c a n a b s o r b a n i n f i n i t e a m o u n t of e n e r g y w i t h o u t r e c o i l i n g o r m o v i n g ) w e w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t t h e a t o m s i n t h e m o v i n g fluid w o u l d b e r e d u c e d t o a s t a t e of r e s t a s w e l l . (8. in m o s t p r o b l e m s w e a r e c o n t e n t t o ignore this small effect in o r d e r t o e n j o y t h e g r e a t e r simplicity of t h e i d e a l i z e d c a s e . N o n e t h e l e s s . w e n o t e t h a t s i n c e t h e t o t a l a m o u n t of fluid p a s s i n g t h r o u g h a t u b e i n t i m e A t i s j u s t (8.B. w e will a s s u m e t h a t t h e s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n is j u s t v (r z boundary = R) = 0. 8.2.e. in o u r p r o b l e m . t h a t in a r e a l s i t u a t i o n t h e v e l o c i t y at t h a t p o i n t will n o t b e z e r o . T h e s i t u a t i o n is q u i t e similar t o t h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o b l e m of a ball rolling a c r o s s a s u r f a c e . . T h u s .7) s o t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n f o r t h e v e l o c i t y is j u s t w h i c h m e a n s t h a t t h e v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e l o o k s l i k e t h e o n e s h o w n in F i g . I n t h i s c a s e . . a n d a t t a i n s i t s m a x i m u m a t t h e c e n t e r of t h e p i p e . " w e a s s u m e t h a t t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e s u r f a c e of t h e b a l l a t t h e p o i n t of c o n t a c t is e x a c t l y z e r o . O f c o u r s e . t h e c o r r e c t b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e fluid w o u l d b e t h a t t h e v e l o c i t y a t t h e s u r f a c e v a n i s h identically ( a n d n o t j u s t in t h e n o r m a l d i r e c t i o n ) for p e r f e c t v i s c o s i t y . Fully developed Poisieulle flow. I n t h e c a s e o f " p e r f e c t f r i c t i o n .2. h o w e v e r .9) Fig. i. T h i s p h e n o m e n o n is k n o w n a s " s l i p . b u t t h a t s o m e slipping will o c c u r . " a n d w o u l d h a v e t o b e t a k e n into a c c o u n t in detailed calculations. i n a r e a l fluid w e w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t t h e fluid a t t h e s u r f a c e w o u l d h a v e s o m e s m a l l v e l o c i t y . F o r t h e s a k e o f c o m p l e t e n e s s .B.

130 Viscosity in Fluids t h e r a t e of flow t h r o u g h a c i r c u l a r p i p e is j u s t (8. T h e i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e to w h i c h w e shall r e f e r w h e n d i s c u s s i n g b l o o d flow is t h e f a c t t h a t t h e flow r a t e d e p e n d s o n t h e f o u r t h p o w e r of t h e r a d i u s . s o t h a t .B. C o n s i d e r a c a s e w h e r e t h e r e is a g r e a t w e i g h t i m p r e s s e d o n t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d of t i m e . T h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h w i l l t h e n b e d e f o r m e d b y t h e p r e s e n c e of t h i s a d d e d w e i g h t ( s e e F i g . O n e n e e d o n l y t h i n k of m o l a s s e s flowing f r o m a jar to realize this. O n t h e other h a n d . but obey the same physical principles. w h i c h result f r o m different geology.). H o w e v e r . w e c a n n o t p r o d u c e m a n . O n e p a r t i c u l a r l y f a s c i n a t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s i d e a i s i n m e a s u r i n g t h e v i s c o s i t y of t h e e a r t h . o r f r o m t h e m e l t i n g of t h e g l a c i e r . t h e n w e s h o u l d b e a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v i s c o s i t y of t h e e a r t h b y applying a k n o w n force to the surface. If t h i s is s o . s o t h a t l a r g e c h a n g e s in t h e p r e s s u r e a r e r e q u i r e d t o c o m p e n s a t e for small c o n s t r i c t i o n s in t h e tube. VISCOUS REBOUND—THE VISCOSITY OF THE EARTH O n e of t h e p r o p e r t i e s of a v i s c o u s fluid is t h a t i t s r e s p o n s e t o e x t e r n a l f o r c e s is n o t i n s t a n t a n e o u s . If t h e c o n j e c t u r e i n t h e p r e v i o u s p a r a g r a p h is c o r r e c t .3. t h e n it s h o u l d b e possible to m a k e measurements which would allow us to ascribe a v i s c o s i t y t o t h a t fluid. C. N o w s u p p o s e t h a t f o r s o m e r e a s o n . n a t u r e herself h a s p r o v i d e d t h e s e f o r c e s in m a n y c a s e s . it is p o s s i b l e t o t r e a t t h e e a r t h a s a u n i f o r m fluid. T h i s m i g h t r e s u l t f r o m t h e e v a p o r a t i o n o r d r a i n i n g of t h e l a k e . 8.10) T h i s r e s u l t is c a l l e d t h e P o i s i e u l l e f o r m u l a . W e s a w i n S e c t i o n 2 . D t h a t i n s o m e c a s e s . w e s h o u l d in p r i n c i p l e b e a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v i s c o s i t y of a fluid b y m e a s u r i n g i t s response to known forces. and then measuring the time response to that force. t h e o v e r b u r d e n is r e m o v e d . E x a m p l e s of t h i s m i g h t b e t h e e x i s t e n c e of a l a k e o r g l a c i e r . t u r n i n g t h e p r o b l e m a r o u n d . o n e w o u l d e x p e c t that the rate at w h i c h t h e fluid r e s p o n s e d t o e x t e r n a l f o r c e s w o u l d d e p e n d r a t h e r s t r o n g l y o n t h e v i s c o s i t y . .m a d e f o r c e s of sufficient m a g n i t u d e t o p r o d u c e a p p r e c i a b l e d e f o r m a t i o n s of t h e e a r t h ' s c r u s t o v e r l a r g e d i s t a n c e s . W e shall c o n s i d e r t w o c a s e s . O f c o u r s e .

a n d s u p p o s e t h a t t h e i n i t i a l d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e c r u s t is of t h e f o r m y ust(t = 0 ) cr = &. let u s c o n s i d e r t h e following configuration: L e t t h e c r u s t of t h e e a r t h in e q u i l i b r i u m b e t h e p l a n e y = 0 . O v e r r e c o r d e d h i s t o r y . H o w e v e r . T h e r a t e of r e b o u n d w i l l d e p e n d o n t h e v i s c o s i t y . T o a t t a c k this p r o b l e m . a l a r g e b o d y of w a t e r w h i c h w a s drained and evaporated. it s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e c r u s t of t h e e a r t h ( a s o p p o s e d t o i t s i n t e r i o r ) i s n o t a n y t h i n g l i k e t h e s u r f a c e of a fluid. and t h e n verify that the guess d o e s indeed w o r k . T h e t w o e x a m p l e s w h i c h w e h a v e in m i n d are t h e so-called F e n n o S c a n d i a n u p l i f t a n d L a k e B o n n e v i l l e . allowing the earth there to r e b o u n d as well.Viscous Rebound—The Viscosity of the Earth 131 Fig. Since w e are . w e r e c a l l f r o m C h a p t e r 4 t h a t t h e e a s i e s t m e t h o d of s o l v i n g t h e s e e q u a t i o n s is s i m p l y t o g u e s s a t t h e f o r m of a solution.3. T o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o s i t i o n a t s o m e l a t e r t i m e . in g e n e r a l . T h e f o r m e r i s t h e r e s u l t of t h e r e m o v a l of t h e g l a c i e r w h i c h c o v e r e d t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n p e n n i n s u l a d u r i n g t h e l a s t i c e a g e . a n d t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h will s l o w l y r e b o u n d t o i t s o r i g i n a l s h a p e . W e h a v e n o t y e t d i s c u s s e d t h e p r o b l e m of s o l i d s . I n o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h e r e w e w i l l t r e a t t h e e a r t h a s if it w e r e a n o r d i n a r y fluid. h a v e t o s o l v e t h e N a v i e r . a l t h o u g h it w o u l d b e h i g h l y v i s c o u s . (8.C. U t a h . w e will. L a k e B o n n e v i l l e w a s . b u t w h e n w e d o w e shall s h o w that although t h e forces g e n e r a t e d b y t h e e l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s of t h e c r u s t a r e p r e s e n t in b o t h c a s e s of i n t e r e s t h e r e .1) W e c a l l t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e c r u s t a t a n y t i m e f (t) i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h it f r o m t h e g e n e r a l c o o r d i n a t e y. t h e l e v e l of l a n d i n t h i s a r e a h a s r i s e n b y h u n d r e d s of m e t e r s ! ( w e will d i s c u s s a c t u a l n u m b e r s l a t e r ) . t h e y a r e c o m p l e t e l y n e g l i g i b l e c o m p a r e d t o t h e fluid f o r c e s w h i c h w e s h a l l a s s u m e c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e i n t e r i o r of t h e e a r t h . I t is t h i s s o r t of p r o c e s s t h a t w e w i s h t o c o n s i d e r in t h i s s e c t i o n . d u r i n g t h e P l e i s t o c e n e e r a .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n for t h i s s e t of i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s . H o w e v e r . T h e n a n i m b a l a n c e of f o r c e s w i l l e x i s t . b u t is a s o l i d a n d a s s u c h c a n e x e r t r e s t o r i n g f o r c e s o f i t s o w n . 8. The deformation of the earth's surface due to a glacier.

w e n o t e t h a t t h e q u a n t i t y d£Idt. m u s t b e t h e s a m e a s t h e y .3) But since (8. b u t w h i c h p r e s u m a b l y d e p e n d s o n t h e viscosity. If w e m a k e t h e u s u a l a p p r o x i m a t i o n t h a t t h e d e f o r m a t i o n i s s m a l l . P (8. a measurable quantity). a r e a s o n a b l e g u e s s f o r t h e s h a p e of t h e d e f o r m a t i o n at s o m e later t i m e t w o u l d b e f(0 = (8.6) so that the equation can be put into the form (8.132 Viscosity in Fluids Fig. w e c a n n e g l e c t t h e v • Vv y term. 8.5) L e t u s also write. S i n c e t h e v e l o c i t i e s i n t h e p r o b l e m a r e s m a l l . In o r d e r t o relate t h e variable £(£) t o quantities w h i c h o c c u r in t h e N a v i e r .C.c o m p o n e n t of t h e v e l o c i t y of a fluid p a r t i c l e i n t h e s u r f a c e .gy.C.4) w e k n o w t h a t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t i m e c o n s t a n t k ( w h i c h i s . w h e r e it w a s u s e d t o o b t a i n t h e e q u a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g s u r f a c e w a v e s . and write (8. t h e r a t e a t w h i c h t h e s u r f a c e r i s e s . a f t e r all. of c o u r s e .2) w h e r e k is a t i m e c o n s t a n t w h i c h m u s t b e d e t e r m i n e d . for simplicity.C.C. d e a l i n g w i t h a h i g h l y o v e r d a m p e d s y s t e m ( t h e v i s c o s i t y of t h e e a r t h i s .7) . w e need only determine the quantity v from the Navier-Stokes equation.C. P' = P. e x p e c t e d t o b e v e r y h i g h ) . The coordinates for the viscous rebound problem. W e h a v e s e e n t h i s c o n d i t i o n b e f o r e i n C h a p t e r 4 . s o t h a t w e c a n w r i t e v (y) ~ v (0) a s w e d i d in C h a p t e r 4 . t h e n y y (8.S t o k e s e q u a t i o n .C.4.

C. T h e A : .8) a r e a s o n a b l e guess at a solution might b e lA(y) s i n Ix B(y) c o s Ix mA(y) c o s Ix P ' ( y ) c o s Ix (8. w e will g o b a c k t o t h e N a v i e r . w e find t h a t (8.12) w h i c h .Viscous Rebound—The Viscosity of the Earth 133 T h i s t r i c k . leaving an equation for B w h i c h w e can then solve.C.S t o k e s e q u a t i o n a s g r a d i e n t s .c o m p o n e n t s of t h e v e l o c i t y h a v e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e s a m e f o r m f o l l o w s f r o m t h e s y m m e t r y of t h e p r o b l e m .11) W i t h t h i s r e s u l t . is o n e w h i c h w e will u s e r e p e a t e d l y later.a n d z . a n d need not b e considered an extra restriction on the solution. If w e p u t o u r a s s u m e d f o r m s f o r t h e v e l o c i t y i n t o t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y . 1 0 ) c a n b e w r i t t e n (8.S t o k e s e q u a t i o n i s . C .C.13) .C.C.2). (8.c o m p o n e n t of t h e N a v i e r .10) w h e r e w e h a v e m a d e the useful 2 definition 2 2 a =/ +m .C.S t o k e s e q u a t i o n s a n d e l i m i n a t e t h e v a r i a b l e P' b e t w e e n t h e y . (8. W e h a v e a l r e a d y g u e s s e d a t t h e t i m e d e p e n d e n c e of t h e t e r m s in E q . w h e n t h e a s s u m e d f o r m s of t h e s o l u t i o n a r e i n s e r t e d a n d t h e o b v i o u s c a n c e l l a t i o n s m a d e . a n d i n t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y . W e n o w h a v e t o d e t e r m i n e B(y).S t o k e s e q u a t i o n .h a n d s i d e of t h e N a v i e r . (8. ( 8 .9) T h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e x.C. w i t h t h e a i d of E q .a n d x . a n d t h e n i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e m i n t o a P' t e r m . S i n c e t h e v e l o c i t i e s a l s o h a v e t o s a t i s f y t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y f o r a n i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid (8.c o m p o n e n t s of t h e equation. w e w i l l n o w g u e s s a t t h e f o r m of t h e solution for t h e q u a n t i t i e s w h i c h a p p e a r in t h e N a v i e r . of w r i t i n g t e r m s o n t h e r i g h t . F o l l o w i n g o u r s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e .

17) (This c a n b e verified b y s u b s t i t u t i n g t h e a s s u m e d f o r m of t h e s o l u t i o n b a c k i n t o E q . T h e s o l u t i o n t o t h e e q u a t i o n is d e r i v e d in s t a n d a r d b o o k s o n o r d i n a r y differential equations.) T h e r e a r e f o u r u n k n o w n c o n s t a n t s in t h i s s o l u t i o n . a n d will r e q u i r e a l i t t l e d i s c u s s i o n of w h a t b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e a t t h e f r e e s u r f a c e of a v i s c o u s fluid. (8.o r d e r differential e q u a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e .C.15) I n P r o b l e m 8.C. C . of c o u r s e .C. (8.C. s i n c e o t h e r w i s e f o r c e s w o u l d e x i s t a t t h e s u r f a c e w h i c h w o u l d c a u s e e l e m e n t s o f fluid a t the surface to m o v e . 1 3 ) . S i n c e t h e v e l o c i t y m u s t b e finite w h e n y a p p r o a c h e s i n f i n i t y . I n C h a p t e r 2 . w e w i l l r e g a r d t h i s a p p r o x i m a t i o n as a g u e s s w h i c h w e m a k e n o w . b e c o m e s (8. C .14) w h i c h . W e r e m a r k in p a s s i n g t h a t f o u r t h .H(Gy + l ) * . . if w e s u b s t i t u t e P ' ( y ) f r o m E q . distorting the surface. w i t h s i m i l a r s u b s t i t u t i o n s a n d c a n c e l l a t i o n s is j u s t (8.C. (8. d e p e n d s o n t h e v a l u e s o f k a n d TJ w h i c h w e will d e r i v e a s a r e s u l t of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n .15) is j u s t B(y) = .S c a n d i a n u p l i f t .134 Viscosity in Fluids T h e y . b e c a u s e w e s t a r t e d w i t h a f o u r t h . ( 8 . w h e n w e d i s c u s s e d t h e s u r f a c e c o n d i t i o n f o r a n o n v i s c o u s s t a t i c fluid.c o m p o n e n t of t h e N a v i e r .16) T h i s c o n c l u s i o n .o r d e r e q u a t i o n s o f t e n o c c u r in p r o b l e m s involving v i s c o s i t y b e c a u s e of t h e V v t e r m in t h e N a v i e r . it is s h o w n t h a t f o r a l a r g e a r e a p h e n o m e n o n l i k e t h e F e n n o .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n .2.' + C ( D y + \)e . 1 5 ) are such that (8. ( 8 . If w e m a k e t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n . t h e n t h e s o l u t i o n t o E q . a n d will verify after t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e p r o b l e m h a s b e e n o b t a i n e d . ay (8. w e c a n immediately write C = 0.C.18) 2 T h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e o t h e r c o n s t a n t s i s s o m e w h a t m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d . t h e v a l u e s of t h e p h y s i c a l c o n s t a n t s in E q . w e s a w t h a t in t h a t c a s e t h e s u r f a c e h a d t o b e a t a c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e .C.15).S t o k e s e q u a t i o n w h i c h w a s n o t p r e s e n t in C h a p t e r 4 ( f o r e x a m p l e ) w h e n a p r o b l e m s i m i l a r t o t h i s w a s discussed for surface w a v e s .

1 3 ) .25 w h e r e w e h a v e u s e d E q s . (8.C. b u t w e s a w in E q .C.20) which. O n e s u c h relation h a s . .C. T h e r e is a n o t h e r w h i c h c a n b e o b t a i n e d if w e l o o k a t t h e f o r c e s i n t h e y . in t h e JC.C. t h e r e s h o u l d b e n o f o r c e s acting along t h e s u r f a c e . kt (8. t h e r e is clearly a n i m b a l a n c e of f o r c e s in t h e y . w e find t h a t t h e y .C.10). of c o u r s e .C. d e p e n d i n g o n cr . n o s u c h f o r c e s e x i s t for small velocities. I n a n o n v i s c o u s fluid.22) w h e r e t h e s e c o n d equality follows f r o m E q .24) It r e m a i n s t o find a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n v a n d t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t £.d i r e c t i o n . using our assumed solutions becomes tr = 7]l s i n Ix c o s raz e (8. C .21) yx s o t h a t i m p o s i n g t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n . (8. H o w e v e r . B y definition (8. is s i m p l y t h a t n o f o r c e s a c t o n it i n s u c h a w a y a s t o c a u s e it t o c h a n g e .Viscous Rebound—The Viscosity of the Earth 135 T h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t a s u r f a c e b e f r e e . (8. C .5) t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e of v i s c o s i t y i n t r o d u c e s a n e w f o r c e . T h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t n o shear forces exist at t h e surface y = 0 must then b e that ik cr (y yx =0) = tr (y yz = 0) = 0.C. 1 7 ) . F r o m t h e above discussion about t h e forces exerted b y viscosity a t t h e s u r f a c e . a n d ( 8 . 2 3 ) t o e v a l u a t e P' a t y =0. t h e n .A. ( 8 . T h i s implies G = a.4).C. w e will c o n s i d e r o n l y o n e of t h e s e c o n d i tions. b e e n o b t a i n e d in E q .d i r e c t i o n .d i r e c t i o n a t t h e s u r f a c e must be y = 2T\OH ~ j -»y =u c o s Ix c o s mze~ . s i n c e t h e s u r f a c e is m o v i n g in t h a t d i r e c t i o n . (8. (8. ( 8 . S u c h f o r c e s a r e c a l l e d s h e a r f o r c e s . kt (8.or z .19) B e c a u s e of t h e s y m m e t r y .d i r e c t i o n a t t h e surface.c o m p o n e n t o f t h e v e l o c i t y o f t h e fluid i s j u s t v y = - H(ay + l)<T a y c o s Ix c o s m z e~ .C. C . it i s c l e a r t h a t t h e f o r c e i n t h e y .23) T h u s . w e find (8. I n t h e c a s e i n w h i c h w e a r e i n t e r e s t e d a t t h e m o m e n t .

F r o m F i g . w a s 5 5 6 m . 4 ) . b y m e a s u r i n g t h e r a t e a t w h i c h t h e r e b o u n d of t h e e a r t h ' s c r u s t is p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t i m e .27) T h i s e x p r e s s i o n . t h e w e i g h t of d i s p l a c e d l i q u i d a t a n y p o i n t is j u s t g i v e n b y F B = pgfe (8. (8. ( 8 . i n a p o p u l a t e d a r e a l i k e S c a n d i n a v i a . C . h o w e v e r .C. b u t in f a c t c h a n g e s d e n s i t y a p p r e c i a b l y o v e r d i s t a n c e s of t h e o r d e r . w e find t h a t t h e t i m e c o n s t a n t f o r t h e r e b o u n d is g i v e n b y (8. ( 8 .C. t h i s is n o t a s c o m p l i c a t e d a s it s o u n d s . A c t u a l l y . C . (8.C. W e h a v e a l s o n e g l e c t e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e a r t h is n o t a p e r f e c t fluid. a n d is a b o u t 8 0 m t o d a y . w h i c h g i v e s t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s u r f a c e i n t e r m s of t h e v i s c o s i t y o f t h e e a r t h . (8. s i n c e o n e c a n l o o k a t o l d w h a r v e s w h i c h a r e n o w f a r i n l a n d . s o t h a t t h e t i m e c o n s t a n t i s j u s t k « 6 x 10" 12 sec . A full d i s c u s s i o n of t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s in t h e c a s e is g i v e n in t h e t e x t b y H e i s k a n e n a n d V e n i n g M e i n e s z ( 1 9 5 8 ) .136 Viscosity in Fluids F r o m t h e p r i n c i p l e of A r c h i m e d e s . w h e r e a s in b o t h c a s e s w e c o n s i d e r e d — t h e m e l t i n g of a g l a c i e r a n d t h e e m p t y i n g of a l a k e — t h e r e m o v a l of t h e o v e r b u r d e n w o u l d t a k e p l a c e o v e r a t i m e s c a l e w h i c h is n o t t e r r i b l y s m a l l c o m p a r e d t o t h a t of t h e r e b o u n d . a n d . T h i s l e a d s t o a n e s t i m a t e d v i s c o s i t y of r/ ~ 1 0 21 poise. 2 7 ) . F o r o u r e x a m p l e .26) so that e q u a t i n g E q . t h e d e f l e c t i o n in 8 0 0 0 B . If w e u s e E q s .C.C.26) t o E q . is p r e c i s e l y t h e e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h w e s e e k . w e n o t e t h a t i n S c a n d i n a v i a . T h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o c o u l d b e d u e t o a n u m b e r of c a u s e s .4). t h e v i s c o s i t y of t h e e a r t h c a n b e e s t i m a t e d . t h e u p w a r d d e f l e c t i o n is e s t i m a t e d t o b e a b o u t 6 4 m i n 4 0 0 0 y e a r s . F o r L a k e B o n n e v i l l e . w e h a v e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e o v e r b u r d e n w a s lifted i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y . o r a t g e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e . t h i s m u s t b e t h e b u o y a n t f o r c e . (8.28) T h u s . C . 2 4 ) . 3 ) .25) gives -H c o s Ix c o s mz e k t . In o u r d e v e l o p m e n t . ( 8 . C . a n d m u s t t h e r e f o r e b e e q u a l t o t h e w e i g h t of t h e d i s p l a c e d l i q u i d . C . 1 w h i c h l e a d s t o a v i s c o s i t y e s t i m a t e of n ~ 10 22 poise. ( 8 .

T h e e x a m p l e s of t h e flow of a fluid t h r o u g h a r i g i d p i p e a n d t h e v i s c o u s r e b o u n d of t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e a f t e r t h e r e m o v a l of a n o v e r b u r d e n like a glacier w e r e w o r k e d out. T h e introduction of viscosity m e a n s that t h e r e is a n e w m e c h a n i s m for dissipating energy in a fluid s y s t e m . w h e r e 1 7 is c a l l e d t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of v i s c o s i t y .23) imply that there is n o m o t i o n of t h e fluid in the x. t o l o o k a t t h e p r o c e s s of e l a s t i c r e b o u n d i n t h e c r u s t of t h e e a r t h a n d c o m e u p w i t h r e a s o n a b l e e s t i m a t e s of t h e e a r t h ' s v i s c o s i t y . t h e r e i s a l m o s t n o e n d t o t h e n u m b e r of i n t e r e s t i n g e x a m p l e s w h i c h c a n b e d e s c r i b e d w i t h t h e m . 2 PROBLEMS 8 . Is this consistent with t h e b o u n d a r y conditions w e h a v e i m p o s e d on the p r o b l e m ? 8. SUMMARY W e h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e e f f e c t s of v i s c o s i t y c a n b e i n c l u d e d i n o u r d e s c r i p t i o n of fluids b y t h e a d d i t i o n of a t e r m t o t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n . F i n a l l y . (8.S t o k e s equation for the c a s e of a compressible fluid w h o s e coefficients of viscosity are c o n s t a n t .C. B u t w h a t e v e r t h e o u t c o m e of t h e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e d e t a i l s of t h i s t y p e of a n a l y s i s . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s a g a i n t h e p o i n t w h i c h w a s m a d e i n t h e first c h a p t e r — t h a t g i v e n a f e w s i m p l e p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h g o v e r n t h e b e h a v i o r of fluids. 8. (8.or 2 . 1 .S t o k e s equation leads to the result .2. t h e d i f f e r e n c e s m i g h t s i m p l y b e a r e s u l t of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e a r t h is j u s t a l i t t l e l e s s r i g i d in N o r t h A m e r i c a t h a n it is i n N o r t h e r n E u r o p e .d i r e c t i o n in the case of viscous r e b o u n d . 8. s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e s i m p l e N a v i e r . D e r i v e the form of t h e N a v i e r .C.3. E for an incompressible v i s c o u s fluid. t h i s t e r m is of t h e f o r m 1 7 A v.S c a n d i a n uplift area. (a) S h o w that the N a v i e r .4. t h e approximation is valid. t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t f o r o u r d i s c u s s i o n is t h a t it is p o s s i b l e .10) and the s u b s e q u e n t determination of the coefficient in E q .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n . Verify that for t h e F e n n o . F o r i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluids. w h i c h is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1400 k m on a side. S h o w that t h e b o u n d a r y condition in E q . L e t u s r e p e a t the energy b a l a n c e analysis of Section l .Problems 137 of m a g n i t u d e w h i c h w e a r e c o n s i d e r i n g h e r e .

T h e general m e t h o d outlined in the a b o v e t w o p r o b l e m s can b e applied to calculating the drag on any b o d y moving through a fluid (or. R e p e a t P r o b l e m 8. O n e case which can b e solved explicitly is that of a sphere in a fluid. 8. called Stoke's formula. T h e r e is a c o m m o n folktale involving Galileo which says that he discovered that the acceleration due to gravity w a s i n d e p e n d e n t of the m a s s by dropping different weights off of the leaning t o w e r of Pisa. since the derivation is s o m e w h a t complicated. s h o w that an appropriate choice of the surface S leads to (d) and h e n c e 8. is given by F = 6TTRVV. (c) S h o w that there will b e a force in the z -direction per unit area on each plate given by ik This p h e n o m e n o n . so that the fluid will flow in the 2 . ik Derive this result by calculating the velocity field a r o u n d a s p h e r e . (b) H e n c e calculate t h e t e n s o r cr in the fluid.7. in which a viscous liquid e x e r t s a force on the material at its b o u n d a r y . says that the drag force on a sphere of radius a in a fluid w h i c h is moving with velocity V relative to t h e s p h e r e .5. (Hint: Y o u may w a n t to consult some of t h e t e x t s cited in C h a p t e r 1.8. Calculate t h e . is called drag. L e t there b e a p r e s s u r e gradient dPjdz exerted by some outside agency. equivalently.5 for the case w h e r e the u p p e r plate is moving in the z-direction with velocity V.*.6. Consider a fluid of viscosity 1 7 flowing b e t w e e n t w o infinitive parallel plates a distance h apart.138 Viscosity in Fluids (b) H e n c e s h o w that (c) Using t h e definition of cr. deriving a from the field. and integrating over the sphere to find t h e force.d i r e c t i o n . a stationary b o d y a r o u n d w h i c h a fluid flows).) 8. S t o k e ' s formula tells us w h a t the effect of air resistance would b e on a falling sphere. (a) Calculate the velocity profile of the fluid b e t w e e n the plates. 8. T h e result of this calculation.

D o e s it r e s e m b l e any other equation you k n o w of? 8. C o n s i d e r a flat plate which is initially at rest in an infinite fluid. and w h i c h at time t = 0 is instantaneously accelerated to its final velocity V. Consider t w o cylinders of radii r and r . rotating at angular speed co and co . .Problems 139 difference in arrival times b e t w e e n t w o s p h e r e s w h o s e m a s s e s are a factor of q different.S t o k e s equation r e d u c e s to w h e r e x is t h e c o o r d i n a t e perpendicular t o t h e plate. (Hint: This is a limit of t h e result in part (b). w h i c h w e will t a k e to b e along the plate. (b) S h o w that if t h e inner cylinder is held fixed. 8.S t o k e s equation provided that it satisfies t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g Euler equation. fluids.11. C o n s i d e r t h e flow of a fluid in a two-dimensional plane. S h o w that t h e potential flow of an incompressible fluid will automatically satisfy t h e N a v i e r . 2 S h o w that t h e N a v i e r . (a) S h o w that the N a v i e r . if they are d r o p p e d from rest from a height h. U s e this result to c o m m e n t on t h e historical validity of Galileo's e x p e r i m e n t . respectively.) 8. the t o r q u e per unit length e x e r t e d b y the outer cylinder is x 2 x 2 M —4 7 7 1 7 This result h a s b e e n utilized as a m e a n s of m e a s u r i n g t h e viscosity of (d) S h o w that in the case of a single cylinder rotating alone.S t o k e s equation and t h e equation of continuity imply that Deo _ 2 T h e variable co is usually called t h e vorticity.9. b u t w h o s e radii are t h e s a m e . (b) If w e a s s u m e a solution of t h e form and define u = t>/(f).10.12. L e t u s define co = V x v). and this equation is called t h e vorticity transport equation.S t o k e s equation and t h e b o u n d a r y conditions w h i c h must apply in this c a s e . 8. (a) Write d o w n t h e N a v i e r .

McGraw-Hill. This is a very thorough and surprisingly readable account of the theory of the flow of viscous fluids. 1958. see W. t) = V o * T ^ c o s (cot . leading to very good discussions of aerodynamics and turbulence.12 for t h e c a s e w h e r e t h e wall is oscillating. 0 S h o w that t h e fluid velocity is given b y u(x. W o r k t h r o u g h P r o b l e m 8. w h e r e t is a typical time in the p r o b l e m .13. an excellent reference on the topic of viscosity H. t h e fluid at large distances w a s essentially at rest. T h e significance of this result will b e c o m e clear in t h e n e x t chapter. McGraw-Hill. For a discussion of the Fenno-Scandian problem. New York. Schlichting.x v A/^. Vening Meinesz. S h o w that t h e distance t o t h e point at which t h e velocity h a s b e e n r e d u c e d t o a b o u t 1% of t h e velocity of t h e plate is given in b o t h cases b y 8 « Wt. . so that its velocity is V = v c o s cot. The Earth and Its Gravity Field. and s k e t c h t h e velocity n e a r t h e wall. A. A.140 Viscosity in Fluids s h o w that / is d e t e r m i n e d b y (c) Solve this equation (Hint: L o o k u p t h e i n c o m p l e t e error function). 8. while t h e fluid n e a r t h e moving plate w a s in motion. New York. T h e s e t w o e x a m p l e s are called Stoke's first and second problems. 1968. Heiskanen and F.). Boundary Layer Theory. REFERENCES In addition to the texts cited in Chapter 1. In b o t h of t h e a b o v e t w o p r o b l e m s . 8.14.

w e w i l l s t u d y o n e g e n e r a l p r o p e r t y of t h e N a v i e r . w h e r e o n l y t h e n o r m a l c o m p o n e n t of t h e v e l o c i t y m u s t vanish. w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t t h e fluid m u s t b e a t r e s t a t a r i g i d b o u n d a r y . F o r s t e a d y . t h e e q u a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s will b e n o n l i n e a r . b e i g n o r e d .s t a t e flow o f fluids w h o s e v i s c o s i t y c a n n o t b e neglected. i n f u l l y d e v e l o p e d v i s c o u s flow.S t o k e s e q u a t i o n w h i c h is e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t in a p p l i c a t i o n s . w e h a v e (9. There are several important conclusions which can b e drawn f r o m t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n .9 The Flow of Viscous Fluids Things are seldom what they seem.S t o k e s e q u a t i o n c a n n o t .A. T h i s i s o n e o f t h e s i m p l e s t e x a m p l e s o f t h e s t e a d y . h o w e v e r . a n d t h e r e f o r e q u i t e difficult t o s o l v e . t h e P o i s i e u l l e p r o b l e m . T h i s m e a n s that e x c e p t for v e r y simple g e o m e t r i e s . I n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e .1) 141 . in g e n e r a l . w e e x a m i n e d t h e p r o b l e m of t h e flow o f a v i s c o u s fluid i n a p i p e . t h e v i s c o u s b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n . GILBERT AND SULLIVAN HMS Pinafore A. THE REYNOLDS NUMBER I n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n .s t a t e flow. g i v e s r i s e t o flow p a t t e r n s w h i c h a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m w h a t w e w o u l d e x p e c t i n a n o n v i s c o u s fluid. t h e n o n l i n e a r t e r m s in t h e N a v i e r . like a circular pipe. W e shall s e e this in t h e e x a m p l e in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . B e f o r e g o i n g o n . I n t h e first p l a c e .

F o r e x a m p l e . ( 9 . in t h e c a s e of P o i s i e u l l e flow. w h i l e a t y p i c a l l e n g t h m i g h t b e g i v e n by L = a.A. s u c h t y p i c a l v a l u e s of t h e p a r a m e t e r s c a n b e d e f i n e d . (9.3) and If w e i n s e r t t h e s e n e w v a r i a b l e s i n t o E q .d i r e c t i o n a l o n g t h e b o t t o m f a c e of t h e c u b e is j u s t 2 o~ dx zy dz . T h e c o l l e c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s o n t h e r i g h t is g i v e n a s p e c i a l n a m e . T h e p h y s i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r c a n b e s t b e u n d e r s t o o d b y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g o n a n i n f i n i t e s i m a l v o l u m e i n a fluid in s t e a d y .A. I n a n y p r o b l e m . a typical v e l o c i t y might b e V = C(r = 0). s i n c e it r e p r e s e n t s t h e m o m e n t u m c a r r i e d in t h e m o v e m e n t of t h e fluid. T h i s l a t t e r t e r m is s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d t h e " i n e r t i a l f o r c e " . A .142 The Flow of Viscous Fluids N o w s u p p o s e t h a t w e h a v e a s y s t e m i n w h i c h V.5) t h e n R is c a l l e d t h e Reynolds number. L . w e 2 find a n e w e q u a t i o n (9. l e n g t h s . so t h a t (9. N e g l e c t i n g t h e v i s c o u s t e r m is e q u i v a l e n t t o n e g l e c t i n g TJ V V w i t h r e s p e c t t o (V • V ) V in t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n . a n d P a r e " t y p i c a l " v e l o c i t i e s . and a typical pressure b y Pi = P ( z = 0 ) . t h e v i s c o u s f o r c e i n t h e z . 9 ) f o r a n i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid. If w e w r i t e (9. A . N o w let u s c h a n g e v a r i a b l e s .A. F r o m E q .1). 9.A.2) t h e m a x i m u m of t h e v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e .s t a t e flow ( s e e F i g . a n d p r e s s u r e s .4) w h i c h is n o w w r i t t e n e n t i r e l y in t e r m s of d i m e n s i o n l e s s q u a n t i t i e s . ( 8 . 1 ) a n d d i v i d e b y V / L .

7) f o r t h e i n e r t i a l f o r c e a c t i n g o n t h e b o d y . A w o r d of c a u t i o n m u s t a l s o b e i n s e r t e d a t t h i s p o i n t . 5 ) . T h i s w o u l d h a v e m a d e a d i f f e r e n c e o f a . T h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r is s o m e w h a t a r b i t r a r y . A .A.1. w e c o u l d h a v e c h o s e n t h e d i a m e t e r o f t h e p i p e i n s t e a d of t h e r a d i u s i n c h o o s i n g L . F o r e x a m p l e . t h e t y p i c a l l e n g t h in E q .8) w h i c h is t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r . T h a t t h i s r a t i o s h o u l d c o m e u p a g a i n i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g — t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r is t h e only d i m e n s i o n l e s s p a r a m e t e r w h i c h c a n b e f o r m e d f r o m t h e v a r i a b l e s i n t h e s i m p l e flow p r o b l e m . ( 9 . t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e c o n v e c t i v e d e r i v a t i v e g i v e s (9.A.A. dy\ U. dz Forces on an infinitesimal volume element. w h i l e t h a t a l o n g t h e t o p f a c e is j u s t s o t h a t t h e n e t frictional f o r c e is g i v e n b y (9.6) O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . 9. If w e n o w a s s u m e t h a t v appreciably over a distance L. so that varies z and t h e n t h e r a t i o of i n e r t i a l t o v i s c o u s f o r c e s is j u s t (9.The Reynolds Number 143 t z Fig.

S u p p o s e t h a t w e h a d t w o d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s in w h i c h t w o d i f f e r e n t fluids w e r e f l o w i n g in ( o r a r o u n d ) m a t e r i a l s w h i c h h a d s i m i l a r s h a p e s . a n d is of o b v i o u s u s e f u l n e s s in m a n y a p p l i c a t i o n s of h y d r o d y n a m i c s . T h e n a g l a n c e at E q .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n . a n d m a d e little c o n t a c t w i t h t h e t h e o r y of fluids a s w e a r e d i s c u s s i n g it in t h i s t e x t . A .A. . T h e e x a m p l e m o s t f a m i l i a r t o t h e r e a d e r w o u l d b e t h e w i n d t u n n e l . w h e n a R e y n o l d s n u m b e r is d e f i n e d .) 2 B.S t o k e s equation has been put into dimensionless f o r m . C o n s e q u e n t l y . h o w e v e r . F o r e x a m p l e . ( 9 . W h e n it c a m e t o d e a l i n g w i t h p r o b l e m s of flow a r o u n d o r t h r o u g h m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s . (9. BOUNDARY LAYERS W e h a v e r e p e a t e d l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e is a g r e a t d e a l of m a t h e m a t i c a l c o m p l e x i t y in t h e N a v i e r . T h i s w a s largely a n e x p e r i m e n t a l e n g i n e e r i n g v e n t u r e . s o m e c a r e s h o u l d b e t a k e n in s p e c i f y i n g exactly which lengths.s c a l e m o d e l a i r p l a n e c o m p o n e n t s c a n b e t e s t e d . W e h a v e s e e n in p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s t h a t t h i s s o r t of t h i n g is c a p a b l e of d e s c r i b i n g a l a r g e p o r t i o n of t h e w o r l d a r o u n d u s . O n e w a s c a l l e d t h e o r e t i c a l h y d r o d y n a m i c s a n d i n v o l v e d t h e w o r k i n g o u t of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n f o r p e r f e c t fluids.4) tells u s t h a t t h e s e t w o s i t u a t i o n s will b e g o v e r n e d b y e x a c t l y t h e s a m e e q u a t i o n o f m o t i o n . w h o d e v e l o p e d t h e t h e o r y of b o u n d a r y l a y e r s . 4 ) . ( S e e P r o b l e m 9.2. T h i s is c a l l e d t h e law of similarity. t h e t w o flows will b e i d e n t i c a l . S u p p o s e f u r t h e r t h a t t h e flows w e r e a d j u s t e d s o t h a t t h e r a t i o PjpV w e r e t h e s a m e in e a c h c a s e . O n e c o n s e q u e n c e of t h i s in t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s t h a t t w o p a r a l l e l a n d r a t h e r u n c o n n e c t e d fields of s t u d y h a d d e v e l o p e d in fluid m e c h a n i c s . T h u s . w e s a w h o w e v e n t h e s i m p l e p r o b l e m of flow t h r o u g h a c i r c u l a r p i p e d e m a n d e d t h e i n c l u s i o n of v i s c o s i t y in t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n . T h e t w o d i s c i p l i n e s w e r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r in t h e e a r l y 1900s b y L u d w i g P r a n d t l . a s in E q . t h e s e p a r a t e d i s c i p l i n e of h y d r a u l i c s g r e w u p . w e m i g h t b e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e flow of a i r a r o u n d a n o b s t r u c t i o n in a l a r g e t u n n e l a n d t h e flow of b l o o d a r o u n d a n o b s t r u c t i o n in a n a r t e r y . and velocities are being taken as "typical. O n c e the N a v i e r .144 The Flow of Viscous Fluids f a c t o r of t w o in t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r . b u t w e r e of a d i f f e r e n t s i z e . a n d s o t h a t t h e t w o flows h a d t h e s a m e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r . it w a s a r a t h e r d i s m a l f a i l u r e . in w h i c h s m a l l . pressures. a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t e m e r g e s . I n C h a p t e r 8. T h i s m e a n s t h a t e x c e p t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e in s c a l e ." so that comparisons with other calculations (perhaps using different definitions) c a n b e m a d e .

a n d w e c o u l d u s e t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e t h e flow. R c a n a t t a i n v a l u e s in t h e h u n d r e d s o r e v e n t h o u s a n d s . T h i s is t h e b a s i c c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e t w o p o i n t s of v i e w d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . L This would immediately lead to problems. B . 2 .B. N o w if w e w e r e t o f o r m t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r f o r t h i s s y s t e m . t h e r e m u s t b e s o m e point at w h i c h t h e inertial t e r m b e c o m e s l e s s t h a n t h e v i s c o u s t e r m . w e k n o w that t h e velocity m u s t v a n i s h at t h e plate. as can be seen b y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c a s e of a p r e s s u r e w h i c h is u n i f o r m in t h e y .Boundary Layers 145 Fig. F r o m o u r d i s c u s s i o n of v i s c o s i t y . s o t h a t a s V a p p r o a c h e s z e r o . o u r first impulse would b e to take U as the typical velocity and L to be the length of t h e p l a t e . 9. I n t h i s c a s e . W e c a n s e e t h i s q u i c k l y b y n o t i n g t h a t t h e i n e r t i a l t e r m g o e s a s V w h i l e t h e v i s c o u s t e r m g o e s a s V. w e w o u l d c o n clude that for s u c h c a s e s . e v e n t h o u g h t h e y c a n b e n e g l e c t e d e v e r y w h e r e e l s e . 1 ) m a y b e u s e f u l t h r o u g h o u t m o s t of t h e fluid. a n d h e n c e c o u l d n o t v a n i s h a t t h e p l a t e . t h e v i s c o u s forces w o u l d b e completely negligible. a n d m a y r e p r e s e n t t h e r a t i o of i n e r t i a l t o v i s c o u s f o r c e s t h e r e . T h u s . boundary-layer U Perhaps the best w a y to understand the idea behind t h e o r y is t o c o n s i d e r t h e c a s e of f l o w p a s t a p l a t e ( s e e F i g . 9. F r o m t h e r e a s o n i n g in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . T h i s s m a l l r e g i o n i s c a l l e d t h e boundary layer. ( 9 . L e t d e n o t e t h e v e l o c i t y f a r f r o m t h e p l a t e . t h e f l o w o f t h e fluid w o u l d h a v e t o b e u n i f o r m a s w e l l .2). t h e r e will b e s o m e s m a l l r e g i o n n e a r t h e p l a t e w h e r e v i s c o u s f o r c e s will d o m i n a t e t h e m o t i o n .2. N o w in a t y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n . so that t h e r e m u s t b e s o m e v a r i a t i o n of t h e v e l o c i t y w i t h y a s s h o w n . it d o e s n o t d o s o n e a r t h e p l a t e .d i r e c t i o n . t o g i v e (9.1) for t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r associated with the length L. e v e n t h o u g h in t h e m a i n b o d y of t h e fluid it is m u c h l a r g e r . Prandtl's solution was quite simple. h o w e v e r . H e pointed out that while the R e y n o l d s n u m b e r d e f i n e d a s in E q . Mow oi a viscous nuia near a plate.

6 ) t h a t t h e a c t u a l s i z e o f t h e b o u n d a r y l a y e r c a n b e e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e a s VZ.B. A c t u a l l y .2) w h e r e U is a v e l o c i t y in t h e y . w e s e e t h a t t h e r e is a small region. ( 9 .5) or. T h i s e x p l a i n s w h y t h e s i m p l e n o n v i s c o u s t h e o r y c o u l d n o t b e u s e d in s o m a n y i m p o r t a n t a p p l i c a t i o n s .B. I t is p r e c i s e l y t h i s r e g i o n w h i c h is i m p o r t a n t w h e n w e are dealing w i t h things like t h e v i s c o u s drag o n a n o b j e c t in a m o v i n g fluid ( s u c h a s a n a i r f o i l ) .B. C l e a r l y . T h e e q u a t i o n d e s c r i b i n g t h e f l o w i n F i g . a n d w h y t h e i n c l u s i o n of v i s c o s i t y w a s n e c e s s a r y in t h e d e s i g n of a i r f o i l s and similar things. t h e v i s c o u s a n d inertial t e r m s will b e c o m p a r a b l e w h e n (9.B. T h i s . B .B. T O p r o c e e d f a r t h e r . i n w h i c h t h e v i s c o u s f o r c e s c a n n o t b e n e g l e c t e d . w e can write (9. in g e n e r a l . As before. b u t c a n .4) w h e r e t h e s e c o n d e x p r e s s i o n i s t r u e o n l y in t h e r e g i o n in w h i c h t h e v e l o c i t y is m a k i n g i t s r a p i d t r a n s i t i o n f r o m z e r o t o U. t h e d e r i v a t i v e s in t h e v i s c o u s t e r m n e a r t h e p l a t e c a n b e written and (9. is t h e r e g i o n n e a r t h e p l a t e .6) T h u s .3) In a similar w a y . it d e p e n d s o n t h e l e n g t h L of t h e p l a t e . of c o u r s e . 9.d i r e c t i o n .2 is j u s t (9. .1).B. a s w e h a v e d e f i n e d t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r . w h e n (9.146 The Flow of Viscous Fluids L e t u s p u t t h e intuitive r e a s o n i n g in t h e a b o v e p a r a g r a p h i n t o m o r e p r e c i s e f o r m . using E q . W e s e e f r o m E q . a n d i t s t h i c k n e s s w e d e n o t e b y 5. d e p e n d o n b o t h y a n d JC. w h o s e e x t e n t v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y w i t h t h e s q u a r e r o o t of t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r . (9.

it will b e n e c e s s a r y t o w o r k o u t t h e e q u a t i o n s m o r e e x a c t l y . a n d b e o f l e n g t h L ( s e e F i g . f u n c t i o n s o f b o t h JC a n d y.B.Boundary Layers U.B. U = 0. 9. L e t t h e v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e a t l a r g e y b e g i v e n b y U (x). i n p a r t i c u l a r .3). x =L The development of the boundary layer.7) and (9. t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n s t a n t of p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y i n E q . a n d . a n d l e t t h e v e l o c i t y i n t h e b o u n d a r y layer h a v e c o m p o n e n t s v a n d v w h i c h a r e b o t h .B.B. a n d t h a t 8.8) while c o n t i n u i t y tells u s t h a t (9. t h e t h i c k n e s s of t h e b o u n d a r y l a y e r . 9. x y x y T h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n t h e n b e c o m e (9. in general.10) . B . L e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e p r o b l e m of f l o w p a s t a p l a t e i n m o r e d e t a i l .3. L e t u s a s s u m e t h a t o u t s i d e o f t h e b o u n d a r y l a y e r it is r e a s o n a b l e t o t r e a t t h e flow a s f r i c t i o n l e s s . is m u c h l e s s t h a n L .(X) 147 y t X T x =0 Fig. 5 ) .9) T h e first a p p r o x i m a t i o n w h i c h w e s h a l l m a k e i s t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e e v e r y w h e r e c a n b e w r i t t e n a s t h e p r e s s u r e w h i c h w o u l d o b t a i n if t h e r e w e r e n o v i s c o s i t y ( a n d w h i c h d o e s a c t u a l l y e x i s t o u t s i d e of t h e b o u n d a r y l a y e r ) . L e t t h e p l a t e s t a r t a t x = 0. ( 9 .3 t h a t dP/dy is of o r d e r 8. O n e w a y of j u s t i f y i n g t h i s a p p r o x i m a t i o n is t o u s e t h e r e s u l t of P r o b l e m 9. s o t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e across the boundary layer must be (9.

T h e y c o n s t i t u t e t w o e q u a t i o n s in t w o u n k n o w n s . Consider now the case where U (x) x = Uo = c o n s t . t o o r d e r 8 . a r e c a l l e d t h e Prandtl equations. the equations which m u s t b e solved are (9.B. S i n c e in o u r p r o b l e m . t h e p r e s s u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n o n v i s c o u s flow is g i v e n b y pU (x) 2 x = const.12) T h i s e q u a t i o n a n d t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y . a n d t h e r e s u l t s of t h e d i m e n s i o n a l a n a l y s i s in P r o b l e m 9 .B. ( 9 . w e h a v e (9. in t u r n . Vy -»oo) . = (9. w e find t h a t t h e E q .11) U s i n g t h i s r e s u l t . a n d t h e y d e s c r i b e t h e b o u n d a r y . a n d v (y x x = 0. O n e important result follows immediately.B. t h e s a m e as t h e p r e s s u r e a t t h e b o u n d a r y l a y e r . B .B. 3 . = 0. a n d h e n c e c a n b e s o l v e d ( t h e p r e s s u r e i s n o t a n u n k n o w n h e r e .13) and subject to the boundary conditions that v a t y = 0. t a k e n t o g e t h e r .l a y e r flow. from the Bernoulli equation. In this case. m u s t b e t h e s a m e a s t h e p r e s s u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n o n v i s c o u s flow.14) Uo. s i n c e it is g i v e n b y t h e flow a t l a r g e y ) . F r o m the Bernoulli equat i o n . T h i s p r e s s u r e . U x is a f u n c t i o n of x o n l y . and hence. 7 ) b e c o m e s (9. .148 The Flow of Viscous Fluids 2 so that t h e p r e s s u r e at t h e s u r f a c e is.

a l s o l e a d s t o an e x t r e m e l y c o m p l i c a t e d third-order nonlinear differential e q u a t i o n which must be solved.B.20) .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n in t e r m s of s t r e a m f u n c t i o n s .B. (9. t h a t writing t h e N a v i e r . If w e l e t (9.13) g i v e s a n e w e q u a t i o n in t e r m s of t h e f u n c t i o n / w h i c h is (9.19) t h e n s u b s t i t u t i o n i n t o E q . W e can m a k e s o m e progress toward a solution b y m a k i n g a c h a n g e of v a r i a b l e s .15) and T h e n t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y in t e r m s of t h e s t r e a m f u n c t i o n is j u s t a n d is a u t o m a t i c a l l y s a t i s f i e d . T h e N a v i e r . w h i l e it a u t o m a t i c a l l y s a t i s f i e s c o n t i n u i t y .B.Boundary Layers 149 A t e c h n i q u e w h i c h is o f t e n u s e f u l i n s o l v i n g h y d r o d y n a m i c e q u a t i o n s i n v o l v e s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of a stream function.B. t h e n .16) while the boundary conditions are (9. S u p p o s e that w e define a f u n c t i o n ip b y t h e r e l a t i o n s (9.S t o k e s e q u a t i o n b e c o m e s (9.B.18) and write (9.B.B.17) and W e s e e .

B.4 0.2 2 4 6 8 10 Fig. w e s i m p l y 1.20) as a function of 17. The position of the boundary layer is indicated by an arrow.8 0.6- 0. A t a b u l a t i o n of t h e f u n c t i o n / i s g i v e n i n t h e t e x t b y S c h l i c h t i n g m e n t i o n e d in t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y . 9.21) T h i s e q u a t i o n is s o l v a b l e i n p r i n c i p l e .0 0. A graph of the solutions to Eq. F o r o u r p u r p o s e s .B.150 The Flow of Viscous Fluids with the boundary conditions / ( 0 ) = 0. . i n f a c t b e s o l v e d n u m e r i c a l l y . (9.4. (9. a n d c a n .

Summary 151 p l o t in F i g . 9. A n i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f t h i s r e s u l t is t h a t t h e w i d t h of t h e b o u n d a r y l a y e r g r o w s a s t h e s q u a r e r o o t of t h e d i s t a n c e a l o n g t h e p l a t e . of c o u r s e . T h u s . a r e s u l t w h i c h w a s a n t i c i p a t e d in t h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n . t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r c a n b e defined a n d r e p r e s e n t s a m e a s u r e of t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of f r i c t i o n a l a n d i n e r t i a l f o r c e s i n t h e fluid.22) v e r s u s £ T h i s s h o w s t h e a p p r o a c h t o a s y m p t o t i c v a l u e s of t h e v e l o c i t y a s w e c o m e a w a y from the plate. T h i s is c a l l e d separation. . a n d g i v e s rise t o e d d i e s in t h e flow.l a y e r t h e o r y . a n d p a s s t h e m a l o n g t o t h e n e x t l a y e r . (9. w h e r e they c a n n o t b e n e g l e c t e d .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n is p u t i n t o d i m e n s i o n l e s s f o r m .4 t h e r a t i o (9. W h i l e v i s c o u s f o r c e s m a y b e s m a l l t h r o u g h o u t t h e fluid t a k e n a s a w h o l e . F o r t h e g r a p h .6). t h e w i d e r t h e r e g i o n o v e r w h i c h t h e r o l e of v i s c o s i t y is i m p o r t a n t . so t h a t w e h a v e 0 (9.B.23) w h i c h a g r e e s . T h e r e i s . SUMMARY If t h e N a v i e r . this o c c u r s at a b o u t £ = 5. called the b o u n d a r y layer. a c e r t a i n a m o u n t of a m b i g u i t y in d e f i n i n g t h e w i d t h o f t h e b o u n d a r y l a y e r . w h i c h is q u i t e i m p o r t a n t in a p p l i c a t i o n s b u t w h i c h w e shall n o t d i s c u s s in detail h e r e . H o w e v e r . s i n c e t h e t r a n s i t i o n b e t w e e n z e r o v e l o c i t y a n d U is s m o o t h . O n e p r o p e r t y of b o u n d a r y .B. of c o u r s e . A n e x a m p l e of v i s c o u s flow p a s t a p l a n e s h e e t w a s w o r k e d out to illustrate the transition from the b o u n d a r y layer to the main b o d y of t h e fluid. T h i s m a k e s s e n s e i n t e r m s o f t h e c l a s s i c a l i d e a of v i s c o s i t y a s a f r i c t i o n a l f o r c e b e t w e e n a d j a c e n t l a y e r s o f fluid. t h e f a r t h e r w e g o d o w n s t r e a m . a n d is o n e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m l a m i n a r t o t u r b u l e n t flow. t h e r e i s a s m a l l region near a stationary body. it i s c u s t o m a r y t o d e f i n e t h e e d g e o f t h e b o u n d a r y l a y e r a s t h e p o i n t at w h i c h t h e v e l o c i t y h a s a t t a i n e d 9 9 % of its a s y m p t o t i c v a l u e . o c c u r s w h e n t h e flow o f t h e fluid i n s i d e of t h e b o u n d a r y l a y e r i s i n t h e r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n f r o m t h e flow o u t s i d e . w i t h t h e o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e e s t i m a t e g i v e n i n E q .B. s i n c e t h e l a y e r s n e a r t h e p l a t e will f e e l t h e f o r c e s first.

C o n s i d e r t h e p r o b l e m of flow p a s t a plate. (9. S u p p o s e that w e w a n t e d to m a k e m e a s u r e m e n t s of blood flow. Consider Poisieulle flow in a t u b e to b e a model of t h e flow of t h e blood in an artery.B. (c) W h a t is t h e drag on a plate six feet long a n d t h r e e feet wide moving t h r o u g h t h e air at 30 m p h ? 9.152 The Flow of Viscous Fluids PROBLEMS 9 . a n o t h e r dimensionless n u m b e r w o u l d e n t e r t h e p r o b l e m . A typical size for an artery w o u l d b e 1 c m .A. W h y did w e not h a v e t o w o r r y a b o u t b o u n d a r y layers w h e n w e solved t h e p r o b l e m of Poisieulle flow? 9. (8.A.7. and a typical p r e s s u r e w o u l d b e 100 m m of m e r c u r y .S t o k e s equation that (c) S h o w b y dimensional analysis that 9. (b) S h o w b y dimensional analysis of t h e y .22).B. 1 . (a) Calculate t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r for this t y p e of flow.B. a n d w h a t p r e s s u r e s a n d flow r a t e s w o u l d y o u u s e in t h e e x p e r i m e n t ? 9.7) and (9. 9. If this w e r e n o t t h e c a s e .6. (9. b u t for v a r i o u s r e a s o n s w a n t e d to u s e t h e flow of air in a t u b e as a scale m o d e l of blood flow in an artery.S t o k e s e q u a t i o n ? (c) H o w fast m u s t it b e t o allow u s t o d r o p t h e nonlinear t e r m ? 9. (b) H o w fast m u s t t h e velocity of t h e b l o o d b e in o r d e r t o allow u s t o d r o p t h e v i s c o u s t e r m in t h e N a v i e r . find an e x p r e s s i o n for t h e total drag force. T h e drag force on t h e plate is given [see E q .20) a n d (9. (a) U s i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e s of Section 9. p u t E q s .8) into dimensionless form.5.4. s h o w that (b) If t h e plate h a s length L a n d w i d t h b. F r o m t h e .2.3. H o w w o u l d y o u go a b o u t designing t h e scale m o d e l .9)] b y (a) U s i n g simple e s t i m a t e s .c o m p o n e n t of t h e N a v i e r . T h e a r g u m e n t that t h e law of similarity should b e e x p e c t e d t o hold w a s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n that w e w e r e dealing with an incompressible fluid. given that a typical value of viscosity for b l o o d is t h r e e or four times that of w a t e r .B. Verify E q s .

9. S h o w that in t h e c a s e of two-dimensional flow. E c k e r t . hi t h e height of t h e gap at t h e small e n d . S h o w that t h e coefficient of friction P IF is proportional to h /L. This is t h e theory of lubrication. (defined as M = vie) satisfies t h e relation Mack 9. t h e introduction of t h e fluid b e t w e e n t h e t w o m o v i n g planes greatly r e d u c e s t h e friction.S t o k e s equation is w h e r e x is m e a s u r e d along t h e lower (stationary) plane. C o n s i d e r o n e p l a n e inclined at an angle a t o a n o t h e r .l a y e r e q u a t i o n s t a k e t h e form 2 2 w h e r e U is t h e velocity outside t h e b o u n d a r y layer. a n d Grashof n u m b e r s . a n d h the height at t h e large end. a n d h t h e height at t h e point x.8. (a) S h o w that for small R e y n o l d s n u m b e r . a n d let t h e s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e w e d g e s b e filled with an i n c o m p r e s s i b l e v i s c o u s fluid. P r a n d t l .9. a n d m o v i n g with velocity v with r e s p e c t t o it. T h e r e are m a n y dimensionless n u m b e r s like t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r which play i m p o r t a n t roles in v a r i o u s fields of h y d r o d y n a m i c s . t h e N a v i e r . 9.10. t h e b o u n d a r y . M. Since this can b e m a d e very small. L o o k u p a n d define t h e following: Taylor. (b) C o n s i d e r n o w t h e two-dimensional flow of a v i s c o u s fluid p a s t t w o p l a n e s inclined at an angle a to e a c h other with a " s i n k " (a place for t h e fluid t o flow out) . and y p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o it. (b) S h o w that t h e p r e s s u r e in t h e fluid is w h e r e L is t h e length along t h e flat plane.Problems 153 definition of t h e bulk m o d u l u s of a material as and t h e fact that t h e speed of s o u n d is s h o w that a fluid m a y b e r e g a r d e d as incompressible p r o v i d e d that t h e number. (a) Define a s t r e a m function a n d write d o w n t h e e q u a t i o n describing it. (c) Calculate t h e total p r e s s u r e a n d t h e total shearing force along t h e b o t t o m plane.

U s i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e s i n t r o d u c e d in P r o b l e m s 4.6).10 and 4. (c) Defining a n e w variable and a s t r e a m function s h o w that t h e equation for / is f . and the reader is referred to that text for further references.11. (9.B. Schlichting (see reference in Chapter 8) presents the best discussion of the topics in this chapter. 2 (d) Solve this equation t o get where (e) H e n c e s h o w numerically that t h e width of t h e b o u n d a r y layer in this c a s e is approximately C o m p a r e this with E q . REFERENCES H.154 The Flow of Viscous Fluids at t h e origin. ./ ' + 1 = 0. show that the flow in t h e b o u n d a r y layer of t h e plane m u s t b e w h e r e x is t h e distance m e a s u r e d along t h e plane from t h e sink.

O n t h e a t o m i c s c a l e . o n t h e a v e r a g e . in w h i c h t h e e f f e c t s of t e m p e r a t u r e d e p e n d e n c e s a r e 155 . h o w e v e r . I n t h e h e a t e d section. S i m i l a r l y . w e h a v e p a i d v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s of fluids t h a t h a v e t o d o w i t h t e m p e r a t u r e a n d h e a t . w e s p e a k of a h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e . b e transferred t o molecules w h i c h w e r e originally m o v i n g m o r e slowly. w e would say that heat was being transferred from the hot to the cold region. a n d w e w i l l s t u d y s o m e of t h e i r c o n s e q u e n c e s in this c h a p t e r . W e k n o w t h a t s u c h p r o p e r t i e s e x i s t . and the Circulation of the Atmosphere For I had done a dreadful thing And it would work us woe For all averred I'd killed the bird That made the breeze to blow SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE Rime of the Ancient Mariner A. t h e m o l e c u l e s w o u l d b e m o v i n g f a s t e r . C o n s i d e r w h a t w o u l d h a p p e n if w e h a d a fluid i n w h i c h o n e p a r t w a s h e a t e d t o a t e m p e r a t u r e higher t h a n its n e i g h b o r s . I n m a n y of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h w e h a v e t r e a t e d s o f a r . T h e r e a r e s o m e e f f e c t s .10 Heat. THE HEAT EQUATION AND THE BOSSINESQ APPROXIMATION U p t o t h i s p o i n t in o u r s t u d i e s . l i k e t h e r m a l c o n v e c t i o n . If t h e a t o m s h a v e a l a r g e k i n e t i c e n e r g y . it w a s r e a s o n a b l e t o n e g l e c t e f f e c t s of t h i s t y p e . thereby speeding t h e m up. s o m e of t h i s e n e r g y w o u l d . Observing this. w e d e f i n e a b s o l u t e z e r o classically as t h e t e m p e r a t u r e at w h i c h t h e kinetic e n e r g y v a n i s h e s . w e a r e u s e d t o t h i n k i n g of t e m p e r a t u r e a s b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m o t i o n s of a t o m s . I n t h e c o u r s e of t h e i r c o l l i s i o n s w i t h s u r r o u n d i n g m o l e c u l e s . Thermal Convection.

a n d a p p l y G a u s s ' t h e o r e m t o E q . t h e r a t e of c h a n g e of i n t e r n a l e n e r g y i n s i d e of t h e v o l u m e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e m p e r a t u r e c h a n g e s is j u s t (10. therefore. T h e n t h e h e a t flux ( h e a t e n e r g y p e r u n i t a r e a p e r u n i t t i m e ) w h i c h will f l o w b e t w e e n t h e p l a n e s is j u s t (10. it s t a t e s t h a t a n y c h a n g e i n e n e r g y in t h e s y s t e m e n c l o s e d i n t h e s u r f a c e m u s t b e b a l a n c e d b y a t r a n s f e r of e n e r g y a c r o s s t h e b o u n d a r y . C o n s i d e r t w o p l a n e s i n a fluid a n i n f i n i t e s i m a l d i s t a n c e A J C a p a r t . 5 ) t o c o n v e r t t h e s u r f a c e i n t e g r a l t o a v o l u m e i n t e g r a l .A.156 Heat. a n d t h e r i g h t .A.e. If t h e m a t e r i a l i n s i d e t h e s u r f a c e h a s d e n s i t y p .e. (10. w e find t h a t t h i s equation requires that s o t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n w h i c h g o v e r n s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i n a n a r b i t r a r y b o d y is iust _. F o r a n a r b i t r a r y s u r f a c e . t h e n . Thermal Convection. A . by discussing the classical m e t h o d s of d e a l i n g w i t h h e a t t r a n s f e r a n d t h e r m a l effects.A. If w e u s e t h i s e q u a l i t y . t h e left-hand p l a n e is a t a t e m p e r a t u r e 0.A. W e begin.5) i.A. w i t h a t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t A 0 b e t w e e n t h e m (i. T h u s .h a n d p l a n e a t a t e m p e r a t u r e 6 + A 0 ) .A.1) w h e r e K i s c a l l e d t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y .2) w h e r e dO/dn i s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t n o r m a l t o t h e s u r f a c e .3) w h e r e c i s t h e s p e c i f i c h e a t of t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e v o l u m e .6) . ( 1 0 . t h e n a c h a n g e in t e m p e r a t u r e c o r r e s p o n d s t o a c h a n g e in internal e n e r g y given b y dU = pc de v v (10. and the Circulation of the Atmosphere the most important consideration.4) N o w t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n of e n e r g y ( t h e first l a w o f requires that _„ thermodynamics) (10. t h e total h e a t outflow is g i v e n b y (10.

C o n s i d e r t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n a s a n e x a m p l e . c a n d e p e n d o n t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e fluid. w e a r e in e f f e c t l o o s i n g E q . T h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n is c a l l e d t o t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e a r g u m e n t presented a b o v e a n d t h e d e r i v a t i o n of t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y in Section l.A. F o r a n i d e a l g a s . t h e v i s c o u s t e r m i n t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n will r e d u c e t o t h e f a m i l i a r i)V v o n l y in t h e c a s e of a n i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid. S i n c e t h e r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e f o r m of t h i s e q u a t i o n w a s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a l l o w i n g u s t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s u p t o t h i s p o i n t . then. f o r s o m e r e a s o n . a n d t h e e q u a t i o n of s t a t e . If. A . along w i t h t h e e q u a t i o n . b o t h of t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s of v i s c o s i t y . h o w the other equations are altered by the presence of t h e r m a l e f f e c t s .7) w h e r e a\ is d e f i n e d in E q . w e s h a l l a s s u m e t h a t K is a c o n s t a n t f o r a g i v e n m a t e r i a l . s u c h a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n is n o t p o s s i b l e . t h i s will s i m p l i f y t o V • v = 0.9) F o r a fluid i n w h i c h t h e r m a l e f f e c t s a r e i m p o r t a n t . s i n c e t h e r e will b e a n e q u a t i o n of s t a t e w h i c h will l i n k d e n s i t y t o t e m p e r a t u r e . d e n s i t y c h a n g e s a r e . k 2 T h e g e n e r a l e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y t a k e s t h e f o r m (10. 9 ) . t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n of i n c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y w a s g o o d . it can be written (external). a s o n e of t h e Euler basic e q u a t i o n s w h i c h m u s t b e s o l v e d in d e s c r i b i n g t h e m o t i o n of a fluid.A. s i n c e f o r t h e t y p e of t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h e x i s t in t h a t p r o b l e m . (10. I t is natural to ask. I n i t s m o s t g e n e r a l f o r m . £ a n d 17.C. For our purposes. ( 1 0 . ( 8 .A. S o long as w e w e r e dealing with s y s t e m s like t h e tides. t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n w i l l b e c o m e v e r y difficult t o h a n d l e m a t h e m a t i c a l l y . h o w e v e r . w e c a n n o t u s e t h e s i m p l i f i e d f o r m of t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y w h i c h a p p l i e s t o a n i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid. T h u s in i n t r o d u c i n g t h e r m a l e f f e c t s . M o r e i m p o r t a n t . f o r e x a m p l e . w e would have P = pR6. 9 ) .8) If p i s c o n s t a n t . A . t h i s is a r a t h e r s e r i o u s matter.The Heat Equation and the Bossinesq Approximation 157 w h e r e K = K/pc v is c a l l e d t h e coefficient of diffusivity. W h y should this b e so? T h e h e a t e q u a t i o n m u s t n o w t a k e its p l a c e . c o n t i n u i t y . (10. I n g e n e r a l .

7 ) . Thermal Convection. 2.12) w h e r e y is a u n i t v e c t o r i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e . I n o t h e r w o r d s . t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n f o r a fluid i n w h i c h t h e r m a l e f f e c t s a r e a l l o w e d reduces to 0 (10. b u t s h a l l t r e a t p a s a c o n s t a n t in all o t h e r e q u a t i o n s . ( 1 0 . (10. T h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n is b a s e d o n t w o observations: 1. w e e x p e c t t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s t o a r i s e f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t w a r m air is lighter t h a n c o l d a i r — i . T h i s i m m e d i a t e l y r e s u l t s i n e n o r m o u s s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s .A. T h e s e observations led Bossinesq to p r o p o s e the following approximation s c h e m e : I g n o r e t h e v a r i a t i o n of all q u a n t i t i e s in t h e e q u a t i o n s o f m o t i o n w i t h t e m p e r a t u r e except i n s o f a r a s t h e y a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h g r a v i t a t i o n a l e f f e c t s . T h i s s c h e m e w a s first a d v a n c e d b y H . I n t r e a t i n g c o n v e c t i o n . T h e r e a r e s o m e s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e it is n o t s u c h a g o o d a p p r o x i m a t i o n . T h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y r e d u c e s t o t h e f a m i l i a r f o r m of E q .11) a n d do is t h e t e m p e r a t u r e a t w h i c h t h e d e n s i t y is p . d e f i n e d b y (10. w e s h a l l i n c l u d e t h e v a r i a t i o n of d e n s i t y w i t h t e m p e r a t u r e i n t h e t e r m p • F * ( e x t ) o n t h e r i g h t .A. and the Circulation of the Atmosphere n o t t o o g r e a t . f o r e x a m p l e . A . T h i s is a c t u a l l y a r e a s o n a b l e a p p r o x i m a t i o n f o r m o s t l i q u i d s ( e x c e p t in t h e c a s e of t h e r m a l c o n v e c t i o n ) . a n d w e a r e f a c e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m of e i t h e r t r e a t i n g t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n in t h e i r full c o m p l e x i t y (a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k ) . B o s s i n e s q . T h u s .10) w h e r e a i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of e x p a n s i o n f o r t h e g a s . a n d w e h a v e d e f i n e d o u r t e m p e r a t u r e s c a l e s o t h a t 0 = 0. A . O . If w e a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a s y s t e m in w h i c h t h e o n l y e x t e r n a l f o r c e is g r a v i t y ( a s w o u l d b e t h e c a s e . 9 ) . f r o m t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e g a s a t d i f f e r e n t t e m p e r a t u r e s is a f f e c t e d b y g r a v i t y .A. t h e e x t e r n a l f o r c e t e r m in t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n b e c o m e s p F ( e x t ) = pg = gpo = gpo-gpoaO. e . T h e coefficients of viscosity and diffusion vary slowly with t e m p e r a t u r e for m o s t materials.h a n d s i d e of E q . ( 1 0 . o r f i n d i n g a n o t h e r r e a s o n a b l e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s c h e m e f o r d i s c u s s i n g t h e r m a l e f f e c t s in g a s e s .158 Heat. a n d b e a r s h i s n a m e . in c o n s i d e r i n g t h e m o t i o n of t h e a t m o s p h e r e ) .

L e t u s b e g i n b y e x a m i n i n g t h e s t a b i l i t y of s u c h a s y s t e m . 1 . . w h a t w e n o r m a l l y t h i n k of a s t h e r m a l c o n v e c t i o n . STABILITY OF A FLUID BETWEEN TWO PLATES A s t h e first e x a m p l e of a fluid s y s t e m i n w h i c h t h e r m a l e f f e c t s a r e i m p o r t a n t . s u c h a s t h a t a t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h .3) 1 ? (10. w i t h t h e l o w e r o n e m a i n t a i n e d at t e m p e r a t u r e 0i a n d t h e u p p e r o n e a t 0 .2) w h e r e t h e last equality follows from t h e a s s u m p t i o n that the s y s t e m h a s i n f i n i t e e x t e n t in t h e z . of c o u r s e . The geometry for the discussion of thermal convection. t o g e t h e r w i t h the continuity fluids. T h e first s t e p i n d i s c u s s i n g s t a b i l i t y i s . 2 If t h e s y s t e m i s l o c a t e d i n a g r a v i t a t i o n a l field. t o find t h e e q u i l i b r i u m p o i n t of t h e s y s t e m . T h i s e x c h a n g e i s . T h e t e m p e r a t u r e e q u a t i o n c a n b e solved to give 0 = /3y + 0 (10. condition.1) Fig. a s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . and heat equation. let u s c o n s i d e r t h e s i t u a t i o n s h o w n in Fig. T h i s f o l l o w s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e w a r m fluid a t t h e b o t t o m w i l l b e l e s s d e n s e t h a n t h e c o l d fluid a t t h e t o p .1. 1 0 .a n d x . a n d if 0i > 0 .Stability of a Fluid between Two Plates 159 T h i s a p p r o x i m a t e f o r m of t h e N a v i e r . of c o u r s e .B. If w e define © as t h e t e m p e r a t u r e at t h e point y for equilibrium. 10.d i r e c t i o n s .B. 2 L e t u s s e e if t h i s i n t u i t i v e r e s u l t c a n b e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e e q u a t i o n s o f m o t i o n d e r i v e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n .B. 10. in w h i c h t h e r e a r e t w o rigid plates a d i s t a n c e h apart. t h e n b y i n s p e c t i o n w e s e e t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n s w i l l b e s a t i s f i e d if v = 0 and (10. equation of state.S t o k e s e q u a t i o n . then b e c o m e s t h e m e a n s b y w h i c h w e s h a l l d e s c r i b e t h e m o t i o n of heated B. o u r i n t u i t i o n t e l l s u s t h a t it s h o u l d b e u n s t a b l e . s o t h a t t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l e n e r g y of t h e s y s t e m c o u l d b e l o w e r e d b y letting t h e w a r m air r i s e a n d t h e c o l d a i r f a l l .1.

In what follows.B.e = 0 .B.B. w e a r e left w i t h (10. and the Circulation of the Atmosphere where (10. T h u s . w e s h a l l i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s t a b i l i t y of t h i s s y s t e m b y a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e s m a l l time-dependent deviations from this equilibrium. (10.B. and see w h e t h e r they g r o w a s a f u n c t i o n of t i m e o r n o t .B. Thermal Convection. t h e n t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n i n t h e f o r m ( 1 0 . If w e d e f i n e a n e w v a r i a b l e b y t h e r e l a t i o n 0' = 0 . t h e t e r m (v • V ) 0 ' i n t h e a b o v e c a n b e d r o p p e d . B .[fiy + 0i].B.5) w h e r e 0 i s t h e a c t u a l t e m p e r a t u r e a t y. a n d c a n t h e r e f o r e b e r e g a r d e d a s a s m a l l q u a n t i t y . a n d is j u s t = KV (@+0') 2 = = '<V 0\ 2 (10.7) T h e h e a t e q u a t i o n c a n a l s o b e w r i t t e n i n t e r m s of 6 ( n o t 6'). v r e p r e s e n t s d e p a r t u r e s f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m . and uniform temperature gradient between the plates. 12) c a n b e w r i t t e n V ( P + g p y ) + a ( 0 ' + @)y + fp + g p y + yp vV \ 2 0 ( y ' ) dy'^j + yS'y + vV v. S i n c e w e w i l l b e u s i n g this e q u a t i o n t o e x a m i n e d e p a r t u r e s f r o m a n e q u i l i b r i u m in w h i c h t h e v e l o c i t y is z e r o . 3 ) .4) T h i s e q u i l i b r i u m is e a s y t o p i c t u r e — i t c o r r e s p o n d s t o h a v i n g t h e completely at rest. (10. t h e t i m e d e r i v a t i v e of S v a n i s h e s .160 Heat.V ( 0 ' + ©). ( 1 0 .8) ( 0 + 0') + v . L e t u s n o w e x a m i n e t h e s t a b i l i t y of t h e e q u i l i b r i u m w h i c h w e have f o u n d b y l o o k i n g a t t h e b e h a v i o r of t h e s y s t e m w h e n s m a l l p e r t u r b a t i o n s .9) w h e r e w e h a v e u s e d t h e s t a t e m e n t d @/dy = /3 f r o m E q . with p r e s s u r e forces fluid a balanced by gravity. T h e s a m e is t r u e of 0 ' . 2 (10. A . S i n c e & is a f u n c t i o n of y o n l y .6) where we have written y = ga. N o w b y d e f i n i t i o n .

If t h e v a l u e s w h i c h w e find a r e p o s i t i v e . t h e n t h e s y s t e m will b e u n s t a b l e a g a i n s t t h e t y p e of p e r t u r b a t i o n s t h a t w e h a v e a s s u m e d . In particular. n o t s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c a n b e d o n e b y i n s p e c t i o n .B. T h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e f u n c t i o n s A ( y ) . T h e l o g i c of t h i s a p p r o a c h is a s f o l l o w s : W e a s s u m e v e l o c i t i e s . if t h e s u r f a c e s w e r e r i g i d . J B ( y ) . g u i d e d b y s y m m e t r y of t h e p r o b l e m . let u s . W e shall see t h a t t h e s e f o r m s c a n . s o t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n v y = 0 a t y = 0. S i n c e a n a r b i t r a r y p e r t u r b a t i o n will c o n t a i n s o m e c o m p o n e n t w h i c h c a n b e e x p r e s s e d a s t h e a b o v e . but v and v would also vanish at t h e s e surfaces. w e will s e e if w e c a n s a t i s f y all o f t h e e q u a t i o n s w h e n w e assume Q where = ( 7 ^ y ( 1 0 B 1 1 ) P' = P + gpy + yp J @ ( y ' ) dy'. w e k n o w that the v e l o c i t i e s m u s t s a t i s f y t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y f o r a n i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid.Stability of a Fluid between Two Plates 161 f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m a r e i n t r o d u c e d . C l e a r l y . a s s u m e t h a t A(y)\ B(y) \e e e . C o n s e q u e n t l y . 1 0 ) i s . m u s t h o l d . p r e s s u r e s a n d t e m p e r a t u r e d e v i a t i o n as a b o v e . in g e n e r a l . b u t w o r k o u t in detail o n l y t h e s i m p l e s t p o s s i b l e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s — t h a t in w h i c h b o t h p l a n e s b o u n d i n g t h e fluid a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e f r e e s u r f a c e s . C(y)/ i>x >mi M the (10.10) I n a d d i t i o n . i n d e e d . w e s h a l l d i s c u s s t h e g e n e r a l t e c h n i q u e w h i c h c a n b e u s e d t o s o l v e for t h e s e f u n c t i o n s . w e w o u l d h a v e i n a d d i t i o n to the a b o v e the statement that not only v. In addition to the b o u n d a r y conditions above. t h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e s y s t e m will b e u n s t a b l e . ( 1 0 . y = h. a n d C ( y ) in E q . w h i c h is y x z . W e shall t h e n l o o k for t h e b e h a v i o r of t h e s y s t e m a s a f u n c t i o n of t i m e b y s o l v i n g f o r n. satisfy t h e b a s i c e q u a t i o n s . B . a n d w i l l n o t s t a y i n i t s equilibrium configuration. s i n c e it i n v o l v e s t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e t w o s u r f a c e s y = 0 a n d y = h.

Thermal Convection. 1 1 ) i n t o t h e t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n t o obtain (10. sy the of t h e f o r m a n d s o l v e f o r t h e v a l u e s of 5 w h i c h a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s . w e find t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y a n d t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s w i l l b e satisfied p r o v i d e d t h a t A ( y ) = A c o s sy.162 Heat.B.14) If w e l e t l +m + 2 2 s = a 2 (10. F o r t h e c a s e of t w o f r e e b o u n d a r i e s . B . and the Circulation of the Atmosphere s o t h a t a s i d e f r o m c o n s t a n t s of p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y . h o w e v e r . a n d C m u s t s a t i s f y t h e r e l a t i o n UA + sB + imC = 0. B(y) = B sinsy. w e c a n i n s e r t t h e a s s u m e d f o r m s of t h e s o l u t i o n s i n E q s . w h e r e t h e c o n s t a n t s A. (10. it w o u l d b e i m p o s s i b l e t o s a t i s f y e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y a t all p o i n t s i n t h e fluid. 1 .B. T h u s . 1 0 ) a n d ( 1 0 . B.16) and n = n + va. (10. w e m u s t h a v e A(y)ocC(y) and If t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s d i d n o t h o l d .12) C ( y ) = C c o s sy.13) If w e n o w d r o p t h e (v • V)v t e r m s a s b e i n g of s e c o n d o r d e r in s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s . B . w e w o u l d a s s u m e a s o l u t i o n f o r B(y) B(y) = e.B. I n g e n e r a l . ( 1 0 . w e c a n s e e b y inspection that J 5 ( y ) oc s i n y^ = s i n sy ( w h e r e q is a n i n t e g e r ) w i l l s a t i s f y t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s .B.15) (10.B.

w e find w h i c h . (10.17) T h u s . s o l u t i o n s o f t h e t y p e w h i c h w e h a v e a s s u m e d w i l l e x i s t .19) T h i s e q u a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s t h e g r o w t h c o n s t a n t n. x z B y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e x. y i e l d s n'av -ye'(l y 2 equation + m ) = §. giving y fiv y + [n + K a ] 0 ' = 0 . y or py(l +m ) 2 2 + n'na + n'*a 2 = 0. t o f i n d i n g .18) T h u s . (10.B. T h e q u e s t i o n of s t a b i l i t y o r i n s t a b i l i t y of t h e s y s t e m r e d u c e s .B.a n d z . 2 (10. t h e n e t r e s u l t of o u r m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n a n d c o n t i n u i t y is t o g i v e u s o n e e q u a t i o n r e l a t i n g v a n d 0 ' . w h e n s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o t h e y .B.Stability of a Fluid between Two Plates 163 t h e s e e q u a t i o n s simplify t o T h e c o n t i n u i t y e q u a t i o n is j u s t ilv + imv 4= 0.e. It is well k n o w n t h a t s o l u t i o n s f o r v a n d 0 ' will e x i s t p r o v i d e d that the Wronskian determinant vanishes—i. A n o t h e r s u c h e q u a t i o n c a n b e o b t a i n e d b y inserting o u r a s s u m e d f o r m s of solution into the heat equation. ( 1 0 . t h e n . t h e h e a t e q u a t i o n a n d t h e c o n t i n u i t y c o n d i t i o n f o r p e r t u r b a t i o n s of t h e t y p e w h i c h w e h a v e a s s u m e d r e d u c e s t o t h e p r o b l e m of solving t h e a b o v e t w o linear e q u a t i o n s . P r o v i d e d t h i s e q u a t i o n is s a t i s f i e d . t h e p r o b l e m of finding a solution t o t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n . 1 2 ) ] .c o m p o n e n t of t h e E u l e r [ t a k i n g a c c o u n t of E q . B .c o m p o n e n t s of t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o y.

B u t E q . A n o t h e r q u e s t i o n w e c a n a s k a t t h i s s t a g e is w h a t t h e m a x i m u m v a l u e o f n is. T h i s w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o a n " i d e a l " fluid in t h e s e n s e t h a t it w o u l d b e n o n v i s c o u s . e . B .22) . a n d all d e v i a t i o n s f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m b e h a v e l i k e e —i. If j8 > 0 ( i . W h e n t h i s h a p p e n s in L o s A n g e l e s . of c o u r s e . Thermal Convection. a n d a s m o g c r i s i s r e s u l t s . a n d t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of a v o l u m e e l e m e n t w o u l d n o t c h a n g e . 2 1 ) . a s it d o e s p e r i o d i c a l l y . t h e e f f l u e n t s in t h e a t m o s p h e r e c a n n o t b e r e m o v e d b y t h e n o r m a l c i r c u l a t i o n of t h e a i r .B. T h u s . B . ±llnlt O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . and the Circulation of the Atmosphere o u t u n d e r w h a t c o n d i t i o n s t h e v a l u e of n f r o m t h e a b o v e e q u a t i o n will b e positive. ( 1 0 .164 Heat. T h i s . is t h e r e s u l t w h i c h w e e x p e c t e d i n t u i t i v e l y . if t h e l o w e r p l a t e i s m a i n t a i n e d a t a higher temperature than the upper one). ( 1 0 .20) N o w t h e r e a r e t w o p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r n. if p < 0 . B . t h e n n = ± i\n\. W e s e e t h e n t h a t in t h i s s i m p l e c a s e t h e fluid w i l l b e u n s t a b l e if t h e r e is e v e n t h e s m a l l e s t a d v e r s e t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t . I n o r d e r t o d i s c u s s t h e p h y s i c s of t h i s e q u a t i o n . it is c l e a r t h a t n will b e a m a x i m u m w h e n 5 ( a n d t h e r e f o r e a ) is a m i n i m u m f o r a g i v e n / a n d m .21) a n d s m a l l d e v i a t i o n s f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m will g r o w e x p o n e n t i a l l y in t i m e . s i n c e it p r e d i c t s t h a t if t h e r e is e v e r a s i t u a t i o n in w h i c h a i r a t a h i g h l e v e l o v e r a c i t y is w a r m e r t h a n t h e a i r n e a r t h e g r o u n d ( t h i s is k n o w n a s a n inversion). w h i c h is t h e c h a n g e of d e n s i t y w i t h t e m p e r a t u r e . t h e f a s t e s t g r o w i n g d i s t u r b a n c e will c o r r e s p o n d t o 2 (10. 2 0 ) a l r e a d y h a s s o m e u n f o r t u n a t e c o n s e q u e n c e s . t h e r e will b e a s t a b l e s i t u a t i o n . s i n c e this c a n b e e x p e c t e d t o g o v e r n t h e g r o w t h r a t e of t h e i n s t a b i l i t i e s . 1 9 ) r e d u c e s t o (10. b u t t h e p r i m e f e a t u r e w h i c h w e a r e c o n s i d e r i n g . they do n o t g r o w a s a f u n c t i o n of t i m e . b u t o s c i l l a t e a b o u t t h e e q u i l i b r i u m configuration. T h e q u e s t i o n of w h a t will h a p p e n t o t h e s y s t e m a t l a r g e t i m e s will b e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n .B. t h e c o n d i t i o n in E q . F r o m E q . ( 1 0 . ( i .e. i s still in t h e p r o b l e m . if t h e t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t is s u c h t h a t t h e h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e is a t t h e t o p . e . Such situations are stable. I n t h i s c a s e . then (10. let u s c o n s i d e r a fluid w h i c h h a s b o t h TJ a n d K s e t e q u a l t o z e r o .B.

a m o r e p r e c i s e s t a t e m e n t of t h i s c o n d i t i o n is \P\y(l +m )>Kva . i n w h i c h n e i t h e r v n o r K a r e z e r o .KVCL\ 2 (10. 2 2 . o u r s o l u t i o n will b e i n v a l i d f o r l a r g e v a l u e s of t i n a n y c a s e . w h i c h is o n l y p o s s i b l e if j3 < 0 .o r d e r t e r m s in o u r d e r i v a t i o n . Some sample curves of f(a) as a function I + m . In fact.23) O n c e m o r e . w h i c h a m o u n t s t o i g n o r i n g v w i t h r e s p e c t t o v. 1 9 ) f o r n. l e t u s n o w l o o k a t a m o r e r e a l i s t i c fluid. 2 3 ) ) .2. f(a) b e c o m e s n e g a t i v e . B . S i m i l a r l y .B.s ) . ( 1 0 . t h e n w e c a n h a v e i n s t a b i l i t y ( s e e E q . ( 1 0 .B. c o n d i t i o n f o r s t a b i l i t y . 2 2 3 W e s e e t h a t if e i t h e r K = 0 o r v = 0 . it will a l w a y s b e p o s s i b l e t o find s o m e n > 0 . W h i c h c u r v e r e p r e s e n t s t h e 2 2 2 2 2 2 Fig. if / + m is v e r y s m a l l . t h e t e r m u n d e r t h e radical m u s t b e p o s i t i v e . If / + m is v e r y l a r g e . a n a d v e r s e t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t is a g a i n a n e c e s s a r y ( b u t n o t sufficient).24) If f(a) is p o s i t i v e .2. w h i c h is t h e r e s u l t t h a t w e h a d d e r i v e d p r e v i o u s l y . gives (10. B .Stability of a Fluid between Two Plates 165 W e s h o u l d a l s o n o t e in p a s s i n g t h a t w h i l e w e h a v e b e e n a s s u m i n g t h a t v e l o c i t i e s will g r o w e x p o n e n t i a l l y i n t i m e . 10. 2 H a v i n g s e e n h o w t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n c a n g i v e u s t h e r e s u l t w h i c h w e e x p e c t e d i n t h e " i d e a l " c a s e . since w e h a v e b e e n d r o p p i n g s e c o n d . L e t u s e x a m i n e t h i s c u r v e f o r fixed s a s a f u n c t i o n of I + m . w e see that to h a v e instability. s o l v i n g E q . t h e y c l e a r l y c a n n o t d o s o f o r e v e r . s o t h e p r d p e r t i e s of / ( a ) will d e t e r m i n e s t a b i l i t y . A c t u a l l y . if both K a n d v are n o n z e r o . 10. f(a) becomes n e g a t i v e . this need not necessarily b e t h e case. I n t h i s c a s e . S o m e p o s s i b l e c u r v e s f o r / ( a ) a r e s h o w n i n F i g . Define f(a) = \p\y(a . T h u s . H o w e v e r .

27) W h a t w e h a v e d e r i v e d . h o w e v e r . and the Circulation of the Atmosphere f u n c t i o n d e p e n d s o n t h e c h o i c e of o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s .e.B. w e c a n s o l v e t h i s f o r t h e p a r a m e t e r KV a n d p l u g t h e r e s u l t b a c k i n t o E q . w e n o t e t h a t t h e r e is a r a n g e of v a l u e s of / + m f o r w h i c h f(a) is p o s i t i v e . T h e c u r v e ( b ) c o r r e s p o n d s to the "critical" c u r v e at which the s y s t e m m o v e s from s t a b i l i t y t o i n s t a b i l i t y . t h e s y s t e m w i l l b e s t a b l e a g a i n s t a n y p e r t u r b a t i o n of t h e t y p e w e a r e c o n s i d e r i n g . B u t / ( a ) will b e p o s i t i v e o n l y if 2 2 (10. t h e n . and the system could b e u n s t a b l e . J8.B. K.28) (since s = qir/h > ir/h) i. A c u r v e of t y p e ( c ) . t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t f(a) point P becomes b e z e r o at the (10. is t h e f o l l o w i n g : U n l e s s f(a) can be p o s i t i v e f o r s o m e v a l u e of / + m . a n d 5.166 Heat. Thermal Convection. s o t h a t n o v a l u e of n w o u l d b e p o s i t i v e . 2 2 2 2 (10. w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e t h e r e w a s n o c h o i c e of p a r a m e t e r s w h i c h c o u l d satisfy t h e c o n d i t i o n n > 0. o n l y if t h e v a l u e of t h e f u n c t i o n at its .B. and for which n could therefore b e positive. i n c l u d i n g v. w e s e t t h e d e r i v a t i v e o f f(a) e q u a l t o z e r o ( t h i s will c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e m a x i m u m in t h e c u r v e at t h e p o i n t P ) .26) W h e n t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s s a t i s f i e d .B. T o find t h e v a l u e of I + m a t w h i c h t h e s y s t e m j u s t b e c o m e s s t a b l e .B. (10.25) t o give which corresponds to the condition (10.25) S i n c e t h e c u r v e ( b ) is s p e c i f i e d b y t h e e q u a t i o n /(a) = 0 a t P . S u c h a c u r v e w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o a s y s t e m w h i c h w a s c o m p l e t e l y s t a b l e a g a i n s t all p e r t u r b a t i o n s of t h e t y p e w h i c h w e a r e c o n s i d e r i n g . If w e h a d a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a c u r v e s u c h a s (a) w a s f o u n d t o h o l d .

Convection Cells 167 m a x i m u m is g r e a t e r t h a n z e r o . w e h a v e c o n c e r n e d o u r s e l v e s o n l y w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n of s t a b i l i t y of fluids i n w h i c h t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t s e x i s t . W h e n w e a p p l y a n a d v e r s e t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t . a n d t h e c r i t i c a l v a l u e of j8 i n t h e R a y l e i g h c r i t e r i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e critical f o r c e in t h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o b l e m . we can then ask the next question— w h a t will t h e s t e a d y . a f t e r L o r d R a y l e i g h . f o r a g i v e n c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l f o r t h e fluid. effect w h i c h w e a d d t o s e e m s t o w o r k in t h e against perturbations. T h e r e i s . I t is i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e i n p a s s i n g t h a t e v e r y n e w the system—thermal conduction. d i r e c t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g t h e s t a b i l i t y of t h e s y s t e m T h i s is a g e n e r a l r u l e . rotation and magnetic C. T h e a d d i t i o n of v i s c o s i t y t h u s m a k e s a q u a l i t a t i v e difference in t h e stability p r o b l e m . viscosity. F o r t h e t y p e of d i s t u r b a n c e s w h i c h w e t r e a t e d in E q .1) v= z .C. S i n c e s u c h systems are seen to be unstable.10).s t a t e c o n d i t i o n s if t h e t i m e d e r i v a t i v e of t h e v e l o c i t y v a n i s h e s . this c o r r e s p o n d s t o getting t h e p a r a m e t e r n = 0 i n all s u b s e q u e n t e q u a t i o n s .B.s t a t e m o t i o n s of t h e s y s t e m b e ? F o r t u n a t e l y . llx imz ilx imz v= y B s i n sy e e . w h o first d i s c o v e r e d i t s significance. t h e r e w i l l b e . T h u s . CONVECTION CELLS U p t o t h i s p o i n t . it is n o t n e c e s s a r y t o t r a c e t h r o u g h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of i n s t a b i l i t i e s a s t h e y g r o w i n t i m e a n d a p p r o a c h t h e s t e a d y .. i n a d d i t i o n . a r a n g e of a d v e r s e t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t s f o r w h i c h t h e s y s t e m w i l l b e c o m p l e t e l y s t a b l e . (10.s t a t e m o t i o n d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e r e s u l t s of t h e l a s t s e c t i o n b y r e c a l l i n g w e will h a v e s t e a d y . C c o s sy ee . w h e n w e i n c l u d e v i s c o s i t y in o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .s t a t e v e l o c i t i e s will b e g i v e n b y v = A c o s sy x ee . llx imz (10. a c r i t i c a l f o r c e b e l o w w h i c h n o m o t i o n will r e s u l t . it i s n e c e s s a r y t o a p p l y s o m e f o r c e i n o r d e r t o g e t it t o m o v e a t all.s t a t e m o t i o n . V i s c o s i t y p l a y s t h e s a m e r o l e i n t h e p r o b l e m of t h e r m a l i n s t a b i l i t i e s . it is n e c e s s a r y t o o v e r c o m e t h e i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n i n t h e fluid i n o r d e r t o g e t it t o m o v e . T h e a b o v e c o n d i t i o n is called t h e R a y l e i g h c o n d i t i o n . W e c a n g e t t h e s t e a d y . T h u s . etc. f o r t h e s p e c i f i c c a s e of t w o f r e e s u r f a c e s w h i c h w a s d i s c u s s e d in t h e l a s t s e c t i o n . If a w e i g h t r e s t s o n a s u r f a c e . a n d is f o u n d t o h o l d t r u e f o r effects as well as for viscosity. t h e s t e a d y . A w a y of v i s u a l i z i n g t h i s e f f e c t is t o c o m p a r e v i s c o s i t y t o s t a t i c f r i c t i o n in m e c h a n i c s .

Thermal Convection.168 Heat. T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o a s s u m i n g a s y m m e t r y in t h e z . The velocity in the y -direction as a function of x. ( 1 0 . W e will r e f e r t o s u c h u n i t s of d i v i s i o n a s c e l l s . a n d r e d u c e s t h e p r o b l e m of t r a c i n g o u t t h e m o t i o n of t h e fluid t o t w o d i m e n s i o n s . ( 1 0 . T h e c o n t i n u i t y c o n d i t i o n t h e n tells u s t h a t . F o r d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e s of x. 3 .UA = sB.C. a n d C still s a t i s f y t h e a u x i l i a r y c o n d i t i o n of E q . B. 1 0 .2) If w e u s e t h i s r e s u l t a n d t h e n f o l l o w t h e u s u a l p r o c e d u r e of t a k i n g t h e r e a l p a r t s of t h e c o m p l e x q u a n t i t i e s in E q . B .3) R e v = — A s i n sy sin Ix. . t h e m a g n i t u d e of t h e v e l o c i t i e s will b e d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h o s e p i c t u r e d . F o r t h e s a k e of s i m p l i c i t y . (10. w e h a v e f r o m E q .d i r e c t i o n .C. t h e fluid will n a t u r a l l y d i v i d e itself i n t o r e g i o n s in w h i c h p e r i o d i c v e l o c i t i e s will r e p e a t t h e m s e l v e s . let u s discuss the geometrically simple case where m = 0 and C = 0 (more c o m p l i c a t e d g e o m e t r i e s will b e left t o t h e p r o b l e m s ) . let u s p l o y v a s a f u n c t i o n of x a t fixed y. s y T o p i c t u r e t h e m o t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s v e l o c i t y field. b u t t h e p a t t e r n of t h e v e l o c i t y field r e p e a t i n g e v e r y t i m e w e g o t h r o u g h a d i s t a n c e L ( w h i c h is c l e a r l y g i v e n b y L =2TTII) will r e a p p e a r a l o n g e v e r y l i n e of c o n s t a n t x. w e find R e v = A c o s s y c o s Ix. C . C . 1 ) t o g e t a c t u a l p h y s i c a l v e l o c i t i e s . x y (10.3. and the Circulation of the Atmosphere w h e r e t h e c o n s t a n t s A . 3 ) that v =0 x and H- L * y=0 Fig. ( 1 0 . 1 3 ) w h i c h is i m p o s e d b y c o n t i n u i t y . 10. y W e n o t e t h a t a l o n g t h e l i n e s JC = 0 a n d x = L. T h u s . I t will l o o k l i k e t h e field s h o w n in F i g .

10. " a n d a l t e r n a t e r o l l s i n v o l v e fluid r o t a t i o n in o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s . t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e fluid m a y n o t flow. .4.5. L . 2L.. in w h i c h h e a t is t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e w a r m e r t o t h e c o l d e r t o w a r m e r s u r f a c e b y m o t i o n of t h e fluid. in t h a t t h e y d e l i n e a t e r e a l b o u n d a r i e s i n t h e fluid. o r Benard cells.4).5. 10. x as a T h e o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of f l o w in t h e c e l l will t h e n b e o n e i n w h i c h t h e fluid f l o w s u p f r o m t h e b o t t o m in t h e c e n t e r of t h e c e l l .. The development of convection.. T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o o u r g e n e r a l n o t i o n of c o n v e c t i o n . W e s h o u l d n o t e in p a s s i n g t h a t n o t o n l y d o e s t h e fluid n o t c r o s s t h e b o u n d a r i e s a t x = 0. l e t u s p l o t v f u n c t i o n of x f o r s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s of y ( s e e F i g . T w o rolls t o g e t h e r c o m p r i s e w h a t w e h a v e t e r m e d a cell. O L y=0 Fig. T h e y p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t in all c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of m o t i o n of f l u i d s d r i v e n b y t h e r m a l differences. T h e cell b o u n d a r i e s t h u s h a v e a p h y s i c a l significance.Convection Cells 169 y=h . a n d f a l l s d o w n a t t h e s i d e s .. 10. 10. or Benard. . . T h e fluid in t h e s i m p l e c a s e c o m e s in " r o l l s . T h u s . it f o l l o w s t h a t fluid in o n e c e l l will n e v e r l e a v e t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c e l l a n d e n t e r a n o t h e r . 3 L / 2 . Fig. T o v i s u a l i z e t h e p a t t e r n of f l o w i n s i d e of a g i v e n c e l l . a f t e r t h e F r e n c h p h y s i c i s t w h o first o b s e r v e d t h e m i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y . The velocity in the x -direction as a function of y. cells. a s in F i g . b u t it a l s o d o e s n o t c r o s s t h e b o u n d a r i e s a t x = L / 2 . . T h e s e c e l l s a r e c a l l e d c o n v e c t i o n c e l l s .

f o l l o w i n g o u r Fig. a n d t h e d e f i n i t i o n of L . W e h a d r e c a l l i n g t h a t m = 0 in o u r c a s e . T h i s m e a n s t h a t w e e x p e c t t h e d i m e n s i o n s of a c o n v e c t i o n c e l l t o b e r o u g h l y t h e s a m e a s t h e d e p t h of t h e l i q u i d . it is w a r m e r a t t h e e q u a t o r t h a n a t t h e p o l e s . The Hadley cell. Thermal Convection. t h e s i z e of t h e c e l l . in s i m p l e s t t e r m s . THE GENERAL CIRCULATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE P r o b a b l y t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e t h e o r y of c o n v e c t i o n is t h e m o t i o n s of t h e a t m o s p h e r e d u e t o h e a t i n g e f f e c t s . T h e s i n g l e m o s t d o m i n a n t f e a t u r e of t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n is t h a t .170 Heat. a l t h o u g h w e h a v e p r o v e d it o n l y f o r t h e s i m p l e s t p o s s i b l e p l a n e g e o m e t r y .s c a l e m o v e m e n t of air a r o u n d t h e e a r t h . w e n o t e t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n d e r i v e d in t h e last s e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e d i m e n s i o n s of t h e f a s t e s t g r o w i n g s i n g u l a r i t y a l s o g i v e s u s s o m e c l u e a s t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h. 10. I n t h i s s e c t i o n . . w e find L = iVl h. T h i s g i v e s r i s e t o c o n v e c t i o n c e l l s w h o s e s c a l e is o n t h e o r d e r of m i l e s a c r o s s . and the Circulation of the Atmosphere B e f o r e leaving this t o p i c . t h e s u r f a c e a i r a b o v e c i t i e s is u s u a l l y w a r m e r t h a n t h e a i r i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e . B e n a r d c e l l s a p p e a r in m a n y p l a c e s in a t m o s p h e r i c m o t i o n . a n d L . t h e t h i c k n e s s of t h e l a y e r of l i q u i d . w e will g i v e a q u a l i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of a n o t h e r t y p e of c e l l — t h a t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l a r g e .6. T h u s . C o n s i d e r t h e t e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h . In a similar w a y . T h i s r e s u l t is f a i r l y g e n e r a l . a p a v e d s h o p p i n g c e n t e r (or a n island in t h e o c e a n ) c a n c a u s e c e l l s o f s o m e w h a t s m a l l e r s i z e . F o r e x a m p l e . D.

f r o m 60° t o 90° n o r t h l a t i t u d e s . 10. F r o m 30° t o 60° north latitude. T h e l a t i t u d e s at w h i c h the prevailing winds change direction are not sharp dividing lines. this p i c t u r e is greatly oversimplified. N e v e r t h e l e s s . a f t e r G . . This region includes most o f t h e t e m p e r a t e z o n e of t h e e a r t h . f r o m 0° t o 30° north latitude. a n d d e s c e n d s at t h e p o l e s . the winds are generally easterly. t h e g e n e r a l w i n d s p a t t e r n s c a n b e p i c t u r e d a s in F i g . (It is o n e of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of m e t e o r o l o g y t h a t w i n d s a r e n a m e d b y the direction from which they come. 6 — w h e r e w a r m air rises at t h e e q u a t o r . F r o m a s i m p l e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e C o r i o l i s f o r c e . o n e m i g h t e x p e c t a n e t m o t i o n a s p i c t u r e d in Fig. T h e s e are called the trade w i n d s .The General Circulation of the Atmosphere 171 d i s c u s s i o n of B e n a r d c e l l s . w a s first p r o p o s e d a s a w a y of e x p l a i n i n g t h e o b s e r v e d w i n d p a t t e r n s i n t h e t r o p i c s . N e g l e c t i n g d e t a i l s of local m o t i o n . F i n a l l y . H a d l e y . f o r o u r p u r p o s e s . I n t h e r e g i o n of t h e t r o p i c s . T h i s p i c t u r e . W e n o t e t h a t a Fig. the winds are generally westerly. but are s m e a r e d o u t .7. T h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e r e g i o n of prevailing w e s t e r l i e s (as w e shall s e e later) is m u c h m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d t h a n i n d i c a t e d in t h e figure. the winds b e c o m e easterly again. 10. A simplified picture of the circulation of the atmosphere. 1 0 . c a l l e d a H a d l e y c e l l . A c t u a l l y .) A c t u a l l y .7. a n d w e r e e x p l a i n e d b y H a d l e y ' s o r i g i n a l m o d e l . W i n d s of t h e t y p e p r e d i c t e d b y t h e H a d l e y m o d e l w o u l d t h u s b e termed easterly winds. a n d c h a n g e w i t h t h e s e a s o n . t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of w i n d s o n t h e e a r t h i s m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d t h a n t h i s . w e c a n s e e t h a t in t h i s m o d e l . rather than the direction to which t h e y g o . w i n d s in t h e n o r t h e r n h e m i s p h e r e w o u l d t e n d t o b l o w f r o m e a s t t o w e s t . t h i s p i c t u r e o f t h e g e n e r a l c i r c u l a t i o n of t h e a t m o s p h e r e will suffice.

a r e r e g i o n s w h e r e t h e r e is v e r y little w i n d a t t h e surface. t h i s m o d e l is g r e a t l y o v e r s i m p l i f i e d . f o r t w o r e a s o n s . a d d c o m p l i c a t i o n s t o t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n . " T h e n a m e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t ships sailing t o t h e N e w W o r l d w o u l d b e b e c a l m e d w h e n t h e y e n t e r e d this r e g i o n . T h u s . w h e n w e d e f i n e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e a t a p o i n t . T h e s i g h t of h o r s e c a r c a s s e s f l o a t i n g in t h e o c e a n g a v e t h e r e g i o n i t s name. ) T h e t r a n s i t i o n l a t i t u d e s . T h e s e regions w e r e well k n o w n t o early o c e a n n a v i g a t o r s . a n d w a s a l s o i n t r o d u c e d b y H a d l e y in 1735.s c a l e e f f e c t s w h i c h . t o g i v e s o m e f l a v o r of w h a t t h e full calculation might look like. A in w h i c h t h e e f f e c t s o f c h a n g e s in d e n s i t y d u e t o c h a n g e s in t e m p e r a t u r e a r e n e g l e c t e d e x c e p t i n s o f a r a s t h e y a f f e c t t h e a c t i o n of t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e . d o n o t a f f e c t t h e l o n g . t h e y w e r e t h e first t o g o . s o t h e g e o m e t r y is c o m p l i c a t e d . T h e short-term diurnal effects w h i c h w e are n e g l e c t i n g c a n b e e x p e c t e d t o g i v e r i s e t o s m a l l . T h i s i s k n o w n a s t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f zonal heating. a n d t h e r e g i o n a t a b o u t 30° n o r t h is c a l l e d t h e " h o r s e l a t i t u d e s . a n d s e c o n d .172 Heat.t e r m w i n d p a t t e r n s . T h e a c t u a l c a l c u l a t i o n of t h i s g e n e r a l c i r c u l a t i o n is q u i t e difficult. a s e x p r e s s e d in t h e C o r i o l i s f o r c e . I n t h i s c a s e .s t a t e v a l u e . S i n c e w e a r e i n t e r e s t e d in s o l v i n g f o r l o n g .v = 0. t h i s i s n o t a drastic a p p r o x i m a t i o n . Thermal Convection. 2 (10. in t h e first a p p r o x i m a t i o n . F i r s t . t h e c i r c u l a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e in a s p h e r i c a l s h e l l r a t h e r t h a n o n a p l a n e . t h e h e a t e q u a t i o n is s i m p l y V 0=O. t h e e f f e c t s of t h e e a r t h ' s r o t a t i o n . 10. W e s h a l l o n c e a g a i n u s e t h e B o s s i n e s q a p p r o x i m a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d in S e c t i o n 1 0 . and the Circulation of the Atmosphere m o d e l in w h i c h t h e r e a r e t h r e e H a d l e y c e l l s ( s e e F i g . ( L i k e o u r p i c t u r e of t h e a c t u a l w i n d m o t i o n s .D.2) . so that the t e m p e r a t u r e distribution h a s stabilized a n d r e a c h e d i t s s t e a d y . s o t h a t it w a s n e c e s s a r y t o j e t t i s o n a n y c a r g o t h a t c o n s u m e d f o o d o r w a t e r .1) t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y is V . W e s h a l l a l s o a s s u m e t h a t t h e h e a t i n g of t h e e a r t h h a s g o n e on for a long time. T h e r e g i o n a t t h e e q u a t o r is c a l l e d t h e d o l d r u m s .t e r m w i n d s a t all. w h e r e t h e m a i n m o t i o n of t h e a i r is in t h e v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n . and ignore t h e t e m p e r a t u r e differences b e t w e e n night and d a y . it s h o u l d b e regarded as t h e a v e r a g e daily t e m p e r a t u r e and not the instantaneous o n e .7) w o u l d g i v e t h e c o r r e c t d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e p r e v a i l i n g w i n d s . L e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e s i m p l e H a d l e y c e l l .D. S i n c e t h e s e s h i p s u s u a l l y c a r r i e d h o r s e s . W e b e g i n b y a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n is a f u n c t i o n of latitude only. (10. w i t h o u t r o t a t i o n .

t h i s e q u a t i o n c a n o n l y b e s a t i s f i e d if b o t h @ a n d p a r e f u n c t i o n s of r a l o n e a s w e l l .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n f o r t h e s t e a d y s t a t e is j u s t (10.7) . I t c o r r e s p o n d s t o a s i t u a t i o n in w h i c h t h e a t m o s p h e r e i s u n i f o r m l y h e a t e d ( i . h o w e v e r .D. a n e q u i l i b r i u m s o l u t i o n is indeed possible. G i v e n t h i s . I n t h e c a s e of t h e B e n a r d c e l l . In this c a s e . e .6) If w e i n s e r t t h i s i n t o t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e t e r m in E q .4) w h e r e M i s t h e m a s s of t h e e a r t h ( a s s u m e d t o b e s p h e r i c a l ) a n d G is t h e gravitational constant. and (10.5) w h e r e p is t h e e q u i l i b r i u m p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e p h y s i c a l m e a n i n g of t h i s e q u i l i b r i u m s o l u t i o n t o t h e e q u a t i o n s is q u i t e s i m p l e . x e x W e c a n n o w define a n e w t e m p e r a t u r e 0' = 0-(H>.D.D. the gravitational force due to p r e s e n c e of t h e e a r t h is j u s t (10.The General Circulation of the Atmosphere 173 a n d t h e N a v i e r . t h e r e is t h e s a m e h e a t flow i n t o t h e a t m o s p h e r e a t e a c h point). ( 1 0 . C a n w e find s u c h a s o l u t i o n t o t h e a b o v e e q u a t i o n s ? If w e let ® b e t h e e q u i l i b r i u m t e m p e r a t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . D . w e s a w t h a t a s o l u t i o n e x i s t e d w h e n v = 0 .D. 4 ) a n d u s e the t w o identities. A s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e s i m p l e B e n a r d c e l l .3) In the Bossinesq approximation. it s h a l l b e c o n v e n i e n t t o r e f e r t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s a n d v e l o c i t i e s t o a n e q u i l i b r i u m s o l u t i o n of t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n . w e s e e t h a t t h e N a v i e r . S i n c e G M V ( l / r ) is a f u n c t i o n of r o n l y . t h e p r e s s u r e a d j u s t s itself t o b a l a n c e t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e .D. (10. a n d l o o s e s h e a t only t h r o u g h r a d i a t i o n at its u p p e r e d g e .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n r e d u c e s in t h i s c a s e t o e the (10.

D. w e c a n s e e t h a t t h e g r a d i e n t of t h e p r e s s u r e w h i c h a p p e a r s in E q . t h e 2 u 2 2 . Thermal Convection. w e c a n s p l i t u p t h e p r e s s u r e i n a n y w a y w h i c h will b e mathematically convenient. 8 ) a s (10. w h i c h will b e d e f i n e d b e l o w .9) w h e r e p .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n s .S t o k e s equation for the steady state can n o w b e written u s i n g t h e r e s u l t s of E q s . and the Circulation of the Atmosphere the gravitational term b e c o m e s (10. t h e p r e s s u r e w a s eliminated b e t w e e n different c o m p o n e n t s of t h e N a v i e r . 2 2 (10.D.8) N o w w e s a w in t h e d e r i v a t i o n of t h e s i m p l e B e n a r d c e l l t h a t in s o l v ing for t h e velocities.11) W e define p such that (10. D .D. S i n c e w e s h a l l f o l l o w t h e s a m e p r o c e d u r e h e r e .D. i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e e q u i l i b r i u m p r e s s u r e a n d 8 is a s m a l l p a r a m e t e r . W r i t i n g t h e p r e s s u r e i n t h i s w a y . ( 1 0 . D .10) w h e r e w e h a v e d r o p p e d h i g h e r . w e can write p = p (l + 8). D .174 Heat.D.o r d e r t e r m s i n 8 a n d m a d e u s e of t h e identity T h e N a v i e r . 3 ) can be written (10. In particular. W i t h t h i s a s s i g n m e n t of p .12) ( w e s e e t h a t in t h e c a s e of e q u i l i b r i u m h e a t i n g ( 0 ' = O ) p becomes i d e n t i c a l t o p t h e e q u i l i b r i u m p r e s s u r e ) . ( 1 0 . 1 0 ) a n d ( 1 0 .

D. t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e N a v i e r .16) ( r e c a l l t h a t t h e p o l a r a n g l e 0 is m e a s u r e d f r o m t h e p o l e .8. (10. t h e n d e t e r m i n e s t h e m o t i o n of t h e a t m o s p h e r e .8 a n d l e t Fig.D.o r d e r t e r m in t h e series w h i c h gives a r e a s o n a b l e a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o t h e a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e m p e r a t u r e a s a f u n c t i o n of l a t i t u d e i s t h e t e r m / = 2.D. 10. . Polar coodinates for atmospheric circulation. o r = T(r)(l-3cos 0) 2 (10.S t o k e s e q u a t i o n a n d t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y .15) T h e l o w e s t . T h i s e q u a t i o n .14) 2 a n d h e n c e c a n b e e x p a n d e d in a s e r i e s (again n e g l e c t i n g d e p e n d e n c e o n the longitudinal angle) as (10.D.13) T h e d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e e q u i l i b r i u m t e m p e r a t u r e 0 ' is g o v e r n e d b y t h e equation V 0 ' = O. 10.The General Circulation of the Atmosphere 175 N a v i e r . 10. If w e p i c k t h e u s u a l p o l a r c o o r d i n a t e s a s s h o w n i n F i g .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n finally t a k e s t h e f o r m (10. w h i l e t h e l a t i t u d e a n g l e is m e a s u r e d f r o m t h e e q u a t o r — s e e F i g .8).

and the Circulation of the Atmosphere and t h e c o m p o n e n t s of t h e N a v i e r .20) where (10. w h e r e f(r) a n d </>(r) a r e t o b e d e t e r m i n e d . b u t t e d i o u s .D.21) a n d h is t h e h e i g h t of t h e a t m o s p h e r e . 3 .D. w e find t h a t (10.D. W e s i m p l y n o t e t h a t if w e w r i t e r = a + cr and assume that (this c o r r e s p o n d s t o t a k i n g t h e t h i c k n e s s of t h e a t m o s p h e r e t o b e small c o m p a r e d t o t h e r a d i u s of t h e e a r t h ) .176 Heat.17) w h i l e t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y is (10.D. (10. a n d is left t o P r o b l e m 1 0 .19) = 0. 2 r v = 6 c o s 0 sin e 0<Mr).18) L e t u s f o l l o w o u r u s u a l l i n e of a t t a c k a n d g u e s s a t a s o l u t i o n f o r t h e s e e q u a t i o n s . a reasonable guess might be u = (l-3cos 0)/(r). T h e a c t u a l w o r k i n g o u t of t h e f o r m o f t h e f u n c t i o n s f(r) a n d cfi(r) is s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n a r e and (10. Thermal Convection. .D. a n d t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h it a p p e a r s in these equations. F r o m t h e f o r m of 0 ' .

T h i s m e a n s t h a t a s w e g o u p in t h e a t m o s p h e r e . a n d t h e a i r is r i s i n g . e e T h e f u n c t i o n f(tr) i s p o s i t i v e d e f i n i t e a s a g o e s f r o m 0 t o h . 2 C r r I n t h e a b s e n c e of r o t a t i o n . Fig. w e n o t e t h a t <f)(cr) c h a n g e s s i g n a s cr g o e s f r o m 0 t o h. t h e n .B. The circulation corresponding to Eq. w h i c h m e a n s t h a t t h e r a d i a l v e l o c i t y d o e s n o t c h a n g e a s a f u n c t i o n of a l t i t u d e .22) W h a t s o r t of w i n d s d o e s t h i s s o l u t i o n d e s c r i b e ? W e n o t e s e v e r a l t h i n g s . d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e p o l e ) . t h i s m e a n s t h a t f o r s m a l l o-. v is n e g a t i v e a n d t h e air is falling. H o w e v e r . (10.9 a n d c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e general picture which Hadley suggested two centuries ago.The General Circulation of the Atmosphere 177 I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e c o n s t a n t s A a n d A' c a n e a s i l y b e e x p r e s s e d in t e r m s of t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p o l e a n d t h e e q u a t o r b y n o t i n g t h a t t h e l a t t e r is w h i l e t h e f o r m e r is so that (10. a t a c r i t i c a l v a l u e of 0 ( ~ 5 5 ° ) . w h i l e f r o m t h i s l a t i t u d e t o t h e p o l e . v is p o s i t i v e ( i . S i n c e t h e f a c t o r c o s 6 s i n 6 is a l w a y s p o s i t i v e in t h e first q u a d r a n t . . v is p o s i t i v e . T h i s m e a n s t h a t f r o m t h e e q u a t o r t o a b o u t 35° n o r t h l a t i t u d e . t h e f u n c t i o n 1-3 c o s 6 c h a n g e s s i g n . d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e e q u a t o r ) . e . 10. v m u s t c h a n g e s i g n .9. e . t h e o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of t h e c i r c u l a t i o n w h i c h w e h a v e d e r i v e d i s s h o w n i n F i g . F i r s t .D. a n d f o r h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s it is n e g a t i v e ( i .20). 10.

In fact. (10. 10. m u c h m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d . the reader should c o m e a w a y with the realization that m a n y of t h e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s of a t m o s p h e r i c c i r c u l a t i o n c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d in t e r m s of t h e s i m p l e p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h w e h a v e i n t r o d u c e d in t h i s chapter. and the Circulation of the Atmosphere Fig. rather than northerly and southerly. T h e s e i n c l u d e t h e a c t u a l stratified s t r u c t u r e of t h e a t m o s p h e r e .178 Heat. 10.10.o r d e r t e r m s i n t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n in E q .D. H a d w e included t h e Coriolis f o r c e in t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e easterly and westerly winds. t h e e q u a t i o n s c o u l d b e s o l v e d i n t h e s a m e w a y . W e h a v e i g n o r e d m a n y i m p o r t a n t effects b e s i d e s r o t a t i o n . T o d o b e t t e r .15). in w h i c h t h e w a r m fluid will r i s e a n d . a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e . it w o u l d b e n e c e s s a r y t o i n c l u d e h i g h e r . Thermal Convection. of c o u r s e . Nevertheless.n i g h t t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e s o l u t i o n a r e s h o w n i n F i g . t h e i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s of t h e p r e s e n c e of w a t e r v a p o r . although it f a i l s t o p r e d i c t t h e w i n d s n e a r t h e p o l e . a n d t h e e f f e c t s of d a y . SUMMARY W h e n a fluid is h e a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n c e of a g r a v i t a t i o n a l field. e r T h e m o d e l of t h e g e n e r a l c i r c u l a t i o n of t h e a t m o s p h e r e b e a r s l e s s r e l a t i o n t o t h e a c t u a l a t m o s p h e r e t h a n t h e s i m p l e t h e o r y of t h e t i d e s p r e s e n t e d in C h a p t e r 6 d o e s t o a c t u a l t i d e s . The circulation which would result from the inclusion of the Coriolis force.10. it is p o s s i b l e f o r a n i n s t a b i l i t y t o o c c u r . the trade winds and the prevailing westerlies follow this model. I t t u r n s o u t t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n of r o t a t i o n b r i n g s i n a v e l o c i t y in t h e </>-direction w h i c h g r e a t l y e x c e e d s v a n d v .

with a t e m p e r a t u r e gradient ]3 = ( 0 — 0 i ) / h . calculate t h e variation of t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e with height at v a r i o u s latitudes.D. b u t t h e u p p e r surface is free. i n v o l v i n g fluid r i s i n g a t o n e p o i n t a n d f a l l i n g a t n e i g h b o r i n g p o i n t s . w h e n e v e r a n a d v e r s e t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t e x i s t s in a n o n v i s c o u s a n d w h e n e v e r t h e R a y l e i g h c r i t e r i o n is m e t i n a v i s c o u s o n e .D.3. (10. Find t h e stability condition for a fluid of viscosity TJ b e t w e e n t w o free surfaces a d i s t a n c e h apart.4. (c) A s s u m i n g that E q . M a k e rough s k e t c h e s of this variation. C o n s i d e r t h e a s s u m e d form of the solution t o t h e e q u a t i o n s of motion without rotation given in E q . s h o w that from w h a t w e h a v e learned a b o u t B e n a r d cells that t h e r e should b e roughly as m a n y c o n v e c t i o n cells in t h e e a r t h as t h e r e are c o n t i n e n t s o b s e r v e d . Referring t o C h a p t e r 13 for typical sizes of t h e m a n t l e . PROBLEMS 10.Problems 179 the cold fluid f a l l .19) is valid. ./i r verify that E q . O n e of t h e c u r r e n t ideas a b o u t the s t r u c t u r e of t h e e a r t h is t h e t h e o r y of continental drift. 2 f h ^ 01 ^ in t h e c a s e that t h e lower surface is solid. and applying the s t a n d a r d b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s : namely v =0 at or = 0. (10.2. T h e g e n e r a l c i r c u l a t i o n of t h e a t m o s p h e r e c a n b e t h o u g h t of a s b e i n g d u e t o t h e u n e q u a l h e a t i n g of t h e e a r t h a t t h e p o l e s a n d e q u a t o r . 10. (a) S h o w that t h e e q u a t i o n of continuity in t e r m s of the n e w function f(r) and cf>(r) is just (b) Eliminate 8 from t h e t w o Euler e q u a t i o n s to get a s e c o n d e q u a t i o n relating f(r) and cj>(r).1. T h i s is c a l l e d t h e r m a l convection. g i v e s r i s e t o t h e p h e n o m e n o n of B e n a r d c e l l s . T h e major idea of this t h e o r y is that t h e continental land m a s s e s a r e drifting a r o u n d on t o p of c o n v e c t i o n cells in t h e m a n t l e of t h e e a r t h . F o r t h e c a s e of an a t m o s p h e r e with n o rotation.D.20) d o e s indeed give t h e required solution t o o u r p r o b l e m . 10 . 10 . t h i s t y p e of m o t i o n . I n t h e s t e a d y s t a t e . (10.17). A s i m p l e m o d e l of t h e a t m o s p h e r e w a s d i s c u s s e d . I t will occur fluid.

(c) H e n c e . (a) S h o w that for small values of G. If t h e sphere is of radius a.A.8. (10. F o r what relation b e t w e e n G and P will it b e possible to h a v e convection? 10. S h o w that if a material c o n t a i n s heat s o u r c e s (or sinks) which supply a quantity of heat Q per unit time. the heat transfer in a fluid must take place primarily through c o n d u c t i o n . while t h e velocity distribution can d e p e n d only on JR (both. d e t e r m i n e the t e m p e r a t u r e e v e r y w h e r e in the fluid and in the sphere. can b e functions of position). 6' and dP'/dz d e p e n d only on the coordinates r and cp (the angle in the x-y plane).7. and a c o n s t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e gradient is maintained in the fluid. and the Circulation of the Atmosphere 10. w e can define a Grashof number and that t w o c o n v e c t i v e flows will b e similar if their P r a n d t l and Grashof n u m b e r s are equal.180 Heat.9. while for large values it must take place primarily through convection.6) must b e replaced b y 10. show that t w o flows are similar if t h e R e y n o l d s and Prandtl n u m b e r s are equal. In a similar w a y . the heat equation (10. 2 10. Consider t h e p r o b l e m of t h e steady-state flow of a fluid which is confined to a vertical t u b e of radius R. 10.28)] in t e r m s of dimensionless n u m b e r s . number.B. (b) Write t h e Rayleigh criterion [Eq. W h y d o e s n ' t the R e y n o l d s n u m b e r e n t e r into such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ? 10. show that for t h e t y p e of c o n v e c t i v e p r o c e s s e s which are discussed in t h e text. T o d o this: (a) Write d o w n t h e e q u a t i o n s of motion for t h e (b) S h o w that if w e define a n e w dimensionless discussed in C h a p t e r 9 for flow of a viscous fluid of fluid. Consider a sphere of coefficient of diffusivity K i m m e r s e d in a fluid of diffusivity K .10. of c o u r s e . Thermal Convection.6. S h o w that a law of similarity similar to that viscous flow can b e derived for t h e steady-state diffusivity K. and v . with t h e u p p e r end of t h e t u b e maintained at a t e m p e r a t u r e 6 and the lower end at a t e m p e r a t u r e 0\. called t h e P r a n d t l n u m b e r . show that 2 z . t h e t e m p e r a t u r e distributions in t h e fluid can d e p e n d on both R and P .5. (a) Assuming a form of t h e perturbation in which the velocity is along the z-axis (taken to b e t h e axis of t h e tube).

(Kr)J. w h e r e S is t h e e n t r o p y density. w e simply set n = 0. (a) S h o w that t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n of m a s s and e n t r o p y in such a fluid require s s (b) S h o w that t h e Euler equation in such a fluid is . a normal fluid of density p„ and velocity v„ which is v i s c o u s and can carry e n t r o p y . S h o w that for an ideal fluid.E. Consider a s y s t e m which is m a d e u p of a mixture of t w o t y p e s of fluid. w e h a v e still a n o t h e r form of energy which must b e included in t h e t y p e of energy b a l a n c e carried out in Section I.C. In going from perturbation m e t h o d s to steady-state solutions in Section 10. c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy requires that w h e r e U is t h e s u m of t h e internal energy defined in E q . find t h e stability criterion c o r r e s p o n d ing to E q . H e n c e s h o w that for t h e fluid of P r o b l e m 10.15. S h o w that for a v i s c o u s conducting fluid.13. 10. where K = (GPIR ) . It is called t h e general equation of heat transfer. (10.12.10.11. and a superfluid of density p and velocity \ which is n o n v i s c o u s and carries n o entropy. 10.3) and t h e usual potential energy. 4 114 10.Problems 181 (b) H e n c e s h o w that t h e velocities a n d t e m p e r a t u r e differences in this p r o b l e m must be v = v cos (f) [J (Kr)h(KR)h{Kr)J {KR)\.(KJR)].B. this e q u a t i o n implies e n t r o p y c o n s e r v a t i o n . With t h e introduction of heat. 10. Discuss t h e validity of this step in t e r m s of y o u r physical u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e meaning of t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r .A. z 0 x X O' = vo (—) cos <l}[J (Kr)I (KR) \<xg / i l + I. 10.28). F o r t h e g e o m e t r y of P r o b l e m 10. (10.14.13.

This is called second sound. F o r t h e fluid of P r o b l e m 10.182 Heat.18. show that using the identities thermodynamic and along with t h e results of P r o b l e m 10. like t h e sound w a v e s discussed in C h a p t e r 5. H o w will winds on V e n u s differ from t h o s e on e a r t h ? . 10. and is an important p r o p e r t y of t h e t y p e of superfluids which w e h a v e b e e n discussing here.17. Thermal Convection. F o r t h e fluid of P r o b l e m 10.15. s h o w that if w e treat v and v as small p e r t u r b a t i o n s .15. and treat the derivatives of densities a n d t h e r m o d y n a m i c quantities in the s a m e w a y . w e get n s and 10.16.16 yields where T h e s e results imply that t h e r e are t w o w a v e s in the superfluid-normal m i x t u r e — a density w a v e . or e n t r o p y w a v e which w e h a v e not seen before. and a thermal. and the Circulation of the Atmosphere (c) S h o w that energy c o n s e r v a t i o n in such a fluid requires 10.

Dover Publications.References 183 REFERENCES C. The original paper of Lord Rayleigh is the best presentation of the basic theory that I have found in the literature. Eckart. and is highly recommended for anyone wishing to read further in the field of thermal convection. Pergamon Press. New York. magnetic fields. A well-organized and detailed study of the general motions of oceans and the atmosphere. Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres. Theory of Thermal Convection. 1962. This book contains an exhaustive study of the effects of stability of rotation. S. New York. A collection of the classic papers on thermal convection. and viscosity. Saltzman. Chandrasekar (cited in Chapter 3). There is a section on the motion of atmospheres. 1960. . Contains an excellent discussion of the equations of motion including rotation. B.

it is c l e a r t h a t . w e k n o w t h a t t h i s i s n o t t r u e . BASIC EQUATIONS U p t o t h i s p o i n t . h o w e v e r . Fluids are characterized b y the fact that on the microscopic level. is c a p a b l e of generating internal forces which can o p p o s e forces applied from the o u t s i d e . If I push on a table top. h o w e v e r . s o t h a t in o r d e r t o m o v e o n e a t o m . t h e r e is n o w a y t o g e n e r a t e f o r c e s i n s i d e t h e fluid w h i c h w o u l d o p p o s e t h e a p p l i e d f o r c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y . If w e t h i n k a b o u t a s o l i d . u n l i k e t h e fluid. L. If w e w i s h e d t o a p p l y a n e x t e r n a l f o r c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t in t h e fluid. t h e fluid e l e m e n t w o u l d b e in m o t i o n f o r a s l o n g a s t h e f o r c e w e r e a p p l i e d . f o r s o m e s m a l l initial d e f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w e will c o n s i d e r l a t e r ) . the material immediately under my hand does not m o v e ( e x c e p t . WILSON Ruggles of Red Gap A. T h e only forces w h i c h a r e g e n e r a t e d i n s i d e o f a fluid m a s s a r e t h o s e h a v i n g t o d o w i t h t h e m o m e n t u m transferred through these collisions. H. T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s b e c o m e s c l e a r if w e t h i n k a b o u t t h e c r y s t a l l i n e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a t o m s in m o s t s o l i d s . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e s o l i d . a s i d e f r o m p o s s i b l e v i s c o u s d r a g . it is n e c e s s a r y t o 184 . the a t o m s interact mainly b y collisions.11 General Properties of Solids— Statics I can be pushed just so far. p e r h a p s . W e customarily refer to s u c h f o r c e s a s p r e s s u r e s . w e h a v e c o n s i d e r e d o n l y o n e t y p e of c l a s s i c a l material—fluids. T h e a t o m s a r e l o c k e d i n t o t h e i r p l a c e s in a c r y s t a l l a t t i c e b y e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r a t o m s .

L e t us see h o w this idea leads us to the basic e q u a t i o n s w h i c h d e s c r i b e t h e b e h a v i o r of s t a t i c s o l i d s . 11. a n d r e s t r i c t o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s i m p l e c a s e in w h i c h a s o l i d f i n d s i t s e l f in s t a t i c e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h e x t e r n a l l y a p p l i e d f o r c e s . t h e n t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g o n it in t h e y . T h i s e x t e r n a l f o r c e m i g h t b e t h e w e i g h t of t h e s o l i d itself. I n o u r d e v e l o p m e n t of fluid m e c h a n i c s .d i r e c t i o n a r e (i) t h e l o a d i n g . C o n s i d e r a s o l i d ( s e e F i g . w e f o u n d it s i m p l e s t t o d i s c u s s h y d r o s t a t i c s b e f o r e h y d r o d y n a m i c s . If e q u i l i b r i u m is i n d e e d e s t a b l i s h e d . I t is t h e s e a t o m i c f o r c e s w h i c h w e d e s c r i b e c l a s s i c a l l y a s " i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d f o r c e s " in d i s c u s s i n g s o l i d s .1) in w h i c h a n e x t e r n a l l o a d q(x) p e r u n i t l e n g t h is a p p l i e d e x t e r n a l l y . o r a n y c o m b i n a t i o n of f o r c e s g e n e r a t e d b y t h e p h y s i c a l s y s t e m . in t u r n . a r e b o u n d t o o t h e r a t o m s .1(b).h a n d e d g e . l e a v i n g t h e p r o b l e m of t i m e . d x —> Vertical forces on an element in a loaded solid. q(x) dx a c t i n g a t t h e c e n t e r of t h e e l e m e n t . Loading of a solid. t h e n t h e i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d f o r c e s in t h e s o l i d m u s t e x a c t l y c a n c e l t h e externally applied forces.d e p e n d e n t e f f e c t s f o r l a t e r . a n d w h i c h a r e a b s e n t i n t h e c a s e of f l u i d s . If w e c o n s i d e r o n e i n f i n i t e s i m a l v o l u m e e l e m e n t s o m e w h e r e in t h e s o l i d . . (ii) a n i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d f o r c e F a c t i n g o n t h e l e f t .Basic Equations 185 o v e r c o m e t h e s t r o n g f o r c e s w h i c h b i n d it t o o t h e r a t o m s ( w h i c h . a n d s o f o r t h ) . 11. 11. W e shall follow t h e s a m e line h e r e . w h i c h w e t a k e t o b e a c t i n g in t h e p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n ( t h i s f o r c e i s w r i t t e n Fig.1(a). <— Fig.

is a n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a solid a n d a liquid.2).2(a).d i r e c t i o n gives F-qdx-(F + dF) = 0. Horizontal forces on an element in a loaded solid. t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e s o l i d b e in s t a t i c e q u i l i b r i u m a l s o d e m a n d s t h a t t h e r e b e n o n e t t o r q u e o n t h e v o l u m e e l e m e n t . a n d not t h e f o r c e a p p l i e d t o t h e s o l i d b y a n o u t s i d e a g e n c y ) . Fig. 11. a n d a s s u m e a c t s in t h e n e g a t i v e y-direction. for e x a m p l e . s o t h a t t h e r a t e of c h a n g e of t h e i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d f o r c e is r e l a t e d t o t h e e x t e r n a l l y a p p l i e d l o a d in a s o l i d b y t h e e q u a t i o n (ll. The deformation of a loaded solid.h a n d e d g e . 11.186 General Properties of Solids—Statics a s F in o r d e r t o e m p h a s i z e t h a t it i s a n i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d f o r c e . . t h e s o l i d will b e n d u n d e r t h e w e i g h t a n d d e f o r m . It f o l l o w s f r o m o u r d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p r o p e r t i e s of a s o l i d t h a t a s o l i d will b e c a p a b l e of g e n e r a t i n g i n t e r n a l t o r q u e s . s o t h a t a v o l u m e e l e m e n t w h i c h started out as a c u b e . 11.2(b). T h i s d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e v o l u m e e l e m e n t m u s t b e q=Q Fig.l) I n a d d i t i o n t o a b a l a n c i n g of f o r c e s i n t h e y . of c o u r s e . w o u l d e n d u p d e f o r m e d a s w e l l ( s e e F i g .A.d i r e c t i o n . T h i s . a s w e l l a s i n t e r n a l f o r c e s . (iii) s i m i l a r i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d f o r c e a c t i n g o n t h e r i g h t . w h i c h w e s h a l l c a l l F + d F . C l e a r l y . T h e n b a l a n c i n g f o r c e s in t h e y . W e can understand h o w torques might be generated by asking what h a p p e n s t o t h e l o a d e d s o l i d w e c o n s i d e r e d a b o v e w h e n a l o a d is a p p l i e d .

w e write the internally generated torques as f to distinguish t h e m from externally applied torques. (Hi) t h o s e g e n e r a t e d b y t h e e x t e r n a l l o a d q(x).A. t h e i n t e r n a l f o r c e s g e n e r a t e d in a direction perpendicular to the load can be represented by internally generated torques. T h u s .Basic Equations 187 a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e g e n e r a t i o n of f o r c e s in t h e x . it is t o a p p l y a t o r q u e t o t h e e l e m e n t . . p l a y t h e r o l e of t h e qdx 1 F + dF Fig. Balancing these torques about the point P leads to the result w h i c h b e c o m e s .d i r e c t i o n . T h e s e equations. w e s e e t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e k i n d s of t o r q u e s ( s e e F i g . 11. (ii) t h o s e g e n e r a t e d b y i n t e r n a l f o r c e s in t h e y . If w e c o n s i d e r t h e n e t e f f e c t of t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g o n o n e s i d e of t h e v o l u m e e l e m e n t . a t t e m p t i n g t o c a u s e t h e e l e m e n t t o r o t a t e . w h i c h a c t t o c o m p r e s s t h e t o p of t h e c u b e a n d s t r e t c h t h e b o t t o m . A .A. l ) (11. If w e n o w c o n s i d e r a v o l u m e e l e m e n t .3. (ll. w h e n w e d r o p t e r m s o f s e c o n d o r d e r in i n f i n i t e s i m a l s . Torques on a volume element in a deformed solid.3) O n c e again.3): (i) t h o s e g e n e r a t e d b y i n t e r n a l f o r c e s in t h e x . 11.d i r e c t i o n . which relate the internally generated forces to the e x t e r n a l l y a p p l i e d l o a d f o r a s o l i d in s t a t i c e q u i l i b r i u m . using E q .: or. ( l l .d i r e c t i o n s u c h a s t h o s e p i c t u r e d .

a n d . a r e n o t t h e t y p e of t h i n g s w h i c h o n e u s u a l l y t r i e s t o c a l c u l a t e o r m e a s u r e . t h e a m o u n t of s t r e t c h i n g is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the force. T h e r e is n o r e a s o n t o e x p e c t . I n C h a p t e r 2 . S u c h a s o l i d is c a l l e d a n elastic solid. i m a g i n e a t h i n w i r e of l e n g t h / f r o m w h i c h w e i g h t s c a n b e h u n g . o n e could imagine m a n y different k i n d s of s o l i d s . t h e w i r e w i l l s t r e t c h a d i s t a n c e A/. i n d e e d . presumably. T h e i n t e r n a l f o r c e s . if w e i m a g i n e d t h a t t h e i n t e r n a l f o r c e s b e t w e e n t h e a t o m s in a s o l i d c o u l d b e represented by springs. a n d will o c c u p y m o s t of o u r a t t e n t i o n . B. F o r a g i v e n w e i g h t W. it is n e c e s s a r y t o find s o m e r e l a t i o n between the internal forces which w e h a v e calculated above the deformat i o n in t h e s o l i d . t h e r e is a n e n t i r e field of s t u d y c a l l e d rheology. then w e might expect that the deformation would b e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e f o r c e a p p l i e d . h o w e v e r . w h i c h is d e v o t e d t o t h e s t u d y of t h e w a y in w h i c h m a t e r i a l s react to forces applied to them.B. F o r e x a m p l e . T h e r e a d e r will r e c a l l t h a t in o r d e r t o s p e c i f y t h e p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g a fluid. I t is a n e x p e r i m e n t a l f a c t t h a t f o r m o s t m a t e r i a l s . W e c o u l d a l s o i m a g i n e t h a t t h e f o r c e s b e t w e e n t h e a t o m s w e r e s u c h t h a t t h e y a l l o w e d n o m o t i o n of t h e a t o m s unless the external force w e r e strong e n o u g h to o v e r c o m e t h e m . a n d t h e c o n s t a n t of p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y E is c a l l e d Young's modulus. b u t in t h e final s h a p e of t h e s t a r . F o r o u r p u r p o s e s . In this case. the material would fracture. and large deformations for large forces w h e n . w e w e r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d in t h e i n t e r n a l f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g in a s t a r .l) T h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l finding is c a l l e d Hooke's law. w e s h a l l c o n s i d e r o n l y t h e s i m p l e c a s e of a n e l a s t i c s o l i d . a n y p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of b e h a v i o r . B e t w e e n t h e s e t w o e x t r e m e s . so that E y = W. HOOKE'S LAW AND THE ELASTIC CONSTANTS T h e q u e s t i o n of h o w m u c h a n d in w h a t m a n n e r a s o l i d will d e f o r m u n d e r a n a p p l i e d f o r c e is a n e x p e r i m e n t a l o n e . T o fix in o u r m i n d e x a c t l y w h a t is m e a n t b y s u c h a s o l i d .188 General Properties of Solids—Statics " e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n " f o r s t a t i c s o l i d s . it w a s n e c e s s a r y t o s a y . T h e r e is a n i n t e r e s t i n g a n a l o g y b e t w e e n t h i s l a w a n d a r e s u l t w h i c h w e f o u n d t r u e f o r fluids in C h a p t e r 1. there w o u l d b e n o deformation for small forces. S i m i l a r l y . (ll. it is m u c h m o r e u s u a l t o a s k h o w a g i v e n s o l i d will d e f o r m w h e n a l o a d is a p p l i e d t h a n t o a s k a b o u t i n t e r n a l f o r c e s i n t h e s o l i d . T h e r e f o r e . h o w e v e r . a priori.

4). F o r t h e p r e s e n t . E a c h e l a s t i c s o l i d w i l l b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a d i f f e r e n t c o n s t a n t E . B . T h e r a t i o o f t h e d e c r e a s e i n l a t e r a l d i m e n s i o n t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n l e n g t h is c a l l e d Poisson's ratio. e .2) T h e q u a n t i t i e s E a n d a a r e c a l l e d elastic constants. because the two t a k e n t o g e t h e r c o m p l e t e l y s p e c i f y t h e b e h a v i o r of a n e l a s t i c s o l i d . 11. if a s o l i d is s t r e t c h e d i n o n e d i m e n s i o n . t o s p e c i f y a n e q u a t i o n of s t a t e .Bending of Beams and Sheets 189 T l + Al Fig. a n d h e n c e p l a y s t h e s a m e r o l e a s t h e e q u a t i o n of s t a t e . b u t b e n t b y e x t e r n a l f o r c e s i n t o a n a r c of r a d i u s p ( s e e F i g . C. I t is a l s o c l e a r t h a t if a s o l i d is s t r e t c h e d i n l e n g t h . it will t h i n d o w n in t h e o t h e r d i m e n s i o n ( s e e F i g . E q u a t i o n ( l l . w h a t k i n d of fluid w e w e r e c o n s i d e r i n g — i . The deformation of a wire under a stress. of c o u r s e . w e shall w o r k only with t h e s e t w o . l ) is s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p .4. c o n s i d e r a t h i n b e a m of e l a s t i c m a t e r i a l of Y o u n g ' s m o d u l u s E. j u s t a s d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluids a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y different d e n s i t i e s . t h e m a t e r i a l w h i c h goes to m a k e u p the extra length must c o m e from s o m e w h e r e . . In general.B. T o d o t h i s . I n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r .5). h o w e v e r . S i m i l a r l y . BENDING OF BEAMS AND SHEETS A s a first e x a m p l e of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e l a w s d e r i v e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g t w o s e c t i o n s . a n d shall c o n s i d e r that w e h a v e c o m p l e t e l y specified t h e solid with w h i c h w e are d e a l i n g if w e h a v e t h e s e t w o n u m b e r s . 11. a n d is d e f i n e d b y (11. it is n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e f o r c e a p p l i e d t o a s o l i d a n d t h e a m o u n t of d e f o r m a t i o n s u f f e r e d . it is n e c e s s a r y t o s p e c i f y t h e t y p e o f s o l i d b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . o r i g i n a l l y s t r a i g h t . i n t h i s c a s e . 11. w e s h a l l d i s c u s s o t h e r s e t s of e l a s t i c c o n s t a n t s ( w h i c h c a n b e r e l a t e d t o E a n d a) w h i c h a r e s o m e t i m e s u s e d f o r t h e s a m e p u r p o s e .

filament P'Q' is (ll.3) w h e r e I = / y dA is t h e m o m e n t of i n e r t i a of t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n of t h e b e a m . w h i l e t h o s e n e a r t h e b o t t o m w i l l b e c o m p r e s s e d . T h e r e f o r e . T h e e n d of t h e filament P'Q' will b e a n i n f i n i t e s i m a l a r e a e l e m e n t a d i s t a n c e z a b o v e t h e p l a n e m a d e u p of t h e e n d p o i n t s of t h e n e u t r a l filaments ( s e e F i g .5.6). T h e r e w i l l b e o n e filament. t h e t o r q u e b e i n g a p p l i e d a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t is Fz dA. a n d will d e p e n d o n t h e s h a p e of t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n . b u t r e t a i n s i t s n o r m a l l e n g t h .190 General Properties of Solids—Statics Fig. T h e s t r e t c h e d l e n g t h of P'Q' is j u s t P'Q' = (p + z)<f>. 11.C. T h i s is c a l l e d t h e n e u t r a l filament. s u c h a s P'Q'. w e k n o w that this m e a n s that the force exerted on the filament P'Q' must just b e (by H o o k e ' s law) (1 . will b e s t r e t c h e d b e y o n d t h e i r n o r m a l l e n g t h .2) 1 s o t h a t t h e f r a c t i o n a l c h a n g e in l e n g t h of t h e S u p p o s e w e n o w l o o k a t t h e b e a m e n d o n .C. filaments n e a r t h e t o p of t h e b e a m . s o t h a t t h e t o t a l t o r q u e b e i n g a p p l i e d t o t h e e n d of t h e b e a m is (11. a n d w e w i l l t a k e p . 11. 2 . d e n o t e d b y PQ. The bending of a filament. t h e r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e . t o b e m e a s u r e d f r o m t h e c e n t e r of c u r v a t u r e t o t h e l i n e PQ. I n t h e p r o c e s s of b e n d i n g .l) But from the previous section.C. w h i c h is n e i t h e r s t r e t c h e d n o r c o m p r e s s e d in t h e b e n d i n g .

(11.T ) .2). S u p p o s e t h a t w h e n t h e r e is n o t o r q u e p r e s e n t . s o t h a t t h e e x t e r n a l l o a d i n g o f a b e a m ( w h i c h is p r e s u m a b l y w h a t c a u s e s t h e t o r q u e in t h e first p l a c e ) is r e l a t e d t o t h e d e f o r m a t i o n b y E q . t h e e x t e r n a l f o r c e is r e l a t e d t o t h e d e f o r m a t i o n b y (11.6. t h i s e x t e r n a l l y a p p l i e d t o r q u e T m u s t b e c a n c e l e d b y t h e i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d t o r q u e f (i. 11.C. (11.A. f r o m E q .C. t h e r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e a t e a c h p o i n t a l o n g t h e b e a m will t h e n b e (11. t h e b e a m is s t r a i g h t . F r o m e l e m e n t a r y c a l c u l u s . t h e applied t o r q u e at e a c h point m u s t t h e n b e (11. 11.C.6) a n d .3). F r o m E q .5) I n o r d e r f o r t h e b e a m t o b e in s t a t i c e q u i l i b r i u m . w e m u s t h a v e T = .7). 11.4) w h e r e t h e s e c o n d a p p r o x i m a t e e q u a l i t y h o l d s w h e n t h e d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e b e a m i s s m a l l ( t h i s is t h e o n l y c a s e w h i c h w e s h a l l c o n s i d e r ) .C. W h e n t h e t o r q u e is a p p l i e d .e. ( 1 1 . Side view of a deformed filament.7. A .C. t h e b e a m w i l l b e d e f o r m e d . . 2 ) . End view of a deformed filament. a n d l i e s a l o n g t h e l i n e y = 0 . W e a r e n o w r e a d y t o r e l a t e t h e a p p l i e d t o r q u e t o t h e b e n d i n g of t h e b e a m . (11.Bending of Beams and Sheets 191 •end of P'Q' Fig.7) y 1 X y(x) Fig. a n d w i l l b e d e s c r i b e d b y s o m e c u r v e y ( x ) ( s e e F i g .

192

General Properties of Solids—Statics

T h i s is t h e g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n w h i c h w e h a v e b e e n s e e k i n g . If w e a r e t o l d h o w m u c h e x t e r n a l f o r c e is a p p l i e d t o a s o l i d ( i . e . if w e k n o w q(x)), we c a n c a l c u l a t e t h e d e f o r m a t i o n a t a n y p o i n t , y(x) s i m p l y b y s o l v i n g E q . ( 1 1 . C . 6 ) . T h e s o l u t i o n of t h i s e q u a t i o n will i n v o l v e f o u r i n t e g r a t i o n constants, and these must be supplied by the boundary conditions. For e x a m p l e , if t h e p r o b l e m w e r e s e t u p s o t h a t t h e e n d of t h e b e a m a t x = 0 w e r e free, t h e n t h e r e w o u l d b e n o t o r q u e s or forces at that end. This w o u l d g i v e t w o c o n d i t i o n s o n t h e f o u r c o n s t a n t s . W e will c o n s i d e r e x a m p l e s of o t h e r b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s in s u b s e q u e n t s e c t i o n s , a n d in t h e problems. F i n a l l y , w e n o t e t h a t in all of o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s o f a r , w e h a v e c o n s i d e r e d t h e b e a m t o b e m a d e u p o f i n f i n i t e l y t h i n filaments w h i c h w o u l d s t r e t c h , b u t w h i c h h a d n o l a t e r a l e x t e n t a t all. T h i s m e a n s t h a t w e h a v e n e g l e c t e d t h e k i n d of e f f e c t s w h i c h l e d u p t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n of P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o in E q . ( 1 1 . B . 2 ) . A m o r e r e a l i s t i c b e a m w o u l d b o t h s t r e t c h a n d t h i n o u t a s it w a s b e n t . I n P r o b l e m 11.2, t h e r e a d e r will s h o w t h a t t a k i n g this effect into a c c o u n t l e a d s t o t h e e q u a t i o n for t h e deflection (11.C.8) i.e. t h e r e s u l t is e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e o n e d e r i v e d a b o v e e x c e p t t h a t t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n E - * E / ( l - c r ) is m a d e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , w e will u s e E q . ( 1 1 . C . 6 ) in all t h a t f o l l o w s , w i t h o u t l o s i n g a n y g e n e r a l i t y f o r t h e r e s u l t s .
2

D.

THE FORMATION OF LACOLITHS

A s a n e x a m p l e o f a p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n in w h i c h t h e p r i n c i p l e s d e r i v e d in the previous sections operate, consider the geological formation k n o w n as a l a c o l i t h . T h e s e o c c u r w h e n a fissure d e v e l o p s in a l a y e r of r o c k b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h , a n d m o l t e n m a g m a u n d e r h i g h p r e s s u r e f l o w s u p w a r d t h r o u g h t h i s fissure, f o r c i n g t h e o v e r l y i n g l a y e r s of r o c k u p w a r d ( s e e F i g . 11.8).

magma Fig. 11.8. Schematic diagram of the formation of a lacolith.

The Formation of Lacoliths

193

T h e r e is a w e a l t h of i n f o r m a t i o n o n s u c h f o r m a t i o n s , s i n c e t h e y o c c u r f r e q u e n t l y . T h e y a r e t y p i c a l l y a mile o r t w o a c r o s s . T h e r e is o n e o b s e r v e d r e g u l a r i t y t o w h i c h w e will t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n a n d t h a t is t h e f a c t t h e h i g h e r t h e a l t i t u d e of t h e l a c o l i t h , t h e s m a l l e r it w i l l b e . L e t u s s e e h o w t h e e q u a t i o n s d e r i v e d in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n c a n b e a p p l i e d t o t h i s p r o b l e m . W e will c o n s i d e r t h e c a s e w h e r e t h e f i s s u r e is a s t r a i g h t l i n e w h i c h is v e r y l o n g c o m p a r e d t o t h e w i d t h of t h e l a c o l i t h , s o t h a t w e c a n i g n o r e w h a t h a p p e n s a t t h e e n d s . T h e n t h e f o r c e s o n a s t r i p of l e n g t h b a n d w i d t h dx in t h e o v e r b u r d e n ( s e e F i g . 11.9) a r e (i) T h e w e i g h t of t h e r o c k p r e s s i n g d o w n w a r d . If t h e d e n s i t y of t h e r o c k is y, t h i s will b e yab p r e s s u r e of t h e fluid. T h u s , t h e n e t e x t e r n a l f o r c e o n t h e o v e r b u r d e n p e r u n i t l e n g t h in t h e x - d i r e c t i o n is j u s t q(x) = b(P-ya), (ll.D.l) dx. (ii) T h e f o r c e of t h e m a g m a u p w a r d . T h i s will b e Pb dx, w h e r e P is t h e

s o t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n of d e f o r m a t i o n is (11.D.2) which can b e integrated to give (11.D.3) w h e r e d . . . , C a r e c o n s t a n t s of i n t e g r a t i o n . A s w e p o i n t e d o u t in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , t h e s e c o n s t a n t s m u s t b e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s . A t t h e p o i n t x = 0 , w e h a v e y = 0 a n d dyldx = 0 (this follows f r o m t h e d e m a n d that t h e r e b e
4

Fig. 11.9.

A fully formed lacolith.

194

General Properties of Solids—Statics

n o d i s c o n t i n u i t y in t h e r o c k o v e r b u r d e n ) . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s g i v e C
3

= C = 0.
4

(11.D.4)

S i m i l a r l y , a n d x = L , y = 0, a n d dyldx

= 0, s o t h a t

which gives

(11.D.5)

s o t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n d e s c r i b i n g t h e s h a p e of t h e l a c o l i t h is (11.D.6) This curve approximates those which are observed. T h e h e i g h t of t h e l a c o l i t h is g i v e n b y t h e v a l u e of t h i s f u n c t i o n a t i t s h i g h e s t p o i n t , w h i c h f r o m i n s p e c t i o n is t h e p o i n t x = L / 2 . W e find (11.D.7) W e c a n n o w e x p l a i n t h e o b s e r v e d c o r r e l a t i o n of l a c o l i t h h e i g h t w i t h altitude w h i c h w e cited earlier. C o n s i d e r t w o lacoliths at different a l t i t u d e s b u t f e d f r o m t h e s a m e p o o l of m a g m a ( s e e F i g . 11.10). T h e d i f f e r e n c e in h e i g h t A H b e t w e e n t h e m w i l l r e s u l t in a d i f f e r e n c e in t h e

AH

Fig. 11.10.

Two lacoliths at different altitudes.

The Formation of Mountain Chains

195

pressure

of t h e m a g m a .

S i n c e t h e h e i g h t of t h e l a c o l i t h is

directly

proportional to the m a g m a pressure, w e would expect that the higher altitude lacolith would h a v e the smaller height, as observed.

E.

THE FORMATION OF MOUNTAIN CHAINS

Another geological p h e n o m e n o n which w e can u n d e r s t a n d on the basis of t h e p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s p r e s e n t e d i n S e c t i o n l l . C is t h e f o r m a t i o n of m o u n t a i n c h a i n s . I n g e n e r a l , w e c a n t h i n k of t h i s p r o c e s s a s a f o l d i n g of t h e c r u s t w h e n a f o r c e is a p p l i e d a l o n g t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h . T h i s f o r c e m i g h t a r i s e w h e n t h e l e a d i n g e d g e of a c o n t i n e n t is p u s h e d b y c o n t i n e n t a l d r i f t a g a i n s t t h e u n d e r l y i n g m a n t l e . I t is t h o u g h t , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t t h e m o u n t a i n c h a i n o n t h e w e s t c o a s t of N o r t h a n d S o u t h A m e r i c a w a s f o r m e d in t h i s w a y . I n g e n e r a l , a m o u n t a i n c h a i n w i l l h a v e t h e g e n e r a l s h a p e s h o w n in Fig. 11.11, w h e r e t h e largest m o u n t a i n s a r e c l o s e s t t o t h e a p p l i e d f o r c e P , a n d t h e h e i g h t of t h e m o u n t a i n s v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e f o r c e . T h e r e a r e , of c o u r s e , e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s g e n e r a l r u l e in n a t u r e , c a u s e d e i t h e r b y a n o n u n i f o r m i t y in t h e c r u s t o r b y d e f l e c t i o n s of t h e s u r f a c e w h i c h e x i s t b e f o r e t h e f o r c e is a p p l i e d . A s a m o d e l for this p r o c e s s , let u s c o n s i d e r t h e c r u s t t o b e a thin, s e m i - i n f i n i t e s h e e t of m a t e r i a l of Y o u n g ' s m o d u l u s E a n d m o m e n t of i n e r t i a I [ s e e E q . ( 1 1 . C . 6 ) a n d P r o b l e m 2.6] r e s t i n g o n t o p of a n i n f i n i t e e l a s t i c m e d i u m ( s e e F i g . 11.12). T h e e f f e c t of t h i s m e d i u m w i l l b e t o e x e r t

P Fig. 11.11. Deformation of a plate due to a horizontal force.

Po

X

elastic medium

Fig. 11.12.

Model for the formation of a mountain chain.

196

General Properties of Solids—Statics

a f o r c e w h i c h will o p p o s e t h e d e f l e c t i o n of t h e p l a t e . F o r o u r p u r p o s e s , w e will t r e a t t h i s a s a s p r i n g , s o t h a t t h e f o r c e e x e r t e d o n a n y e l e m e n t of t h e s h e e t i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e d e f l e c t i o n of t h a t e l e m e n t f r o m e q u i l i b r i u m . I t is c l e a r t h a t t h i s is a n e f f e c t w h i c h w o u l d b e p r e s e n t in t h e c a s e s of physical interest, where any attempt to push the crust d o w n into the m a n t l e w o u l d h a v e t o o v e r c o m e t h e f o r c e s e x e r t e d b y t h e m a n t l e itself. W e shall s e e t h a t this t y p e of r e s t o r i n g f o r c e , w h i c h w e h a v e n o t c o n s i d e r e d u p t o t h i s p o i n t , is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n v e r s e v a r i a t i o n of mountain height with distance from the applied force. Finally, w e a s s u m e t h a t s o m e e x t e r n a l f o r c e is a p p l i e d at t h e e n d of t h e s h e e t . W e l a b e l t h e f o r c e a l o n g t h e c r u s t P a n d t h e c o m p o n e n t of t h e f o r c e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e c r u s t b y F . W e i n c l u d e b o t h of t h e s e f o r c e s b e c a u s e it is e x t r e m e l y u n l i k e l y t h a t n a t u r e w o u l d e v e r p r o v i d e a f o r c e exactly a l o n g t h e p l a n e of t h e c r u s t .
0 0

If t h e l o a d p e r u n i t l e n g t h o n t h e c r u s t is q, t h e n t h e f o r c e s a n d t o r q u e s a c t i n g o n a s e c t i o n of t h e c r u s t a f t e r e q u i l i b r i u m h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d a r e s h o w n in F i g . 1 1 . 1 3 . I n t h i s d i a g r a m , P is t h e a p p l i e d e x t e r n a l " a x i a l " f o r c e , F t h e i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d s h e a r f o r c e , a n d ky dx a n d q dx t h e f o r c e s a p p l i e d b y t h e e l a s t i c m e d i u m a n d t h e l o a d i n g , r e s p e c t i v e l y . B a l a n c i n g f o r c e s in t h e y - d i r e c t i o n yields the equation
0

F - qdx or

- ( F + dF)-ky

dx = 0,

(ll.E.l)

Fig. 11.13.

Forces and torques on a volume element in a mountain chain.

The Formation of Mountain Chains

197

while balancing torques yields

or (11.E.2) Using the previously derived relationship t o r q u e [Eq. (11.C.3)], this b e c o m e s between deflection and

(11.E.3 w h i c h is t h e w o r k i n g e q u a t i o n f o r o u r m o u n t a i n c h a i n m o d e l e q u i v a l e n t t o E q . (11.D.2) for t h e lacolith. T h e g e n e r a l m e t h o d of s o l v i n g a n i n h o m o g e n e o u s d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n of t h i s t y p e is t o n o t e t h a t t o a n y p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n , y = y of E q . (1 I . E . 3 ) w e c a n a d d y , a s o l u t i o n of t h e h o m o g e n e o u s e q u a t i o n
p h

(11.E.4) s o t h a t t h e m o s t g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n is j u s t y = y + y .
P h

(11.E.5)

[ T h e r e a d e r c a n v e r i f y t h a t t h i s is i n d e e d a s o l u t i o n of E q . ( 1 1 . E . 3 ) b y direct substitution.] It is e a s y t o s e e t h a t t h e c h o i c e (11.E.6) satisfies E q . (11.E.3). T h i s is t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , a n d is a c t u a l l y of little i n t e r e s t . It r e p r e s e n t s t h e a m o u n t t h e c r u s t s i n k s i n t o t h e m a n t l e b e c a u s e o f i t s o w n w e i g h t . W e will i g n o r e it in w h a t f o l l o w s . T h e s t a n d a r d w a y t o find y is t o a s s u m e a s o l u t i o n of t h e f o r m
h

y = e

m x

(11.E.7)

a n d d e t e r m i n e t h e p e r m i s s i b l e v a l u e s of m b y d i r e c t s u b s t i t u t i o n i n t o E q . ( 1 1 . E . 4 ) . If w e d o t h i s , a n d s o l v e t h e r e s u l t i n g e q u a t i o n i n m , w e find

(11.E.8)

2). t h e r e a r e f o u r c o n s t a n t s w h i c h m u s t b e determined from the boundary conditions.10) for y .10) leads to t h e result (ll. l ) ] . gives c o m p l e x values for m. w h i l e t h e a p p l i e d f o r c e F m u s t b e e q u a l a n d o p p o s i t e t o t h e internally generated force. t o g e t h e r with E q . ( l l . if P < 2 V E l k ( w e will s h o w in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n t h a t t h i s is t h e only physically interesting case).10) A s in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . t h e r e is n o e x t e r n a l t o r q u e b e i n g a p p l i e d . a t x = 0.E.E.198 General Properties of Solids—Statics w h i c h .E.12) so that (11. s o t h a t T = . m = a + jj3.13) . (11. (11. (11. (11. u s i n g t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d f o r c e in E q . substituting y h from E q . T w o constants can b e determ i n e d d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e d e f l e c t i o n b e finite a s x a p p r o a c h e s + 0 0 [x is m e a s u r e d p o s i t i v e t o t h e left in t h e d i a g r a m a b o v e Eq.E. E . This gives c 2 = c = 0.E.ll) I n t h e s a m e w a y . 4 S i m i l a r l y .E. Since 0 the torque condition becomes which. where (11. gives h (11.f = 0.9) and T h e most general expression for y y p h h is t h u s 2 = ( C i < T * + C e^) cos px 4 ax HCse-e* + C e )sinax.E.E.

if F w e r e t o v a n i s h ) . 11. O u r intuition also tells u s t h a t this w o u l d b e a highly u n s t a b l e situation. it w o u l d s e e m f r o m e x a m i n i n g t h e e q u a t i o n if a f o r c e w e r e a p p l i e d t o t h e s o l i d s h e e t d i r e c t l y a l o n g t h e p l a n e of t h e s h e e t ( i . t h e r e w o u l d b e n o d e f l e c t i o n . e . E . w e s e e t h a t b y a p p l y i n g t h e s i m p l e i d e a s d e v e l o p e d in t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n s of t h i s c h a p t e r . h a v i n g a s h a p e l i k e t h a t s h o w n in F i g .E. t h e r e a r e m a n y effects w h i c h w e h a v e ignored. 1 3 ) w h i c h a r e of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t . O n c e a g a i n . Of c o u r s e . T h i s is q u a l i t a t i v e l y t h e s h a p e w h i c h w e d i s c u s s e d f o r m o u n t a i n t r a i n s in t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h i s s e c t i o n . in a d d i t i o n t o d e s c r i b i n g a m o u n t a i n t r a i n . E f f e c t s d u e t o n o n h o m o g e n e i t y in t h e c r u s t o r m a n t l e . h o w e v e r . 11. so t h a t E q . Actually. f r a c t u r i n g of t h e r o c k o r o t h e r n o n e l a s t i c b e h a v i o r . ( 1 1 . o n e s u c h e f f e c t — t h e e x i s t e n c e of i n i t i a l d e f l e c t i o n s — i s c o n s i d e r e d . (1 I .13) d e s c r i b e s t h e d i s t o r t i o n of a n y s o l i d s h e e t w h i c h is s u b j e c t e d t o a n a x i a l f o r c e a n d e m b e d d e d in a n e l a s t i c m e d i u m . t h e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s of a r a t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d s y s t e m c a n b e derived. since the smallest force perpendicular to the sheet would p r o d u c e a finite d e f l e c t i o n . SOME SPECIAL CASES: BUCKLING AND THE EULER THEORY OF STRUTS T h e r e i s a g o o d d e a l of p h y s i c s c o n t a i n e d in E q .Some Special Cases: Buckling and the Euler Theory of Struts 199 Fig. a n d n o n u n i f o r m a p p l i e d f o r c e s will n o t b e d i s c u s s e d . O u r i n t u i t i o n t e l l s u s in t h i s c a s e t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e a f o r c e t e n d i n g t o c o m p r e s s t h e s o l i d .14. T h e r e a r e . F o r e x a m p l e . T h i s i s . a n d it is t o t h e s e t h a t w e will t u r n in t h e n e x t section.14. t h e general e q u a t i o n (11. T h i s is s i m i l a r t o t h e p r o b l e m of t h e s t a b i l i t y of s t a r s 0 . it w o u l d a l s o d e s c r i b e t h e f o l d i n g of a v e i n of m a t e r i a l e m b e d d e d in o t h e r t y p e s of m a t e r i a l — e . E . I n t h e p r o b l e m s . A typical shape for a mountain chain. t h e b e n d i n g of q u a r t z v e i n s e m b e d d e d in h a r d e r r o c k . g . t h e e q u a t i o n of a d a m p e d o s c i l l a t i o n . T h u s . . 13) s h o u l d b e r e g a r d e d a s a first a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o a c o r r e c t d e s c r i p t i o n of a r e a l m o u n t a i n c h a i n . (1 I . 13). b u t n o t h i n g t o m a k e it b u c k l e . F. E . s e v e r a l s p e c i a l c a s e s of E q . of c o u r s e .

E . ] 8 = .E.F. b e c a u s e for such a system. A g a i n .F. it will o c c u r f o r a l o a d P w h i c h s a t i s f i e s s o t h a t t h e critical l o a d at w h i c h b u c k l i n g o c c u r s is j u s t P it = P = VkEL cr (11. T o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s of t h i s p r o b l e m . 9 ) . I m a g i n e that t h e l o a d P is a p p l i e d in t h e p r e s e n c e of a s m a l l b u t finite F . s u c h a configuration would b e highly unstable. 13). ( 1 1 . t h e d e f l e c t i o n will b e c o m e i n f i n i t e f o r a n y n o n z e r o F . t h e a s t u t e r e a d e r will a l r e a d y h a v e r e m a r k e d t h a t t h e critical loading given b y E q . E q . I n f a c t . t h e d e f l e c t i o n s will b e c o m e a r b i t r a r i l y l a r g e . T h e t h e o r y o f s t r u t s . is a s p e c i a l c a s e of t h e p r o b l e m t r e a t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . E . and need not concern us further. 9 ) t h a t if k = 0. " a n d t h e s t u d y of t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s i s .200 General Properties of Solids—Statics w h i c h w e c o n s i d e r e d in C h a p t e r 3. (ll. 13) w i l l n o l o n g e r b e v a l i d . T h i s p h e n o m e n o n is k n o w n a s " b u c k l i n g " of t h e m a t e r i a l . T h i s w a s t h e s t a t e m e n t f o l l o w i n g E q . b r i d g e s . (11. b u t w e s e e f r o m E q .2) could not apply t o a s t r e s s e d material w h i c h w a s unconfined. ( 1 1 . (1 I . let u s b e g i n b y asking h o w large t h e axial load P c a n b e for a given material.8) t h a t o n l y v a l u e s of P less were physically interesting—higher loads would lead to c r i t cri O f c o u r s e . of c o u r s e . it is p r o b a b l y e a s i e r t o d e r i v e t h e 0 2 2 2 2 . w e s e e t h a t t h e d e f l e c t i o n will b e w e l l b e h a v e d e x c e p t w h e n w e a p p r o a c h t h e v a l u e of P w h i c h m a k e s 3j3 -a 2 2 = 0. T h u s .F.l) 0 F o r t h i s v a l u e o f P .a s o t h a t d i v i d i n g b y a + j 8 . first d e v e l o p e d b y E u l e r . F r o m E q . (11. if F w e r e z e r o a n d P w e r e a t i t s c r i t i c a l v a l u e . b e l o w t h i s . 13) w o u l d b e of a n i n d e t e r m i n a t e f o r m ( z e r o d i v i d e d b y z e r o ) . s u p p o r t l o a d s less t h a n P t.2) For loads approaches m a t e r i a l will o r i g i n of t h e t h a n iVEIk buckling. w h e r e t h e smallest d e v i a t i o n f r o m equilibrium could drive a system a long w a y w h e n the equilibrium happened to be unstable. a n d o t h e r structures. Unconfined b e a m s w h i c h are required to carry an axial load are c a l l e d " s t r u t s . b u t n o t g r e a t e r . E . (1 I . of i m m e n s e p r a c t i c a l u s e f u l n e s s i n c o n s t r u c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s . a s w e h a d t o d o t o d e r i v e E q . t h e d e f l e c t i o n will r e m a i n f i n i t e . E . H o w e v e r . E . a n d t h e n g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d . b u t a s P P . (1 I . W h a t will h a p p e n ? 0 E x a m i n i n g E q . the spring constant k would b e zero.

8 ) d i r e c t l y t h a n b y f i n d i n g s o m e s u i t a b l e l i m i t of E q . F o r t h e s a k e of d e f i n i t e n e s s . ( 1 1 .15). T h e m o s t g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n f o r y will t h e n b e y = A c o s yx + B s i n yx.Some Special Cases: Buckling and the Euler Theory of Struts 201 d e f l e c t i o n of a s t r u t b y s t a r t i n g f r o m E q .3) (11. If t h e s p r i n g c o n s t a n t is z e r o . . t h e d e f l e c t i o n is i d e n t i c a l l y z e r o w h i c h m e a n s t h a t t h e b e a m will n o t b e n d a t all.F.F. T o d e t e r m i n e A a n d B it will b e n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s . 11. If P a p p r o a c h e s o n e o f t h e c r i t i c a l v a l u e s g i v e n —(f)" x=0 Fig. t h e n t h e e q u a t i o n f o r m m (EIm 2 2 2 is j u s t (11. w e h a v e and which means that either n = 0 or A = 0 B s i n yL = 0. a n d t h e s t r u t is c o m p r e s s e d . so that w h i c h m e a n s t h a t y will b e g i v e n b y a n undamped oscillation. I n t h e first c a s e . x =L A loaded strut. rather than a d a m p e d o n e . T h i s is t h e c a s e w e w i l l c o n s i d e r h e r e . 13). a n d t h e c a s e of a s t r u t w i t h free e n d s will b e left t o t h e problems.15. (1 I . If w e r e q u i r e t h a t y = 0 a t x = 0 a n d x = L .4) + P ) = 0. E . T h e m o s t u s u a l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e t h e o r y of s t r u t s i s i n t h e c a s e w h e r e b o t h e n d s a r e h e l d f i x e d . E . l e t u s c o n s i d e r a s t r u t of l e n g t h L l o a d e d w i t h a n a x i a l l o a d P a t b o t h e n d s ( s e e F i g . 11.

F. G. F o r o u r p u r p o s e s . I t w a s c r u c i a l t o t h a t d i s c u s s i o n t h a t t h e f o r c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c r u s t itself b e negligible c o m p a r e d t o t h e b u o y a n t forces g e n e r a t e d b y t h e m a n t l e u n d e r t h e c r u s t . w e s i m p l y n o t e t h a t t h e r e s t o r i n g p r e s s u r e a t a p o i n t x is x =0 £(x) Fig. . t h e u n d e r l y i n g fluid will e x e r t a r e s t o r i n g f o r c e t e n d i n g t o lift t h e d e f o r m e d p a r t of t h e c r u s t . T h i s s u d d e n t r a n s i t i o n t o a d e f o r m e d s h a p e a s P is i n c r e a s e d is t h e a n a l o g u e t o t h e b u c k l i n g of a m e m b e r e m b e d d e d in a n e l a s t i c m e d i u m which we discussed above. t h e v a l u e of B. o r b e b e n t i n t o a n h a r m o n i c of a s i n e w a v e w h e n t h e c r i t i c a l l o a d is a p p l i e d . W e a r e n o w in a p o s i t i o n t o s h o w t h a t this w a s a valid assumption. g . w e d i s c u s s e d t h e p r o b l e m of v i s c o u s r e b o u n d in t h e c o n t e x t of t h e g e o l o g i c a l p h e n o m e n o n of t h e F e n n o . t h e n a s o l u t i o n of t h e f o r m y = B sin (11. a l t h o u g h i n t h e o r y it i s r e l a t e d t o t h e f o r c e a p p l i e d a t t h e e n d s of t h e s t r u t ( s e e P r o b l e m 11. F o r t h e s a k e of s i m p l i c i t y . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h i s p r o c e s s w a s t r e a t e d in S e c t i o n 8 . w h e n t h e g l a c i e r m e l t s ) . Elastic forces in the deformed crust.16. . FENNO-SCANDIA REVISITED I n C h a p t e r 8.5). t h e s t r u t m u s t e i t h e r n o t b e n d a t all. C . 11. t h e m a x i m u m d e f l e c t i o n of t h e b e a m is u n d e t e r m i n e d .16) (ll.G.S c a n d i a n u p l i f t — t h e r i s i n g of t h e c r u s t of t h e e a r t h a f t e r t h e m e l t i n g of t h e g l a c i e r s .202 General Properties of Solids—Statics h o w e v e r .5) is p o s s i b l e .l) W h e n t h e l o a d i n g is l i f t e d ( e . T h u s . I n s u c h a c a s e . c o n s i d e r a n initial d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e c r u s t g i v e n b y ( s e e F i g . 11.

a n d g i v e n b y E q . our previous assumption that the crustal forces could be n e g l e c t e d w o u l d a m o u n t t o a n a s s u m p t i o n t h a t A b e v e r y s m a l l s i n c e in t h a t c a s e m o s t of t h e b u o y a n t f o r c e s m u s t g o i n t o o v e r c o m i n g o t h e r t h i n g s t h a n f o r c e s g e n e r a t e d in t h e c r u s t .G.3) T h i s f o r c e is p r o p o r t i o n a l . w e find (11. a n d a t t = 0 is e q u a l t o £ .G. W e c a n a t t a c k this p r o b l e m i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y : L e t u s c o n s i d e r a s e c t i o n of c r u s t w h i c h is i n i t i a l l y flat. a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e c r u s t is s t a t i o n a r y a t x = 0 a n d x = L.6). b u t l o a d e d b y a f o r c e (11. w e h a v e (11.C. G . 0 F r o m E q . If w e c o n s i d e r t h e c r u s t b e i n g d e f l e c t e d f r o m a flat c o n f i g u r a t i o n b y t h e a p p l i e d f o r c e ( 1 1 .4) s o t h a t . ( 1 1 .5) so that . w i t h p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y c o n s t a n t A . T h e question which w e wish to answer concerns the relative import a n c e of t h e f o r c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s p r e s s u r e a n d t h e f o r c e g e n e r a t e d b y t h e c r u s t s n a p p i n g b a c k f r o m its d e f o r m e d position. it will t a k e forces m u c h greater t h a n t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d with t h e p r e s s u r e t o deflect t h e c r u s t . 2 ) ] will suffice t o p r o d u c e l a r g e d e f l e c t i o n s of t h e c r u s t .Fenno-Scandia Revisited 203 s i m p l y t h e w e i g h t of t h e d i s p l a c e d f l u i d — i . S i n c e in t h e F e n n o . 3 ) . e . w e will h a v e a s i t u a t i o n in w h i c h f o r c e s v e r y s m a l l c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e of t h e a c t u a l p r e s s u r e [ E q . G . (11.c o o r d i n a t e o f t h e s u r f a c e . t h e n t h e a m o u n t of d e f o r m a t i o n f o r a g i v e n a p p l i e d f o r c e will tell u s h o w m u c h f o r c e is r e q u i r e d t o p r o d u c e a g i v e n d e f l e c t i o n . t o t h e f o r c e e x e r t e d b y t h e p r e s s u r e of t h e m a n t l e of t h e d e f o r m e d c r u s t . (1 l . w h i l e if A is l a r g e . G .2) 0 w h e r e £ is t h e y .G. If A t u r n s o u t t o b e v e r y s m a l l . w e c a n a s k w h a t v a l u e of A is n e e d e d t o p r o d u c e a d e f l e c t i o n e q u a l t o t h a t p r o d u c e d b y t h e g l a c i e r .S c a n d i a n u p l i f t t h e c r u s t is d e f l e c t e d o n l y a n a m o u n t £ . P = Pg& (11.G. l ) . I n p a r t i c u l a r .

T h i s is w h a t w e s e t o u t t o s h o w .S c a n d i a . SUMMARY W h e n a s o l i d is s u b j e c t e d t o e x t e r n a l f o r c e s o r t o r q u e s . 2 ) . a n d h e n c e t o b r i n g t h e e n t i r e s y s t e m i n t o a s t a t e of s t a t i c e q u i l i b r i u m .7) T h i s r e s u l t m e a n s t h a t in o r d e r t o o v e r c o m e f o r c e s g e n e r a t e d w i t h i n t h e c r u s t b y t h e initial d e f o r m a t i o n in E q . ( 1 1 . n a m e l y p = 3. it g e n e r a t e s w i t h i n itself f o r c e s a n d t o r q u e s w h i c h t e n d t o o p p o s e t h o s e b e i n g a p p l i e d e x t e r n a l l y . T h u s . a s i m p l e f o u r t h . v i r t u a l l y all of t h e f o r c e g e n e r a t e d b y t h e b u o y a n c y m u s t g o i n t o o v e r c o m i n g t h e v i s c o u s d r a g of t h e m a n t l e ( t h e p r o c e s s w h i c h w e c o n s i d e r e d in C h a p t e r 8) a n d a l m o s t n o n e i n t o o v e r c o m i n g t h e c r u s t a l f o r c e s t h e m s e l v e s .1. ( l l . (b) Write d o w n the b o u n d a r y conditions at x = 0. showing that t h e deformation of t h e cantilever is given by . and is of a length L.27 g / c c .e.G. i. m o m e n t of inertia I. PROBLEMS 11. A s s u m e that t h e b e a m h a s Y o u n g ' s m o d u l u s E. l ) . G . E = 1 0 d y n e s c m . (c) Write d o w n the b o u n d a r y conditions at x = L. Consider a cantilever. o r t h e b u c k l i n g of s t r u t s w h e n large axial loads are applied.204 General Properties of Solids—Statics If w e n o w t a k e p a r a m e t e r s a p p r o p r i a t e t o F e n n o . a n d e v a l u a t e I f o r a c r u s t t h i c k n e s s of 3 5 k m . D e p e n d i n g on the b o u n d a r y conditions and the forces acting. a b e a m s u p p o r t e d at o n e e n d only. w e find ( s e t t i n g y = £ ) 9 2 0 (11. This equation will h a v e four u n d e t e r m i n e d coefficients. this e q u a t i o n c a n b e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s of g e o l o g i c a l f o r m a t i o n s l i k e l a c o l i t h s a n d m o u n t a i n c h a i n s . h e n c e d e t e r m i n e t w o of the four c o n s t a n t s . w e w o u l d n e e d a f o r c e w h i c h is o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of t h e a c t u a l b u o y a n t f o r c e g i v e n in E q . weight per unit length q.o r d e r d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n c a n b e w r i t t e n d o w n w h i c h r e l a t e s t h e a m o u n t of d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e s o l i d t o t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e e x t e r n a l f o r c e . F o r t h e c a s e of a n e l a s t i c s o l i d . (a) Write d o w n t h e equation which describies t h e deformation of t h e b e a m as a function of length (see figure). G . L = 1400 k m . h e n c e d e t e r m i n e the remaining c o n s t a n t s .

as s h o w n . In Section l l . torque x = L 11 .3. C o n s i d e r t h e formation of a m o u n t a i n train in w h i c h an initial d e f o r m a t i o n is p r e s e n t . W h a t is the c o n s t a n t /3? 11. (11. w e c o n s i d e r e d a lacolith f o r m e d b y u p w a r d flow t h r o u g h a straight crack.6) for a solid b e a m is just 11 . N o w s u p p o s e a load is applied to t h e e n d s of this deformation. D . S h o w that t h e equation equivalent to E q .4.C. and initially d e f o r m e d t o give a surface = d sin —.2.Problems 205 (d) Find t h e m a x i m u m deflection of the b e a m a n d t h e m a x i m u m internal g e n e r a t e d in t h e b e a m . 0 (see figure). e m b e d d e d in a m e d i u m of spring c o n s t a n t k. t h e e q u a t i o n which d e s c r i b e s t h e s h a p e of t h e surface layer is y=P(R -r )\ 2 2 w h e r e R is t h e radius of t h e lacolith and r t h e radial distance from t h e center. so that t h e final configuration is . S h o w that if w e consider u p w a r d flow t h r o u g h a point hole in t h e lower strata. T a k e as a model a crust of m o m e n t I and Y o u n g ' s m o d u l u s E.

E. a n d .F. and a force perpendicular to t h e strut at the e n d s b e F at x = 0.6.4). t h e only allowed solution for t h e strut is y = 0 e v e r y w h e r e . If t h e b e a m h a s weight q(x) on it. and allowed to e x t e n d vertically in a gravitational field as s h o w n . Follow t h e steps leading to E q . (b) Find a relation b e t w e e n P . Consider a strut with u n s u p p o r t e d free e n d s . 0 0 0 0 11. with an axial load P applied at x = 0 and x = L. w h e r e y is t h e e x t r a bending d u e to t h e applied forces. so that y(x) = x yo + y i .F at x = L (a) S h o w that t h e r e q u i r e m e n t that there b e n o t o r q u e at t h e e n d s leads to E q . F and t h e u n d e t e r m i n e d c o n s t a n t B. s h o w that this r e d u c e s t o . A solid b e a m of Y o u n g ' s m o d u l u s E and cross-sectional m o m e n t I is clamped at one e n d . (11. and t h e internal forces act as s h o w n : (a) S h o w that the equation for t h e deformation is where (b) F o r t h e c a s e q(x) = q = const. Interpret this result. (1 I. (c) S h o w that in t h e limit F = 0. Will t h e p h e n o m e n o n of buckling occur here? 11.5.206 General Properties of Solids—Statics A s s u m e all d e f o r m a t i o n s are small. 13) to find t h e final s h a p e of t h e crust.

this m e a n s Q S h o w b y plotting t h e right-hand side of t h e a b o v e as a function of j8L that t h e r e is a m i n i m u m value of / 3 L w h i c h will allow a solution (jSLLn ~ 7. H e n c e find t h e m a x i m u m height to w h i c h a t r e e c a n grow. S h o w that t h e w o r k d o n e in stretching a length of filament dl as in Fig. and its length L.9.Problems 207 where and z = L . 11.x. (c) S h o w that a solution t o this e q u a t i o n is a n d find a relation b e t w e e n t h e a .1 is W h e r e did this energy c o m e from? 11.8. b u t with a weight W applied at its c e n t e r .7. L e t t h e weight per unit length of t h e b e a m b e q. If a ^ 0. w e m u s t h a v e P = 0.8). Calculate t h e s h a p e of a weightless b e a m c l a m p e d at b o t h e n d s . s h o w that w e c a n write n (d) At z = L . s h o w that t h e energy stored in t h e b e n t b e a m is given b y 11. 11. D o any trees in n a t u r e c o m e close t o this limit? 3 3 11.10. H e n c e s h o w t h a t t h e energy stored in t h e cantilever in P r o b l e m 11. . F r o m t h e fact that t h e r e is n o t o r q u e at z = 0.5 is just H e n c e . a n d s u p p o r t e d (but not clamped) at a level with t h e c l a m p e d e n d at its other e n d . Calculate t h e s h a p e of a b e a m w h i c h is c l a m p e d at o n e end.

12). 1970. 1961. but suffers from a somewhat dated notational scheme. These include L. Love. C a r r y t h r o u g h t h e analysis in P r o b l e m 11. Carl W. b u t w h i c h has a c h a r g e per unit length a on it. Math is easy to follow. Dover Publications. H e n c e discuss t h e effect of wind on vertical s t r u c t u r e s . Theory of Elasticity. 1959. New York. New York. Scientific American. M. Condit. Introduction to Elasticity. 1956. 92. and Winston. This is a very interesting discussion of wind bracing in tall buildings (see Problem 11. M. Lifschitz.11.208 General Properties of Solids—Statics 11. An excellent and readable account of the geological processes by which various formations are created. New York. Landau and E.12. A. like Lamb's Hydrodynamics. S. p. Physical Processes in Geology. John Prescott. This text. Dover Publications. . McGraw-Hill. there are many standard texts on the theory of elasticity. REFERENCES As in the case of hydrodynamics. Rinehart. Uses a somewhat cumbersome dyadic notation. A. but there is little relation to experiment. Holt. New York. Applied Elasticity. F i n d t h e s h a p e t h e cantilever will h a v e in an electrical field E directed vertically. 230 # 2. Cooper. See the references in Chapter 8 for readings on the Fenno-Scandian uplift. Freeman. is an exhaustive treatment of many interesting and complicated problems. C o n s i d e r a cantilever w h o s e load per unit length is q. Pergamon Press. E. I. 1974. 1964. H. Vol.8 w h e n a c o n s t a n t force per unit length B is e x e r t e d in the horizontal direction on t h e b e a m . This book is especially valuable for physicists because of the clear treatment of descriptive geology which accompanies each example. Johnson. 1944. New York. A book which has many worked examples of complicated systems without the advanced mathematics used in many texts. D. The same comments apply to this as to the Landau and Lifschitz text on hydrodynamics cited in Chapter 1. Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. San Francisco. Gerard Nadeau. but discusses many simple problems in an understandable way. Will it ever c u r v e u p instead of d o w n ? 11. A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. Sokolnikoff.

GEORGE BERNARD SHAW Getting Married A. A f t e r a f o r c e is a p p l i e d . W e c a n d e f i n e t h e c h a n g e in r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n b y a v e c t o r du in t h e e q u a t i o n dx' = dx + du.1) w h i c h m e a n s t h a t t h e s q u a r e of t h e s e p a r a t i o n is j u s t dx' 2 = dx'i dx \ = (dXi + dUi)(dXi + du ) t 209 . l e t t h e s e p a r a t i o n b e d x ' .A. 12.12 General Properties of Solids— Dynamics In England. b u t o n l y t h e final s t a t i c d e f o r m a t i o n . h o w e v e r . it will first b e n e c e s s a r y t o find a m o r e g e n e r a l w a y of d e s c r i b i n g b o t h t h e a p p l i e d f o r c e s a n d t h e d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e s o l i d . THE STRAIN TENSOR W e h a v e seen that t h e main feature w h i c h distinguishes solids from l i q u i d s is t h e a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a t e i n t e r n a l f o r c e s t o o p p o s e e x t e r n a l l o a d s p l a c e d u p o n t h e m .1). (12. w e h a v e n o t c o n s i d e r e d h o w a s o l i d m o v e s w h e n a f o r c e is a p p l i e d . I n t h e c a s e of e l a s t i c s o l i d s . I n o r d e r t o d i s c u s s t h e d y n a m i c s o f t h e r e s p o n s e of a s o l i d t o f o r c e s . t h e s e i n t e r n a l f o r c e s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e s o l i d v i a H o o k e ' s l a w . U p t o t h i s p o i n t . L e t u s c o n s i d e r t w o p o i n t s in a s o l i d s e p a r a t e d b y a d i s t a n c e dx ( s e e F i g . we always let an institution strain until it breaks.

F r o m t h e d e r i v a t i o n . t h e v a l u e s of dx' dx are given by i = (1 + Ui) dx h .A. a s w e s h a l l s e e . it i s c l e a r t h a t t h e s t r a i n t e n s o r m u s t d e s c r i b e t h e d e f o r m a t i o n of a s o l i d .A.1. 12. k (12. s o l o n g a s w e c o n f i n e o u r a t t e n t i o n t o s m a l l d e f o r m a t i o n s ( a s w e d i d i n C h a p t e r 11). The deformation of a solid.o r d e r t e r m s in t h e d e r i v a t i v e s o f u s o t h a t t h (12.A. where w e have used the relationship If w e s h i f t s o m e d u m m y i n d i c e s . w e c a n d r o p s e c o n d . 2 ) ] . c o n s i d e r a s t r a i n t e n s o r given by /Mi 0\ u = I u \0 uj ik 2 I n s u c h a d i a g o n a l s t r a i n t e n s o r .2) is j u s t g i v e n b y (12. a n d is c a l l e d t h e strain tensor. t h i s c a n be written as dx' where the tensor u ik 2 = dx 2 + 2u ik dxt dx . ( 1 2 . A . F o r t h e first e x a m p l e . In o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d w h a t t h e strain t e n s o r m e a n s .3) T h i s is a n e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t q u a n t i t y .4) T h i s is t h e f o r m w h i c h w e s h a l l u s e t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e discussion. w e shall l o o k at t w o e x a m p l e s of s t r a i n t e n s o r s a n d d e d u c e t h e a c t u a l d e f o r m a t i o n s t o w h i c h t h e y c o r r e s p o n d .210 General Properties of Solids—Dynamics CD Fig. a n d r e a r r a n g e t h e s e c o n d t e r m . S i n c e t h e d e r i v a t i v e s of u d e s c r i b e t h e c h a n g e of r e l a t i v e c o o r d i n a t e s in t h e s o l i d [ s e e E q .

T h e q u a n t i t y Uu is t h e t r a c e of t h e s t r a i n t e n s o r .The Strain Tensor 211 s o t h a t t h e v o l u m e of a n e l e m e n t o n t h e s o l i d a f t e r t h e d e f o r m a t i o n w o u l d just be dV = dx\ dx dx = dx = dV(\ + u ). s u c h as / 0 ui 2 only 0\ u ik = iu 2l 0 0 2 0 0/ \ 0 x2 ( s i n c e t h e t e n s o r is s y m m e t r i c . consider a strain tensor which has off-diagonal e l e m e n t s . F o r our second example. 2 3 x dx 2 dx (\ 3 + u + u + u) x 2 3 ii w h e r e w e h a v e . i n i t i a l l y a l o n g t h e 1 a n d 2 a x e s . f r o m o u r first e x a m p l e . 12.2) A a n d B. t h e v e c t o r s will h a v e s h i f t e d o v e r . a n d w e s e e t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e c h a n g e o f v o l u m e of a n e l e m e n t is g i v e n b y (12.A. u = w i). . Rotation of position vectors in a solid. a n d t h a t a purely diagonal strain tensor corresponds to either a compression or dilation of t h e solid. A f t e r t h e d e f o r m a t i o n .o r d e r t e r m s in t h e d e f o r m a t i o n . — X Fig.2. 12 A < > \ SB. d r o p p e d s e c o n d . C o n s i d e r a s o l i d w h i c h b e f o r e d e f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n s t w o v e c t o r s ( s e e F i g . a n d w e will h a v e ( b y d e f i n i t i o n ) 8A 2 = u iA. 2 8B X = u B. w e s e e t h a t t h e d i a g o n a l e l e m e n t s o f t h e s t r a i n t e n s o r s a r e r e l a t e d t o c h a n g e s in v o l u m e s in t h e s o l i d . r e s p e c t i v e l y . again.5) T h u s . 12.

w e c a n w r i t e (12.212 General Properties of Solids—Dynamics F o r small angles. (11. t h e angles t h r o u g h w h i c h e a c h v e c t o r h a s b e e n r o t a t e d are given by s o t h a t t h e t o t a l c h a n g e in a n g l e b e t w e e n t h e t w o v e c t o r s is j u s t a = a . + a = 2u . t h e s e f o r c e s will c a n c e l o u t i n t h e s t a t i c c a s e . I n c o m p l e t e a n a l o g y t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t in S e c t i o n 8 . in f a c t .7)]. w h i l e t h e off-diagonal e l e m e n t s c o r r e s p o n d t o shearing.B. t h e y will n o t ( s e e F i g . of c o u r s e . ( 8 .1) .d i a g o n a l e l e m e n t s of t h e s t r a i n t e n s o r a r e r e l a t e d t o s h e a r d e f o r m a t i o n s in t h e s o l i d . ik L e t u s i n t r o d u c e t h e i d e a of a s t r e s s t e n s o r b y n o t i n g t h a t w h e n a b o d y is d e f o r m e d . b u t f o r a n e l e m e n t in t h e s u r f a c e .C. t h e n . T h e d i a g o n a l e l e m e n t s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e c o m p r e s s i o n o r d i l a t i o n of t h e s o l i d . T h e s t r a i n t e n s o r . and has already b e e n discussed (although n o t u n d e r t h i s n a m e ) in C h a p t e r 8. T h e r e a d e r m a y b e i n t e r e s t e d in c o m p a r i n g t h i s i d e a of f o r c e c a n c e l l a t i o n in t h e b o d y of a s o l i d w i t h t h e i d e a o f s u r f a c e t e n s i o n in a fluid ( C h a p t e r 5) o r in a n u c l e u s ( C h a p t e r 7). e a c h i n f i n i t e s i m a l e l e m e n t in t h e b o d y f e e l s a f o r c e p e r u n i t v o l u m e F e x e r t e d o n it b y i t s n e i g h b o r .C. w h e r e t h e t e n s o r <j w a s i n t r o d u c e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e v i s c o s i t y in a fluid [ s e e E q . A . 12. w e n e e d t o d e v e l o p a n e q u a l l y g e n e r a l i z e d w a y of d e s c r i b i n g t h e f o r c e s t h e m s e l v e s .A.3). w e s e e t h a t t h e o f f . c a n b e r e l a t e d t o t h e s h e a r a n g l e a. T h i s is k n o w n as the stress tensor. THE STRESS TENSOR N o w t h a t w e h a v e d e v e l o p e d a g e n e r a l i z e d w a y of d e s c r i b i n g t h e d e f o r m a t i o n of a s o l i d w h e n f o r c e s a r e a p p l i e d . g i v e s u s a w a y of d e s c r i b i n g t h e m o s t g e n e r a l k i n d s of d e f o r m a t i o n s w h i c h c a n t a k e p l a c e in a s o l i d . A .6) T h u s . 3 ) ] . is t h e m e c h a n i s m b y w h i c h a f o r c e is g e n e r a t e d a t t h e s u r f a c e of a b o d y t o c a n c e l t h e applied f o r c e s [see E q s . B. T h i s . a n d .6) a n d (11. 2 X2 (12. F o r a n e l e m e n t i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e b o d y .

( 1 2 .d i r e c t i o n o n a v o l u m e e l e m e n t .d i r e c t i o n . zx Fig.2) T h e t e n s o r cj w h o s e d i v e r g e n c e i s t h e b o d y f o r c e i n a s o l i d is c a l l e d t h e stress tensor.The Stress Tensor 213 Fig. a s t h e n e t f o r c e i n t h e i t h . c a l l e d z a.d i r e c t i o n o n a s u r f a c e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e Jcth-direction.B. B . w h i c h w e w o u l d t e r m o~ . for t h e f o r c e p e r u n i t v o l u m e in t h e i t h . xx yx (iii) a f o r c e a l o n g t h e z . (ii) a f o r c e a l o n g t h e y .d i r e c t i o n is j u s t (12. In g e n e r a l . so t h a t t h e t o t a l f o r c e in t h e i t h . 12.3. . W e s e e t h a t it c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d [ E q . An interpretation of the stress tensor. 12. c a l l e d c r .d i r e c t i o n .4.4 i n w h i c h a s u r f a c e i n t h e y-z p l a n e is d r a w n . c o n s i d e r F i g . T h i s s u r f a c e is p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e x . 12.d i r e c t i o n . a n d is e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f s o l i d s . 2 ) ] . Forces on internal and surface volume elements in a solid.d i r e c t i o n . t h e r e a r e t h r e e t y p e s o f f o r c e s t h a t c a n b e e x e r t e d o n it ik (i) a f o r c e d i r e c t e d a l o n g t h e x . T o m a k e this i d e a c l e a r .

P dSt = . J u s t a s in d e a l i n g w i t h s t a t i c d e f o r m a t i o n s w e w e r e g i v e n t h e l o a d a n d h a d t o d i s c o v e r t h e s h a p e of t h e material. Since t h e p r e s s u r e b y definition acts p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e s u r f a c e . ik s o t h a t a p u r e c o m p r e s s i o n of d i l a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o a d i a g o n a l s t r e s s tensor.4) (12 .B. t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g o n a s o l i d w i l l b e g i v e n . t h e s t r e s s t e n s o r is g i v e n . T h e e l e c t r i c i t y a n d m a g n e t i c fields. a r e g i v e n in t e r m s of c h a r g e a n d c u r r e n t densities. A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t e x a m p l e of a s t r e s s t e n s o r c a n b e t a k e n f r o m t h e field of e l e c t r i c i t y a n d m a g n e t i s m ( t h e r e a d e r u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s field c a n s k i p a h e a d t o S e c t i o n 1 2 . V • B = 0. C w i t h o u t l o s s of c o n t i n u i t y ) . I t i s e a s y t o s h o w [see Problem(12. t w o t h i n g s m u s t b e s p e c i f i e d : T h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e f o r c e a n d t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e s u r f a c e .B .P8* t dS . T h i s is w h y a s e c o n d r a n k t e n s o r p r o v i d e s t h e m o s t n a t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of f o r c e s a c t i n g a t t h e s u r f a c e s of s o l i d s . E a n d B . a n d w e s h a l l w a n t t o find t h e r e s p o n s e of t h e s o l i d ( d e s c r i b e d b y t h e s t r a i n t e n s o r ) . w h i c h e x e r t s a p r e s s u r e P o n t h e surface. T h e r e are t w o points t o n o t e a b o u t the stress tensor before w e look at s o m e e x a m p l e s . w h i l e t h e o t h e r t w o a r e s h e a r forces. t h e f o r c e e x e r t e d o n a s u r f a c e e l e m e n t is s i m p l y ik F = . S e c o n d . that <Jik = Cr . w e n o t e again t h a t in d e s c r i b i n g a f o r c e a c t i n g o n a s u r f a c e .5) .E = 4TTP. C o n s i d e r first a b o d y i m m e r s e d i n a fluid.B . k w h e r e t h e m i n u s sign d e n o t e s a n i n w a r d force. T h i s is e x a c t l y a n a l o g o u s t o t h e u s u a l p r o b l e m in m e c h a n i c s . in t h e m o r e general p r o b l e m s w h i c h w e shall d e s c r i b e . a n d t h e n r e q u i r e d t o find t h e s u b s e q u e n t m o t i o n . (12 .3) (12. i n a l m o s t all of t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e e n c o u n t e r e d in d e a l i n g w i t h s o l i d s . by the Maxwell equations V . t h e stress t e n s o r is j u s t (Tik = — P8 . F o r this c a s e . p and j . F i r s t . ki F u r t h e r f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h tr i s p r o b a b l y b e s t d o n e t h r o u g h e x a m p l e s .214 General Properties of Solids—Dynamics T h e first of t h e s e is a c o m p r e s s i o n a l f o r c e .3)l that t h e stress t e n s o r m u s t b e s y m m e t r i c — i . in w h i c h w e a r e g i v e n t h e f o r c e s acting o n a b o d y . e .

If w e w r i t e (12. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . 2 ) . is j u s t w h i c h is p r e c i s e l y t h e f o r m o f E q .7) T h e l e f t . T h e n t h e t o t a l f o r c e a c t i n g o n t h e c h a r g e s a n d c u r r e n t w o u l d iust b e U s i n g E q . w e h a v e .6) S u p p o s e t h a t w e h a d a c o l l e c t i o n of c h a r g e s a n d c u r r e n t s e n c l o s e d i n a v o l u m e V. (12. ( 1 2 .B.8) t h e n Tij is t h e Maxwell stress tensor. .h a n d s i d e i s j u s t t h e t i m e r a t e of c h a n g e of t h e t o t a l m o m e n t u m . T h e r i g h t .B.h a n d s i d e . after adding and subtracting to the integrand (12. in C a r t e s i a n t e n s o r n o t a t i o n . a quantity familiar from elect r o d y n a m i c s .1 a n d E q . of c o u r s e . T h u s .B. I t i s . ( 1 2 . j u s t o n e e x a m p l e of a s t r e s s t e n s o r .5) t o eliminate j f r o m this expression. t h e t i m e d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e m o m e n t u m of t h e p a r t i c l e s ) a n d t h e t i m e d e r i v a t i v e of ( l / 4 7 r c ) ( E x B ) . B . a n d w e h a v e c a l c u l a t e d it b y d e t e r m i n i n g d i r e c t l y t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g o n e a c h p o i n t of o u r b o d y .h a n d s i d e of t h i s e q u a t i o n n o w is a f o r c e (i.B.B.The Stress Tensor 215 (12. t h e l e f t .3) t o eliminate p a n d E q . B . c a n b e r e w r i t t e n u s i n g t h e r e s u l t of t h e first v e c t o r i d e n t i t y in P r o b l e m 1. 4 ) t o r e a d w h i c h . w h i c h w e i d e n t i f y a s t h e m o m e n t u m o f t h e field. (12.e.

6). .216 General Properties of Solids—Dynamics I t is i m p o r t a n t t o e m p h a s i z e t h a t in c a l c u l a t i n g t h e s t r e s s t e n s o r . t o find t h e d e f o r m a t i o n i n a g i v e n s o l i d c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a g i v e n f o r c e . W e a r e s i m p l y r e w r i t i n g t h e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g o n a b o d y in a w a y w h i c h shall t u r n out t o b e v e r y c o n v e n i e n t for u s . w h e r e t h e a t o m s a r e h e l d t o g e t h e r b y s p r i n g s . w e h a v e at our d i s p o s a l c o m p l e t e l y g e n e r a l w a y s of d e s c r i b i n g b o t h t h e f o r c e s w h i c h a r e a p p l i e d t o a solid a n d t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e solid d e f o r m s in r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e f o r c e s . e . W e w o u l d t h e n s e e t h e m a t e r i a l f r a c t u r e instantaneously. t h e m a t e r i a l will d e f o r m until t h e s p r i n g s h a v e c o m p r e s s e d e n o u g h t o counteract the applied force F. T h e p r o b l e m n o w is t o r e l a t e t h e s e t w o d e s c r i p t i o n s — i . S u c h a relation d e p e n d s entirely on the material being stressed. 12. 12. T h e r e is n o a priori r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s t r e s s a n d t h e s t r a i n .5. C. w e c o u l d i m a g i n e a m a t e r i a l in w h i c h t h e a t o m s w e r e h e l d t o g e t h e r b y r i g i d r o d s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d .5. w h e r e t h e d e f o r m a t i o n is d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e s t r e s s . w e k n o w t h a t in s o m e c a s e s (see S e c t i o n 2. A third p o s s i b l e k i n d of r e s p o n s e t o a f o r c e w o u l d b e o n e in w h i c h t h e Fig. EQUATION OF MOTION FOR SOLIDS H a v i n g n o w defined t h e stress a n d strain t e n s o r s . F o r e x a m p l e . s o t h a t if a f o r c e i s a p p l i e d . 12.B) w e c a n talk a b o u t e l a s t i c s o l i d s . W h e n a f o r c e is a p p l i e d . W e m i g h t p i c t u r e t h e m i c r o s c o p i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m a t e r i a l a s i n F i g . An harmonic solid. t h e s o l i d d o e s n o t d e f o r m a t all u n t i l t h e a p p l i e d f o r c e r e a c h e s t h e p o i n t w h e r e it c a n b r e a k t h e r o d s ( s e e F i g . w e a r e a d d i n g n o t h i n g t o o u r k n o w l e d g e of t h e p h y s i c s of t h e s y s t e m . W e can easily i m a g i n e m a n y d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of r e s p o n s e t o a n a p p l i e d f o r c e .

1) w h e r e A a n d /JL a r e c a l l e d t h e L a m e c o e f f i c i e n t s a n d differ f r o m o n e e l a s t i c s o l i d t o a n o t h e r . s o t h a t a f o r c e w h i c h is a p p l i e d c o n t i n u o u s l y r e s u l t s in a c o n t i n u o u s d e f o r m a t i o n .C. a n d is d i s c u s s e d i n P r o b l e m 12. C . ik ik k (12. w e s h a l l b e c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h elastic solids. w e h a d t o h a v e a n e q u a t i o n of s t a t e . 2.s t r a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p . 1 ) is s i m p l y H o o k e ' s l a w i n t e n s o r f o r m . in o r d e r t o s u p p l y t h e " e q u a t i o n of s t a t e " f o r a s o l i d . I n t h e c a s e of a s o l i d . g i v e a s t r e s s . W e m i g h t p i c t u r e s u c h a s o l i d a s o n e in w h i c h t h e b o n d s b e t w e e n t h e a t o m s a r e v e r y w e a k . A rigid solid. I n s u c h solids. T h u s . S i n c e cr is a s y m m e t r i c t e n s o r . w h e n w e f o u n d t h a t in d e a l i n g w i t h a fluid s y s t e m . w e m u s t 1. t h e m o s t g e n e r a l f o r m of t h e s t r e s s strain relationship m u s t b e ik or = kUn8 +2fJLUi .1) defines a g e n e r a l elastic solid]. (12. f o r c e i s r e l a t e d t o t h e rate of d e f o r m a t i o n ( i . 12. s p e c i f y t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s w h i c h s a y w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r s o l i d i n t h a t .Equation of Motion for Solids 217 Fig. w h i c h t e l l s u s w h a t g e n e r a l c l a s s o f solids w e h a v e [Eq. S u c h a s y s t e m w o u l d b e c a l l e d a Newtonian solid.6. E q u a t i o n ( 1 2 . T h r o u g h o u t t h e r e s t of t h e t e x t . a s will b e v e r i f i e d e x p l i c i t l y l a t e r . T h e p o i n t of t h i s e x e r c i s e i s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e m a r k m a d e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s e c t i o n — t h e r e i s n o w a y w e c a n t e l l f r o m first p r i n c i p l e s h o w a s o l i d w i l l r e s p o n d t o a n a p p l i e d f o r c e . s p e c i f y i n g t h e t y p e of m a t e r i a l in t h e s y s t e m c o r r e s p o n d s t o giving a relation b e t w e e n the stress a n d the strain.C. e . W e s a w f o r c e s of t h i s t y p e i n C h a p t e r 7 w h e n w e discussed viscosity.4. T h i s is a n e x a c t l o g i c a l a n a l o g y t o t h e l e s s o n w e l e a r n e d in S e c t i o n l . w h i c h t o l d u s w h a t s o r t of fluid w e h a d i n t h e s y s t e m . which gave rise to a force which depended on the v e l o c i t y of t h e fluid. a n d s i n c e it m u s t b e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e s t r a i n t e n s o r . t o t h e t i m e d e r i v a t i v e s of t h e s t r a i n t e n s o r ) . w e e x p e c t t h a t t h e s t r e s s will b e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e s t r a i n . D .

an = 0 otherwise. C .218 General Properties of Solids—Dynamics g e n e r a l c l a s s w e h a v e ( e .C . (12 . u p o n substitution. M . I n o r d e r t o m a k e t h e t e n s o r f r o m H o o k e ' s l a w a little m o r e familiar. l e t u s l o o k a t s o m e e x a m p l e s .2 2 = 0 = 8 2^Uu 2 3 33 + 2/XUN. yields . 3 3 (12.W 2 2 + W33. a n d recalling that Uu = M 1 1 4 . 3 ) y i e l d s 12. N o w M 1 1 is t h e d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e c y l i n d e r a l o n g t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e tension. P o i s s o n ' s ratio is which.C.4) w h i c h . ( 1 2 . F i r s t .5) and (12. (12 .C. we have 12.1) a r e (TN = T = SnXUu 0 . . this is related t o t h e t e n s i o n b y T = EMH. if w e p l u g b a c k i n t o E q s .C.C.C . g . 2 + 2jLtw 2. Similarly. s o that t h e stress tensor is 0"n = T .6) for t h e t h r e e diagonal e l e m e n t s of t h e strain tensor. w h e r e E is Y o u n g ' s m o d u l u s .3) cr 3 = 0 = 6 A M H + 2 p . c o n s i d e r a c y l i n d e r u n d e r a t e n s i o n T.2) T h e n t h e t h r e e d i a g o n a l e q u a t i o n s f r o m E q . B y definition. g i v i n g A a n d fx c o m p l e t e l y s p e c i f i e s t h e elastic solid). Adding these three equations.

a g e n e r a l p r o p e r t y of t h e s t r a i n t e n s o r . N e x t consider a solid u n d e r h y d r o s t a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n . 3 ) t o E q .. w h i c h c a n b e u s e d t o d e f i n e t h e shear modulus (the proportionality c o n s t a n t b e t w e e n t h e a p p l i e d s h e a r a n d t h e a n g l e of d e f o r m a t i o n ) a s (12. T o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e .11) If w e t h e n f o l l o w t h e e x a c t s t e p s of E q . . d e p e n d i n g o n w h i c h is m o s t c o n v e n i e n t in a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m . t h a t t h e L a m e c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e s i m p l y r e l a t e d t o E a n d cr. t h e n .C. otherwise. W e c a n t h e n s e e t h a t t h e r a t i o of v o l u m e c h a n g e t o a p p l i e d p r e s s u r e is j u s t (12. consider t w o examples: First. ( 1 2 . t h e n u m b e r s w h i c h w e u s e d i n C h a p t e r 11 t o d e f i n e a n e l a s t i c m a t e r i a l . recalling E q . C . w e find w h e r e w e h a v e u s e d E q . t h e n . A . an = 0 Then we have CTi2 = T = s o t h a t . (12. so that ani = . o r E a n d cr i n d e s c r i b i n g e l a s t i c s o l i d s .A.8) W e s e e . 4 ) . i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e L a m e c o e f f i c i e n t p. consider a pure shearing force. ( 1 2 .12) w h i c h is u s u a l l y c a l l e d t h e bulk modulus of t h e m a t e r i a l .6) 2jLLMi2. of c o u r s e .C.P 6 V (12. T h e r e a r e a n o t h e r set of c o n s t a n t s w h i c h a r e o f t e n u s e d a s a l t e r n a t i v e s t o A a n d p. C .Equation of Motion for Solids 219 and (12. ( 1 2 . I n w h a t f o l l o w s .C.10) w h i c h i s . w e s h a l l f e e l f r e e t o u s e a n y of t h e s e t h r e e s e t s of e l a s t i c c o n s t a n t s t o d e f i n e o u r s o l i d . so that cr 12 = cr2i = T. 5 ) .C.

h o w e v e r .15) o r . BODY WAVES IN ELASTIC MEDIA I n t h e c a s e of f l u i d s .1)] so that (12. T h i s is a n a l o g o u s t o d e r i v i n g t h e E u l e r e q u a t i o n .14) If w e u s e t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e s t r a i n t e n s o r [ E q .d e p e n d e n t r e s p o n s e of a n e l e m e n t i n a n e l a s t i c s o l i d t o a n a p p l i e d f o r c e . If w e t a k e t h e g r a d i e n t of E q .C. 1 6 ) . w e h a v e (12. w e s a w t h a t a g r e a t d e a l of i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d b e d e r i v e d b y l o o k i n g f o r w a v e .C. since both involve Newton's second l a w .t y p e s o l u t i o n s of t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n . w e s h a l l .13) B u t w e k n o w t h a t [see E q .C. A .220 General Properties of Solids—Dynamics Having now written d o w n H o o k e ' s law and seen what the Lame c o e f f i c i e n t s r e p r e s e n t in t e r m s o f d e f o r m a t i o n s o f a s o l i d . If ft is t h e f o r c e in the /th-direction o n an infinitesimal v o l u m e e l e m e n t . ( 1 2 .17) w h i l e if w e t a k e t h e c u r l of t h e e q u a t i o n . (12. T h e r e m a i n d e r of t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l b e d e v o t e d t o e x a m i n i n g t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s of t h e e q u a t i o n .B.16) T h i s is t h e b a s i c e q u a t i o n w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e t i m e . 4 ) ] a n d r e a r r a n g e terms. B e f o r e m o v i n g o n . w e find t h a t (12. C . I t is i n t e r e s t i n g t o a s k w h e t h e r t h e s a m e i s t r u e f o r s o l i d s .18) D. ( 1 2 . W e .C. f o r t h e s a k e of c o m p l e t e n e s s .C. w e c a n t u r n t o t h e p r o b l e m of w r i t i n g d o w n t h e e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n f o r a n i n f i n i t e s i m a l e l e m e n t i n t h e s o l i d . this b e c o m e s (12.C. w r i t e d o w n t w o f o r m s of t h e e q u a t i o n w h i c h s h a l l b e u s e f u l l a t e r . in v e c t o r f o r m (12. t h e n N e w t o n ' s s e c o n d l a w f o r t h a t v o l u m e e l e m e n t is (12.

s i n c e t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t is i n t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n a s t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e w a v e . C . I n F i g . W e s h a l l first l o o k f o r s o l u t i o n s o f t h e e q u a t i o n of t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e : A w a v e d i s t u r b a n c e of s o m e s o r t t r a v e l s in t h e x . 1 8 ) . i s t h e e q u a t i o n of a w a v e t r a v e l i n g a l o n g t h e x . 1 7 ) a n d ( 1 2 . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o u u so that x = u (xx ct).d i r e c t i o n . Velocities of particles for acoustic waves.d i r e c t i o n a s w e l l .a x i s w i t h velocity c where h (12. h o w e v e r .D.D.Body Waves in Elastic Media 221 s h a l l s e e t h a t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of w a v e s w h i c h c a n p r o p a g a t e t h r o u g h a solid. z (12. 12.7. . a n d w e shall see h o w this i n f o r m a t i o n h a s e n a b l e d u s t o d i s c o v e r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e e a r t h t h r o u g h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e s c i e n c e o f s e i s m o l o g y F r o m E q s . I t c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s a c o m p r e s s i o n a l w a v e a s well. C .7. u p o s i t i v e c o r r e s p o n d s t o x x Fig.3) W e h a v e u s e d t h e s u b s c r i p t / b e c a u s e t h i s is a l o n g i t u d i n a l w a v e . it is c l e a r t h a t w a v e s w i l l e x i s t . ( 1 2 . 12. y = u = 0.D. of c o u r s e . l e t u s l o o k a t e x a m p l e s o f t w o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of w a v e s a n d s i m p l y v e r i f y t h a t t h e y satisfy t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n for a solid. T o s e e this.2) T h i s . a n d t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s o l i d i s i n t h e x . R a t h e r t h a n p r o c e e d f o r m a l l y f r o m t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n . let u s plot u a s a f u n c t i o n of x f o r fixed t.1) a n d t h e e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n b e c o m e s which reduces to (12.

222 General Properties of Solids—Dynamics t h e p a r t i c l e s m o v i n g t o t h e r i g h t ( w h i c h w e t a k e t o b e t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e w a v e ) . w h i l e t h e s h e a r w a v e c o r r e s p o n d s t o E q . (12. ( 1 2 . T o s e e t h i s . e a c h t r a v e l i n g w i t h a different s p e e d .D. i n w h i c h t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e m a t e r i a l i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of m o t i o n of t h e w a v e . a n d h e n c e t o E q .5) w h i c h is a g a i n a w a v e e q u a t i o n f o r a t r a n s v e r s e w a v e ( t h e t e r m s l o n g i t u d i n a l a n d t r a n s v e r s e r e f e r t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t r e l a t i v e t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of m o t i o n of t h e w a v e ) . T h i s w i l l b e o b s e r v e d a s a p a t t e r n of d e n s i t y v a r i a t i o n s w h i c h . is in s e i s m o l o g y . w i l l m o v e t o t h e r i g h t .D. O n e i m p o r t a n t c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e t w o t y p e s of w a v e s w h i c h c a n b e e x c i t e d i n a s o l i d .D.3) a n d (12. s i n c e t c a n b e t h o u g h t of a s a s m a l l . x x x A m o r e u s u a l t y p e o f w a v e is t h e t r a n s v e r s e w a v e . a s t i m e p r o g r e s s e s . t . I n t h e l o w e r p a r t of t h e figure w e s h o w t h e a c t u a l d i r e c t i o n of m o t i o n of e l e m e n t s .17). T h e v e l o c i t y of t h e w a v e is (12. a n d h e n c e t h i s t y p e of w a v e is s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d a n acoustic wave. w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o u which gives V • u = 0. C .D.D.4) > c. T h i s is j u s t w h a t a s o u n d w a v e i s . A w a v e o n a string w o u l d b e a n e x a m p l e of s u c h a p h e n o m e n o n . T h e c o m p r e s s i o n a l w a v e c o r r e s p o n d s t o v o l u m e c h a n g e s in t h e solid. I t is e a s y t o s e e t h a t e a c h of t h e s e w a v e s c o r r e s p o n d s t o a d i f f e r e n t f o r m of t h e e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n .C. 1 8 ) .s c a l e s h e a r i n g in t h e b o d y of t h e s o l i d . u = u z (12. (12. s h o u l d it e x i s t .6) that Ci y = u (x y x — ct). s o t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n i n t h e y d i r e c t i o n is j u s t (12. a n d u n e g a t i v e c o r r e s p o n d s t o p a r t i c l e s m o v i n g t o t h e left. T h u s .6) T h i s t y p e of t r a n s v e r s e w a v e i n a s o l i d i s c a l l e d a shear wave. W e s e e t h a t e l e m e n t s of t h e s o l i d t e n d t o m o v e t o w a r d e v e r y o t h e r p o i n t w h e r e u is z e r o . w e n o t e that f r o m E q s . = 0. t h e d e n s i t y in t h e f o r m e r r e g i o n s w i l l b e g r e a t e r t h a n t h e d e n s i t y a r o u n d t h e l a t t e r . a n d a w a y f r o m t h e p o i n t s w h e r e u is a n e x t r e m u m . T h i s t y p e of w a v e .

w e s a w t h a t it is p o s s i b l e t o h a v e w a v e s i n a fluid w h i c h e x i s t o n l y in t h e s u r f a c e . t h e r e w o u l d b e t w o s h o c k s a r r i v i n g a t the surface after such a disturbance. L e t us a s s u m e the earth has a uniform density. w h i c h is 9. U n l i k e t h e P a n d S w a v e s w h i c h w e c o n s i d e r e d in t h e l a s t s e c t i o n . d e p e n d o n t h e d e n s i t y a n d t h e k i n d of m a t e r i a l of w h i c h t h e e a r t h is composed.E. I n t h i s s e c t i o n . a n d h e n c e is c a l l e d t h e S. o n e c a n o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e e a r t h . t h e t i m e d i f f e r e n c e w i l l be 6 A s w e s h a l l s e e l a t e r . s e i s m o l o g i s t s r e f e r t o it a s t h e P w a v e . l e t u s c o n s i d e r a n e a r t h q u a k e a t T o k y o . 12. T h e s e . T h i s i s t h e a i m of t h e s c i e n c e of s e i s m o l o g y .1) . t h e c o m p r e s s i o n a l w a v e will r e a c h t h e s u r f a c e first. a n d a s k w h a t t h e t i m e d i f f e r e n c e is b e t w e e n t h e P a n d S w a v e s a s o b s e r v e d at San Francisco. o r p r i n c i p l e w a v e . A s a n e x a m p l e of t h i s e f f e c t . t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e e a r t h v a r i e s a s a f u n c t i o n of d e p t h m a k e s t h e a c t u a l c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e p a t h s of s e i s m i c w a v e s a n d of t h e p r o p e r t i e s of t h e e a r t h ' s i n t e r i o r q u i t e a b i t m o r e difficult. in t u r n . w e s h a l l s e e t h a t s u c h w a v e s c a n e x i s t in s o l i d s a s w e l l . E. C o n s i d e r a s e m i .i n f i n i t e s o l i d ( a s s h o w n in F i g . o r s e c o n d a r y w a v e . t t B y m e a s u r i n g t h e t i m e l a g b e t w e e n t h e a r r i v a l of d i f f e r e n t w a v e s f r o m a d i s t u r b a n c e .8) in w h i c h a w a v e propagates with velocity (12. H e n c e . SURFACE WAVES IN SOLIDS I n C h a p t e r 5 .5 x 1 0 m l o n g .Surface Waves in Solids 223 s o t h a t t h e c o m p r e s s i o n a l w a v e t r a v e l s f a s t e r t h a n t h e s h e a r w a v e . T h e s h e a r w a v e a r r i v e s a t s o m e l a t e r t i m e . T h e r e f o r e . and the time difference b e t w e e n their a r r i v a l s w o u l d d e p e n d o n t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e s o f c a n d c . T h e r e f o r e . t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s u r f a c e w a v e s d e p e n d s o n a p p l y i n g b o t h t h e e q u a t i o n of motion and the boundary conditions. w i t h b o t h c o m p r e s sional a n d s h e a r w a v e s c o m i n g o u t . w h i c h w e s h a l l d i s c u s s l a t e r . a n d w h i c h d i e o u t r a p i d l y a s a f u n c t i o n of d e p t h . If w e i m a g i n e a d i s t u r b a n c e s o m e w h e r e d e e p in t h e e a r t h . a n d t h a t t h e coefficients are e v e r y w h e r e c o n s t a n t a n d are e q u a l t o t h o s e for f u s e d silicates. T h e s e w a v e s will t r a v e l directly a c r o s s a c h o r d of t h e e a r t h .

If w e t h r o w o u t s o l u t i o n s w h i c h b e c o m e i n f i n i t e a s y -> .E.E. H o w e v e r . (12.4) w h i c h h a s a s i t s s o l u t i o n f u n c t i o n s of t h e f o r m / = e .5) This solution for u. w e will h a v e (12. b u t a s w e g o i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r of t h e m a t e r i a l .(yy -"°.8.E. (12. a s w a s i m p l i e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s s e c t i o n .3) w h e r e c. w e h a v e ± y y Hi =B e e ~ \ yiy iikx bit i (12.6)] a r e v e l o c i t i e s of b o d y w a v e s .D. (12. and u y z e x h i b i t s all t h e p r o p e r t i e s w e w i s h t o associate with a surface w a v e — e a c h component exhibits w a v e behavior. it . t h e y a r e n o t t h e v e l o c i t y of a n y w a v e i n t h e s u r f a c e .D. t h e d i s t u r b a n c e d i e s o u t e x p o n e n t i a l l y (but n o t e t h a t t h e t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s d o n o t die o u t at t h e s a m e r a t e ) . z.3)] a n d c t [given b y E q . t t It m u s t b e e m p h a s i z e d t h a t a l t h o u g h c [given b y E q . = d if i = x. T h e y a r e s i m p l y d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s of t h e p a r a m e t e r s p . If w e s u b s t i t u t e t h e a s s u m e d f o r m s of u i n t o t h e s e e q u a t i o n s . a n d /x. 12. w e find t (12. Geometry for surface waves.224 General Properties of Solids—Dynamics Fig.E. L e t u s a l s o a s s u m e t h a t t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of a s o l i d e l e m e n t i n a n y d i r e c t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e d e p t h . a n d c if i = y. If w e p u t t h e s e a s s u m e d f o r m s o f t h e s o l u t i o n b a c k i n t o t h e e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n .«>. T h i s m e a n s t h a t w e a r e assuming that ^=/.\ Kkx t ( t o Uz=/.2) =fy(y)e . a n d n o t e t h a t w e will p r o v e l a t e r t h a t y > 0.(y)e u y l ( k *-"°. A. x u.

6) L e t u s l o o k a t t h e c o n d i t i o n o n o- first.8) I n o t h e r w o r d s . (12.\ iikx Mt y which means that (12. ( 1 2 . .E. (12. s o w e h a v e B u t from E q .E.E. in s u r f a c e w a v e s of t h e t y p e w e a r e s t u d y i n g t h e r e c a n b e n o d i s p l a c e m e n t i n t h e z . F r o m E q . C . du /dz y = 0.10) w h i c h m e a n s t h a t t h e p a r t i c l e m o t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s w a v e is i n f a c t r e t r o g r a d e e l l i p s e ( s e e F i g . F r o m the condition on a . SV y ( s h e a r v e r t i c a l w a v e ) is o n e i n w h i c h w e h a v e [again u s i n g E q .9). since in w h i c h t h e w a v e is h o r i z o n t a l to the surface p r o p a g a t i n g . is (for s h e a r h o r i z o n t a l ) . which m e a n s that cr (y yx =0) = a (y yy yz =0) = cr (y yz = 0) = 0 .Surface Waves in Solids 225 is n e c e s s a r y t o s a t i s f y c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e b o u n d a r y a s w e l l a s t h e e q u a t i o n o f m o t i o n if w e w i s h t o s h o w t h a t s u c h w a v e s e x i s t . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . so that we must have B z = 0.2).1)] x x (T (y xy = 0) = 0 = ii[B y + ikB ]e .C. w e h a v e (12.d i r e c t i o n . xy seismology. w e find t h a t a t y = 0 . ( 1 2 .E. w e h a v e (12. 1 ) . E . I n t h e l a n g u a g e of d i s p l a c e m e n t i n t h e z . of c o u r s e . (12. 2 ) . (12.9) If w e p u t t h e s e b a c k i n t o E q .E. T h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n .E.7) b u t f r o m s y m m e t r y . 12. is s i m p l y t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e plane y = 0 b e a free surface.d i r e c t i o n is c a l l e d SH the displacement u is n o n z e r o .

a n d (12.E. 2 Thus. it is a p p r o x i m a t e l y t r u e t h a t t h e L a m e c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e a b o u t (12. i n w h i c h it w a s s h o w n t h a t a s u r f a c e w a v e c o u l d e x i s t i n a s o l i d . E . C .13) In this case. in and c x some quantities appropriate for the earth's surface. (12. F r o m E q s .14) W h i c h sign should w e p i c k ? T o a n s w e r this q u e s t i o n .D.1). is c a l l e d t h e Rayleigh d i s c u s s e d it. (12. 12. ( 1 2 .4).E. The motion of a particle in a surface wave.11) U s i n g E q . 2 2 relation. 2 ) .E. . 5 ) . u s i n g E q s . in p r i n c i p l e . N o w w e c o u l d . (12. c o n v e r s e l y .) iikx fOt yy f y y = 0. o u r j o b is m a d e c o n s i d e r a b l y s i m p l e r if w e m a k e u s e o f a n e x p e r i m e n t a l o b s e r v a t i o n k n o w n a s Poisson's e q u a l . SH T h i s t y p e of w a v e .E. inserting for c t t and c t (or.E. g o a h e a d a n d s o l v e this e q u a t i o n .9) a n d rearranging. ( 1 2 . w e m u s t a p p l y t h e final b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n .6) (12.D. w e h a v e w h i c h c a n b e w r i t t e n . t h e equation for c c a n b e solved simply to give (12. in t u r n . ( 1 2 . w h o first W h a t is t h e v e l o c i t y of a R a y l e i g h w a v e ? I n o r d e r t o a n s w e r t h i s . w e h a v e < r ( y = 0 ) = (ifcRA + ( A +2 jL)y B )e . which states that f o r t h e e a r t h .E.E. (12. w e h a v e t o refer t o E q . it w a s n e c e s s a r y t h a t c < c 2 2 t < c.3). w h i c h is c o n f i n e d t o t h e s u r f a c e a n d h a s n o c o m p o n e n t . (12. i m p l i e s t h a t c ^3c . a f t e r L o r d R a y l e i g h . E . 1 ) .E. a n d (12.9. T h i s .226 General Properties of Solids—Dynamics wave direction y = 0 Fig. H o w e v e r .12) T h i s e q u a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s c i n t e r m s of c t e r m s of /x a n d A ) .6). wave. I n o r d e r f o r t h i s t o b e t r u e .

E. it is a l s o t r u e t h a t y e t a n o t h e r k i n d of s u r f a c e w a v e i s o b s e r v e d . T h i s s i g n a l w i l l a r r i v e a f t e r t h e S a n d P s i g n a l s ( b e c a u s e it h a s a l o w e r v e l o c i t y a n d f a r t h e r t o t r a v e l ) . E . 12. A l t h o u g h s u c h a w a v e w o u l d n o t b e p o s s i b l e in a u n i f o r m h o m o g e n o u s e a r t h .1) . a n d t h e o t h e r r o o t m u s t b e d i s c a r d e d a s e x t r a n e o u s . T h u s . w e shall h a v e t o l o o k f o r s o l u t i o n s t o t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n a n d t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e of t h e f o r m u = z tty)e -*\ iikx Uy = U X = 0. f r o m y = 0 t o y = T. a t h i r d signal will b e r e c e i v e d . ' . I n s e i s m o l o g y . t h e n a n SH w a v e w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o a m o t i o n of t h e e l e m e n t s of t h e s o l i d s i n t h e z-direction. H . of c o u r s e . If w e a g a i n c o n s i d e r a w a v e m o v i n g i n t h e j c . a n d t h e y a r e u s u a l l y c a l l e d Love waves. F.F. t h e e a r t h is n o t a h o m o g e n e o u s m e d i u m . t h e r e will b e a w a v e t r a v e l i n g a l o n g t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h a s w e l l .Waves in Surface Layers 227 o n l y t h e c h o i c e of t h e m i n u s sign in E q .92c„ (12. WAVES IN SURFACE LAYERS T h e r e a s o n t h a t w e f a i l e d t o p r e d i c t t h e e x i s t e n c e of SH s u r f a c e w a v e s in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n w a s t h a t w e h a d t a k e n t o o s i m p l e a m o d e l for t h e e a r t h . S u c h w a v e s a r e . w i t h d e n s i t y p ' a n d L a m e coefficient p . a n d a l a y e r of s o l i d of d e n s i t y p a n d c o e f f i c i e n t p.10. t h e y a r e p o s s i b l e in m o r e r e a l i s t i c m o d e l s of t h e e a r t h . w h i c h i s a p u r e SH w a v e . w e n e e d only o b s e r v e that a better model for t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h w o u l d b e o n e in w h i c h t h e r e w a s a s u r f a c e l a y e r of a d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e m a i n b o d y . S u p p o s e w e t a k e a s o u r m o d e l of t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e t h e s i t u a t i o n s h o w n in F i g . t h e n .4) will r e s u l t in a s u r f a c e w a v e . (12.d i r e c t i o n .E. o b s e r v e d i n n a t u r e . but for our p u r p o s e s . a n d it i s t o t h i s p r o b l e m w e n o w t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n . b u t h a s a r a t h e r c o m p l e x s t r u c t u r e . (12. L o v e . T h e e x i s t e n c e of w a v e s in s u c h a l a y e r w a s first n o t e d b y A . W e a r e left with the result c =0.15) so that t h e R a y l e i g h w a v e travels at a slightly s l o w e r velocity t h a n t h e shear body wave. I n a c t u a l fact. w h e r e t h e r e is a semi-infinite solid e x t e n d i n g f r o m y = 0 d o w n w a r d . I n a d d i t i o n . a n d w i l l b e p u r e SV in n a t u r e . T h i s m e a n s t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t w o s i g n a l s d i s c u s s e d in t h e e x a m p l e of t h e T o k y o e a r t h q u a k e .D. T h i s will b e d i s c u s s e d m o r e fully in t h e n e x t chapter. w e e x p e c t t h a t in a d d i t i o n t o t h e t w o b o d y w a v e s d i s c u s s e d in S e c t i o n 12.

a n d f'(y) = Ee ' y y (12.F.5) (ii) t h e s t r e s s e s m u s t v a n i s h a t t h e f r e e s u r f a c e y = T.10. I n t h e s u r f a c e l a y e r .3) (12.4) f o r t h e f u n c t i o n f'(y) in t h e l o w e r m e d i u m . h o w e v e r . a n d B a r e u n k n o w n c o n s t a n t s .228 General Properties of Solids—Dynamics y = T y=0 Fig. 2 ) . E . t h r e e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s m u s t b e satisfied: t (i) t h e m e d i u m m u s t b e c o n t i n u o u s a t y = 0. s o t h a t o . (12F. s i n c e t h e m o t i o n m u s t s t a y finite a s y -> — oo. w e h a v e a n e q u a t i o n f o r / ( y ) of t h e f o r m (12. A s b e f o r e . w h i c h m e a n s ii. A . w e n e e d o n l y c o n s i d e r y' > 0 in t h e l o w e r m e d i u m . The geometry for Love waves.F. 12. w e find t h a t in e a c h m e d i u m . F o l l o w i n g t h e s t e p s t h a t l e d t o E q .2) w h e r e c is t h e s h e a r w a v e v e l o c i t y a p p r o p r i a t e t o e a c h m e d i u m .(y = 0 ) = iii(y = 0). F . If t h i s d i s t u r b a n c e is t o r e p r e s e n t a p h y s i c a l l y r e a l i z a b l e s i t u a t i o n . ( 1 2 . a n d F .6) . s o t h a t w e h a v e t / ( y ) = A s i n yy + B c o s yy f o r t h e f u n c t i o n / ( y ) in t h e s u r f a c e l a y e r .F. in e a c h of t h e t w o m e d i a . (12.F. t h e r e is n o l o n g i t u d i n a l w a v e in t h i s s y s t e m .( y = T) = a (y yy yx = T ) = a (y yz = T) = 0. T h e q u a n t i t i e s y a n d y' differ in t h e v a l u e of c w h i c h a p p e a r s in E q . t h e r e is n o r e s t r i c t i o n o n y. ( 1 2 . B y a s s u m p t i o n . 4 ) .

F r o m c o n d i t i o n (i). 1 2 ) d e t e r m i n e d t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e R a y l e i g h w a v e . (12.F.F. t h e L o v e w a v e . a n d in R a y l e i g h w a v e s in t h e s u r f a c e . a s e c o n d k i n d of s u r f a c e w a v e . b y H o o k e ' s l a w . F . f o r a n e l a s t i c s o l i d .8) C o n d i t i o n (iii) f o r cr at t h e interface b e c o m e s yz w h i c h b e c o m e s . (12. T h i s t y p e of p h e n o m e n o n w a s o b s e r v e d in s u r f a c e w a v e s in fluids in C h a p t e r 5. It s h o u l d b e n o t e d . t SUMMARY T h e s t r a i n a n d s t r e s s t e n s o r s p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e d e f o r m a t i o n of a s o l i d a n d t h e a p p l i e d f o r c e s . C o m b i n i n g t h i s r e s u l t w i t h E q . C o m b i n i n g H o o k e ' s law with N e w t o n ' s s e c o n d law led to an e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n f o r s o l i d s w h i c h . i n t u r n . using E q .10) w h i c h is a n e q u a t i o n w h i c h r e l a t e s c = co/k t o c .F. t h a t u n l i k e t h e R a y l e i g h w a v e .7) a n d cr yy is t r i v i a l l y s a t i s f i e d .F. F . . T h e y a r e r e l a t e d . (12. j u s t a s E q .1). h o w e v e r . 8 ) .F. so that (12. It is e a s y t o s e e t h a t c o n d i t i o n (ii) o n a f h e c o n d i t i o n o n cr is j u s t 2y xy (12. If w e a d d t h e e x i s t e n c e of a s u r f a c e l a y e r . r e s u l t s in t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c o u s t i c a n d s h e a r w a v e s in t h e b o d y of a s o l i d .Summary 229 (iii) t h e s t r e s s e s m u s t b e c o n t i n u o u s a t t h e i n t e r f a c e y = 0 . w e i m m e d i a t e l y find t h a t E = B. a l t h o u g h o t h e r k i n d s of r e l a t i o n s a r e possible. w e find (12. ( 1 2 .9) w h e r e the s e c o n d equality follows from E q .F. is a l s o s e e n t o e x i s t .7). ( 1 2 . t h e L o v e w a v e will h a v e a v e l o c i t y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e w a v e l e n g t h . a n d h e n c e d e t e r m i n e s t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e L o v e w a v e .

12.1.9)] are stress t e n s o r s in t h e sense of Section 12. S h o w that for an incompressible elastic solid w h e r e E is Y o u n g ' s m o d u l u s and n is t h e L a m e coefficient. (Hint: Y o u m a y find it useful to go b a c k to t h e definition of u in t e r m s of a c h a n g e in length.4. ( l . leaving only a surface force. 12.1).D? 12.2.A.5. (12. 12. C .C.) ik 12. r a t h e r t h a n to t h e strain itself. Using a r g u m e n t s analogous t o t h o s e leading to E q . If w e define t h e . 12. In addition to t h e internal forces canceling.B. A n alternate w a y of defining viscosity is as follows: Consider a cylindrical t u b e with a fluid flowing in t h e z-direction. w e defined viscosity in t e r m s of a stress t e n s o r a n d an a r g u m e n t b a s e d on O c c a m ' s razor. Write d o w n H o o k e ' s law in t e n s o r form in Cartesian. In such a solid. S h o w that in t h e c a s e of an incompressible solid.3. In C h a p t e r 8. this b e c o m e s where 1 7 is a c o n s t a n t . S h o w that t h e t e n s o r s U [defined in E q . w e d i s c u s s e d t h e idea of a N e w t o n i a n solid.230 General Properties of Solids—Dynamics PROBLEMS 12.6. where a rz is t h e internal stress g e n e r a t e d b y the fluid motion. and spherical c o o r d i n a t e s . e x c e p t for a t e r m of the type (c) H e n c e give an a r g u m e n t that t h e stress t e n s o r m u s t b e s y m m e t r i c . T a k e an element of t h e fluid and s h o w that N e w t o n ' s s e c o n d law is (row). or r a t e . as discussed in Section 12. cylindrical. l l ) ] and a (8. ik ik [defined in E q . of t h e strain.B. (a) S h o w that t h e total m o m e n t in a solid can b e written (b) S h o w that this can b e c o n v e r t e d t o a surface integral. W h e n will t h e Rayleigh w a v e arrive at San F r a n c i s c o in t h e e x a m p l e in Section 12. H o o k e ' s law is replaced b y an equation in which t h e stress is proportional to t h e time derivative.7. write d o w n t h e equation relating stress a n d strain for s u c h a solid. t h e internal m o m e n t s in a solid m u s t do t h e s a m e . In Section 12.C.

12. ' I ! / / / / / / W h a t is t h e energy stored in t h e twisted cylinder? 12. It should b e o b v i o u s that E q .C. (12. (a) F r o m t h e s y m m e t r y of t h e p r o b l e m .8. L e t t h e result of t h e force b e that an e l e m e n t at t h e e d g e is m o v e d t h r o u g h an angle <£. . 2 (b) H e n c e s h o w that t h e strain t e n s o r is given b y and w h e r e A and B are as yet u n d e t e r m i n e d c o n s t a n t s . s h o w that t h e e q u a t i o n for t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t is just V(V • u) = 0. T o m a k e this point. respectively. S h o w t h a t t h e t o r q u e o n t h e cylinder is related t o t h e angle b y T h e quantity Tl/cp is called t h e torsional rigidity. with p r e s s u r e P i inside a n d P outside. consider a solid s p h e r e of inner a n d outer radii a a n d b.9.e. as s h o w n . for t h e static cases treated in t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ) .S t o k e s equation.16) c a n b e applied in t h e c a s e w h e r e n o motion is p r e s e n t in t h e solid (i. C o n s i d e r a circular cylinder w h i c h is being twisted b y a force F applied tangentially.Problems 231 coefficient of viscosity by s h o w that w e r e c o v e r t h e N a v i e r .

which can b e written solely in t e r m s of t h e strain tensor. In Section 12. 2 2 m u s t satisfy the which is called t h e biharmonic equation. with a p r e s s u r e P inside of it. Consider the c a s e of a solid which is undergoing a plane deformation: i. This is.9. L e t us ask w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n w e consider w a v e s in thin rods or sheets of t h e t y p e considered in C h a p t e r 1 1 . In the text. (b) Define a function x by t h e relations z and show that t h e s e forms of t h e t e n s o r automatically satisfy t h e e q u a t i o n s in part (a). w e consider elastic w a v e s in infinite or semi-infinite media only. h o w e v e r . a deformation in which u = 0 e v e r y w h e r e in t h e solid. (b) S h o w that t h e solution to t h e equation is 12. derive t h e stresses for t h e following t w o limiting c a s e s : (a) A thin spherical shell of t h i c k n e s s h and radius R s u r r o u n d e d b y a v a c u u m and maintaining a p r e s s u r e P inside.11. t h e m o s t usual and useful form of this equation. of c o u r s e . Consider a cylinder of radius a rotating with f r e q u e n c y co a b o u t its axis of symmetry. s h o w that t h e radial c o m p o n e n t of the stress t e n s o r is where and 12. (a) F o r t h e static c a s e . 12. U s e H o o k e ' s law to write it d o w n . s h o w that t h e e q u a t i o n s of motion can b e r e d u c e d to t w o equations in t h e stress tensor. w e derived t h e e q u a t i o n s of motion in t e r m s of t h e stress tensor. equation V (V *) = 0. (a) Write d o w n t h e equation of motion for such a s y s t e m .e. . 12. (c) H e n c e s h o w that t h e function x> called t h e stress function. F r o m t h e results of P r o b l e m 12. T h e r e is a n o t h e r form. C a n you think of any applications w h e r e t h e s e limits might b e useful? 12. (b) A spherical cavity in an infinite m e d i u m .10.232 General Properties of Solids—Dynamics (c) F r o m part (b).13.12.C.14.

(Hint: A s s u m e that t h e solutions of t h e equation are s e p a r a b l e .References 233 (a) C o n s i d e r a longitudinal w a v e in a thin rod. Classical Electrodynamics. (a) S h o w that t h e equation of motion for s u c h a s y s t e m is (b) D e t e r m i n e t h e frequencies at which t h e rod m a y vibrate. .P.P. Very complete and readable. D. For related reading. The mathematics level is fairly high. Bullen. 1972. L e t t h e w a v e travel in t h e z-direction. C o n s i d e r a b e a m of t h e t y p e discussed in Section l l .. REFERENCES K. New York. with many examples and several sections on the origin of the earth. b u t n e e d n o longer b e in static equilibrium. S h o w that in this c a s e w e find for t h e velocity of t h e d i s t u r b a n c e associated with u . One of the classic texts in geophysics. see J..) This is t h e t h e o r y of t h e tuning fork. John Wiley and Sons. This text contains a discussion of the Maxwell stress tensor in Chapter 6. Cambridge U. An Introduction to the Theory of Seismology.15. Sir Harold Jeffreys. if it is c l a m p e d at o n e end a n d free at t h e other. Cambridge U. 1970. S h o w that t h e velocity of t h e w a v e in this c a s e is H o w d o e s this c o m p a r e to w a v e s in an infinite m e d i u m ? (b) C o n s i d e r a longitudinal w a v e traveling in a thin plate in t h e z-direction. z 12. An excellent modern discussion of the theory of solids as applied to seismology. (c) H e n c e s h o w that t h e smallest frequency is w h e r e q is t h e m a s s per unit length of t h e rod. E. and that t h e integration of t h e X(x) equation is a s u m of trigonometric a n d h y p e r t r i g o n o m e t r i c functions of x. 1965. The Earth. C w h i c h can b e b e n t . Jackson.

t h a t t h e e a r t h i s r e a l l y n o t s o s i m p l e a s t h a t . a n d l e a r n i n g f r o m t h e a b s o r p t i o n of t h e r a d i a t i o n t h e c o n d i t i o n i n t h e i n t e r i o r .13 Applications of Seismology: Structure of the Earth and Underground Nuclear Explosions A vast.r a y s of t h e h u m a n b o d y . a n d o n e of t h e m a i n g o a l s of s e i s m o l o g y is t o t r y t o d i s c o v e r t h e d e t a i l s of t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e e a r t h . W e k n o w . . T h e o n l y " r a d i a t i o n " of t h i s t y p e t h a t w e h a v e a t o u r d i s p o s a l a r e t h e w a v e s . limitless expanse of water . . D in w h i c h 234 . of c o u r s e . d i s c u s s e d in t h e l a s t c h a p t e r . O b v i o u s l y . t h e e x i s t e n c e of w a v e s i n e l a s t i c s o l i d s w a s d i s c u s s e d a n d t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e s e w a v e s c o u l d b e u s e d t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e e a r t h w a s h i n t e d a t . spread before us. All of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n ( e x c e p t f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of L o v e w a v e s ) w a s d o n e in t h e c o n t e x t of a u n i f o r m e a r t h of c o n s t a n t d e n s i t y a n d L a m e c o e f f i c i e n t s . 'The Central Sea' said my uncle JULES VERNE A Journey to the Center of the Earth A. . a n d is a f f e c t e d b y it. w h i c h c a n p r o p a g a t e i n s o l i d s . w h a t c a n w e d o t o d i s c o v e r t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e i n t e r i o r ? O n e o b v i o u s w a y t o a n s w e r this q u e s t i o n is t o t r y t o m e a s u r e s o m e t h i n g t h a t p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r i o r . SEISMIC RAYS I n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . t h e s u r f a c e w a v e s w i l l b e of l i m i t e d v a l u e i n e x p l o r i n g t h e d e e p i n t e r i o r of t h e e a r t h . T h e p r o b l e m c a n b e p u t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y : G i v e n t h a t w e c a n o n l y m a k e m e a s u r e m e n t s a t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h . . L e t u s r e c o n s i d e r t h e e x a m p l e o f S e c t i o n 1 2 . a n d w e w i l l c o n f i n e o u r a t t e n t i o n t o b o d y w a v e s f o r t h e m o m e n t . T h i s is s o m e w h a t a n a l o g o u s t o a p h y s i c i a n t a k i n g X . .

a n d could b e m e a s u r e d at m a n y p l a c e s o n t h e e a r t h ( s e e F i g . b u t w o u l d like t o learn.1 Seismic rays for a Tokyo earthquake. i n c i d e n t a l l y . w e c o u l d c o m p l e t e l y d e t e r m i n e p . T h u s . T h e s e a r e t h e d e n s i t y of t h e e a r t h a n d t h e t w o L a m e c o e f f i c i e n t s . c a n d o s o q u i t e well. there are t h r e e n u m b e r s w h i c h w e d o n o t k n o w . is n o t u n i f o r m . t a k e n t o g e t h e r . I n t h i s p r o b l e m . t h e s e i s m i c w a v e s w o u l d p r o p a g a t e out from T o k y o . 13. a n d ix. T h e r e a l p r o b l e m o f s e i s m o l o g y is t o d i s c o v e r t h e d e n s i t y a n d e l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s of t h e m a t e r i a l s i n s i d e o f t h e e a r t h a s a f u n c t i o n o f d e p t h a n d p o s i t i o n . of c o u r s e . is t h e r e a s o n t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n h a s b e e n s o i m p o r t a n t in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s e i s m o l o g y . A. d a t a f r o m m a n y s t a t i o n s . a s in t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e . T o d o this. w h i c h tells u s t h a t e a c h p o i n t of a w a v e f r o n t c a n b e t h o u g h t of a s e m i t t i n g a s p h e r i c a l w a v e l e t w i t h t h e w a v e a t a n y o t h e r . T h i s . in t u r n .Seismic Rays 235 Fig. a n e a r t h q u a k e o c c u r r e d in T o k y o . T h e e a r t h . let u s c o n s i d e r w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n a p l a n e w a v e (either S or P ) arrives at a b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n t w o layers. let u s a s k h o w a s e i s m i c r a y p r o p a g a t e s t h r o u g h a m e d i u m w h i c h is n o t u n i f o r m . 13. if w e could m e a s u r e t h r e e different time intervals ( c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h r e e d i f f e r e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s t a t i o n s ) .1). A s a s t a r t t o w a r d solving this p r o b l e m . i s r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t e l a s t i c c o n s t a n t s ) . T h i s m e a n s t h a t i n s t e a d of t r y i n g t o fix t h r e e u n k n o w n c o n s t a n t s . W e c a n s e e w h a t w i l l h a p p e n t o t h e w a v e b y i n v o k i n g Huygens principle. t h e s e i s m o l o g i s t is a c t u a l l y t r y i n g t o fix d e n s i t i e s a n d e l a s t i c c o n s t a n t s ( a n d d e v i a t i o n s f r o m e l a s t i c i t y ) a s a f u n c t i o n of d e p t h in t h e e a r t h . t h e t i m e of t h e a r r i v a l s of t h e P a n d S w a v e s c o u l d b e m e a s u r e d . familiar f r o m o p t i c s . e a c h characterized b y a d i f f e r e n t v e l o c i t y ( w h i c h . W h i l e d a t a f r o m a s i n g l e o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t c a n n o t t e l l u s m u c h a b o u t t h e i n t e r i o r of t h e e a r t h . A t e a c h o b s e r v i n g s t a t i o n . If t h e e a r t h w e r e u n i f o r m .

1) n Sneirs law for refraction. 1 3 . p o i n t b e i n g g i v e n b y t h e s u m of t h e w a v e l e t s . Fig.2(a). F o r e x a m p l e . W h e n s u c h a w a v e e n c o u n t e r s a b o u n d a r y . 2 ( b ) . k n o w n a s r e f r a c t i o n . 1 3 . w i t h e a c h p o i n t of t h e f r o n t e m i t t i n g a w a v e l e t . The propagation of a wave by Huygens wavelets. T h i s p h e n o m e n o n . is f a m i l i a r in o p t i c s . 13. it is e a s y t o s e e t h a t sin 6 s i n 6' — = — . . a n d w e s e e t h a t t h e n e t e f f e c t of t h e i n t e r f a c e is t o c h a n g e t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e w a v e .2(b). 2 ( a ) . a p l a n e w a v e p r o p a g a t i n g i n a u n i f o r m m e d i u m c o u l d b e t h o u g h t of a s s h o w n i n F i g . h o w e v e r . 13. T h e w a v e l e t s e m i t t e d f r o m t h e p o i n t P w i l l t r a v e l a t a v e l o c i t y v\ c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e s e c o n d m e d i u m .A. Geometry forthe derivation of Snell's law. t h e s i t u a t i o n will b e a s p i c t u r e d in F i g . t h e n t h e w a v e l e t f r o m P will h a v e t r a v e l e d a d i s t a n c e v' t. F r o m t h e g e o m e t r y in F i g . w h i c h is t h e f a m i l i a r (13. a n d t h e s e w a v e l e t s adding u p to give the w a v e front farther d o w n s t r e a m . H e n c e t h e n e w w a v e f r o n t w i l l b e t h e l i n e AB. 1 3 .236 Applications of Seismology Fig. w h i l e t h o s e e m i t t e d a t Q will c o n t i n u e t o t r a v e l w i t h v e l o c i t y v. If it t a k e s t i m e t f o r t h e w a v e l e t f r o m Q t o t r a v e l t o t h e i n t e r f a c e . 2 ( b ) .

. 1 3 . w e h a v e L = ri s i n 6[ = r s i n 6 . By geometry.A. with t h e relationship s i n 0i _ s i n 0'i Vi V 2 sin 0 _ sin S 2 2 V 2 t>3 following from Snell's law. however. 2 2 F r o m the above two equations. T h e n a w a v e w h i c h s t a r t s off a t a n a n g l e 0i w i l l b e successively refracted at e a c h interface. 13. ^ (13. a s s h o w n i n F i g . L e t u s n o w c o n s i d e r t h e i n t e r i o r of t h e e a r t h a s a s e r i e s o f l a y e r s . Propagation of a seismic wave in a layered medium. we see immediately that ri s i n 0i Vi r sin 0 2 2 r s i n 0i x r sin 6 2 2 v 3 v 2 T h e e x t e n s i o n of t h i s t y p e of r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a n i n f i n i t e n u m b e r of l a y e r s (which would represent a continuously changing interior) yields the general law r sin 0 P =—-—.2) A . 3 .3.Seismic Rays 237 Fig.

it s h o u l d b e o b v i o u s t h a t . (13. ds =dr +r da\ 2 2 2 s o t h a t . t h e p o i n t of e m i s s i o n .A. s e i s m i c w a v e s ( l i k e a n y o t h e r w a v e s ) c a n b e reflected at i n t e r f a c e s as well. t T h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m f a c e d b y t h e s e i s m o l o g i s t . 5 .4.A. t o Q . W e k n o w t h a t e a c h s e i s m i c w a v e is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a p a r a m e t e r p . T h i s will b e s h o w n in P r o b l e m s 1 3 .4. . The path traversed by a seismic ray.238 Applications of Seismology w h e r e p i s a c o n s t a n t a l o n g t h e e n t i r e r a y (it i s c a l l e d t h e r a y p a r a m e t e r ) . (13.A. 1 . 13. S a n d P w a v e s s t a r t i n g f r o m t h e s a m e p o i n t will h a v e d i f f e r e n t p a t h s i n t h e i n t e r i o r . 13. in a d d i t i o n t o t h e p h e n o m e n o n of r e f r a c t i o n i n t h e e a r t h . a n d t r a v e l s t h r o u g h t h e e a r t h s u b t e n d i n g a n a n g l e A at t h e c e n t e r . t h e d e p e n d e n c e s o f c a n d a o n r w i l l n o t b e t h e s a m e .4) Fig. s i n c e . i n g e n e r a l . 0 (13. F i r s t .2).3) b u t in g e n e r a l . in g e n e r a l . L e t u s e x a m i n e t h i s p r o b l e m in m o r e d e t a i l . 0 0 If w e d e n o t e b y s t h e d i s t a n c e a l o n g t h e c u r v e P Q o . I t f o l l o w s t h a t w a v e s t r a v e l i n g t h r o u g h t h e e a r t h d o n o t . a n d t h e t r a j e c t o r y w h i c h it h a s f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h t h e e a r t h .4. b u t c u r v e s . 1 3 . 13. There are several points which should be made before proceeding. 13. t h e n . 3 . S e c o n d .4). t h e n b y s i m p l e g e o m e t r y E q . if w e l e t TJ = r/v. t h e p o i n t o f d e t e c t i o n ( s e e F i g . in f a c t f o l l o w s t r a i g h t l i n e s a s i n F i g . a s i n F i g . t a k i n g a t i m e T t o g e t f r o m P . a n d 1 3 . is t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t i m e a n d p l a c e of a r r i v a l of a s e i s m i c w a v e .

I n a completely analogous w a y . T h e o u t e r l a y e r of t h e e a r t h . W e h a v e also t h e free vibrations of t h e earth ( s e e C h a p t e r 7) a n d s o m e g o o d t h e o r e t i c a l c o n j e c t u r e s a b o u t t h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e i n t e r i o r w h i c h m u s t b e fit i n t o t h e r e s u l t s a s w e l l . t o i n t e g r a l s i n v o l v i n g v(r) a n d t h e r a y p a r a m e t e r p .A. Thus. 13.Seismic Rays 239 If w e i n t e g r a t e f r o m t h e p o i n t o f e m i s s i o n . t o t h e h a l f w a y p o i n t a l o n g the trajectory (at r = rO. T h e s e e q u a t i o n s r e l a t e t h e angle A a n d t i m e T.5) for t h e angle s u b t e n d e d b y the trajectory. 13. The general structure of the earth. U n d e r t h e c r u s t i s a s o l i d m a n t l e . P o . . But since (13. w e c a n d e t e r m i n e v(r) i n t h e i n t e r i o r . I n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . t h e c r u s t . w h i c h i s i t s e l f crust mantle outer core Fig. b o t h of w h i c h a r e m e a s u r a b l e q u a n t i t i e s . T h e general picture of the earth's interior which has arisen from such s t u d i e s is illustrated i n F i g .5. w e h a v e (13. is o n l y a b o u t 15 k m t h i c k . w e c a n derive a n expression for t h e transit time (13.6) f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t ds = vdt.A. t h e r e i s m o r e d a t a t h a n just seismic arrival times. b y measuring arrival t i m e s of w a v e s a t different p o i n t s a b o u t t h e e a r t h .5.7) p c a nalso b e determined b y surface measurements.A.

t h e r e is t h e c o r e . B e l o w t h e m a n t l e . is l i q u i d m e t a l . a n d it is t h o u g h t t h a t t h e m o t i o n s of t h i s l i q u i d c o r e a r e i m p o r t a n t in g e n e r a t i n g t h e m a g n e t i c field of t h e e a r t h . the radiation front moves quickly.240 Applications of Seismology usually divided into upper. i t s t e m p e r a t u r e d r o p s ( w h y ? ) a n d t h e e x p a n s i o n 6 . a n d (2) t h e d e b r i s of t h e b l a s t m o v e s a w a y a l s o . A s i d e f r o m t h e o b v i o u s p r a c t i c a l a d v a n t a g e s of s u c h k n o w l e d g e . c o m p o s e d of s o l i d m e t a l s . l e a d s u s t o t h e q u e s t i o n of h o w s e i s m i c w a v e s a r e generated. s i n c e t h e d e b r i s is c o n f i n e d ( b a r r i n g a n a c c i d e n t a l r e l e a s e of radioactive materials into the a t m o s p h e r e ) . heating u p the surrounding m a t e r i a l a n d f o r m i n g a n e x p a n d i n g " f i r e b a l l " of h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e g a s e s . t h e d e t e c t i o n is r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e . h o w e v e r . A t t h e v e r y c e n t e r of t h e e a r t h is t h e i n n e r c o r e . W e believe t h a t t h e c o n t i n e n t s . and hence the solar system. T h e mantle extends t o a d e p t h of a b o u t 2 8 0 0 k m . a c t u a l l y float o n t h e m a n t l e . B. t r e m e n d o u s p r e s s u r e ( o n t h e o r d e r of 1 0 a t m o s p h e r e s ) a r e p r e s e n t . T h u s . B e f o r e t u r n i n g t o this q u e s t i o n . T h e s u b j e c t of continental drift is a f a s c i n a t i n g o n e . in t u r n . T h e s u d d e n r e l e a s e of e n e r g y c o m p l e t e l y s t r i p s t h e a t o m s in t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d of t h e b l a s t . T h e o u t e r c o r e . B e t w e e n t h e m a n t l e a n d t h e c r u s t is a s h a r p t r a n s i t i o n a l r e g i o n k n o w n a s t h e Mohorovicic discontinuity. I m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e b l a s t . A t t h e beginning. f o r m i n g a s h o c k f r o n t . UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS A n o t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e k n o w l e d g e o f w a v e s in s o l i d s is i n t h e field of a r m s c o n t r o l . e x t e n d i n g d o w n t o a b o u t 5 0 0 0 k m . U n d e r g r o u n d tests. let u s r e v i e w briefly t h e s e q u e n c e of e v e n t s w h i c h f o l l o w s a n u c l e a r e x p l o s i o n . T h e a b i l i t y t o l i m i t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of n u c l e a r w e a p o n s d e p e n d s directly on t h e ability to d e t e c t nuclear tests. t h i s a l s o g i v e s u s important information about the process by which the earth. w e s e e t h a t o n e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e t h e o r y of e l a s t i c i t y is t o g i v e u s a n i n c r e a s i n g l y d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e of t h e e a r t h o n w h i c h w e live. In fact. W h e n s u c h tests are c a r r i e d o u t in t h e a t m o s p h e r e . a n d o n e of t h e m o r e i m p o r t a n t i d e a s of m o d e r n geophysics. and lower regions. the only indication that such a test has o c c u r r e d w h i c h would b e detectable at large distances f r o m t h e s i t e of t h e t e s t w o u l d b e t h e s e i s m i c s i g n a l g e n e r a t e d b y t h e e x p l o s i o n . s i n c e p r e v a i l i n g w i n d s will c a r r y r a d i o a c t i v e d e b r i s a c r o s s n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s to detecting stations. A s t h e fireball e x p a n d s . are not so easy to d e t e c t . w h i c h a r e p a r t of t h e c r u s t . w e r e formed. however. a n d h a v e m o v e d a r o u n d d u r i n g g e o l o g i c a l t i m e s . T h i s . a n d t w o t h i n g s o c c u r : (1) a b u r s t of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c r a d i a t i o n m o v e s a w a y f r o m t h e b l a s t s i t e . middle.

as the shock w a v e proceeds out f r o m t h e b l a s t s i t e t h e d a m a g e w h i c h it d o e s d e c r e a s e s . a n d t h e r o c k w i l l s i m p l y b e d e f o r m e d e l a s t i c a l l y . W e k n o w that the equations which govern the d i s p l a c e m e n t s of t h e s o l i d a t l a r g e r a d i i a r e (13. If t h e r a d i u s of t h e c a v i t y is l e s s t h a n t h e r a d i u s a t w h i c h b r e a k a w a y o c c u r s . A t s o m e p o i n t . v a p o r i z i n g t h e m .B. 13. t h e d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e r o c k c a u s e d b y t h e s h o c k f r o n t will n o t e x c e e d t h e e l a s t i c l i m i t s . t h e n t h e f i r e b a l l will a c t u a l l y s t r i k e t h e c a v i t y w a l l s . A m u c h m o r e d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n is g i v e n in t h e t e x t b y R o d e a n ( 1 9 7 1 ) c i t e d a t t h e e n d of t h e c h a p t e r . w h i c h i n v o l v e s t h e coupling of t h e e x p l o s i o n t o s e i s m i c w a v e s . t h e n . t h e r o c k will b e f r a c t u r e d . {r I t s h o u l d b e o b v i o u s f r o m t h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n t h a t it is p o s s i b l e t o h e i g h t e n o r r e d u c e t h e e f f e c t s of t h e b l a s t a t R^ b y c h o o s i n g t h e c a v i t y r a d i u s t o b e g r e a t e r o r l e s s t h a n t h e fireball r a d i u s . t h i s is a c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e b l a s t p h e n o m e n o n . c a l l e d breakaway. F o r t h e s a k e o f s i m p l i c i t y . t h e r a d i a t i o n f r o n t a n d m o v e s a h e a d of it.Underground Nuclear Explosions 241 s l o w s d o w n . T h e question w h i c h w e m u s t ask has to d o with relating the deformation at R to the seismic w a v e which would be detected at large distances. and waves propagate out.1) . A t l a r g e d i s t a n c e s . w h i c h w e shall d e n o t e b y ( t h e " s e i s m i c " r a d i u s ) . (ii) t h e s h o c k f r o n t w i l l h a v e o n l y e n o u g h e n e r g y t o melt the surrounding rock. t h e f i r e b a l l will b e s l o w e d d o w n . a s m a l l c a v i t y in s o l i d r o c k (a " t a m p e d " explosion) w o u l d p r o d u c e m u c h greater seismic signals t h a n a l a r g e c a v i t y in a v e r y p o r o u s m a t e r i a l . In either case. S i n c e m o r e e n e r g y is r e q u i r e d t o v a p o r i z e r o c k t h a n t o h e a t u p a i r . in w h i c h s o m e k n o w n d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e m a t e r i a l t a k e s p l a c e a t r = R„. w h i c h m e a n s t h a t it w i l l e x e r t i n t e r n a l f o r c e s w h i c h will b r i n g it b a c k t o i t s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n . T h u s .6. T h e p r o b l e m of d e t e c t i n g a n u n d e r g r o u n d t e s t . W h e n t h e s h o c k f r o n t c a t c h e s u p w i t h t h e f i r e b a l l a n d m o v e s a h e a d . I n u n d e r g r o u n d e x p l o s i o n s . b u t it is c l e a r t h a t a t s o m e d i s t a n c e . h o w e v e r . the shock wave overtakes I n a t m o s p h e r i c e x p l o s i o n s . L e t u s c o n s i d e r a s p h e r i c a l l y s y m m e t r i c s i t u a t i o n s u c h a s t h a t in F i g . is o b v i o u s l y of g r e a t i n t e r e s t t o t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h a r m s c o n t r o l . t h e r e is a n o t h e r q u a n t i t y w h i c h e n t e r s a n d t h a t is t h e s i z e of t h e c a v i t y in w h i c h t h e e x p l o s i o n o c c u r s . w e will a s s u m e t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e s t of t h i s s e c t i o n t h a t w e a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a s p h e r i c a l l y s y m m e t r i c g e o m e t r y . T h i s p r o b l e m . o n e of t w o t h i n g s m a y h a p p e n : (i) t h e s h o c k f r o n t will h a v e sufficient e n e r g y t o c o n t i n u e v a p o r i z i n g t h e r o c k . W e s p e a k of t h e s h o c k w a v e " d e c a y i n g " into an elastic w a v e at this point. a n d b y c h o o s i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s u r r o u n d i n g t h e b l a s t s i t e . b e c o m e s o n e of u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h a t s o r t of s e i s m i c s i g n a l s s u c h a t e s t w o u l d g e n e r a t e .

the applied force at the seismic r a d i u s w o u l d l o o k l i k e t h e o n e s h o w n in F i g . t h e n f o r c e s a r e a p p l i e d t o t h e m a t e r i a l .B.3) t h e n E q . w e w o u l d h a v e (13. of c o u r s e . h o w e v e r . W i t h o u t l o s s of g e n e r a l i t y . A similar e q u a t i o n c a n b e w r i t t e n for t h e </>-direction. it i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e f e r t o t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e p o i n t r = R^.B. In general. W e k n o w t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t t h e r e is n o e x t e r n a l f o r c e o n t h e r o c k u n t i l t h e t i m e of t h e e x p l o s i o n . If w e m a k e t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n (13.242 Applications of Seismology Fig.5) B y exactly similar steps.B. 13.d i r e c t i o n .7. w e consider only plane w a v e solutions. Coordinates for the underground nuclear explosion. for d i s p l a c e m e n t s in t h e 0 . 13.1) b e c o m e s (13.B. so that (13.B. and (13. a n d t h e s e f o r c e s will die o u t g r a d u a l l y a long time after the explosion.B. it is c l e a r t h a t w e c a n a l w a y s write will .4) w h i c h is j u s t t h e w a v e e q u a t i o n .6) I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n s t a n t s A a n d B.2) f o r d i s p l a c e m e n t s i n t h e r-direction. (13. W h a t e v e r t h e a c t u a l f u n c t i o n a l d e p e n d e n c e of t h e f o r c e .6.

Underground Nuclear Explosions 243 Fig. for t h e s a k e of o u r p r o b l e m .B.5). iM t 0 W e n o w a s k t h e critical q u e s t i o n . o r o t h e r n a t u r a l s o u r c e of t h e s e i s m i c signal. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d .B. w e would expect the force to be = = r F(t).B. (13. c o n s i d e r only t h e F o u r i e r component F(t) = F e ».10) . s o t h a t w e c a n . a n d (13. A typical applied force at the seismic radius.B. w e w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t ov0 a n d or w o u l d n o t v a n i s h a t r = R^.9) which leads immediately to the result and (13. W e m u s t n o w s e e w h a t effect this difference in b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s will h a v e o n s e i s m i c signals far f r o m t h e e v e n t .B. t h e n . F r o m H o o k e ' s l a w f o r t h e c a s e of s p h e r i c a l s y m m e t r y .8).7) (J e r (J <i> = F o r a n e a r t h q u a k e . (13. w e h a v e (13.8) so that at t h e seismic radius. I n w h i c h d i r e c t i o n is t h i s mainly radial. c o m b i n i n g E q s .B. tr (t) rr force pointed? F o r an underground explosion. 13. so that the seismic radius.7. (13. T h i s . 0.7). w e h a v e r(f> (13. is t h e m a i n difference b e t w e e n u n d e r g r o u n d e x p l o s i o n s a n d n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g e v e n t s .B.

and s o m e S w a v e would b e g e n e r a t e d . there should b e a g r e a t r e d u c t i o n in s u r f a c e w a v e s a s w e l l . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . 1 2 ) is t h a t in a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b s e n c e of t h e S b o d y w a v e s ( a n a b s e n c e w h i c h is s o m e w h a t difficult t o detect for small explosions with present techniques). SUMMARY W e h a v e s e e n h o w t h e k n o w l e d g e a b o u t w a v e s in s o l i d s c o u l d b e applied to t w o separate problems. t h e a m p l i t u d e of t h e P w a v e a t a l a r g e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e s o u r c e is d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e m a g n i t u d e of t h e a p p l i e d f o r c e s . i n f a c t . (13. B .12) T h u s . w h i c h w e shall n o t d i s c u s s in detail. A l t h o u g h t h e t h e o r y of h o w R a y l e i g h w a v e s a r e g e n e r a t e d i n t h i s m a n n e r is n o t r e a l l y w e l l w o r k e d o u t . T h i s h a s . ( 1 3 . Of c o u r s e .B. a r i s e s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e o u t g o i n g s e i s m i c w a v e s f r o m a n u n d e r g r o u n d e v e n t will strike the surface near the event and generate Rayleigh surface w a v e s . (13. t h e applied force would never b e exactly radial.B. T h e S w a v e . This m e a n s t h a t a s e c o n d c o n s e q u e n c e of E q . W e s e e t h e n . N e v e r t h e l e s s . in o u r simplified m o d e l .244 Applications of Seismology T h u s . b e e n o b s e r v e d . T h i s b e c o m e s t h e n a m e t h o d of finding o u t a b o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e i n t e r i o r of t h e e a r t h . First.11) which leads immediately to the result B =0. a n d is d i s c u s s e d in s o m e o f t h e r e f e r e n c e s a t t h e e n d of t h e c h a p t e r . Second. m u s t b e d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e r e q u i r e m e n t that at r = R„. it d o e s t u r n o u t t h a t s o u r c e s w h i c h g e n e r a t e b o t h S a n d P w a v e s a r e m u c h m o r e efficient in c r e a t i n g R a y l e i g h w a v e s at a free surface t h a n are s o u r c e s generating only P w a v e s . we saw that underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes a r e q u i t e different a s far a s t h e t y p e of s e i s m i c w a v e s w h i c h t h e y g e n e r a t e . a s h a r p d i m i n u t i o n of S w a v e is o n e c o m m o n l y a c c e p t e d criterion for discriminating b e t w e e n small e a r t h q u a k e s and underground tests. in a real situation. A m o r e i m p o r t a n t t o o l . t h e signal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a n u n d e r g r o u n d e x p l o s i o n w o u l d b e a m i s s i n g S w a v e . t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e m o d e l of t h e s e i s m i c r e s p o n s e t o a n u n d e r g r o u n d e x p l o s i o n c a n e x p l a i n s o m e of t h e i d e a s w h i c h a r e n o w b e i n g e x a m i n e d in r e s e a r c h o n n u c l e a r a r m s c o n t r o l . w e saw that body w a v e s traveling through the earth would follow trajectories which d e p e n d e d on the elastic c o n s t a n t s in t h e i n t e r i o r .

4. and let T and A b e t h e travel time and s u b t e n d e d angle for this r a y . of magnitude B . and h a s T + dT.3. and t h e reflected P and S w a v e s h a d amplitude A and B x u . (b) A s s u m e that there will b e b o t h a reflected P w a v e and a reflected S w a v e . T a k e t h e incident w a v e to b e of t h e form (a) W r i t e d o w n t h e b o u n d a r y conditions at t h e surface z = 0. 13. A n explosion would b e expected to h a v e m u c h smaller S waves and surface waves than an earthquake. a n d p + dp for t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g values. as in Fig. F o r t h e e x a m p l e of t h e T o k y o e a r t h q u a k e of Section 12. If a ray starts from a neighboring point.1. show that x (d) S h o w that t h e coefficients of t h e reflected w a v e are given b y 13. 13.D. (a) S h o w that if an SV w a v e w e r e incident on t h e surface in P r o b l e m 13. A + d A . s h o w that 0 0 13. C o n s i d e r a ray starting at P and ending at Q . assuming a uniform earth. (c) F r o m t h e e q u a t i o n s of motion.2.4. c o n s t r u c t a table of time intervals b e t w e e n t h e e v e n t and t h e arrivals of t h e S a n d P w a v e s at 10 different points a r o u n d t h e world (you m a y c h o o s e y o u r o w n points).3. and p b e t h e ray p a r a m e t e r . PROBLEMS 13.p = and _ D „ i[k(x+z tan <f>)-o)t] Ae l ilk(x+ztane) -" t] yjs — ri\e S h o w that it is not possible t o satisfy t h e b o u n d a r y conditions if B = 0 so that t h e r e must b e a reflected S w a v e . and t a k e their form to b e il. C o n s i d e r a free surface at z = 0 with a P w a v e incident with angle 6.Problems 245 are concerned.

can y o u explain w h y n o S w a v e s are o b s e r v e d directly o p p o s i t e an e a r t h q u a k e . Consider n o w a w a v e incident from b e l o w on an interface at z = 0. reflected P w a v e . (c) D e r i v e Snell's law for refraction from t h e b o u n d a r y conditions in part (a).3 would give and that t h e result of p a r t (c) still follows.Ci) = n' tan cb'C.3. (b) H e n c e s h o w that if c o s <f> > c ld. (d) Write d o w n t h e four (rather complicated) e q u a t i o n s which d e t e r m i n e AUBU A' and B'. incident SH w a v e .7. Given t h e results of P r o b l e m 13. (c) S h o w that for an incident SH w a v e . with the material in t h e lower half plane c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y L a m e coefficient fx and A. that retracing t h e steps in P r o b l e m 13. and a s s u m e that t h e angles a s s o c i a t e d with t h e directions of the transmitted P a n d S w a v e s are 0' and </>'. respectively. A s s u m e t h e amplitudes of t h e w a v e s are as follows: A B Ai Bi A' B' C Ci C incident P w a v e . A liquid can b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e s t a t e m e n t that ix = 0.5. the reflected w a v e is always equal in amplitude to t h e incident w a v e . incident SV w a v e . although P w a v e s are? 13.4 a b o v e ) . a n d n o P w a v e is g e n e r a t e d at the surface. transmitted S V w a v e . t 13.246 Applications of Seismology respectively. t h e reflected P w a v e will die out rapidly as w e leave t h e surface. (a) Write d o w n t h e e q u a t i o n s of motion in e a c h m e d i u m and t h e conditions which m u s t hold at z = 0. A rough p a r a m e t e r i z a t i o n of t h e velocity of seismic w a v e s as a function of . 13. reflected SH w a v e . a n d that C + G = C\ fx tan <f>(C . and t h e material in t h e u p p e r half plane characterized b y /JL' and A'. transmitted SH w a v e . and t h e amplitudes of t h e incident and reflected S w a v e will b e equal. reflected S V w a v e . transmitted P w a v e .3 a n d 13. (b) S h o w that t h e e q u a t i o n s for t h e SH w a v e are i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e e q u a t i o n s for t h e P and S V w a v e s (as w a s seen in P r o b l e m s 13.6.

H. Myers. Mass. Continental Drift. K. Acoustical Soc." Scientific American 226.B. 0 13. No mathematics. D. is v = ar . D.References 247 d e p t h . 211 (1952). New York. F. Extensive bibliography.S. Is this a r e a s o n a b l e model of an e a r t h q u a k e ? REFERENCES All of the geophysics texts cited in Chapter 12 contain discussions of seismic waves. R. at latitude <£. Jr. M. Physics of the Earth. Cook. R. Gutenberg. Physics Today. New York.10) a n d (13. An entire issue devoted to discussions of modern ideas in geophysics. Iyer. Bruno Rossi. "Nuclear-Explosion Seismology.A. and the generation of seismic waves. "Spherical Wave Propagation in Solid Media.C. . H. 1970.E. Stacey. H. the problem of coupling. Optics. H. H. 13 (1972). A. Academic Press.B. "Extending the Nuclear Test Ban. John Wiley and Sons. G. Reading. A concise description of wave propagation. A descriptive book covering seismology and the earth's structure. America 24. Technical Information Bulletin (TID-25572). Tucker. consider a signal originating at a latitude 0 . S.. and the internal structure of the earth. A good review article on the present status of our abilities to detect underground nuclear explosions. Blake." U. F i n d t h e d e e p e s t p e n e t r a t i o n of t h e ray as a function of <I>. F. C. b w h e r e a and b are c o n s t a n t s . 1969. New York. 1962. Global Geophysics. (13.. D e r i v e t h e equation a n a l o g o u s t o E q s . Academic Press. A descriptive. Rodean. Runcorn (ed. Stacey." J. the earth's magnetic and gravitational fields. F o r t h e special c a s e b = 1. 1971. = F(t) at s o m e radius R<r. Collection of papers on all phases of the problem of continental drift. B. mainly nonmathematical discussion of seismology. American Elsevier. and F. Addison-Wesley. Physics of the Earth's Interior.12) for an e a r t h q u a k e in w h i c h t h e b o u n d a r y conditions are (Trr = CTre = CTVrf. 1957. Detailed discussion of the layers and regions of the interior. which is useful in calculations. March 1974. New York.8.). T h e signal is o b s e r v e d at a point Q . 1959. Detailed description of effects of underground explosions. Chapter 1 contains an excellent description of Huygens principle applied to light.

a s y s t e m w h i c h o p e r a t e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s a m e p h y s i c a l l a w s a s d o o t h e r n a t u r a l s y s t e m s . INTRODUCTION Throughout the text u p to this point. T h e b o d y is. P e r h a p s i n n o a r e a i s t h i s m o r e t r u e t h a n in t h e a r e a of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s of p h y s i c s t o m e d i c i n e a n d t o a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e h u m a n b o d y . after all. 248 . engineering is marriage.14 Applications to Medicine: Flow of the Blood and the Urinary Drop Spectrometer Physics is love. w e h a v e concerned ourselves with m o r e o r l e s s " c o n v e n t i o n a l " a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e p h y s i c s of f l u i d s a n d s o l i d s t o a r e a s of b a s i c r e s e a r c h in s u c h fields a s a s t r o n o m y a n d g e o p h y s i c s . o n e o f t h e p r i m e r e a s o n s f o r s t u d y i n g t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s t e x t is in o r d e r t o b e a b l e t o a p p l y t h e s i m p l e p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h w e h a v e learned to real situations. T h e r e a r e m a n y p a r t s of t h e b o d y w h e r e it s e e m s o b v i o u s t h a t a s i m p l e p h y s i c a l m o d e l w o u l d e x p l a i n a g r e a t d e a l of t h e o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o r . c a n b e t h o u g h t of a s a structural s y s t e m in w h i c h e x t e r n a l l o a d s a r e c o u n t e r a c t e d b y internally g e n e r a t e d f o r c e s . " Y e t it i s c l e a r t h a t w i t h s o m u c h of t h e w o r l d a r o u n d u s c o m p o s e d of m a t e r i a l s w h i c h a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y i d e a l fluids o r s o l i d s . t o u c h i n g o n l y briefly a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y o n t o p i c s w h i c h might b e c o n s i d e r e d " a p p l i e d p h y s i c s . NORMAN MAILER Of a Fire on the Moon A. f o r e x a m p l e . j u s t a s w a s t h e c a s e f o r m o u n t a i n c h a i n s in C h a p t e r 1 1 . T h e s k e l e t o n .

14.Introduction 249 T h e r e a r e m a n y fluid s y s t e m s i n t h e b o d y . T h e c i r c u l a t o r y s y s t e m c a n . and w e are a long w a y from being able to describe the circulatory system mathematically. T h e b a s i c p r o b l e m of b l o o d f l o w c a n b e s t a t e d a s f o l l o w s : G i v e n t h e t i m e d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e p r e s s u r e a n d t h e f l o w a t t h e e x i t of t h e h e a r t . w i t h a g r e a t d e a l of oversimplification. t h e m o s t o b v i o u s of w h i c h is t h e c i r c u l a t o r y s y s t e m . a n d t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e e x t e r n a l u r i n e s t r e a m . b e c o n s i d e r e d a s s h o w n in Fig. S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g . In this c h a p t e r . w e shall d i s c u s s s o m e simple m o d e l s for t w o p h y s i c a l s y s t e m s : T h e flow o f b l o o d t h r o u g h a n a r t e r y . it is n o t a fluid in t h e c l a s s i c a l s e n s e i n w h i c h w e h a v e u s e d t h e t e r m u p t o t h i s . capillaries Fig.1. E v e n t u a l l y . Perhaps a few remarks a b o u t t h e c o m p l e x i t y of t h e s y s t e m w i l l h e l p t h e r e a d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d why. w h i l e t h e s e c o n d r e p r e s e n t s a r e l a t i v e l y n e w a p p l i c a t i o n of p h y s i c a l r e a s o n i n g t o d i a g n o s t i c m e d i c i n e . T h e b l o o d i s p u m p e d f r o m t h e h e a r t a n d l u n g s t h r o u g h a s y s t e m of branching arteries. T h e first of t h e s e is a n o l d p r o b l e m w h i c h h a s r e c e i v e d a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n in t h e p a s t . w h i c h r e t u r n s it t o t h e h e a r t a n d l u n g s . A schematic view of the circulatory system. 14. it f l o w s t h r o u g h t h e n e t w o r k of c a p i l l a r i e s a n d b a c k i n t o t h e v e n o u s s y s t e m .1. w h o s e size diminishes with distance from the heart. T h e first p r o b l e m i s t h e n a t u r e o f b l o o d i t s e l f . a n d g i v e n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a n d l a y o u t of t h e a r t e r i a l a n d v e n o u s s y s t e m s . B u t e v e n at t h e cellular level c l a s s i c a l p r o c e s s e s of o s m o s i s a n d diffusion t h r o u g h m e m b r a n e s a r e e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . w h a t will t h e flow a n d p r e s s u r e b e a t a n y p o i n t in t h e b o d y ? T h i s is a n extremely complicated problem.

t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e a r t e r i a l w a l l i t s e l f c o m e s i n t o p l a y . h o w e v e r . This m e a n s that the response to an applied force depends on t h e r a t e a t w h i c h t h a t f o r c e is a p p l i e d . in f a c t . a n d a r e t y p i c a l l y a b o u t 7 m i c r o n s a c r o s s (1 m i c r o n = 1 0 ~ c m ) . T h i s m e a n s t h a t f l o w in t h e a r t e r y will b e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t in c h a r a c t e r f r o m t h a t in a c a p i l l a r y . a s d e f i n e d i n E q . a s w o u l d b e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a N e w t o n i a n solid (see S e c t i o n 12. ( 8 . s o t h a t it is r e a s o n a b l e t o t r e a t t h e b l o o d a s a c l a s s i c a l fluid. the a r t e r i a l w a l l is c o m p o s e d of a r a t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d m a t e r i a l w h o s e p r o p e r t i e s u n d e r s t r e s s fall i n t o t h e g e n e r a l c l a s s of m a t e r i a l s c a l l e d viscoelastic. 4 E v e n if w e r e s t r i c t o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a r t e r i e s . a n d e x p l a i n s t h e r e l a t i v e l y p r i m i t i v e s t a t e o f t h e t h e o r y of b l o o d f l o w . b u t is a s u s p e n s i o n of s m a l l p a r t i c l e s i n a fluid ( k n o w n a s t h e p l a s m a ) . B e c a u s e of i t s p e c u l i a r c o m p o s i t i o n . e l a s t i n a n d c o l l a g e n (a t h i r d . I n a d d i t i o n . I n c a p i l l a r i e s . I n a d d i t i o n . a r e l a t i v e l y c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid. A s e c o n d i m p o r t a n t c o m p l i c a t i o n in t h e p r o b l e m o f b l o o d f l o w is t h e f a c t t h a t t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o l o n g e r of t h e s i m p l e f o r m w e h a v e g r o w n a c c u s t o m e d t o .1 0 fx is t h e s i z e o f a t y p i c a l c a p i l l a r y . W e h a v e a l w a y s a r g u e d t h a t it is a g o o d a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o t r e a t l i q u i d s a s i n c o m p r e s s i b l e . I t is c o m p o s e d of t w o s u b s t a n c e s . T h u s . t h e s i z e of t h e v e s s e l is v e r y l a r g e c o m p a r e d t o t h e s i z e of t h e c e l l s . n e i t h e r of t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s is t r u e f o r b l o o d . a n d i t s c o e f f i c i e n t of v i s c o s i t y d e p e n d s m a r k e d l y o n t h e v e l o c i t y . b u t 5 . w e h a v e a l w a y s b e e n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of v i s c o s i t y of a fluid. A . In fact. t h i s is n o t t o o i m p o r t a n t a n e f f e c t . w e i m m e d i a t e l y e n c o u n t e r difficulties w h i c h w e h a v e n o t r u n i n t o b e f o r e . w h i c h a r e r o u g h l y t h e s h a p e of a d o u g h n u t w i t h t h e c e n t e r p a r t i a l l y filled i n .250 Applications to Medicine p o i n t . 9 ) w a s a c o n s t a n t . as well as t h e u s u a l r e s t o r i n g f o r c e w h i c h is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e m a g n i t u d e of t h e a p p l i e d f o r c e . t h e c e l l s m u s t g o t h r o u g h o n e a t a t i m e ( t h e p r o c e s s is s i m i l a r t o p u s h i n g a c o r k t h r o u g h a b o t t l e n e c k ) . This means that the Navier-Stokes equation becomes extremely complic a t e d e v e n if w e c a n t r e a t b l o o d a s a c l a s s i c a l fluid. l i k e t h e a r t e r i o l e s . a t l a r g e d e f o r m a t i o n s . I t i s . b u t a r e in f a c t d e f o r m a b l e s o l i d s . s o t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y t a k e s o n a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i m p l e f o r m . T h e w a l l s of t h e a r t e r i e s a r e n o t r i g i d . N o r i s t h e a r t e r i a l w a l l n e c e s s a r i l y of t h e s i m p l e t y p e w h i c h can b e described b y H o o k e ' s law for an elastic material. I n t h e f o r m e r . t h e w a l l s e x p a n d .C). W h e n w e a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a r t e r i e s . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t of t h e s e p a r t i c l e s f r o m t h e p o i n t of v i e w of t h e c i r c u l a t i o n a r e t h e r e d b l o o d c e l l s . t h e p r o b l e m i s e v e n m o r e complex. w h e n a p u l s e c o m e s d o w n t h e a r t e r y . i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e m o t i o n of t h e fluid. w h o s e d i m e n s i o n s a r e t y p i c a l l y in t h e m i l l i m e t e r r a n g e . I n v e s s e l s of i n t e r m e d i a t e s i z e .

is n o t t h o u g h t t o h a v e m u c h effect o n t h e e l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s of t h e w a l l ) . 14. The arterial wall at rest. 1 4 . b u t e q u a l l y o b v i o u s is t h e f a c t t h a t s u c h a s t r u c t u r e i s e x t r e m e l y difficult t o d e s c r i b e m a t h e m a t i c a l l y . T h e e l a s t i n is a r u b b e r y . T h e g e n e r a l l i n e of a t t a c k w h i c h is u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d is t o m a k e a s e r i e s of a p p r o x i m a t i o n s w h i c h s i m p l i f y t h e p r o b l e m t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e it is m a t h e m a t i c a l l y t r a c t a b l e . s o t h a t f o r s m a l l d e f o r m a t i o n s . Fig. w e h a v e t h e s i t u a t i o n in F i g . w i t h a l o t of s l a c k ( s e e F i g . a n d t h e n h o p e t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n w h i c h is o b t a i n e d h a s t h e m a i n f e a t u r e s of t h e s y s t e m which w e are trying to describe. W e s h a l l b e g i n b y d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e s p o n s e of a n e l a s t i c a r t e r i a l . 2 ( b ) . w h i l e t h e c o l l a g e n is m o r e l i k e a fiber w h i c h h a s a h i g h r e s i s t a n c e t o d e f o r m a t i o n . 2 ( a ) ) .2(b). e x t e n s i b l e m a t e r i a l . T h e biological u s e f u l n e s s of s u c h a s y s t e m is o b v i o u s . W e s h a l l f o l l o w t h i s l i n e in d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f b l o o d f l o w in t h e a r t e r i e s . The arterial wall under tension. W h e n t h e w a l l is s t r e s s e d s o t h a t t h e s l a c k is t a k e n u p . T h e c o l l a g e n is s t r u n g v e r y l o o s e l y in t h e w a l l . N e v e r t h e l e s s . s t r u c t u r a l c o m p o n e n t . in w h i c h t h e c o l l a g e n n o w t a k e s o v e r a n d p r e v e n t s f u r t h e r d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e a r t e r y . s m o o t h m u s c l e . h o w e v e r .Introduction 251 elastin ' \ c o l l a g e n fibers Fig.2(a). it is t h e j o b of t h e s c i e n t i s t t o d e a l w i t h c o m p l i c a t e d s y s t e m s w h e n t h e y o c c u r in n a t u r e . 1 4 . it h a s n o e f f e c t o n t h e w a l l s . 14.

this must b e F = pr dr dd dz r (14. w e assume the pressure does not vary along the length of t h e t u b e . T h e s t r e s s e s w h i c h a c t o n t h i s e l e m e n t a r e s h o w n in F i g . B. F r o m N e w t o n ' s second law. F o r the moment. w e h a v e F = .B. If w e c o m p u t e t h e f o r c e s in t h e r-direction. 3 . T h e e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n i n t h e .252 Applications to Medicine w a l l t o p r e s s u r e . RESPONSE OF ELASTIC ARTERIAL WALLS TO PRESSURE W e shall b e g i n b y e x a m i n i n g a p r o b l e m w h o s e applicability t o t h e flow o f b l o o d in a n a r t e r y i s o b v i o u s . L e t u s a s s u m e t h a t t h e r e is a z i m u t h a l s y m m e t r y .1) w h e r e dz i s t h e h e i g h t of t h e v o l u m e e l e m e n t .Wrrir dO dz) + r (cTrr + da )((r rr + dr) dd dz) (14. a n d t h e n t u r n t o t h e full problem. 1 4 .2) w h e r e p is t h e d e n s i t y of t h e m a t e r i a l . b o t h s t a t i c a n d t i m e d e p e n d e n t . H o w d o e s t h e t u b e r e s p o n d ? Fig. T h e e q u a t i o n f o l l o w s f r o m t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e s t r e s s t e n s o r a s a f o r c e p e r u n i t a r e a . a n d c o n s i d e r one i n f i n i t e s i m a l v o l u m e e l e m e n t in t h e m a t e r i a l .B. 14. A section of the arterial wall.3. C o n s i d e r a c y l i n d r i c a l e l a s t i c t u b e w h i c h c o n t a i n s s o m e fluid w h o s e p r e s s u r e ( n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s t a n t ) is k n o w n .

t h e n t h e t w o b o u n d a r y d conditions w h i c h m u s t b e satisfied a r e cr at r = R h rr = . ( 1 4 . F o r t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h follow. First. F o r t h e first.B.o r d e r e q u a t i o n f o r u . In order to p r o c e e d from this point. a n d h e n c e o b e y H o o k e ' s law.h a n d side of E q . a n d JR t h e o u t e r .B. w e shall a s s u m e that t h e y a r e c o m p o s e d of a n i n c o m p r e s s i b l e m a t e r i a l .A.5) (14. T h e n t h e l e f t . s o t h a t V • u = 0. 5 ) will v a n i s h .5) w h i c h can b e solved for u.P (14. T h i s w a s d i s c u s s e d in S e c t i o n 14. S e c o n d .d i r e c t i o n is t h e n (14. w e m u s t k n o w something about the n a t u r e of t h e m a t e r i a l in t h e a r t e r i a l w a l l . r L e t u s w o r k o u t a c o u p l e of e x a m p l e s t o s e e h o w t h e t u b e r e s p o n d s .6) and cr rr = 0 r (14. w e n o t e s i m p l y t h a t if t h e y a r e t r u e . w e shall a s s u m e t h a t t h e y W e shall d i s c u s s t h e s e a n d o t h e r a s s u m p t i o n s in m o r e detail later.B. l e t u s t a k e t h e s i m p l e s t p o s s i b l e c a s e — t h e c a s e w h e r e the i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e is a c o n s t a n t . 0 If w e g u e s s a s o l u t i o n f o r u u r oc l r . If Ri i s t h e i n n e r r r a d i u s o f t h e t u b e . w e shall m a k e t w o a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t arterial walls.B.7) of t h e f o r m at r = R .B.3) w h i c h is j u s t N e w t o n ' s s e c o n d l a w i n c y l i n d r i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s . are elastic. a n d w e w i l l h a v e a s e c o n d .Response of Elastic Arterial Walls to Pressure 253 r . H o o k e ' s l a w t a k e s t h e f o r m (see P r o b l e m 12.4) s o t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n b e c o m e s (14. F o r t h e m o m e n t . B .

11) T h e r e is a n i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t t o t h i s r e s u l t . a v e r y t h i n m e m b r a n e c a n b e t h o u g h t of in t h e s a m e w a y a s s u r f a c e t e n s i o n — a s a c o m p o n e n t of t h e s y s t e m w h i c h t e n d s t o o p p o s e i n c r e a s e s in s u r f a c e a r e a . B .13) w h e r e w e h a v e d e f i n e d T a s t h e membrane tension. w e c a n e x p a n d t h e e x p r e s s i o n in t h e d e n o m i n a t o r a n d get PR m t = Scree = T . T h i s is j u s t (14.254 Applications to Medicine a n d s u b s t i t u t e b a c k i n t o E q . B . T h u s . 7 ) . 5 ) . (14.B. t h e m o v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d t h e flow is t h e p e r i o d i c p u m p i n g of t h e h e a r t .12) N o w if t h e t u b e is t h i n .d e p e n d e n t p r e s s u r e w h e n d e a l i n g w i t h b l o o d flow. ( 1 4 . m (14.B. s o t h a t R 0 — Ri + 5. This result °hould l o o k v e r y f a m i l i a r .B. I t is e x a c t l y t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p r e s s u r e a n d r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e w h i c h w a s o b t a i n e d i n C h a p t e r 5 f o r a fluid w i t h s u r f a c e t e n s i o n .6) yields (14. S u p p o s e w e n o w a s k f o r t h e v a l u e of t h e s t r e s s w h i c h is e x e r t e d a x i a l l y a r o u n d t h e t u b e a t i t s o u t e r b o u n d a r y . 5 ) of t h e f o r m . i n s t e a d of b e i n g c o n s t a n t .B.9) while E q . w e w o u l d h a v e t o g u e s s a t a s o l u t i o n of E q .8) If w e n o w c o m b i n e o u r d e f i n i t i o n of t h e s t r e s s t e n s o r [ E q . w e find (14. w e r e t i m e d e p e n d e n t ? I n t h i s c a s e .B. 4 ) ] w i t h E q . H o w w o u l d t h e a b o v e a n a l y s i s b e c h a n g e d if t h e p r e s s u r e .B. B . B . ( 1 4 . ( 1 4 .10) s o t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n is u r (14.B. I t is m o r e u s u a l t o b e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t i m e . s o t h a t t h e m o s t general solution for u r is j u s t (14. w e find / = ± 1 . ( 1 4 . A f t e r all.

m i g h t b e 7 r a d / s e c w h i l e v a l u e s of t h e o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s m i g h t b e p ~ 1. b u t n o w t h e p r e s s u r e is a f u n c t i o n of t.B.15) w h e r e A is a c o n s t a n t . T h u s . T h e s o l u t i o n f o r T is t h e n T(t)=T e .B. (14. B . A t y p i c a l v a l u e f o r A.B.17) r e d u c e s t o t h e e q u a t i o n for u w h i c h w e h a d in t h e r p r e v i o u s c a s e . iKt 0 (14.17) c a n b e d r o p p e d .B. t h e most general solution for u r will b e (14. w e c a n w r i t e w h e r e o) = lirnlr. I n g e n e r a l . w e see that 6 s o t h a t t h e s e c o n d t e r m in p a r e n t h e s e s in E q . T h u s .Response of Elastic Arterial Walls to Pressure 255 u =R(r)T(t).B. a n d T a f u n c t i o n of t. w e get (14.9) a r e again valid. so t h a t E q s . E q u a t i o n ( 1 4 .17) w h i c h is r a t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d . (14.B. H o w e v e r .14) w h e r e R is a f u n c t i o n of r a l o n e . a n d n o t a c o n s t a n t . w e c a n m a k e a v e r y r e a s o n a b l e a p p r o x i m a t i o n if w e p u t i n s o m e n u m b e r s w h i c h a r e t y p i c a l o f b l o o d flow. .d e p e n d e n t f u n c t i o n . n a n d r is t h e p e r i o d of t h e p u l s e . (14. R ~ 1 c m .B.B. 6 ) still d e s c r i b e s t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n a t t h e i n n e r r a d i u s .8) a n d (14. (14. a n d E ~ 10 d y n e s / c m . T h e s e v a l u e s w i l l b e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e b o u n d a r y conditions.16) w h i l e t h e e q u a t i o n for R is j u s t (14.1 g / c c . a n d t h e s u m m a t i o n is u n d e r s t o o d t o e x t e n d o v e r all a l l o w e d v a l u e s of A. I n this c a s e .5). I n s e r t i n g t h i s i n t o E q . If w e F o u r i e r a n a l y z e it.B. r (14.18) w h e r e w e u n d e r s t a n d t h a t w e h a v e t a k e n a n a r b i t r a r y s u m of all p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . t h e p r e s s u r e w i l l b e s o m e t i m e . t h e f r e q u e n c y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r e s s u r e . E q .B.

this will n o t b e t h e c a s e . of c o u r s e .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n (14. in t u r n . t h e o u t e r s u r f a c e will m o v e in phase with the internal pressure. it is o f t e n n o t c o n v e n i e n t t o m e a s u r e p r e s s u r e i n s i d e of a n a r t e r y d i r e c t l y ( a l t h o u g h t h i s c a n b e e a s i l y d o n e ) a n d o n e m i g h t w i s h t o k n o w t h e p r e s s u r e j u s t f r o m o b s e r v i n g t h e o u t e r w a l l of t h e a r t e r y . 1 9 ) f o r a n y v a l u e of t. F o r e x a m p l e . C.C. ( 1 4 . B .20) s o t h a t .1) . f o r o u r final s o l u t i o n . w e will t u r n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e flow o f b l o o d in a n a r t e r y .B. H o w will it m o v e a s t h e p r e s s u r e is a p p l i e d ? If w e d e f i n e u (r = R ) a s t h e d i s t a n c e t h e o u t e r w a l l w i l l m o v e . F o r a viscoelastic material. h o w e v e r . B . w e m u s t h a v e (14. 1 1 ) .256 Applications to Medicine If w e n o w i m p o s e t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n a t t h e i n n e r s u r f a c e . ( 1 4 .19) I n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y E q . w e h a v e (14. w e h a v e (14. O n e interesting result can be seen immediately from this equation. w e h a v e t h e N a v i e r .B. BLOOD FLOW IN AN ARTERY W e a r e n o w in a p o s i t i o n t o w r i t e d o w n t h e e q u a t i o n s w h i c h g o v e r n t h e flow o f b l o o d in a n a r t e r y . f o r a p e r f e c t l y e l a s t i c a r t e r y w a l l . W h e n w e are dealing with physiological systems. b u t m u s t i n f e r t h e m f r o m i n d i r e c t m e a s u r e m e n t s .21) w h i c h is i d e n t i c a l t o E q . s i n c e t h e r e will b e a t i m e lag w h i l e t h e w a l l r e s p o n d s t o t h e c h a n g e s i n p r e s s u r e w h i c h w i l l . W i t h t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e b e h a v i o r o f a r t e r i a l w a l l s . b e r e f l e c t e d b y a p h a s e lag. w e often cannot m e a s u r e q u a n t i t i e s of d i r e c t i n t e r e s t . F o r t h e e q u a t i o n s w h i c h d e s c r i b e t h e b l o o d itself. e x c e p t t h a t n o w t h e p r e s s u r e is understood to be time dependent. t h e n r 0 I n o t h e r w o r d s .B.

N e v e r t h e l e s s . (14. w e will a s s u m e t h a t t h e n o n l i n e a r t e r m in t h e N a v i e r .C. T h e y a r e b a d l y n o n l i n e a r .6) S e c o n d .S t o k e s equation can be dropped. 3 ) . P 2 (14. A s t h e y s t a n d . s o t h a t w w TJ = c o n s t .C. (14. the equations are simply the obvious generalizat i o n s of E q .C.7) F i n a l l y . in g e n e r a l . T h e e q u a t i o n s o f m o t i o n f o r t h e fluid t h e n b e c o m e ( s e e P r o b l e m 14. so that ( v V)v<^V v. a n d in E q .C.C. i n g e n e r a l .2) F o r the arterial walls.3) and (14. These equations must be solved subject to boundary conditions which w e s h a l l d i s c u s s i n d e t a i l l a t e r . if w e w a n t t o find a simple solution t o t h e p r o b l e m . ( 1 4 . a f u n c t i o n of t h e v e l o c i t y .1). s o t h a t (14. (14. t h e coefficient 1 7 is. (14.C. B .4) w h e r e p is t h e d e n s i t y of t h e m a t e r i a l s i n t h e w a l l . w e w i l l a s s u m e t h a t t h e r e is c o m p l e t e azimuthal s y m m e t r y .Blood Flow in an Artery 257 a n d t h e e q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y |e+ . This corresponds to assuming that the viscous terms are quite large.C. t h e y a r e e x t r e m e l y difficult t o s o l v e .C. satisfy a continuity e q u a t i o n like E q .(pv) V = 0.5) (14.8) . so that nothing d e p e n d s on the coordinate angle. T h e first of t h e s e w i l l b e t o a s s u m e t h a t b l o o d is a c l a s s i c a l i n c o m p r e s s i b l e N e w t o n i a n fluid.2). and V • v = 0.1) (14. t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e c t i o n .C. p w i l l . w e will h a v e t o m a k e s o m e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s .

15) to be (14. T h u s .C. ( 1 4 . C .C.17) N o w E q .C. 1 6 ) is of t h e f a m i l i a r f o r m w h o s e g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n is t h e s u m of a p a r t i c u l a r a n d a h o m o g e n e o u s s o l u t i o n . w e a s s u m e t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n is of a s e p a r a b l e f o r m P=R(r)Z(z). W e c a n t h e n p u t this solution for P b a c k i n t o E q .2) w h i c h is of t h e f o r m (14.11) w h e r e k is a n a r b i t r a r y c o n s t a n t .C.14) w h e r e A is a n a r b i t r a r y c o n s t a n t .9) F o l l o w i n g t h e s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e o u t l i n e d in E q .C. a n d w e h a v e f o l l o w e d t h e p r o c e d u r e o u t l i n e d in S e c t i o n 1 4 . t) = AJ (ikr)e e \ ikz ito 0 (14.B.C.C. B a n d a s s u m e d t h a t all t i m e d e p e n d e n c e s a r e of t h e form e . If w e a s s u m e a f o r m f o r v s u c h a s itdt z z v = v (r)e e °\ ikz i( z z (14. T h e h o m o g e n e o u s .12) a n d a r e left w i t h a n e q u a t i o n f o r R of t h e f o r m (14.C. z. W e t h e n s e e i m m e d i a t e l y t h a t Z(z) = e \ i k (14.13) w h i c h is j u s t B e s s e l ' s e q u a t i o n of o r d e r z e r o ( t h i s c a n b e s e e n b y w r i t i n g -k = (ikf). (14.258 Applications to Medicine T h i s l e a d s u s t o a n e q u a t i o n f o r t h e p r e s s u r e ( s e e P r o b l e m 14.C.C.16) t h e n w e find t h e e q u a t i o n g o v e r n i n g v (r) z w h e r e w e h a v e defined (14.10) (14. (14.8) a n d s o l v e for v .14). t h e p r e s s u r e is g i v e n b y 2 P ( r . a n d find t h a t (14.

s u b j e c t t o t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s i n E q s . ( 1 4 . 7 ) . i n a n a l o g y t o t h e s o l u t i o n t o E q .20) I n t h i s c a s e .3 t h a t t h e r a d i a l v e l o c i t y is j u s t (14.21) . a n d t h a t t h e s o l i d is i n c o m p r e s s i b l e .8) t o b e so that the m o s t general form for v z is j u s t (14. W e shall a s s u m e t h a t w e a r e dealing w i t h a p u r e l y elastic solid w h i c h o b e y s H o o k e ' s l a w .C.C.18) I t m u s t b e e m p h a s i z e d t h a t in t h i s e x p r e s s i o n . ( 1 4 . 5 ) . o n l y C is u n k n o w n . F o l l o w i n g s i m i l a r s t e p s .19) T h u s .1) a n d (14. L e t u s e x a m i n e t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n for the walls before w e start discussing the b o u n d a r y conditions. (14.2) w h i c h d e s c r i b e t h e m o t i o n of t h e fluid i n t h e a r t e r y .C. c o m p o n e n t s of t h e s t r e s s t e n s o r w h i c h w e n e e d a r e g i v e n by (14. 6 ) .Blood Flow in an Artery 259 s o l u t i o n . (14.C. C . ( 1 4 . 0 t h e n B c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d b y plugging b a c k into E q .C. s o t h a t V • u = 0. w e h a v e solved E q s . (14. w e w i l l m a k e s o m e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s t o s i m p l i f y o u r w o r k . T h e c o n s t a n t A will b e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s o n t h e p r e s s u r e a t z = 0. 0 If w e g u e s s t h a t t h e f o r m of t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n is v p z = BJ (ii<r). 9 ) is s i m p l y v h z = J (iyr). C . C . a n d ( 1 4 . A s w e d i d f o r t h e fluid.C. it is s h o w n in P r o b l e m 14.C. C .

W e w i l l t a k e t h i s p h y s i c a l i d e a t o its e x t r e m e . C . r (14. w h i l e it d o e s s i m p l i f y t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n .d i r e c t i o n . w e m u s t t u r n t o t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s . s i n c e it a s s u m e s t h a t t h e r e is a n a n i s o t r o p y in t h e a r t e r i a l w a l l w h i c h r e s t r i c t s m o t i o n in t h e z . 2 4 ) .22) (14. a n d a s s u m e t h a t u z u. a n d t h a t t h e s t r e t c h i n g of t h e a r t e r y in t h e z . w e will d r o p c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of u f r o m t h i s p o i n t o n .27) W i t h t h e s e s o l u t i o n s .C. W i t h E q .C. B e c a u s e o f t h i s .26) w h e r e w e h a v e defined (14. W e k n o w f r o m s y m m e t r y t h a t at r = 0 w e m u s t h a v e . d o e s a c e r t a i n a m o u n t of v i o l e n c e t o o u r i n i t i a l a s s u m p t i o n s .C. It s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t m o s t of t h i s m o t i o n is in t h e r a d i a l d i r e c t i o n . W e k n o w f r o m S e c t i o n 14. 0 = FJ (iYr)e e \ ikz iu> x (14.23) T h e s e e q u a t i o n s a r e still v e r y c o m p l i c a t e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e c o u p l e d .d i r e c t i o n is p r o b a b l y l e s s p r o n o u n c e d . ( 1 4 .C. A l t h o u g h t h e y c o u l d b e s o l v e d n u m e r i c a l l y .C. w e will l o o k for f u r t h e r approximations which might give us an easy solution.B t h a t w h e n a p u l s e m o v e s d o w n t h e a r t e r y . t h e a r t e r y will e x p a n d a n d c o n t r a c t . W e will s t a r t w i t h t h o s e w h i c h m u s t b e i m p o s e d o n t h e fluid.24) I t m u s t b e n o t e d t h a t t h i s a p p r o x i m a t i o n . t h e e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n b e c o m e s z (14.C.25) which has the solution u (r. r z.260 Applications to Medicine s o t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n a r e (14.

C. w e s h o w t h a t t h e s t r e s s e x e r t e d b y t h e fluid is j u s t (14. V r r (14. (14.28) s i n c e t h e fluid m a y n o t f l o w a w a y f r o m t h e c e n t e r .C.C.C. T h e g e n e r a l b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n h e r e is t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e m o t i o n b e t w e e n t h e fluid a n d t h e w a l l m u s t v a n i s h a t t h i s s u r f a c e i n k e e p i n g w i t h o u r i d e a s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e of v i s c o s i t y . a t r = r .4. T h u s . f) 0 Fig. F . T h e o t h e r b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s c o n c e r n t h e i n n e r s u r f a c e of t h e a r t e r y ( s e e F i g .C.4). ( = 0) = 0. T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y satisfied b y E q s .C.32) . 14.4.C. T h e reader m a y c o m p a r e this to the b o u n d a r y condition w h i c h w a s i m p o s e d in t h e d e r i v a t i o n of L o v e w a v e s in S e c t i o n 1 2 . T h e s h e e r s t r e s s a l o n g a s u r f a c e o n t h e i n n e r f a c e of t h e a r t e r y e x e r t e d b y t h e w a l l is j u s t (14. w e must also h a v e a situation w h e r e the stresses are continuous. The arterial wall during pulsatile movement.31) so that w e must h a v e (14.30) w h i l e i n P r o b l e m 14.29a) (14. w e m u s t h a v e in (14.29b) At this surface.C.19).18) a n d (14.Blood Flow in an Artery 261 r ut(z. 14.

C. a n d F f r o m E q s . w e w i s h t o t r e a t t h e c o n s t a n t A w h i c h a p p e a r s in E q .B). F r o m t h e condition in E q . T h e r e f o r e . a n d (14. in o r d e r t o a p p l y t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s easily.34) W e a r e n o w in a p o s i t i o n t o a p p l y t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s .19).262 Applications to Medicine at r = r .C. w e h a v e z v (r z = a ) = 0. t h e g e n e r a l s h a p e of a r t e r i e s n e e d n o t b e c y l i n d e r s of c o n s t a n t c r o s s s e c t i o n . t h e d e f o r m a t i o n of t h e a r t e r y is n o t s m a l l c o m p a r e d t o i t s r a d i u s .C. 1 4 . (14. A similar a r g u m e n t for s t r e s s e s in t h e radial d i r e c t i o n yields t h e result that in (14. I n fact. (14. 14. A typical shape of an aorta. s o t h a t w e w a n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n s t a n t s C.26).C. (14. and must v a n i s h if t h a t m e d i u m is a v a c u u m ( s e e P r o b l e m 14. a n d t h a t t h e d e f o r m a t i o n s a r e s m a l l .18). 5 . w e shall a s s u m e t h a t for t h e a r t e r y in q u e s t i o n . (14.C. s o t h e full t i m e d e p e n d e n c e of r a n d r m u s t b e i n c l u d e d in w r i t i n g d o w n t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s . I n g e n e r a l . t h e a o r t a .33) At the outer b o u n d a r y . h a s a general s h a p e like that s h o w n in F i g .C.35) heart Fig.5. . D . the stresses exerted b y the arterial wall must be continuous with those exerted by the surrounding medium.5). i n o u t r f a = a + £ w h e r e a is c o n s t a n t . I n g e n e r a l .C.29a). W e n o w c o m e t o t h e t h i r d i m p o r t a n t s e t of c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n o u r t h e o r y . (14. t h e artery leading a w a y from t h e heart. I n a d d i t i o n .14) as g i v e n b y t h e initial c o n d i t i o n s (as w e did in S e c t i o n 14. s o t h a t (14.C. together with our a p p r o x i m a t i o n of i g n o r i n g u .

34)] w o u l d n o longer b e useful. s o t h a t in r e a l i s t i c w o r k .Blood Flow in an Artery 263 which gives (14. W h a t is u s u a l l y d o n e i n t h i s c a s e is t o a s s u m e t h a t t h e w a l l s a r e r i g i d . (14. .C.6. ( 1 4 . T h e p r o b l e m of t h e f l o w in t h e c i r c u l a t o r y s y s t e m is r e c e i v i n g a g r e a t d e a l of a t t e n t i o n in c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h . b y m a k i n g a l a r g e n u m b e r of a p p r o x i m a t i o n s . (1) Arteriosclerosis. (14. a n d then try to p r o c e e d as realistically as possible. b u t of a d e f o r m e d shape.C. T h e r e l a t i o n c o m e s f r o m t h e s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n in E q .37) third which gives one relation b e t w e e n the other t w o constants.38) with w h e r e the prime d e n o t e s differentiation r e s p e c t t o its a r g u m e n t .C. T h e g e n e r a l t e c h n i q u e is t o m a k e a s m a n y a p p r o x i m a t i o n s a s o n e c a n . W e mention a few e x a m p l e s to illustrate this point. the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a r t e r i a l w a l l s w e r e a l m o s t c i r c u l a r c y l i n d e r s of c o n s t a n t c r o s s s e c t i o n s [Eq. w e w e r e a b l e t o c o m e t o a s o l u t i o n of t h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m .C.36) a n d d e t e r m i n e s o n e of t h e t h r e e c o n s t a n t s . it is h o p e d t h a t w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e s i m p l e s t p o s s i b l e c a s e of a r t e r i a l f l o w h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h m u s t b e e m p l o y e d t o l i n k u p t h e s t u d i e s of fluid m e c h a n i c s w h i c h w e r e t r e a t e d i n t h e first p a r t of t h e t e x t a n d t h e s t u d i e s of e l a s t i c s o l i d s w h i c h w e r e d i s c u s s e d in t h e s e c o n d . M o s t of t h e w o r k t h a t is d o n e is logically q u i t e similar t o w h a t h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d in this s e c t i o n . t r y i n g a l w a y s t o t r e a t t h e q u a n t i t i e s of i n t e r e s t a s e x a c t l y a s p o s s i b l e . since w e w i s h t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t of c h a n g e s in a r t e r i a l c r o s s s e c t i o n o n t h e f l o w . C . E q u a t i o n (14.C. T h i s is t h e p r o b l e m of t h e f l o w of b l o o d t h r o u g h an artery which can b e partially obstructed b y deposits. I t s h o u l d b e o b v i o u s t o t h e r e a d e r t h a t n o n e o f t h e s e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s s t a n d s o n v e r y firm p h y s i c a l g r o u n d s . 3 3 ) .29b) gives AJi(ika) + DJi(iya) = ia>FJi(Ta). H o w e v e r . T h e w o r k i n g o u t of a n a c t u a l e x a m p l e i s l e f t t o P r o b l e m 14. of t h e B e s s e l f u n c t i o n T h u s . In this case. t h e y w o u l d h a v e t o b e e x a m i n e d v e r y c a r e f u l l y . J\(ika) + iyDJ\(iya) = 2iEFYJ\(Ya) (14.

D. g . ( 1 4 . o n e usually k e e p s t h e nonlinear t e r m s . T h i s is a n i n s t r u m e n t w h o s e f u n c t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e e a r l y d i a g n o s e s of a b n o r m a l i t i e s i n t h e u r i n a r y t r a c t . T h e u r i n e f r o m t h e k i d n e y s is s t o r e d in t h e b l a d d e r . a n d t r e a t o t h e r a s p e c t s of t h e p r o b l e m a s r e a l i s t i c a l l y a s p o s s i b l e . m o r e s p e c u l a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h w e h a v e l e a r n e d in t h i s t e x t t o a n a r e a of m e d i c i n e i s t h e u r i n a r y d r o p s p e c t r o m e t e r . I n t h i s c a s e . C . T h i s is t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h is c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e w a y t h e v e l o c i t y profile d e v e l o p s f r o m t h e p o i n t at w h i c h t h e b l o o d e n t e r s ( e . 14. I t s h o u l d b e r e a s s u r i n g t o t h e s t u d e n t t h a t e v e n t h o u g h t h e s c i e n c e of h y d r o d y n a m i c s w a s d e v e l o p e d o v e r a c e n t u r y a g o . 14. t h e s i m p l i f y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s h a v e t o b e c h o s e n in s u c h a w a y as t o retain a realistic d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e p h e n o m e n o n w e a r e t r y i n g t o d e s c r i b e .6. a g r e a t d e a l of p r o g r e s s c a n b e m a d e i n i s o l a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c t s of t h e p r o b l e m a n d s o l v i n g t h e m . A schematic diagram of a urinary system. a t t h e h e a r t ) u n t i l it is f u l l y d e v e l o p e d . I n this problem. I n e a c h c a s e . a n d k e e p s t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n t h a t t h e arterial w a l l s a r e rigid a n d of u n i f o r m c r o s s section. I n F i g .6 i s p r e s e n t e d a s i m p l i f i e d s k e t c h o f t h e l o w e r u r i n a r y t r a c t . a n d p a s s e s t o t h e kidneys Fig. T h e p o i n t of t h e s e e x a m p l e s i s t h a t e v e n t h o u g h t h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m of flow in t h e c i r c u l a t o r y s y s t e m i s t o o c o m p l i c a t e d t o s o l v e w i t h p r e s e n t t e c h n i q u e s . . . t h e r e a r e still important problems waiting to b e solved. s i n c e w e a r e t r y i n g t o e x a m i n e c h a n g e s in t h e v e l o c i t y itself. 6 ) ] w i l l n o t b e u s e f u l . t h e p r o c e d u r e of d r o p p i n g t h e n o n l i n e a r t e r m s [ E q . THE URINARY DROP SPECTROMETER A n o t h e r .264 Applications to Medicine (2) The Entry Problem.

7. w h i c h will. o b s t r u c t i o n s o r i m p e d i m e n t s t o t h e flow w i l l g i v e t h e b a c t e r i a a c h a n c e t o c a u s e i n f e c t i o n s in t h e u r e t h r a . a n entirely n e w s e t of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c o m e s i n t o p l a y . t h e s e infections c a n p r o g r e s s t o t h e b l a d d e r . U r i n a t i o n p e r f o r m s t h e i m p o r t a n t function of w a s h i n g t h e s e bacteria o u t . T h e flow i n e l a s t i c t u b e s w a s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . I n t h e n e x t source / O V oo o o Fig. O b v i o u s l y . O phototube The urinary drop spectrometer. w e a k e n t h e tissue a n d m a k e t h e system m o r e susceptible t o infection at a later date.The Urinary Drop Spectrometer 265 outside through a deformable t u b e called the urethra. t h e h y d r o d y n a m i c p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d with t h e t r a n s f e r of i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e o b s t r u c t i o n t o t h e d r o p s a r e e x t r e m e l y difficult. it is c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g i n v a d e d b y b a c t e r i a . F o r this reason (as well a s for m a n y others w h i c h a r e e q u a l l y c o m p e l l i n g ) . t h e n e a c h d r o p w i l l c o r r e s p o n d t o a p u l s e i n t h e o u t p u t o f t h e t u b e . h o w e v e r . I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e o b s t r u c t i o n is t h e n c o n t a i n e d in t h e s t r e a m . C l e a r l y . W e t h e n h a v e a c y l i n d r i c a l t u b e o f fluid m o v i n g a l o n g u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t w o f o r c e s : T h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e fluid a n d t h e s u r f a c e t e n s i o n .7). If w e k n e w h o w t o a n a l y z e t h i s s e t o f p u l s e s . w o u l d b e s o m e t h i n g like a chest X-ray for t h e urinary s y s t e m — i t could b e a r o u t i n e p a r t of a p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . It is a r e a s o n a b l e a s s u m p t i o n that s o m e of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e o b s t r u c t i o n is t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e s e d r o p s . a n d c o u l d give early w a r n i n g of u r i n a r y t r a c t difficulties. Since the u r e t h r a is o p e n t o t h e o u t s i d e . O v e r t h e c o u r s e of y e a r s . S u c h a t e c h n i q u e . If w e t h e n a r r a n g e t h i n g s s o t h a t t h e d r o p s i n t e r r u p t a light b e a m b e t w e e n a light s o u r c e a n d a p h o t o t u b e ( s e e F i g . w h i c h e m e r g e s a n d b r e a k s into d r o p s . it i s i m p o r t a n t t o b e a b l e t o d e v e l o p a d i a g n o s t i c technique for detecting these small obstructions a n d i m p e d i m e n t s before they h a v e a c h a n c e t o c a u s e a great deal of d a m a g e . 14. O n c e t h e s t r e a m e m e r g e s f r o m t h e u r e t h r a . S u c h a s y s t e m i s c a l l e d a capillary jet. It w o r k s o n t h e following principle: T h e s t r e a m of urine p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e u r e t h r a during t h e p r o c e s s o f u r i n a t i o n . T h e urinary d r o p s p e c t r o m e t e r is such a technique. a n d flows a r o u n d t h e o b s t r u c t i o n . w e w o u l d b e able t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e condition of t h e u r e t h r a f r o m a n o r m a l u r i n a t i o n . a n d even t h e kidneys. in t u r n . 14. . if i t w e r e p e r f e c t e d .

266 Applications to Medicine s e c t i o n . B . 14.E. (14.E. L e t u s f u r t h e r a s s u m e t h a t t h e fluid is i n v i s c i d (r/ = 0) f o r t h e s a k e of s i m p l i c i t y . w e w i l l l o o k a t t h e s i m p l e s t s u c h j e t — o n e i n w h i c h t h e fluid m o v e s e v e r y w h e r e w i t h c o n s t a n t v e l o c i t y — a n d t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d w h y it b r e a k s i n t o d r o p s .1) T o e x a m i n e t h e q u e s t i o n of s t a b i l i t y .E. E. a n d h o w t h e y c a n b e r e l a t e d t o u r e t h r a l o b s t r u c t i o n s . W i t h o u t l o s s of g e n e r a l i t y . T h e q u e s t i o n of h o w t h e d r o p s a r e f o r m e d . a n d t h e p r e s s u r e is a c o n s t a n t g i v e n b y z r (14. The unperturbed jet. T h e e q u i l i b r i u m f o r s u c h a j e t is c l e a r l y o n e in w h i c h v = v = 0.D and introduce small. s i n c e a s i m p l e G a l i l e a n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n will c h a n g e c t o a n y v a l u e w e c h o o s e .8). (14.8.2) w h e r e cp i s t h e v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l . and s e e u n d e r w h a t c o n d i t i o n s t h e y m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d t o g r o w . Fig. since the equilibrium velocities are zero. w e c a n t a k e c = 0. Let . a n d t h a t t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n of t h e u n p e r t u r b e d j e t is a c i r c l e of r a d i u s a. time-dependent perturbations to the system. t h e e q u a t i o n f o r t h e v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l is j u s t V <f> = 0. W e will a l s o assume that the perturbations which w e introduce are irrotational. is n o t u n d e r s t o o d a t t h e present time. 14. A s i n S e c t i o n 4 . STABILITY OF A CAPILLARY JET C o n s i d e r a j e t of i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid of d e n s i t y p a n d s u r f a c e t e n s i o n T m o v i n g w i t h c o n s t a n t v e l o c i t y c t o t h e r i g h t ( s e e F i g .3) 2 I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e v e l o c i t i e s r e f e r r e d t o in t h e a b o v e e q u a t i o n s are the perturbing velocities. w e w i l l u s e t h e t e c h n i q u e o f S e c t i o n 4. so that w e can write v = V<£.

267 (14.Stability of a Capillary Jet u s l o o k at p e r t u r b a t i o n s of t h e f o r m cp(r.E. a n d p r o c e e d a s u s u a l . E .9) which means that © c o s sd.7) w h e r e Ri a n d R a r e t h e p r i n c i p l e r a d i i of c u r v a t u r e .E.^0. T h e other e q u a t i o n s w h i c h w e h a v e at our disposal are the Euler e q u a t i o n in t h e f o r m (14.5) s i n c e i n t h i s c a s e . T h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e j e t b e s t a b l e is t h a t o.8) s o t h a t .E. 0.E. if w e a s s u m e a s e p a r a b l e f o r m of t h e s o l u t i o n 4> = x fc(r)0(0). w e find t h a t (14. C .10) w h i c h is j u s t t h e B e s s e l e q u a t i o n [ c o m p a r e w i t h E q . z. ( 1 4 . 0 ) c o s kz c o s at. T h e s o l u t i o n s will b e ( a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l r e m a i n s finite a t . C .o r d e r t e r m s in t h e v e l o c i t y . w h e r e s is t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t a n a l o g o u s t o t h e c o n s t a n t k i n E q .4) w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t w e c a n . 2 (14.E. if w e w i s h .6) w h e r e w e h a v e d r o p p e d s e c o n d . r e g a r d t h i s a s o n e c o m p o n e n t of a F o u r i e r s e r i e s e x p a n s i o n of a n y a c t u a l p e r t u r b a t i o n . ( 1 4 . T h e e q u a t i o n f o r R(r) is t h e n (14. 1 1 ) .E. t) = <£i(r. ( 1 4 . 1 3 ) ] .E. t h e r e will b e n o g r o w t h of t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n w i t h t i m e . a n d condition at t h e s u r f a c e w h i c h states that (14. 3 ) . If w e i n s e r t o u r a s s u m e d f o r m of t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n i n t o E q . w e find 2 the (14.

(14.6). T o p r o c e e d f u r t h e r . c o m p l e t e l y defines all of t h e h y d r o d y n a m i c v a r i a b l e s i n t h e p r o b l e m u p t o a c o n s t a n t .E.268 Applications to Medicine r = 0) R *L(kr). t o g e t h e r with E q s .6) gives (kr) c o s sd c o s kz c o s at.E. t h e s u r f a c e of t h e j e t will b e d e f o r m e d f r o m a p e r f e c t c i r c u l a r c y l i n d e r ( s e e F i g .E. (14.E. w e h a v e moves with the (14. s (14.E. then £ is a small parameter representing this deviation. 14. (14.E. s is c a l l e d t h e m o d i f i e d B e s s e l This result. w e h a v e t h e result that kA £ = — T (ka) a s c o s sd c o s kz s i n at.E.E. E .9.2) a n d (14.15) while E q .14) F r o m E q . t h e f u n c t i o n I (kr) f u n c t i o n . W h e n t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n s a r e a p p l i e d . .16) Fig. End and side views of the perturbed jet. w e h a v e t h e c o n d i t i o n that (14. w h i l e f r o m P r o b l e m 14. ( 1 4 .E.11) I n t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s . (14. 14. If w e w r i t e r = a+£.13). 7 ) . it is n e c e s s a r y t o a p p l y t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s . s o t h a t t h e final e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l is (f> = AI (kr) s l7TSl2 c o s sS c o s kz c o s at.12) From the same c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a fluid e l e m e n t in t h e s u r f a c e v e l o c i t v a s t h e s u r f a c e itself. a n d is i d e n t i c a l t o e J (ikr).13) a t r = a.7 a n d E q .9).E. (14. (14.

E q . E . it is c l e a r t h a t t h e c o n s t a n t s m u s t b e a n i n t e g e r . 14. will n o t g r o w w i t h t i m e . 1 6 ) . O t h e r w i s e .E. i n w h i c h t h e j e t is " f l u t e d . . p e r t u r b a t i o n s l i k e t h a t in F i g s . lIm ]t F r o m E q . Fig. 9 ) . t h e solution for © w o u l d n o t b e single valued. ( 1 4 . b u t will s i m p l y oscillate a r o u n d equilibrium. w e g e t (14. ( 1 4 . ( 1 4 . E . T h u s . 1 8 ) c a n n e v e r b e s a t i s f i e d . A "fluted" perturbation of the jet. E .10(a) a n d 1 4 .18) in w h i c h c a s e icrt _i_ — iat c o s crt = e y ^e ° . ( 1 4 . This m e a n s that if s h a s any n o n z e r o v a l u e . Fig.10(a).10(b).Stability of a Capillary Jet 269 If w e n o w c o m b i n e E q s . E . 14. " e i t h e r w i t h o r w i t h o u t a z-dependence. 14. 1 4 ) .E. I t is a p r o p e r t y of t h e B e s s e l f u n c t i o n s t h a t of the f o r a n y v a l u e o f t h e a r g u m e n t . a n d h e n c e t h e s t a b i l i t y of t h e s y s t e m . 1 5 ) .17) I t is t h i s e q u a t i o n w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s t h e t i m e d e p e n d e n c e p e r t u r b a t i o n . a n d ( 1 4 . 2 2 2 (14. a n d t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n will n o t g r o w i n t i m e . 1 0 ( b ) . E . H e n c e t h e j e t c a n b e u n s t a b l e o n l y if k a +s -\<0. A "fluted" perturbation with a z-dependence.

s h o w that t h e axial stress e x e r t e d b y t h e fluid at t h e inner radius is ik and that the radial stress is . F r o m t h e definition of t h e t e n s o r cr' in C h a p t e r 8. continuity and t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s discussed in t h e text.2a.S t o k e s equation. t h e n E q . w o u l d b e t o a s s u m e t h a t t h i s f a s t e s t g r o w i n g p e r t u r b a t i o n o u t s t r i p s all o f t h e o t h e r s . w e h a v e s h o w n t h a t t h e c a p i l l a r y j e t is i n d e e d u n s t a b l e . Derive E q . (14. t h e N a v i e r . t h e n . E q u a t i o n (14. T h i s is k n o w n a s t h e Rayleigh criterion for jet stability. a n d t h a t t h e b r e a k u p p r o c e s s is d o m i n a t e d b y t h i s s i n g l e wavelength p e r t u r b a t i o n at large t i m e s . Numerical analysis s h o w s that this occurs w h e n A -9.E.C.9) follows from t h e N a v i e r .3. (14. 14. S h o w that the equation for t h e p r e s s u r e given in E q . other through PROBLEMS 14. t h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n s w h o s e w a v e l e n g t h s a t i s f i e s t h e c o n d i t i o n ka < 1 w i l l g r o w e x p o n e n t i a l l y w i t h t i m e . In this c a s e . W e h a v e also s h o w n that the p e r t u r b a t i o n s t o w h i c h t h e j e t is u n s t a b l e a r e t h o s e w h i c h a r e a x i a l l y s y m m e t r i c a n d w h o s e w a v e l e n g t h is l o n g e r t h a n t h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e of t h e u n p e r t u r b e d jet. 14. so that we consider only axially symmetric p e r t u r b a t i o n s . (14.18) c a n b e satisfied p r o v i d e d t h a t ka < 1. t h e r e m u s t b e a m a x i m u m v a l u e w h i c h a can attain. D e v i a t i o n s f r o m this e x p e c t a t i o n w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y b e d u e t o t h e p r e s e n c e of e f f e c t s .9) for t h e radial velocity of t h e fluid.E. a n d will b r e a k u p into d r o p s at s o m e time. however. a m o n g w h i c h m i g h t b e t h e o b s t r u c t i o n in t h e u r e t h r a w h i c h t h e fluid h a s p a s s e d . (14. S i n c e or = 0 a t ka = 0 a n d ka = 1.4. w e w o u l d e x p e c t equally s p a c e d d r o p s of e q u a l m a s s w h e n t h e j e t finally d i s i n t e g r a t e s . 14 .S t o k e s equation can b e written as in E q . A first g u e s s a t t h e d r o p s w h i c h w o u l d b e f o r m e d .2.1.270 Applications to Medicine If 5=0. S h o w that in t h e c a s e of cylindrical s y m m e t r y .C.8). (14. T h u s .19) S i n c e k = 27r/A.17) tells u s h o w fast e a c h p e r t u r b a t i o n g r o w s w i t h t i m e .C.E.

C at t h e outer radius of t h e vessel.12). Ar Fig.11. (a) S h o w that (b) H e n c e s h o w that for small d e f o r m a t i o n s .E. given E q . This is t h e limit F = 0.) 14. Calculate t h e radial stress e x e r t e d b y t h e artery in Section 14. L e t As b e t h e arc length along t h e actual surface ( s h o w n as a solid line). given by (Hint: T h e limiting form of t h e Bessel function for small a r g u m e n t is and c o m p a r e it t o t h e Poisieulle result.E. 14. . 14. L e t R b e t h e radius of c u r v a t u r e at a point.C in t h e c a s e w h e n t h e wall is rigid. C o n s i d e r a d e f o r m e d cylinder. Is it possible for t h e s u r r o u n d i n g m e d i u m t o b e a v a c u u m ? W h a t d o e s this tell you a b o u t t h e a s s u m p t i o n that u c a n b e neglected in that c a s e ? z 14.14).5. (14.Problems 271 14 .7. (14. as s h o w n in Fig. C o n s i d e r t h e artery in Section 14. T h i s m u s t b e c o n t i n u o u s with t h e stress e x e r t e d b y t h e surrounding m e d i u m . Calculate t h e total flow. E -> oo. given b y in t h e limit of steady flow.11. a n d r t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e c e n t e r t o that point. (c) H e n c e derive E q .6. and r A 0 t h e arc length along t h e surface s h o w n as a d o t t e d line.

w h e r e k = 2 77. the velocity is entirely in t h e z-direction. and is given by a function U(r). (a) Assuming that t h e jet is p r o c e e d i n g through a stationary a t m o s p h e r e of density p ' .12. L e t u s t h e n consider a small perturbation w h o s e s t r e a m function is of t h e form ijj(r.14) to t a k e a c c o u n t of a e r o d y n a m i c effects.7). (14. S u p p o s e that in equilibrium flow. (14. Calculate t h e effect of a static surface charge density cr on the Rayleigh equation (14. L e t t h e equation of t h e surface b e given b y r = a + b cos kz. (a) S h o w that at t h e point A.12. and for typical flow in t h e u r e t h r a .10. 14./A.z. Consider a film w h o s e surface tension is T. Calculate t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r for typical blood flow in a h u m a n artery. L e t u s consider t h e stability of blood flow in an artery.272 Applications to Medicine 14. t h e film will b e u n s t a b l e unless lira > A.E. w h e r e t h e surface is maximally d e f o r m e d o u t w a r d . 14.E. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e Rayleigh theory a s s u m e d that t h e jet existed in a v a c u u m . Fig. w h e r e t h e surface is maximally deformed inward.9. (c) H o w is t h e Rayleigh equation changed b y the inclusion of this effect? 14.8. 14.t) = <t>(r)e ii . find t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e at t h e surface of t h e distorted jet. O n e of t h e p r o b l e m s discussed in c o n n e c t i o n with t h e urinary d r o p s p e c t r o m e t e r is t h e question of w h e t h e r . This.14). (b) H e n c e modify E q .11. and which is d e f o r m e d in an axially s y m m e t r i c w a y as in Fig. 14. 14. of c o u r s e .12. t h e p r e s s u r e is (b) S h o w that at B. the p r e s s u r e is (c) H e n c e s h o w that if b <a. in passing through t h e air. is not the c a s e . L e t us see if w e can c o m e to a simple u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e Rayleigh condition for jet instability in E q . t h e urine s t r e a m picks u p a static charge.E.

the O r r .S o m m e r f e l d equation.13. T h e p r o b l e m of flow t h r o u g h a constricted t u b e is. S u p p o s e that the radius of an artery is given b y w h e r e t h e function / defines the n a r r o w i n g of t h e artery in s o m e region. (a) S h o w that if S/z <U and 8IR <\. This is called t h e O r r .) T h e p r o b l e m of t h e transition from laminar to turbulent flow is dealt with in great detail in the text b y Schlichting included in t h e r e f e r e n c e s . in general.14.S o m m e r f e l d equation will h a v e a singular point w h e n U = c.Problems 273 (a) (b) there (c) Find t h e small p e r t u r b a t i o n velocities v and v . a very difficult o n e . S h o w that w e can define a s t r e a m function for this p r o b l e m p r o v i d e d that is azimuthal s y m m e t r y . 14. S h o w that if w e neglect t e r m s of o r d e r l/R. s h o w that t h e p e r t u r b a t i o n velocity in t h e z-direction m u s t go as k u k z ~\n(r-r ) k near r = r . S h o w that t h e equation for cp is z r (U-c)(<t>"-k tb)-U"<i> 2 = (cf)"" -2k cb'+ 2 k cb) 4 w h e r e w e h a v e defined c = filk and R is t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r . (d) W h a t are t h e b o u n d a r y values for <£? 14. and is widely u s e d in studying stability. C a n you give a r e a s o n w h y this singularity o c c u r s . t h e N a v i e r . and a s s u m e a form for the solution .S t o k e s e q u a t i o n s r e d u c e to 0 0 and (b) H e n c e s h o w that (c) If w e define V = and r R-r R v (r = 0) = w. and h o w it can b e r e m o v e d ? (Hint: R e m e m b e r t h e discussion c o n n e c t e d with b o u n d a r y layers. If r is t h e d i s t a n c e to t h e point w h e r e this o c c u r s .

In Chapter 3 there is a good presentation of Bessel's equation and its solutions in the context of a physical problem. La France.. R-C. see H. Ritter. and J. Jackson. New York. cit. H. Department of Commerce. Chapters 9 and 10 give a complete (but concise) summary of the properties of Bessel and related functions. For a discussion of the capillary jet.274 Applications to Medicine show that applying t h e b o u n d a r y conditions to d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n s t a n t s yields where and dp\dz is d e t e r m i n e d b y d e m a n d i n g c o n s i s t e n c y with t h e equation in part (b). 1972.—see Chapter 8). see G. N. For a discussion of the Urinary Drop Spectrometer. Stegun (eds. Classical Electrodynamics. A good description of the physical processes involved in circulation. it could have been titled "Everything You Have Always Wanted to Know About Bessel Functions. New York. see G. For a discussion of Bessel functions. John Wiley and Sons. A.). Contains some useful presentations of flow in tubes and stability criterion. (op.—see Chapter 1). Wiley Interscience.P. Had it been written later. 281 (1909). London A209. Cambridge U. Abramowitz and I. Trefil. Handbook of Mathematical Functions. Roy. Physics Today. . Bohr. Aiello. (op." M. N. A Treatise on the Theory of Bessel Functions. Schlichting. U. The text suffers somewhat from a rather inelegant use of mathematics. This is one of the best and most useful reference books on mathematical functions. Phil Trans. September 1974. J. 1958. Soc. 1962. S. cit. REFERENCES S. D. Probably the most complete work of this type in existence. Transport Phenomena in the Cardio-vascular System. Lamb. P. Watson.S. Middleman.

a n e f f o r t h a s b e e n m a d e t o m a k e t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e v a r i o u s t o p i c s s e l f . A readable and concise treatment of mathematical physics. which should be easy for the student to follow. Walker. W.c o n t a i n e d . Feschbach. differential e q u a t i o n s . t h e r e will b e s t u d e n t s w h o . Morse and H. GILBERT AND SULLIVAN The Mikado INTRODUCTION T h r o u g h o u t m o s t of t h e t e x t . L. W. I n e v i t a b l y . a n d a r e i n c l u d e d p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e in t e a c h i n g t h i s m a t e r i a l I h a v e f o u n d t h a t s o m e s t u d e n t s c a n benefit f r o m a s h o r t p r e s e n t a t i o n of the main mathematical techniques. T h e s e a p p e n d i c e s d o n o t c o n s t i t u t e a t e x t b o o k in m a t h e m a t i c a l p h y s i c s . New York. A two volume treatise which contains almost anything the average physicist needs in the way of mathematical techniques. A. a n d e x p a n s i o n s in s e r i e s . McGraw-Hill. Mathematical Methods of Physics. standard texts: Jon Mathews and R. New York. h o w e v e r . are referred to the or wishing to pursue these topics further. T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s e a p p e n d i c e s is t o p r o v i d e a q u i c k r e f e r e n c e i n t h e m a t h e m a t i c s w h i c h is u s e d t h r o u g h o u t the text. for o n e r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r . 275 following .Appendices Merely corroborative details to lend an aspect of verisimilitude to what would otherwise be a bald and unconvincing narrative. h o w e v e r . 1970. Students wishing m o r e detail. h a v e m i s s e d s o m e of t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d n e c e s s a r y for t h e d i s c u s s i o n s . 1953. particularly for C a r t e s i a n t e n s o r n o t a t i o n . Benjamin. Methods of Theoretical Physics.

a n d z .276 Appendices APPENDIX A CARTESIAN TENSOR NOTATION be T h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t . a v e c t o r c a n also b e c o m p l e t e l y specified b y listing its t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s (for o u r p u r p o s e s . H o w e v e r . a r o t a t i o n t h r o u g h a n a n g l e 0 about the z-axis.c o m p o n e n t of t h e v e c t o r . A vector is u s u a l l y considered to be a quantity which has both m a g n i t u d e a n d d i r e c t i o n .2) F o r a r o t a t i o n in t w o d i m e n s i o n s . A. I n t h i s a p p e n d i x .c o m p o n e n t .c o m p o n e n t s . A . it is f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d u s e f u l t o u s e t e n s o r r a t h e r t h a n v e c t o r n o t a t i o n . w e c o u l d w r i t e V = (V„ or. A vector in three dimensions. R e c a l l i n g t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f m a t r i x m u l t i p l i c a t i o n . r e l a t e d t o t h e c o o r d i n a t e s in t h e old s y s t e m b y t h e relation V=RV.l. a n d V t h e z . the N o w it is w e l l k n o w n t h a t if t h e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m i s r o t a t e d . where 3 V i is t h e x . V t h e y . m o r e simply. V= Vy. V ) z V h w h e r e t h e i n d e x i is u n d e r s t o o d t o r u n f r o m 2 1 to 3. for e x a m p l e . z Fig. a n d c a n b e specified b y giving its l e n g t h a n d t h e angles defining its d i r e c t i o n s (see Fig.l) transformation. l ) . T h i s is t h e s i m p l e s t e x a m p l e of C a r t e s i a n t e n s o r n o t a t i o n . t h i s t y p e o f n o t a t i o n will explained. w e t a k e t h e s e t o b e t h e x-. the matrix R has the familar form . w h e r e R is t h e m a t r i x w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e c o o r d i n a t e c o m p o n e n t s of t h e v e c t o r i n t h e n e w s y s t e m ( w h i c h w e w i l l c a l l V ) a r e (A. y-. T h u s .c o m p o n e n t . t h e c o m p o n e n t V\ is j u s t (A.

3) Pictorially.4) U p t o t h i s p o i n t . w e h a v e p r o c e e d e d a s if w e k n e w w h a t a v e c t o r w a s . V V Fig. 9 c o m p o n e n t s ) w h i c h t r a n s f o r m s according to the law Tii — RaRj Ti .Cartesian Tensor Notation 277 ( cos 6 sin 0 0 . w e s e e t h a t it is p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t o t h e r k i n d s of o b j e c t s . ( A . (A. I t is c u s t o m a r y t o u s e t h e s o . w e d e f i n e a v e c t o r a s a n y c o l l e c t i o n of t h r e e n u m b e r s w h i c h t r a n s f o r m s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a w i n E q . h o w e v e r . Transformation of vector under rotation. U s i n g t h e s u m m a t i o n c o n v e n t i o n . m m (A.2. T o s e e t h a t t h i s q u a n t i t y satisfies t h e definition of a t e n s o r . A. w i t h t h e i n d e x itself r u n n i n g f r o m 1 t o 3. ( A . E q . W e c a n .e. a n d u s e E q . T h e convention can be stated as follows: W h e n e v e r a n i n d e x is r e p e a t e d .sin e 0 cose 0 0 1. e . T h i s c o n c e p t of d e f i n i n g a n o b j e c t b y t h e w a y in w h i c h it c h a n g e s u n d e r c o o r d i n a t e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s is a fairly r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t in p h y s i c s . w e h a v e Fig. 4 ) a s a definition of a v e c t o r — i .5) whose i-jth A n e x a m p l e of c o m p o n e n t is such an object would be the tensor w h e r e V is a v e c t o r . s u p p o s e w e d e f i n e a s a s e c o n d . If w e t a k e t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w . 4 ) .2) c a n b e w r i t t e n V'i = (A. a n d w e r e d e r i v i n g t h e l a w w h i c h t o l d u s h o w t h a t v e c t o r a p p e a r e d in different f r a m e s of r e f e r e n c e . F o r e x a m p l e .c a l l e d summation convention in w r i t i n g out such quantities. a n d h a s b e e n e n o r m o u s l y u s e f u l in fields a s w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d a s n u c l e a r p h y s i c s a n d t h e g e n e r a l t h e o r y of r e l a t i v i t y . (A. r e v e r s e t h e logic.r a n k t e n s o r a n y o b j e c t w i t h t w o i n d i c e s (i. w e n o t e t h a t .2. A. it is u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e r e is a s u m m a t i o n o v e r t h a t i n d e x .

b u t shall b e t h e u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e v e r y c o m p a c t a n d efficient n o t a t i o n it p r o v i d e s f o r manipulating vectors and vector operators. Ti. (A. a n d if s o m e t h i n g i s t o b e c a l l e d a t e n s o r . 11) . a v e c t o r c o u l d b e r e f e r r e d t o a s a first-rank t e n s o r . O t h e r e x a m p l e s of s u c h t e n s o r s will b e f o u n d in t h e t e x t . I t m u s t b e n o t e d t h a t n o t e v e r y t w o i n d e x o b j e c t is a t e n s o r . 10) t h e K r o n e c k e r d e l t a .V^. L e t u s t h e r e f o r e c a t a l o g u e s e v e r a l c o m m o n v e c t o r o p e r a t i o n s in b o t h vector and tensor form. 5 ) . (A) Inner Product T h e i n n e r p r o d u c t b e t w e e n t w o v e c t o r s is j u s t A • B = AB X X + AB y y + AB Z Z = AiB .9) This can also be written as A • B = AiBjdtj. I t s h o u l d a l s o b e n o t e d t h a t in t h e n o m e n c l a t u r e i n t r o d u c e d a b o v e . C l e a r l y .7) v: = Rv mj h s o t h a t t h e t e n s o r in t h e r o t a t e d f r a m e is TL fJ = RuRmjViVi = RuR T mi ib (A.r a n k t e n s o r s .8) w h e r e T is t h e t e n s o r in t h e old f r a m e .r a n k t e n s o r s c a n b e defined in c o m p l e t e a n a l o g y t o t h e definition in E q . h o w e v e r . is d e f i n e d b y ( A . it m u s t b e e x p l i c i t l y v e r i f i e d t h a t it t r a n s f o r m s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n l a w of E q .. T h e g r e a t e s t u s e w h i c h w e s h a l l m a k e of t h e C a r t e s i a n t e n s o r n o t a t i o n will n o t b e c o n c e r n e d w i t h s e c o n d .6) but Vi' = <RiiVi. f o u r t h .= ViV h while in t h e f r a m e w h i c h h a s b e e n r o t a t e d TL = V.5). t (A. ( A . (A. where 8 ih ( A . Often operations which a p p e a r q u i t e c o m p l i c a t e d w h e n w r i t t e n in v e c t o r f o r m a r e s i m p l e t o a n a l y z e i n t e r m s of t e n s o r n o t a t i o n ...278 Appendices in o n e f r a m e . a n d h i g h e r . (A. t h i r d .

this b e c o m e s (A. y-. T h i s q u a n t i t y is n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e s t u d y of classical stellar s t r u c t u r e in C h a p t e r 2. k c y c l i c i. 14) (D) Cross Product T h e c r o s s p r o d u c t of a v e c t o r c a n b e w r i t t e n A x B)i = €i AjB . ( A . j .The Gravitational Potential Inside of a Uniform Ellipsoid 279 (B) Gradient T h e g r a d i e n t of a f u n c t i o n / is defined t o b e ( A .c y c l i c a n y 2 indices equal . j . j . Jk k ( A . I n t e n s o r notation.13) (C) Divergence T h e d i v e r g e n c e of a v e c t o r is which can b e written ( A . 16) T h e curl is a special c a s e of t h e c r o s s p r o d u c t a n d is w r i t t e n ( A . a n d z . k a n t i . 15) where e iik is defined b y ( (E) Curl +1 -1 0 i. 17 APPENDIX B THE GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL OF A U N I F O R M ELLIPSOID INSIDE In this a p p e n d i x . 12) w h e r e i.d i r e c t i o n s . . a n d k a r e u n i t v e c t o r s i n t h e x-. w e will w o r k t h r o u g h t h e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d b u t t e d i o u s d e r i v a t i o n of t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l i n s i d e of a u n i f o r m ellipsoid.

y . 2 ) i n t o t h e e q u a t i o n d e s c r i b i n g t h e b o u n d a r y . T o s o l v e f o r r it is n e c e s s a r y o n l y t o p u t t h e v a l u e s of e x p r e s s i o n s f o r x. (B. T h e v o l u m e e l e m e n t in t h e n e w v a r i a b l e s i s t h e u s u a l o n e f o r s p h e r i c a l coordinates dV = r drd(cos 2 0) d<f>. B. r will b e a f u n c t i o n of b o t h a n g u l a r v a r i a b l e s a n d of P ) . (B. l . y. a n d z f r o m E q .2).4) w h e r e r is t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m P t o t h e b o u n d a r y o f t h e e l l i p s o i d f o r a g i v e n c h o i c e of 6 a n d cf> ( c l e a r l y . ( B . Coordinates given in Eq. l ) . y X Fig. (B. B .l) to x = x P + r s i n 0 c o s </>. E q . whose coordinates are x . and z ellipsoid w h o s e s u r f a c e is d e s c r i b e d b y t h e e q u a t i o n P P P inside an (B. ( B . P y = y + r s i n 0 s i n <£.2) z = Zp + r c o s 0.l) W e begin by changing coordinates (see Fig. W e q u i c k l y find x x u Ar 2 1 + 2J3r + C = 0.3) s o t h a t t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l a t P is n o w j u s t (B.5) .280 Appendices Consider a point P. 1 (B.

A a n d C r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d . t h e c o r r e c t c h o i c e of s i g n s i n t h e q u a d r a t i c f o r m u l a g i v e s (B.6) into this integral a n d c a r r y o u t t h e integrations. in a d d i t i o n .7) so that after performing the integral over t h e r-coordinate (B. w e c o u l d n o w s i m p l y s u b s t i t u t e t h e d e f i n i t i o n s of A . t h e t e r m i n v o l v i n g t h e r a d i c a l in t h e i n t e g r a n d a b o v e c a n b e d r o p p e d . T h i s t e r m will c h a n g e s i g n u n d e r t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n cp-> — cp. a n d z .> 7T + </>. a n d C f r o m E q . y . a n d . S i m i l a r a r g u m e n t s c a n b e m a d e for the other cross terms. T h u s .8) I n p r i n c i p l e . <(> . in c a l c u l a t i n g t h e t e r m i n v o l v i n g B . H o w e v e r . t e r m s l i n e a r in B w i l l g i v e a z e r o i n t e g r a l . C o n s i d e r a s a n e x a m p l e t h e t e r m 2 2 2 2 P P P P P s i n 0 c o s cp s i n cp. a n d h e n c e will v a n i s h w h e n i n t e g r a t e d o v e r t h e s o l i d a n g l e . T h u s . w e e x p e c t t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e t e r m s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o x . w e c a n n o t e s e v e r a l s y m m e t r i e s in t h e i n t e g r a n d w h i c h g r e a t l y simplify the result. S i m i l a r l y . w e n o t e t h a t if w e l e t 4> . in integrating o v e r t h e c o m p l e t e s o l i d a n g l e . b u t B g o e s t o — JB.The Gravitational Potential Inside of a Uniform Ellipsoid 281 where (B. y .6) I t is a s i m p l e e x e r c i s e t o s h o w t h a t f o r p o i n t s i n s i d e t h e b o d y . (B. F i r s t . A r g u m e n t s s i m i l a r t o t h a t in t h e p r e c e d i n g paragraph can be evoked to show that the cross terms do not contribute t h e final r e s u l t .> 77 - 0. e t c . c r o s s t e r m s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o x . B . .

T o g e t o u r r e s u l t . w h e r e changing .282 Appendices W e a r e t h e n left w i t h (B.13) I t is t h e n p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y o u t t h e i n t e g r a l o v e r < / > b y writing (B. Actually.14) w h i c h c a n b e p u t into a s o m e w h a t m o r e familiar f o r m b y v a r i a b l e s t o A. a n d r e c a l l t h e d e f i n i t i o n of C . If w e p u t all of t h e s e i n t o t h e a b o v e i n t e g r a l .9) T h e s e i n t e g r a l s a r e still r a t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d . w e find (B.ll) S i m i l a r e x p r e s s i o n s c a n b e w r i t t e n f o r dW/db a n d dWIdc.12) = ax 2 P + j 8 y + yzp 2 P 2 + final w h i c h is t h e g e n e r a l f o r m w h i c h w e u s e d i n C h a p t e r 2 . b u t w e c a n c a r r y o u t o n e o f t h e a n g u l a r i n t e g r a l s i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n of W b y makine the substitution (B. this c a n n o t b e d o n e in closed f o r m for a n arbitrary ellipsoid. b u t t h e r e i s a t r i c k w h i c h will a l l o w u s t o p u t t h e m i n t o m u c h s i m p l e r f o r m .10) T h e n it is s i m p l e t o s h o w t h a t (B. w e h a v e o n l y t o e v a l u a t e W. L e t u s define t h e quantity (B.

A.2) w h e r e d/dn r e p r e s e n t s t h e d e r i v a t i v e of t h e f u n c t i o n a l o n g t h e o u t w a r d n o r m a l t o S.3) If w e s u b s t i t u t e in t h e l e f t . w e s a w t h a t f o r a M a c l a u r i n e l l i p s o i d .5) to eliminate the gravitational potential. Jv f V PdV= 2 Js dn f ?rdS.2) b e c o m e s <f> = \ ifj = P. (C. (C. N o w let u s t a k e t h e c a s e and T h e n E q . If < \ > a n d ij/ a r e a n y t w o f u n c t i o n s . w e w i l l s h o w t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l f r e q u e n c y is t h e u p p e r l i m i t o n t h e f r e q u e n c y of r o t a t i o n f o r a n y i n c o m p r e s s i b l e b o d y . s u r r o u n d e d b y a s u r f a c e S.4) w h e r e V is t h e t o t a l v o l u m e a n d w e h a v e u s e d t h e e x p r e s s i o n V H = 47rpG 2 (C. w e h a v e = 2pV(co -27rpG).15) APPENDIX C THE CRITICAL FREQUENCY I n C h a p t e r 2 .l) I n t h i s a p p e n d i x .h a n d i n t e g r a l t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r P w h i c h w e obtained b y integrating t h e E u l e r equation (2. 2 c P (C. it w a s i m p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e e q u i l i b r i u m if t h e f r e q u e n c y of r o t a t i o n e x c e e d e d a c e r t a i n v a l u e . 2 (C. o n t h e o r d e r of t h e critical f r e q u e n c y a> = 2iT G.4).The Critical Frequency 283 to give (B. t h e n Green's theorem tells u s that (C. C o n s i d e r a n a r b i t r a r y v o l u m e V in t h e r o t a t i n g fluid. .

w e s e e t h a t o n v e r y g e n e r a l g r o u n d s . a n d f o r p u r p o s e s of e x p l a n a t i o n . n o fluid m a s s c a n b e i n e q u i l i b r i u m if it is s p i n n i n g w i t h a f r e q u e n c y g r e a t e r t h a n co . t h e p r e s s u r e m u s t d e c r e a s e a s w e m o v e f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f t h e fluid t o t h e s u r f a c e . A vector in three dimensions. W h e t h e r o r n o t t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y is a c t u a l l y r e a l i z e d d e p e n d s . s i m p l e r f u n c t i o n s .l) where the components V x t are given by V = V • /. w h i c h is w h a t w e set out to p r o v e . w e will d i s c u s s t h i s i d e a in d e t a i l . c c APPENDIX D EXPANSION IN ORTHOGONAL POLYNOMIALS T h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t . t h e n t h e i n t e g r a l of / dP/dnds o v e r a n y s u r f a c e i n t h e fluid m u s t b e p o s i t i v e . w h i c h m e a n s t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e m u s t b e i n c r e a s i n g a s w e g o f r o m t h e i n t e r i o r of t h e fluid t o w a r d t h e s u r f a c e . W e k n o w t h a t w e c a n a l w a y s e x p a n d t h i s v e c t o r i n t e r m s of t h e t h r e e b a s i s v e c t o r s . a n d it is p o s s i b l e f o r e q u i l i b r i u m t o b e a c h i e v e d . C o n s i d e r a v e c t o r V in a C a r t e s i a n c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m a s s h o w n in F i g . T h u s . w e c a n t a k e it t o b e z e r o . D . a l t h o u g h f o r a r i g o r o u s p r o o f of t h e t h i n g s w e s a y .d i r e c t i o n o n a n y e l e m e n t of fluid w i l l n o t c a n c e l e a c h other (we talk about the z-direction b e c a u s e the centrifugal force has n o z-component). y v = V • I. j . i. T h u s . If co > co . w e h a v e u s e d t h e i d e a of e x p a n d i n g a r b i t r a r y f u n c t i o n s in t e r m s of o t h e r . c O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . a n d k V= Vj+Vy] + V£ (D. E q u i l i b r i u m i n s u c h a c a s e is c l e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e . } v = z V Fig. s i n c e t h e f o r c e s i n t h e z . if co < co . D. in t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n a s g r a v i t y . t h e r e a d e r will h a v e t o c o n s u l t a m a t h e m a t i c s t e x t b o o k . t h e p r e s s u r e f o r c e s a c t i n w a r d . l .l. T h e i d e a of e x p a n s i o n is a c t u a l l y a f a m i l i a r o n e . of c o u r s e .284 Appendices T h e p r e s s u r e o n t h e s u r f a c e of o u r b o d y is c o n s t a n t . . o n t h e s h a p e of t h e fluid m a s s . I n t h i s a p p e n d i x .

W e c a n u s e a slightly different n o t a t i o n in writing d o w n t h e s e f a c t s a b o u t e x p a n d i n g a v e c t o r i n t e r m s of i t s c o m p o n e n t s . then w e could expand the new vector as t V = 2(V-ft)ft by simple analogy.2). If w e d e n o t e b y ft t h e b a s i s v e c t o r i n t h e i t h . a n d d e f i n e d a s e t of b a s i s v e c t o r s ft as in E q . s a y f r o m z e r o t o L (see Fig. so that i'j = properties.2. they are i ' k = j ' k = 0 . so that i'i = ] ' ] = k ' k = \. C o n s i d e r n o w a f u n c t i o n f(x) (D. N o w t h e r e is n o t h i n g in t h e a b o v e d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h f o r c e s u s t o c o n f i n e o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h r e e . (D.d i r e c t i o n . First.5) I n w h a t f o l l o w s . The representation of a function by a vector. D. D.4).Expansion in Orthogonal Polynomials 285 The basis vectors have two important orthogonal to each other. (D. If w e c o n s i d e r e d a v e c t o r V in a n N . they are normalized.d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e . w e w i l l c a l l t h e c o n s t a n t a t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of e x p a n s i o n .3) A s e t of v e c t o r s w h i c h h a s t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s i s c a l l e d a n orthonormal set of v e c t o r s .6) d e f i n e d o n s o m e i n t e r v a l i n x.4) ft • ft — 8ij.2) and second. L e t u s split t h e i n t e r v a l u p i n t o N e q u a l s p a c e s Fig. b u t n o w let t h e i n d e x i r u n u p t o N r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t o 3. (D.d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e s . t h e n t h e r e q u i r e m e n t of o r t h o n o r m a l ity t a k e s t h e f o r m (D. w h i l e t h e e x p a n s i o n of t h e v e c t o r V c a n b e w r i t t e n (D. .

w h i l e t h e s u b s c r i p t tells u s w h i c h interval in x is b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d .. L e t u s a s k w h a t h a p p e n s . ) T h e n t h e v e c t o r s f o r m e d i n t h i s w a y w o u l d b e a n o r t h o n o r m a l s e t of b a s i s v e c t o r s a n d w e c o u l d w r i t e ia) (DM] a n d similarly for G.). t h e n u m b e r of c o m p o n e n t s i n t h e v e c t o r defined in E q . ( D . (D. In exactly the s a m e w a y . n o n e w i n f o r m a t i o n h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d . a n d w e h a v e o n l y b e e n p r e s e n t i n g c o n s e q u e n c e s ^f t h e k n o w n p r o p e r t i e s o f v e c t o r s ..f. N (D. It s h o u l d b e e m p h a s i z e d t h a t u p t o this point.7) in t h e i t h i n t e r v a l where f N is t h e a v e r a g e v a l u e of t h e f u n c t i o n f(x) multiplied b y V L / N " . 9 ) g e t s c o n v e r t e d t o a n i n t e g r a l . if w e l e t N g o t o i n f i n i t y . h o w e v e r . (D. T h i s i s a n e x a m p l e .f . a n d w e r e t o f o r m a v e c t o r <£ a s i n E q . s o t h a t o u r n e w d e f i n i t i o n of t h e i n n e r p r o d u c t b e t w e e n t h e n e w v e c t o r s b e c o m e s F-G = f(x)g(x) dx. a s w e r e f(x) a n d g ( x ) ...8) d e f i n e d o n t h e s a m e i n t e r v a l .7) b e c o m e s infinite a n d t h e s u m o v e r i n d i c e s in t h e i n n e r p r o d u c t in E q .10) (It is i m p o r t a n t t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e s u p e r s c r i p t a i n 4>i a n d t h e subscript j . 1 2 (D.9) S u p p o s e n o w t h a t w e w e r e a b l e t o find a s e t of f u n c t i o n s 4> \x) (<x defined (a) o n x f r o m z e r o t o L . ( D .12) W h a t w e h a v e d o n e is d e f i n e a n e w v e c t o r s p a c e of i n f i n i t e d i m e n s i o n .d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e v e c t o r s G a n d F is j u s t (D.g ).286 Appendices and form an N-dimensional vector F = (f . w e could form a vector G = ( f r o m t h e f u n c t i o n g(x) g l . 7 ) f o r e a c h of t h e s e n e w f u n c t i o n s .. i n w h i c h e a c h f u n c t i o n f(x) i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y a v e c t o r . I n t h i s c a s e . T h e s u p e r s c r i p t refers t o t h e i n d e x w h i c h tells u s w h i c h f u n c t i o n w e a r e d i s c u s s i n g .. T h e i n n e r p r o d u c t in t h e i V . S u p p o s e a l s o t h a t t h e vectors so formed had the property that (D.

t h a t t h e r e is n o v e c t o r i n t h e H i l b e r t s p a c e o r t h o g o n a l t o all t h e cfr a n d \p \ j u s t a s t h e r e is n o v e c t o r in C a r t e s i a n s p a c e o r t h o g o n a l t o f.13). /.13) T h e n t h e a n a l o g u e o f E q . t h e s e t of functions (D. it m u s t b e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h i s is s i m p l y a n a n a l o g y t h a t w e h a v e d r a w n h e r e . so that f <f> (x)cl> (x) Jo (a) m dx = 8 . a n d k f o r m a complete set—i. S o m e s i m p l e c a l c u l a t i o n s w i l l c o n v i n c e the reader that and ^<-> = o. t h e s i n e s a n d c o s i n e s f o r m a s e t of b a s i s v e c t o r s i n a H i l b e r t s p a c e . F o r t h e s a k e o f h o n e s t y . C o n s i d e r . m a n y s u c h s e t s . aP (D. l l ) is j u s t (D. in) in This m e a n s that a n y function defined on the interval 0 ^ x ^ L can b e w r i t t e n in t h e f o r m (D. S u p p o s e in o u r H i l b e r t s p a c e t h e b a s i s f u n c t i o n s retain their o r t h o n o r mality. j u s t a s t h e v e c t o r s i. a n d t h e r e a d e r w i s h i n g m o r e r i g o r i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e s e s p a c e s i s r e f e r r e d t o t e x t s i n mathematics. (D. f o r e x a m p l e . ( D .Expansion in Orthogonal Polynomials 287 of a Hilbert space.17) . a n d k. j .e. w e c a n e x p a n d a n a r b i t r a r y f u n c t i o n i n t e r m s o f a s e t of basis functions w h i c h satisfy E q . b y a n a l o g y t o t h e e x p a n s i o n of a n o r d i n a r y v e c t o r i n t e r m s of i t s b a s i s v e c t o r s . (D. D o s u c h s e t s of b a s i s v e c t o r s e x i s t ? T h e a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i s y e s — t h e r e a r e . in f a c t .14) T h u s .16) T h u s .15) d e f i n e d o n t h e i n t e r v a l 0 =^ x ^ L .

s p h e r i c a l . o r c y l i n d r i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s ... w h i c h is (E. r a t h e r t h a n a s c i e n c e .d i m e n s i o n a l v e c t o r c a n b e e x p a n d e d in C a r t e s i a n . f (x) n are k n o w n functions of x. y d e r i v a t i v e . ( n ) (E. e . B y t h i s I m e a n t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n of differential e q u a t i o n s i n v o l v e s m a k i n g e d u c a t e d g u e s s e s at s o l u t i o n s . T h e r e a d e r w i l l s e e . L e t u s b e g i n b y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e q u a t i o n of o r d e r 2 . j u s t a s a t h r e e . a l t e r n a t e s e r i e s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h e f u n c t i o n will b e p o s s i b l e . a n d g(x). fo(x). is a l s o k n o w n . and in plays an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n p h y s i c s . I n t h i s a p p e n d i x . a n d if w e c a n find a n o t h e r s e t of f u n c t i o n s l i k e t h o s e i n E q . r a t h e r t h a n p r o c e e d i n g b y l o g i c a l s t e p s f r o m s o m e s e t of solutions to ordinary linear equations. I t is a n a r t . I n t h e t e x t . basis APPENDIX E EQUATIONS SOLUTION OF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL or general m e t h o d to solving differential T h e r e is n o " r i g h t w a y " e q u a t i o n s . (D.288 Appendices where and An expansion of this type is c a l l e d a Fourier series.15). t h e in- h o m o g e n e o u s t e r m . w e will r e v i e w t h e m o s t c o m m o n f o r m s o f important p r o p e r t i e s of t h e s o l u t i o n s .l) 0 ) is t h e nth w h e r e y ( x ) is a f u n c t i o n w h i c h is t o b e d e t e r m i n e d . F u r t h e r e x a m p l e s of o r t h o n o r m a l s e t s a r e g i v e n in A p p e n d i x F .2) T h e g e n e r a l m e t h o d of s o l v i n g s u c h a n e q u a t i o n is t o g u e s s a f o r m of homogeneous . i . w e m o s t o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d e q u a t i o n s of s e c o n d o r d e r . h o w e v e r . T h e m o s t g e n e r a l e q u a t i o n of t h i s t y p e is / „ ( x ) y ° ( x ) + • • • fo(x)y(x) ( r = g(x). and discuss some first p r i n c i p l e s . t h a t it is s i m p l y o n e e x a m p l e of a n e x p a n s i o n of a f u n c t i o n orthogonal p o l y n o m i a l s . e q u a t i o n s w h e r e n = 2.

O n e is y.3) Let us consider only equations where /*(*)= 1 and /. of c o u r s e . (E. ( y)y 2 where A and A are arbitrary constants. t h e m o s t g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e e q u a t i o n ( t h e p r o o f of t h i s is left t o t e x t b o o k s in m a t h e m a t i c s ) . 3 ) . then the most .. w e s e e t h a t it. 2 T h e n substituting E q .. 2 (E. 2 ) t o b e of t h e f o r m y(x) = Ce . </> . W h a t is t h e m o s t g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n t o E q . a n d t h e n s e e if t h a t f o r m c a n b e m a d e t o fit t h e e q u a t i o n . <p 2 n are solutions to a general rcth-order homogeneous equation. 2 l 2 T h e c o n s t a n t A c a n n o t b e d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e e q u a t i o n .5) y = WC -4C .(x) = w h i l e t h e o t h e r is y (x) 2 x 2 A e x i p + y ) \ = A e e. W e a r e n o w i n a p o s i t i o n in w h i c h w e h a v e t w o p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s of t h e f o r m ( E . I t i s .3) into E q . (E.. 2 ) ? If w e s u b s t i t u t e t h e f o r m y(x) = y (x) x + y (x) 2 (E.Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations 289 s o l u t i o n .(*) = C „ f (x) 2 = C. (2). t h e r e will b e s o l u t i o n s of t h e f o r m a =p±y from the quadratic formula. ax (E.. T h e g e n e r a l t h e o r e m ( w h i c h c a n e a s i l y b e p r o v e d b y s i m p l e s u b s t i t u t i o n ) is t h a t if </>i.4) w h i c h c a n b e s o l v e d f o r a. ( E . i n f a c t .2) gives an e q u a t i o n Ae [a +C a ax 2 x + C ] = 0. t o o . ( E . F o r e x a m p l e . where (E.6) i n t o E q . w e m i g h t g u e s s a s o l u t i o n f o r y (x) in E q . I n g e n e r a l . is a s o l u t i o n of t h e e q u a t i o n ..

(E . w e m i g h t b e g i v e n t h e v a l u e o f y(jc) a t t w o p o i n t s . . and t h e r e b y fix t h e s o l u t i o n e x a c t l y .2). n a m e l y t h e i n h o m o g e n e o u s e q u a t i o n of o r d e r 2 (E . S u b s t i t u t i n g t h i s g u e s s b a c k i n t o E q . be determined from the equation alone. 2 L e t u s n o w t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m o r e g e n e r a l f o r m o f E q .7) w h e r e A„ a r e arbitrary c o n s t a n t s . and they. (E .9) P t t / r 7 m is a l s o a s o l u t i o n of E q .10) T h e n a reasonable guess might b e y (x) = F. a n d t h e n s e e if it w i l l work.290 Appendices g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n will b e <f> = A i < £ i + A (j>2 2 + • " • A (f) . must b e determined from the boundary conditions. . as w e have seen. w e can determine the arbitrary constants. too. but must b e derived from additional information. w h i c h w e h a v e called y . 1 0 ) . T h u s . y(*) = yp(*)+ ?»(*) (E. o r t h e v a l u e o f y(jc) a n d dy/dx at a single point. w e s e e t h a t t o a n y p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n o f E q . rather than t h e mathematics. F i r s t of all.8). p w h e r e F i s a c o n s t a n t .8) p r o v i d e d t h a t y (x) i s a s o l u t i o n of E q . I t m u s t b e e m p h a s i z e d t h a t b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y g i v e n b y c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e p h y s i c s of t h e situation. . (E . s u p p o s e t h a t y (x) i s a s o l u t i o n o f E q . h p H o w can t h e particular solution y b e found? O n c e again there are n o g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e s . n n (E. A s long as w e h a v e t w o b o u n d a r y conditions (or n conditions for the nth-order equation). w e c a n a d d a n y solution o r c o m b i n a t i o n s of solutions of t h e homogeneous equation. This i n f o r m a t i o n is usually given in t h e f o r m of b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s . T h e r e a r e m a n y e x a m p l e s of this in t h e t e x t . b u t w e h a v e t o m a k e a g u e s s .8) T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l t h i n g s w h i c h w e c a n s a y a b o u t t h i s e q u a t i o n . (E . F o r e x a m p l e . there are just as many undetermined c o n s t a n t s in t h e i n h o m o g e n e o u s e q u a t i o n a s t h e r e w e r e in t h e h o m o g e neous.8). ( E .2). The constants A i and A cannot. For example. take the equation p (E. . Thus. w e find t h a t it will s a t i s f y t h e e q u a t i o n p r o v i d e d t h a t . (E . T h e n s i m p l e s u b s t i t u t i o n shows that .

it w o u l d b e sufficient t o s o l v e t h e e q u a t i o n (E. (E. h o w e v e r . (E.13) while y is a s o l u t i o n of (E.h a n d s i d e i s o b v i o u s .10) is j u s t y (x) = F + y(x). if w e w e r e e x p a n d i n g i n a F o u r i e r s e r i e s .8) as g(*) = 2 n <»nft. w e w o u l d h a v e B y t h e t h e o r e m s t a t e d a b o v e .12) will j u s t b e y ( x ) = y (x) + y l p lp 2 p ( JC ) + y (x). G i v e n t h e m e t h o d of e x p a n s i o n i n o r t h o g o n a l polynomials discussed in A p p e n d i x D. 6 ) . 15) T h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o n t h i s s t a t e m e n t t o a n y n u m b e r of t e r m s o n t h e r i g h t . w h e r e 6 (x) is s o m e s u i t a b l e s e t of o r t h o g o n a l p o l y n o m i a l s .(*).Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations 291 T h u s . F o r e x a m p l e . 2 p ( E . if w e w i s h e d t o s o l v e t h i s e q u a t i o n .16) . we can always write the inh o m o g e n e o u s t e r m in E q . Consider the inhomogeneous equation of t h e f o r m (E. t h e m o s t g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n t o E q . w e c a n s e e t h a t t h e m o s t g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n of E q . ( E . T h e r e i s o n e i m p o r t a n t p r o p e r t y of t h e i n h o m o g e n e o u s e q u a t i o n w h i c h w e have used throughout the text. b y s u b s t i t u t i o n .12) a n d let y b e a s o l u t i o n of (E. (E.ll) w h e r e y(x) i s g i v e n i n E q . G (E.14) T h u s .

T h i s t e c h n i q u e is. c a n n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e s o l v e d b y a p p l y i n g s o m e g e n e r a l m e t h o d . t h e n w e k n o w f r o m t h e t h e o r y of d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n i s u n i q u e . a n d s e e if it w o r k s . a g u e s s a t w h a t t h e s o l u t i o n of a n e q u a t i o n will l o o k l i k e . T h i s i s t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l b a s i s b e h i n d t h e g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e w e f o l l o w in t h e t e x t of s o l v i n g f o r o n e F o u r i e r c o m p o n e n t o n l y . 2 ) a n d d i v i d e b y XYZ. If it d o e s . e t c . (F.l) w h i c h is c a l l e d L a p l a c e ' s e q u a t i o n . pn APPENDIX F EQUATIONS THE SOLUTION OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL A l t h o u g h partial differential e q u a t i o n s . a n d n e g l e c t i n g all o t h e r s . T h e o n l y w a y . T h e t e c h n i q u e is t o g u e s s a s o l u t i o n . a l a r g e c l a s s of t h e e q u a t i o n s w h i c h a r e of m o s t i n t e r e s t t o p h y s i c i s t s c a n b e s o l v e d b y t h e t e c h n i q u e k n o w n a s t h e separation of variables. like o r d i n a r y e q u a t i o n s . like t h e m e t h o d s d i s c u s s e d in A p p e n d i x D . w e find w h e r e t h e p r i m e d e n o t e s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a r g u m e n t of the function. p l u g it i n t o t h e e q u a t i o n . 2 (F. W e shall t a k e as o u r e x a m p l e t h e e q u a t i o n w h i c h d e s c r i b e s potential f l o w o f a n i n c o m p r e s s i b l e fluid. pn (E. Y ( y ) of y. ( F .3) w h e r e X(x) is a f u n c t i o n of x o n l y . If w e p u t t h i s a s s u m e d f o r m i n t o E q . N o w w h a t w e h a v e h e r e i s a s i t u a t i o n in w h i c h a f u n c t i o n of JC a l o n e m u s t b e e q u a l t o t h e n e g a t i v e of a f u n c t i o n of y a n d z a l o n e .2) T h e e s s e n t i a l s t e p i n t h e t e c h n i q u e is t o a s s u m e t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n is of the form 4>=X(x)Y(y)Z(z).17) n w h e r e y (x) is t h e s o l u t i o n t o E q . 1 6 ) . I n C a r t e s i a n c o o r d i n a t e s t h i s b e c o m e s (F. (E. V </>=0. ( E .8) w o u l d t h e n b e y(x) = y (x) n + ^y (x).292 Appendices T h e general solution t o E q .

5) w i t h s i m i l a r f o r m s f o r Y a n d Z . ( F . i s d o n e b y a p p l y i n g t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s . T h e n w e m u s t h a v e 4>(x. identical) equations. and W e h a v e n o w r e d u c e d t h e p r o b l e m of s o l v i n g a p a r t i a l differential case e q u a t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m of s o l v i n g t h r e e o r d i n a r y ( a n d i n t h i s t h e s e e q u a t i o n s i s of t h e f o r m X = A s i n ax + B c o s ax. b u t in a s o m e w h a t m o r e s u b t l e w a y .). (F. S u p p o s e f u r t h e r t h a t w e k n o w t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l a l o n g s o m e l i n e of c o n s t a n t y a n d z i s g i v e n b y a k n o w n f u n c t i o n F(x). T h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e c o n s t a n t s a a n d j8 is a l s o d o n e b y a p p l y i n g t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s .The Solution of Partial Differential Equations 293 t h a t t h i s c a n b e t r u e f o r all v a l u e s of x is f o r t h a t f u n c t i o n t o b e a c o n s t a n t .) = F{x) = X ( x ) Y(y. S u p p o s e t h a t t h e fluid w e a r e c o n s i d e r i n g is c o n f i n e d t o a c u b e of s i d e L . T h e a c t u a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e c o n s t a n t s A a n d B. w e m u s t h a v e t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n f o r X(x) in E q . 5 ) r e d u c e s t o F(x) i n t h i s c a s e . a s i n A p p e n d i x D . a r e t h e v a l u e s of y a n d z a l o n g t h e p l a n e . x x F r o m A p p e n d i x D a n d t h e d e f i n i t i o n of a F o u r i e r s e r i e s . w e k n o w that the solution to (F. w e k n o w t h a t w e can do this by choosing the constants such that and . F r o m A p p e n d i x E. so that (F.4) Similarly.6) w h e r e yi a n d z. S i n c e Y(y )Z(z ) is j u s t a c o n s t a n t . y l9 z.)Z(z.

10) C l e a r l y . 2 2 (F. w e m u s t h a v e m b e a n i n t e g e r ( t h i s i s a c t u a l l y t h e first a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e . t h e n . t h e solutions t o t h e o r d i n a r y differential e q u a t i o n s w h i c h result f r o m applying t h e t e c h n i q u e of s e p a r a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s . W e m i g h t g u e s s . t h a t o t h e r s e t s of t h e s e p o l y n o m i a l s m i g h t a r i s e f r o m s o l u t i o n s of t h e e q u a t i o n in o t h e r c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s . T h e L a p l a c e e q u a t i o n in s p h e r i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s is (F. (F. F o r e x a m p l e . w e n o t e t h a t t h i s c a n o n l y b e t r u e if t h e f u n c t i o n of cp i s a constant.7) T h i s i s t h e s o l u t i o n of a t y p i c a l boundary-value problem.e. if w e w i s h t h e f u n c t i o n t o b e s i n g l e v a l u e d . s o t h a t *(r.«. u p o n d i v i d i n g b y <Pr s i n 0.294 Appendices so that. just as the sines and cosines are particularly appropriate for expanding functions in C a r t e s i a n c o o r d i n a t e s . Y ( y ) a n d Z ( z ) will a l s o b e g i v e n b y F o u r i e r s e r i e s of s o m e b o u n d a r y v a l u e f u n c t i o n s .9) A s b e f o r e . ±im (F.*) = *(r. t h e r e might b e o t h e r f u n c t i o n s w h i c h a r e a p p r o p r i a t e for e x p a n d i n g functions in spherical c o o r d i n a t e s .8) If w e p r o c e e d a s b e f o r e a n d a s s u m e a s o l u t i o n of t h e f o r m * = *(r)P(0)Q(*). T h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e t e x t s a t t h e e n d of t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e a p p e n d i c e s f o r m o r e d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s p o i n t .0+2w). T h e m a i n t h i n g t h a t w e w a n t t o e m p h a s i z e is t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e L a p l a c e e q u a t i o n is i n t i m a t e l y t i e d t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o r t h o n o r m a l s e t s of p o l y n o m i a l s (in t h i s c a s e t h e s i n e s a n d c o s i n e s ) w h i c h a r e . In general. t h e n w e find. which we take to be so that Q = e *. u p to an overall constant. i n f a c t .

T h e e q u a t i o n t o b e s o l v e d is t h e n (F. .6 ) c + I2c ]x 2 4 2 + • • • = 0. w e find n It is u s u a l l y w r i t t e n in a f o r m [/(/ + l ) ] c + 2c 0 a + [ ( / ( / . s i n c e it a m o u n t s t o e x p a n d i n g t h e s o l u t i o n in a T a y l o r s e r i e s . w h e r e t h e c h a n g e of v a r i a b l e s x = cos 0 has been made.15) w h e r e t h e coefficients a a r e t o b e d e t e r m i n e d .The Solution of Partial Differential Equations 295 b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s ) .ll) and leaves us with the result (F. 1 4 ) .12) T h i s i s k n o w n a s Legendre's equation. a s s u m i n g a n R of t h e f o r m r y i e l d s a s a s o l u t i o n q (F. F r o m t h e m e t h o d s of A p p e n d i x E . P r o v i d e d that e v e r y t h i n g is w e l l b e h a v e d . w e will t a k e t o b e w h e r e / c a n b e a n y n u m b e r . so that (F. for c o n v e n i e n c e .2 ) c .1) . If w e i n s e r t t h i s a s s u m e d f o r m of s o l u t i o n i n t o E q . + 6c ]x 3 + [ ( / ( / + 1) . w h i c h . t h i s e q u a t i o n c a n b e s a t i s f i e d o n l y if t h e f u n c t i o n of R i s a c o n s t a n t .14 L e t u s a s s u m e t h a t w e c a n find a s o l u t i o n of t h i s e q u a t i o n of t h e f o r m (F. w h e r e m = 0 . t h i s i s n o t a l a r g e a s s u m p t i o n . W e a r e t h e n left w i t h O n c e m o r e . ( F .13) L e t u s c o n s i d e r first t h e c a s e of a z i m u t h a l s y m m e t r y .

In general. P x = x. t h e n e v e r y h i g h e r v a l u e of n w i l l a l s o h a v e a v a n i s h i n g c o e f f i c i e n t . a n d e v e r y t e r m o f o d d n c a n b e r e l a t e d b a c k t o Ci. T h e p o l y n o m i a l s w h i c h a r e g e n e r a t e d in this w a y a r e called t h e Legendre polynomials. if c w e r e z e r o . etc. (F. a n d s o f o r t h . t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of e a c h p o w e r of x m u s t v a n i s h i d e n t i c a l l y . F i r s t of a l l . By solution that 0 i. ( F .e. W e n o t e t h a t if / i s a n i n t e g e r . 1 6 ) will v a n i s h w h e n i = /. convention. 1 6 ) . t h e n t h e f a c t o r i — I in E q .296 Appendices N o w in o r d e r f o r t h e r e t o b e a s o l u t i o n w h i c h is v a l i d f o r e v e r y v a l u e o f x. w e have 3 5 (F. h o w e v e r . T h i s m e a n s that and with similar relations b e t w e e n c i9 c . a s a s u m of e v e n i n d i c e s in t h e e q u a t i o n . ( F .15) c a n b e written 6 8 xo 0 P(x) = Co 2 ax 2n 2n + c. F o r t h i s r e a s o n . s o t h a t t h e p o l y n o m i a l w i l l b e of o r d e r /. it is c u s t o m a r y t o d e n o t e t h e L e g e n d r e p o l y n o m i a l b y Pi. ( F . T h e r e is take for c and zero (so that the coefficient s u c h x P(0)=1.16) T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p o i n t s t o n o t e a b o u t t h i s r e s u l t . 1 6 ) w o u l d g i v e c t o b e z e r o .17) nothing c . F o r e x a m p l e . F u r t h e r m o r e . T h e first f e w p o l y n o m i a l s a r e Po=l. t h e n E q . A s e c o n d p o i n t is t h a t e v e r y t e r m w i t h e v e n n c a n b e r e l a t e d b a c k t o c b y r e p e a t e d u s e of E q . a n d a p p l y i n g t h e e q u a t i o n again w o u l d give c = 0. the odd and e v e n terms are not related to e a c h other so that E q . a n d will c o n t a i n n o h i g h e r p o w e r s of x. w e usually take is e i t h e r o d d o r e v e n ) . 2 b 2 n + x x 2 n + \ (F. a n d plus a sum over odd t o tell u s w h a t t o either c or c to b e adjust the nonzero 0 x i n d i c e s . if a n y c„ i s e v e r z e r o . c . .

( F . j u s t a s t h e s i n e s a n d c o s i n e s d i d f o r e x p a n s i o n i n t h e l i n e a r <$> = R(r)crPr(x)e *. i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t .21) T h e s o l u t i o n t o t h e L a p l a c e e q u a t i o n m u s t t h e n b e of t h e f o r m Legendre function. U 8„ m (F.22) where we have inserted a factor of l/V27rto normalize the function T h e spherical harmonics have the property that Y (0. I t is w r i t t e n (F. H a v i n g s o l v e d L a p l a c e ' s e q u a t i o n in s p h e r i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s . (F. if w e d e f i n e (F. a s d i d t h e s i n e s a n d c o s i n e s in t h e C a r t e s i a n c a s e . T h e r e f o r e .18) [see. I t is s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . I t i s r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e t o show that r 0 (F. and has the property f o r m a n o r t h o n o r m a l s e t f o r e x p a n s i o n of f u n c t i o n s as s e r i e s i n c o s 0. a n d i s g i v e n t h e n a m e of spherical harmonic.The Solution of Partial Differential Equations 297 a n d h i g h e r o r d e r s c a n b e w o r k e d o u t f r o m t h e r e c u r s i o n r e l a t i o n in E q . im<f> <j>)Y iO.16). im T h e a n g u l a r p a r t of t h i s f u n c t i o n . A m o r e u s e f u l s e t of f u n c t i o n s c a n b e g e n e r a t e d if w e c o n s i d e r t h e c a s e of n o n a z i m u t h a l s y m m e t r y . c o n t a i n i n g t h e d e p e n d e n c e of t h e s o l u t i o n o n t h e a n g l e s 6 a n d cp. for e x a m p l e . w e n o w a s k o u r s e l v e s w h e t h e r t h e s o l u t i o n s in t h i s c a s e f o r m a n o r t h o n o r m a l s e t .19) t h e n t h e Ui(x) coordinate.23) .20) T h i s i s c a l l e d t h e associated [analogous t o E q . t h e t e x t b y M a t h e w s a n d W a l k e r c i t e d in t h e bibliogr a p h y ] . 1 2 ) is g i v e n b y (F. Vm <f>) d ( c o s 0 ) d<f> = 8 . b u t r e l a t i v e l y t e d i o u s t o s h o w t h a t t h e g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n t o E q . (F. im e .18)] that (F.

W e c a n d e t e r m i n e t h e f o r m of t h e B e s s e l f u n c t i o n s j u s t a s w e determined the L e g e n d r e polynomials. Assuming a p o w e r series solution of t h e f o r m (F. r a t h e r t h a n o n e . t h e y a r e a n o r t h o n o r m a l s e t of f u n c t i o n s .m f lm flimYim(0.24) <f>')Y (O . just as w e could e x p a n d a n y function defined o n the interval 0 ^ x ^ L in a F o u r i e r series. a n d this w a s t h e cylindrical.26) If w e p r o c e e d a s i n E q .28) .298 Appendices i. Such a series would take the form where /(»'.8) t o E q . s o t h a t <P = R(r)Q(ct>)Z(z). w e c a n e x p a n d a n y function defined o n t h e i n t e r v a l 0 =^ </> ^2IT 0 = ^ 0 =^ 7r i n a s e r i e s i n v o l v i n g s p h e r i c a l harmonics.25) S u c h e x p a n s i o n s a r e e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t in p r o b l e m s d e a l i n g w i t h spherical geometries. 6 ) . T h i s i s c a l l e d B e s s e l ' s e q u a t i o n . such as problems relating to motions on the surface of t h e e a r t h o r d e f o r m a t i o n s of a n u c l e u s . This m e a n s that. U n l i k e t h e s i n e s a n d c o s i n e s o r t h e L e g e n d r e p o l y n o m i a l s . h o w e v e r . T h e e x t e n s i o n of t h e i d e a of A p p e n d i x D t o t h i s c a s e s h o u l d b e o b v i o u s . a n d t h e s o l u t i o n s t o it a r e c a l l e d Bessel functions. (F. ( F .12) yields Z(z) and Q(<i>) = e w h i l e t h e f u n c t i o n R(r) ± i n = e ± k z \ is d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e e q u a t i o n (F. T h e r e r e m a i n s a t h i r d s e t of c o o r d i n a t e s w h i c h w e u s e d i n t h e t e x t .e. i *) = 2 l. t h e n tracing t h e steps f r o m E q . (F. t h e y a r e t h e b a s i s v e c t o r s in a s p a c e of f u n c t i o n s of t w o v a r i a b l e s . L a p l a c e ' s e q u a t i o n in c y l i n d r i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s is (F. a n d a s s u m e t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n is s e p a r a b l e .27) w h e r e w e h a v e s e t x = kr. (F. <y) d ( c o s 0 ' ) d<t>. (F.

. the Bessel functions can be expected to play an important r o l e i n p r o b l e m s i n v o l v i n g c y l i n d r i c a l s y m m e t r y . Legendre Obviously. o n l y t h e s p h e r i c a l Fig. I t h a s t h e general property that the function oscillates around zero.29) w h e r e w e f o l l o w t h e u s u a l c o n v e n t i o n a n d s e t a = [2 T(n + 1)]. I n t h i s t e x t . A n i m p o r t a n t difference in this c a s e is t h a t t h e s e r i e s d o e s n o t t e r m i n a t e . t h a t and a = n. W e c a n d e n o t e b y x t h e v a l u e of x for w h i c h t h e B e s s e l f u n c t i o n of o r d e r n b e c o m e s z e r o f o r t h e vth t i m e . I t t h e n follows (see t h e t e x t s in t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y ) t h a t t h e B e s s e l f u n c t i o n m u s t have the orthogonality relation n vn w h i c h is a n o r t h o g o n a l i t y c o n d i t i o n s i m i l a r t o E q . n 0 T h e f u n c t i o n J (x) is c a l l e d t h e Bessel function of order n. 1 6 ) . T h e r e a d e r s h o u l d b e a b l e t o c o n s t r u c t f o r h i m s e l f t h e Bessel series. 1 8 ) f o r polynomials. w h i c h is t h e a n a l o g u e t o t h e F o u r i e r s e r i e s .l. l . T h e r e a r e . s u c h a s flow of t h e b l o o d in a n a r t e r y . i n a n a l o g y t o E q . b u t i n c l u d e s all v a l u e s of n. ( F . A typical Bessel function. g i v e n b y (F. ( F . m a n y m o r e s e t s o f o r t h o g o n a l p o l y n o m i a l s w h i c h a r e of u s e in s p e c i a l i z e d p r o b l e m s . s o t h a t t h e B e s s e l f u n c t i o n is s i m p l y a p o w e r s e r i e s i n r. i n t e r m s of w h i c h functions whose argument runs from 0 ^ r ^ a can be expanded. of c o u r s e . as s h o w n s c h e m a t i c a l l y in Fig.The Solution of Partial Differential Equations 299 w e find. F . F.

a n d n e e d not disturb t h e r e a d e r unduly.300 Appendices h a r m o n i c s a n d t h e B e s s e l f u n c t i o n s a p p e a r . W e h a v e m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e s e n e w f u n c t i o n s h a v e a p r o p e r t y of o r t h o g o n a l i t y . a n d t h e s t u d e n t will b e a b l e t o h a n d l e a l m o s t all m a t e r i a l w h i c h h e e n c o u n t e r s if h e h a s a g r a s p of t h e s e basic functions and the ideas and concepts which underlie their use. . I n f a c t . b u t w e h a v e n o w h e r e s h o w n t h a t t h e y f o r m a c o m p l e t e s e t of b a s i s f u n c t i o n s . t h i s is s h o w n i n m o s t t e x t s o n differential e q u a t i o n s . O n e final p o i n t s h o u l d b e m a d e .

coefficient of. 232 Blood cells. 204. 294 Breakaway. 179 Convective derivative. 252ff. 240. 89 at equator. 66 Circulatory system. 66 Bossinesq approximation. 131. 57. 168-170 in the atmosphere. 267. 172 and continental drift. 258. 256rT. Reynolds number for. 249ff. 96. 93 Crust (of the earth). 195. 298 function. 248ff. 179. 5-8 for plane surface. 250 composition. 219 Cantilever. 250-251 Complex potential. 250 response to pressure. wave. 221-222 Arms control. 200 Bulk modulus. 81-83 Circulation. 263 Artery. 171. Collagen. 207 Capillary in blood circulation. 65 Bessel equation. 265ff. 241 Buckling. 298-299 Biharmonic equation. arterial. 71 for spherical surface. 85-86 in a solid. 136 Borda's mouthpiece. 249 flow. 249 jet. 249: see also blood flow Benard cell: see convection cell Bernoulli equation. Arteriosclerosis. 97 301 . 145 Boundary-layer separation. 244 Arterial walls composition. 240 Coriolis force. 103 Convection cells. 152 Bonneville. 2-3 Core (of the earth). 240 Continuity equation. 90 general form. 172 Boundary layer. 66 Continental drift. 239 Diffusivity. 151 Boundary-value problem. 158. 157 Disturbing potential.Index Acoustic wave in a fluid.

181 Hilbert space. 153 Mach number. 298 equation for potential flow. 217. 2. 192-195. 75. 57 for rotation. 172 Huygens principle. 217-220. 68. 56 theory of the tides. 295 function. 220. 293 Galileo. 43-47 Mantle. 230. 188. 288. 250 Mountain chain. 27 Kronecker delta. 30 for potential flow. 118-119 types of. 56 Jacobi ellipsoids. 259 Horse latitudes. 264 Equation of state. 2. 200 of a solid. 41. 9. 102 Legendre equation. 4-5. 73 Liouville Theorem. 39 unstable. 209. 217. 116-118 Fluid classical. 153 Maclaurin ellipsoids. thermal. 93 Euler theory of struts. 227-229. 261 Lubrication. 17 poly tropic. 152 Earth as a fluid. 9 Incompressible fluid. 283 Hadley cell. 278 Lacolith.302 Index 250. 40. 27 free oscillations. 217-220 Elastic solid. 122. 252 Newtonian solid. 117-119 spontaneous. 204 First law of thermodynamics. 254 Micron. 131. 195-199 Mohorovicic discontinuity. 180 Green's theorem. 18-19. 65 Loading critical. 74 Longitudinal wave in a solid. 63. 184 incompressible. 12 Equilibrium neutral. 5. 90. 230. 189. 164. coefficient of. 190 Newton's second law of motion. theory of. 27 Inversion. 130-136 Elastic constants. . 250 Doldrums. 291. 250-251 Entropy flux density. 158 Fenno-Scandian uplift. 58 systems far from. 7. 172 Drag. 199 Expansion. 190. 171. 156 Fission induced. 218. 221 Love waves. 61. 205 Lame coefficients. 294. 203. 177 Heat equation. 239 Membrane tension. 188 Elastin. 41 stable. 111 viscosity of. 144 Ideal gas law. 119 of a nucleus. 116 Fissionability parameter. 136. 296-297 Linearization. 7 Fourier series. 127 Neutral filament. 84 earth as an incompressible fluid. 58 Euler equation. 13 Entry problem. 138 Grashof number. 123. 186 Long waves. 138. 287 Hooke's law. 123 in a galaxy. 292. 230 Laplace equation. 28 stability of. 240 Navier-Stokes equation. 235 Hydraulics. 22. 164 Irrotational flow. 156 Heat transfer equation.

126 Strong interactions. 8. 98 waves. 212. 101 monthly. 144.Index Normal modes of oscillation for the earth. 152. 182 Surface tension. 297 Stoke's first problem. 218. 217 Stream function. 235. 130. 230. 277 Superfluid. 214. 148 number. 244 reflection. 230 viscous. 112 Struts. law of. 140 Strain tensor. 219 Shear modulus. 244 reflection. Lord. 218 relation. 180 Rayleigh criterion for convection. 66. 226 Rayleigh wave. 215 for a solid. 156 Spherical harmonics. 271 Poisson equation. 149. 276ff. 192. leaning tower. 164 Snell's law. 227 SV wave. 238 in nuclear explosions. 135 in solids. 225 Similarity. 9. 127. 238 Separation of variables. 182 Seiche. 252 for viscosity. 3. 98. 79. 236. 244 Reynolds number. 210-212 stress. 226-227 in a nuclear explosion. 292 Shear force in a fluid. 212-216. 232 Stress tensor Maxwell. 138 second problem. 188 Ripple. 129 Smog. 65 Stress function. 180 Slip. 124. 180. 92. 217. 85-86 Specific heat. 101. 272 Rheology. 219 Shear wave in a solid. 152. 214. 238 in nuclear explosion. 59 Tensor Cartesian. 88 diurnal. 226 Potential flow. 144 equations. 225. 180 for jet stability. . 210-212. 84 Seismic radius. 14 Sound wave in a fluid. 212-216. 47-48 5 wave. Maxwell stress. 225. 104 Orr-Sommerfeld equation. 167. 273 P wave. 241 Seismic ray parameter. 254 Tamped explosion. 56 Prandtl. 139 formula. 123 303 at a fluid surface. 103 equatorial. 246 Solar wind. 223. 167. 215 momentum flux. 227 reflection of SH and SV 245-256 Second sound. 138 Poisieulle flow. 223. 156 Tides. 241 Tangential instability. 200 Summation convention. 235. 152 formula. 110 for oceans. 13 strain. 13 ratio. 272 Rayleigh. 273 Streamline. 245-256 Pisa. 222 horizontal. 83 Roche's limit. 142 for blood flow. 270. 89 inverted. 67. 245-246 SH wave. 124 Thermal conductivity coefficient of. 189. 153.

102 semi-diurnal. 265. 126 energy. 122ff. 232. 267 for surface waves. 218. 233 Urethra. 49 Velocity potential.304 Index Viscoelastic solid. 92. 75 . 256 Viscosity. 220-223 surface. 223-227 thin sheets. 265ff. 230 Zonal heating. 91-92. 233 Wronskian determinant. 250. 98. 101 solar. 56 for capillary jet. Velocity field. 270 Urinary drop spectrometer. 137-138 kinematic coefficient of. 188. 102 Torsional rigidity. 138 Waves in solids body. coefficients of. 163 Young's modulus. 264ff. Urinary system. 127 Vorticity transport equation. 231 Tuning fork. 172 Tides (continued) planetary.