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# !"#\$%&' )%'* + !*,', -./0&'\$1 !"#\$%&"'( !

*%+,\$
Besign the uownspouts foi a house to be able to take all the watei uuiing heavy iain
without oveiflowing.
23'% 4 + 5'67*' 38' -./0&'\$
• Reau the pioblem statement again! Reau it one moie time.

• Befine what the pioblem states in a way that makes sense to you:
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3-(\$92 7&
• Sketch the infoimation given in the pioblem

• List what is given ¡ known
:&+;1 %+"0
• List any constiaints:

<%(33=3&8)"(0+9 +%&+ (> &+8- 2(.034(\$) 3-(\$92 0() &?8&&2 @A 8/ ? B 8/ C BA 8/
D
E

• Befine a ciiteiion foi juuging the final piouuct (uesign) ¡ answeiing the question
(pioblem)
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2\$%"0# -&+;1 %+"0E
• Beteimine the ieal objective of the pioblem (ex. what uo I neeu to calculate.)

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H
I3,J
:(. /+01 2(.034(\$)3 5 0&&2 )( 8+%%1 )-"3 >9(. %+)& 2(.0J
G-+) 3-(\$92 )-& 2"+/&)&% (> &+8- 2(.034(\$) 7& *2,J
23'% 9 + !"%&/.' 38' -./0&'\$
• Examine any +%%'*% involveu

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L\$3) &3)"/+)&M
*+, N */
H
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P%
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• Nake all the necessaiy #::;\$%37/*: that will help you simplify the pioblem
enough, so you can solve it using familiai theoiies.
(a) Flow is steauy, incompiessible.
(b) 4 uownspouts one on each coinei of the ioof; if they enu up being huge I will
inciease theii numbei.
(c) All iain flow is uiiecteu to the gutteis anu equally uistiibuteu among the 4
uownspouts.
(u) Roof is iectangulai 1Sm x 2um; Aioof = Suu m
2
(e) Beavy iain: Weathei Seivice says it is > 16 mm ¡ hi (u.6S in ¡ hi)
(f) Rain falls veitically uown - theie is no winu
(g) Rain is falling at a steauy iate (with vtei ~14 mph) viain ~ S m¡sec
(h) All iain uioplets have the same size, speeu, anu spacing
(i) volume of each uioplet = !uioplet = 9 mm
S
= 9 x 1u
-9
m
S

(j) Befine " = # of uioplets pei unit volume (~2 x 1u
S
uioplets ¡ m
S
)
(k) Befine #: # of uioplets pei unit aiea, pei unit time

# = " viain =2 x 1u
S
x S = 1u
4
uioplets pei m
2
, pei sec

• uuestimate the answei:

The iequiieu uiametei foi each uownspout shoulu be ~ 1u cm.

23'% < + -&#* 38' 2/&;37/*

• Select appiopiiate theoiy, piinciples, appioach:

Continuity foi steauy flow: Qioof = n Qus

• Nap out any sub-pioblems.
• List what neeus to be founu
• Wiite uown all equations you neeu to caiiy out each step of the solution but uo
not substitute any numbeis
• Biaw fiee-bouy uiagiams anu contiol volumes as necessaiy

(a) Calculate flow iate falling on the ioof Qioof = Aioof # !uioplet
|m
2
m
-2
s
-1
m
S
= m
S
¡ secj

(b) Calculate uiametei of each uownspout Qus = Qioof ¡ n

Assume vus = viain = S m¡s
Aus = Qus ¡ vus
(c) If Aus > 1u cm
2
inciease n (# of uownspouts)

23'% = + >\$%&'\$'*3 38' 2/&;37/*

Qioof = Aioof # !uioplet = Suu x 1u
4
x 9 x 1u
-9
= 2.7 x 1u
-2
m
S
¡ sec
Qus = Qioof ¡ n = 2.7 x 1u
-2
¡ 4 = u.67S x 1u
-2
m
S
¡ sec
Aus = Qus ¡ vus = u.67S x 1u
-2
¡ S = u.1SS x 1u
-2
m
2
= 1S.S cm
2

Since Aus > 1u cm
2
let's inciease # of uownspouts to n = 6
Then
Qus = Qioof ¡ n = 2.7 x 1u
-2
¡ 6 = u.4S x 1u
-2
m
S
¡ sec
Aus = Qus ¡ vus = u.4S x 1u
-2
¡ S = u.u9 x 1u
-2
m
2
= 9 cm
2

23'% ? + @'6&'A3 B !C#&;#3'
It is piobably a goou iuea to have a few moie uownspouts than the absolute
minimum numbei iequiieu, so if they get cloggeu with uebiis anu theii capacity is
ieuuceu, they can still caiiy uown the watei fiom the heaviest iain.
• 6 uownspouts with Aus = 1u cm
2
shoulu uo the job
• 8 uownspouts is bettei to account also foi the fact that gutteis get cloggeu
with leaves anu othei uebiis anu theie shoulu be moie points on the ioof
fiom which the watei can flow uown.