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The world has changed dramatically since then both in design and technology.

What has not changed is the role of the old lead-acid battery for rechargeable systems, to the contrary its market share has increased and there is no sign that it can be replaced near term by any other secondary battery system.

Industrial batteries, in this report include those designed for motive power, standby power and valve-regulated types. Such batteries are designed for long life under arduous operating conditions that can include repetitive deep cycling and long periods of float charging. Under these conditions, plate active material can soften and shed from the plate. Thus, the paste has a higher density to give it more strength. batteries ! wide variety of energy storage options are available today for the stationary power market" #ach technology has its own merits based on a variety of application specific factors The figure below shows eleven variables that are included in the decision of what battery type to select for a given system. ifferent paste formulas are used for industrial

$ead acid has been around for over %&& years and will be a market force for the foreseeable future due to its low cost and established manufacturing base. $ead acid batteries can be divided into two distinct categories' flooded and sealed(valve regulated )S$! or *+$!,. The two types are identical in their internal chemistry )shown in -igure .,. The most significant differences between the two types are the system level design considerations. -looded lead acid batteries re/uire three things that *+$! don0t' %. Upright orientation to prevent electrolyte leakage 1. *entilated environment to diffuse gases created during cycling .. +outine maintenance of electrolyte ue to these differences, the lower cost of flooded lead acid must be balanced against the added comple2ity and secondary costs. *+$! batteries are divided into two categories' 3el and !bsorbed 3lass 4at )!34,. The different names reflect different methods of containing the electrolyte. In 3el batteries, a thickening agent is added to turn the electrolyte from li/uid to gel. In !34 cells, a glass matri2 is used to contain the li/uid electrolyte. 5 eep cycle6 and 5shallow cycle6 lead acid batteries can be found in both the *+$! and flooded classes. Shallow cycle *+$! batteries are commonly used for automotive start, light, ignition )5S$I6, batteries that must deliver high power pulses for short durations. The stationary power market uses deep cycle since the batteries will often discharge at a low rate over the course of multiple hours. The lead processing industry is also very energy intensive, leading to large amounts of pollution. !lthough lead is highly ha7ardous to human health, the manufacturing methods and battery packaging make the human risk negligible. 8n the plus side, over 9:; of lead acid batteries in the United States are recycled, which makes a huge impact on the environmental e/uation.

The lead-acid battery was invented by Gaston Plant, a French physicist, in 1859. That battery consisted of two strips of tape sandwiched between two lead plates and rolled into a cylindrical shape. t was repeatedly char!ed and dischar!ed in dil"ted s"lf"ric acid and had a positive electrode of lead dio#ide and a ne!ative electrode of lead active $aterial. n the188%s, pasted electrode batteries were invented by &a$ille Fa"re, a French en!ineer, after which the e$er!in! of a lead-anti$ony alloy !rid $ade vol"$e prod"ction of batteries easier. n 'apan in 1895, Gen(o" )hi$ad(", the second-!eneration of the )hi$ad(" &orporation, first s"cceeded with the prototype of a stora!e battery, which $ar*ed the be!innin! of prod"ction. Fro$ the end of the 19th cent"ry to the be!innin! of the +%th cent"ry $ost hi!h stora!e capacity batteries were "sed for stand-alone and portable e,"ip$ent, or electric vehicles.

n the 19-%s, !lass $at and clad electrodes which were vibration-proof were co$$erciali(ed and "sed in ind"strial vehicles. n the 195%s and thereafter, with the develop$ent of $otori(ation in 'apan, de$and for a"to$obile batteries !rew dra$atically, and after 19.%, enclosed valve re!"lated lead-acid batteries appeared, and were e$ployed in a variety of portable devices. The "se of these batteries has e#panded f"rther in $otorcycles and stand-alone e,"ip$ent.

/eca"se of these develop$ents, lead-acid batteries have beco$e the $ainstrea$ of hi!h-capacity secondary batteries.

Sealed $ead !cid batteries come in a variety of technologies. #ach technology has its attributes, advantages and disadvantages in any given application - however, they all remain <$ead !cid< batteries. They are known as

%. 1. .. =. >.

S$! ) Sealed $ead !cid, *+$! ) *alve +egulated $ead !cid, !34 ) !bsorbed 3lass 4at, 3el )3elled #lectrolyte, 3el ( !34 ?ybrid

0o ideal battery e#ists in practice. History

S$! )Sealed $ead !cid, batteries otherwise known as *+$! )*alve +egulated $ead !cid, were originally known as @ ry Aatteries@. They were introduced in the %9>&<s and at that time untilised a 3el electrolyte. The otherwise free acid was immobilised with a fine silica powder and formed a gel substance. In the %9:&<s technology moved to !34 )!bsorbed 3lass 4at, where the separators between the plates were made of a felt of micro-fine glass fibers absorbing and immobilising the acid.

!34 has since become the preferred *+$! technology for use in stand-by or float applications. They are used in multi unit power packs for UBS support in the telecommunications, power, and indeed any mission critical industry where the power supply must not be interrupted. 3el batteries are also used in UBS stand-by duty but it is argued that neither are the complete answer.

?ence the development of the 3el(!34 ?ybrid 3el technology has e2perienced good results in cyclic applications and used e2tensively in boats, motor homes, golf trundlers and carts - the list is long.

Nothing is perfect
The various shortfalls of !34 and 3el batteries are well documented. +esearch has shown that considerable compressive force is needed for the !34 mat to make good electrolyte(plate contact. It looses compression as the cells age affecting performance. 8n the other hand, the immobilised gel electrolyte suffers shrinkage over time due to loss of water and dry out or sulphating of the negative electrode. The gelled electrolyte inherently has a lower recombination efficiency compared with !34. !nd further, the gel will not tolerate gassing bought on by e2cessive voltage while charging. ?owever, this issue is manageable with appropriate regulation of alternators and mainspowered chargers.

The Hybrid break-through

In spite of the problems discussed above, the AGM is still the preferred material for immobilising the electrolyte in *+$! batteries. To further improve gel technology, a colloidal poly-silica gel has been developed and this in combination with !34 technology has given rise to Hybrid Gel technology. #2cess gel surrounding the cell element provides additional reserve and superior thermal properties. !nd while the !34-based technology has the preferred approach to immobilising the electrolyte, the combining of the two technologies is suggested as being the method to improve the sealed lead acid battery. -urther development has been done to find a glass matting with better memory under compressive loads ensuring retention of plate contact for efficient ion transfer. Thus, the ?ybrid has arrived offering' Superior cyclic service even in adverse environmental conditions. Improved thermal properties e2tending long-term reliability and performance.

Hybrid Application
?ybrid suggests duality and this battery does have dual applications. It enCoys superior cyclic life but also e2cellent in standby applications. Marine: In the case of the marine house bank, one generally talks <deep cycle<. Aut is it really cyclic use of a battery when it is subCected to stand-by for weeks at a time and then used over several daysD 8ne could rightly say the battery bank re/uires stand-by and cyclic attributes. The solutionD The hybrid battery. #ven when the vessel has full time residents, it will be powered by shore-power at the dock and cycled -batteries during oceanic cruising. The solutionD The hybrid battery. There are obviously many cyclic and stand-by applications one could conCure up and perhaps the hybrid, being generally superior in both roles is the better solution to power re/uirements. Recharge only / still serviceable: A recent battery study has shown that up to 15% of batteries replaced are simply flat or partially discharged. Batteries which can be fully restored after recharging can be re-fitted to the vehicle. It is important to test all batteries being replaced, as there may be a problem with the vehicle s electrical system. Usage related failure:

!his occurs when a battery has premature failure due to e"treme conditions of use commonly found in harsh climates. Low electrolyte levels e"pose the bus bar and ultimately the upper portion of the plates that can cause irreversible sulphation and accelerated corrosion. !he low electrolyte levels can be the result of lac# of battery maintenance, or as a result of overcharging where fluid is lost through gassing. As an additional problem, the acid concentration in the battery from lower electrolyte levels can cause increased corrosion of the remaining wet part of plates. Batteries with higher electrolyte volume above the plates assist in minimising these problems, and ensuring batteries are regularly maintained when operating in harsh conditions will also prolong battery life. High under bonnet operating temperature . $arsh operating conditions, and increasing vehicle under bonnet operating temperatures, can cause early battery failure through a number of areas. !hese conditions contribute to corrosion of the positive plate, grid growth which can result in a short circuit, and loss of plate active material. Vibration effects. !his can cause physical damage to battery components and often sudden failure of the battery. %ibration damage can include& ' (oss of active material from the plates, resulting in a loss of battery charge and possible short circuits. ' bro#en or crac#ed grid frames, causing short circuits) usually causing separator damage. ' perforation of the separator envelopes at the bottom where the plates sit in the battery case. !his can result in short circuits. Overcharging. *here the vehicle charging system has been operating at a higher than normal voltage, the battery is sub+ected to virtually continuous charging. !his can result in faster grid corrosion, loss of plate active material, loss of electrolyte, plate growth and eventually disintegration of the positive plate. Undercharging. !his can occur when the vehicle voltage charging system is too low to fully recharge the battery. !he result is a loss of charge and irreversible sulphation of the battery. Plate or rid Related !orrosion:

rid corrosion of the Positive plates within a battery is a normal end of battery life condition that is commonly caused due to higher operating temperatures, overcharging or loss of electrolyte fluid. ,f the positive and negative plates within a battery, it is the positive plates where the grid metal can completely o"idise and disintegrate due to these operating conditions. -ifferent alloys added to the positive grid lead can have an affect on the corrosion rate. Antimonial lead grids generally have a higher corrosion resistance than calcium lead grids, and along with higher volumes of electrolyte above the plates, can help overcome this problem, allowing batteries to operate more successfully in harsh conditions. "oft Positive Plate #aterial ./mushy plates/0. !his is a condition usually resulting from high operating temperatures or overcharging. ,ften, both conditions may have occurred. "ulphation. !his occurs when a battery stands in a partially or fully discharged state for long periods of time, or is continually undercharged. As a result of these conditions the active lead material on the plates becomes lead sulphate which also hardens the plates. -epending on the length of time the battery has been in this condition, the sulphation may be irreversible. In addition, if the electrolyte level in the battery is low, the e"posed part of the plates will become inactive and sulphated. !herefore batteries with higher electrolyte levels will go a long way to reducing problems due to sulphation and assisting longer battery life. Open !ircuit: $ro%en cell to cell connection. !his is where there has been a complete failure of the intercell weld. *eld 1uality is critical for reliable battery performance and good wor#ing life. !his problem is largely minimised by leading manufacturers, due to accredited 1uality assured manufacturing processes. & bro%en bus bar' !his type of failure can be caused by e"cessive corrosion of the bus bar due to low electrolyte level in the battery. 2"tensive overcharging and3or elevated operating temperatures can also lead to accelerated corrosion of the bus bars leading to brea#age and open circuit. Batteries with the capacity for higher electrolyte levels will help to ensure a longer battery life. "hort !ircuit:

Plate to bus bar short circuits can result from bent plates contacting the bus bar, or corroded positive plates which have grown upwards, contacting the bus bar and causing a short circuit. !his fault can be age related and can be a normal end of life condition. It can also be a result of overcharging, cycling or elevated operating temperatures. Plate to plate short circuits occur when positive and negative plates ma#e contact causing short circuit, resulting in battery failure. %ibration can cause the plates to wear or pierce the separator material leading to a short circuit. . (orn out or )*nd of Life) conditions: !he normal end of life condition in a battery is when one or more cells cease functioning due to the positive plate grid having corroded and finally collapsing. ,perating temperatures have a definite effect on battery life, and high temperatures will accelerate these end of life conditions.

The Eommerciali7ation of Aipolar Technology Fust as the lead-acid industry continues its breakthrough work on incorporating carbon and supercapacitors in batteries to improve their performance, signifi cant progress is also being made in another key area' the commerciali7ation of bipolar technology. Scientists have long known that bipolar technology can help produce batteries that will achieve the twin goals of more power and a smaller footprint, something very important in the effort to make hybrid electric vehicles more affordable for consumers. -or years most batteries have been made with conventional Gmonopolar0 technology that uses two plates per cell and then connects those cells in a series of metallic connectors outside of the cells or through a wall. )-igure %, This design results in ohmic losses within the plates leading to unsymmetrical distribution of the current density during operation. -urthermore, these grid and cell connectors increase the total weight of the battery. While bipolar and monopolar designs share the same lead-acid chemistry, they differ in that in bipolar batteries, the cells are stacked in a sandwich construction so that the negative plate of one cell becomes the positive plate of the ne2t cell. The cells are separated from each other by the bipolar plateH which allows each cell to operate in isolation from its neighbor. Stacking these cells ne2t to one another )-igure 1, allows the potential of the battery to be built up in 1 volt increments. Since the cell wall becomes the connection element between cells, bipolar plates have a shorter current path and a larger surface area compared to connections in conventional cells. This construction reduces the power loss that is normally caused by the internal resistance of the cells. !t each end of the stack, single plates act as the fi nal anode and cathode. This simpler construction leads to reduced weight since there are fewer plates and bus bars are not needed to Coin cells together. The net result is a battery design with higher power than conventional monopolar lead-acid batteries. Until recently, the main problem limiting the commerciali7ation of bipolar lead-acid batteries was the availability of a lightweight, ine2pensive and corrosion resistant material for the bipolar plate, and the technology to properly seal each cell against electrolyte leakage. !$!AE members !traverda and #ffpower ,

however, have each developed technology to overcome these challenges and are bringing their bipolar innovations to the marketplace. !traverda , based in the United Iingdom, has developed an electrically conductive ceramic, #bone2 J technology, a titanium subo2ide material that has a uni/ue combination of metalliclike electrical conductivity along with the characteristic high corrosion resistance of ceramics. The #bone2 J technology is currently manufacturers. #ffpower , founded in %999 by *olvo and 3ylling 8ptima Aatteries !A, also has achieved breakthroughs in the development of ceramic materials and production technology to create new lead-infi ltrated ceramic )$IEK, plates. These plates act as portioning walls between cells in its own bipolar battery, the #ffpower, that currently is undergoing tests in Sweden. In both instances, the distance between electrodes is shorter and electrical current is more evenly distributed throughout the battery itself. The result is greater energy density within a smaller, lighter-weight container. being evaluated by a number of maCor battery