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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 20, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012

Markovian-Based Fault-Tolerant Control for Wheeled Mobile Manipulators
Yu Kang, Member, IEEE, Zhijun Li, Senior Member, IEEE, Yifan Dong, and Hongsheng Xi, Member, IEEE
Abstract—In this brief, we develop a methodology via Markovian control theory to evaluate fault- tolerant wheeled mobile manipulators. The transition rate uncertainties are allowed within an uncertainty domain. Since the velocity signals are generally not available and indirectly obtained from the measured positions, control based we are concerned with the output feedback on a high-gain observer for wheeled mobile manipulators. The objective is to design a mode-dependent dynamic output feedback controller for wheeled mobile manipulators which guarantees not only the robust stochastic stability but also a prescribed disturbance attenuation level for the resulting closed-loop system, irrespective of the transition rate uncertainties. A sufficient condition for the solvability of this problem is obtained and the expression of the desired controller is given in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities. Index Terms—Fault-tolerant control, Markov jumping, output feedback control, transition rate uncertainties, wheeled mobile manipulators.

I. INTRODUCTION

W

HEELED mobile manipulators have attracted a lot of attention recently [1], [2]. However, besides exogenous disturbances which may increase the difficulty of reference tracking control for mobile manipulators, actuator failures (either in wheels or joints) might suddenly occur during the motion of mobile manipulators. The failed actuators, where the torque supplied to the motors of one or more joints vanishes suddenly, can destabilize the system with the possibility of damaging the robot components. When a free torque fault occurs, the fully actuated manipulator would become an under-actuated one, To avoid the necessity of stopping the robot when a fault occurs, the Markov theory was developed to design a procedure to incorporate abrupt changes in the manipulator configuration. Markovian jump linear system (MJLS) [8] and [9] is hybrid, which is loosely defined as a system involving the interaction of both discrete events (represented by finite automata) and continuous-time dynamics (represented by differential equations). , is a continuous-time The discrete part, usually denoted by Markov process representing the modes of the system while , represents the the continuous part, usually denoted by
Manuscript received November 04, 2010; accepted January 13, 2011. Manuscript received in final form January 23, 2011. Date of publication February 28, 2011; date of current version December 14, 2011. Recommended by Associate Editor B. Jiang. This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (60704007, 60774038, and 60804003) by the Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (60935001), by Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation (11040606M143), by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and by Shanghai Pujiang Program under Grant 08PJ1407000. Y. Kang, Y. Dong, and H. Xi are with the Department of Auto, School of Information Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230027, China (e-mail: kangduyu@ustc.edu.cn). Z. Li is with the Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China (e-mail: zjli@ieee.org). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TCST.2011.2109062

physical state of the system, which evolves according to the differential equation when the mode is fixed. The hybrid formulation provides a powerful framework for modeling and analyzing the systems subject to abrupt variations, which are partly due to the inherently vulnerability to abrupt changes caused by component failures, sudden environmental disturbances, abrupt variation of the operation point of a nonlinear plant and so on. MJLS method used to model and analyze fault occurrence for robotic systems is an effective but challenging work. In [3] and [4], the proposed control based on state-feedback Markovian control was proposed for fault-tolerant of three-link robotic manipulator. However, in this brief, we develop the methodology via Markovian control theory to evaluate fault tolerant mobile manipulators. First, compared with [3] and [4], in this state-feedback, which rebrief, the controller design is quires that all the variables could be directly measured. However, for the mobile manipulators, the velocity signals are generally not available and indirectly obtained from the measured positions. To overcome this practical difficulty, in this brief, control based we are concerned with the output feedback on a high-gain observer. Second, in [3] and [4], it is assumed that the switching probabilities, which describe the probability of a fault occurrence, are precisely known as a priori. However, in practice, only the estimated values of the mode transition rates are available, and the estimation errors, referred to as switching probability uncertainties, may also lead to instability or at least degraded performance of a system as the uncertainties in system matrices do [7]. In the literature, two different types of descriptions about uncertain switching probabilities have been considered. The first one is the polygon description where the mode transition rate matrix is assumed to be in a convex hull with known vertices [10]. The other type is described in an element-wise way. In this case, the elements of the mode transition rate matrix are measured in practice while the error bounds are given [11]. In many situations, the element-wise uncertainty description can be more convenient as well as natural. In this brief, we consider the element-wise uncertainties in the mode transition rate matrix and based on this we give a more realistic Markovian model for the mobile manipulator system. The uncertainties are allowed within an uncertainty domain. Third, due to the measurement error and the modeling imprecision, the parametric uncertainties should be considered. In [3], the parametric uncertainties are bounded up with external disturbances, which seem to be indistinct. In our work, we consider the system parametric uncertainties and the external disturbances, respectively and independently. A robust output feedback controller is designed to deal with the system matrix uncertain part, while a controller is then presented to realize disturbance attenuation. The wheeled mobile manipulators are obviously different from robotic manipulators due to nonholonomic constraints.

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where . in the use of Markovian chain. For a more realistic Markovian model for the wheeled mobile manipulator. the links. The dynamics can be described as [2] (1) with where denoting the generalized coordinates for the mobile platdenoting the coordinates of the form and robotic manipulator joints. such as a vibration tend to affect the positioning is the kinematic accuracy of the manipulator. and the generalized constraint . and 3) designing a mode-dependent dynamic output feedback controller based on a high-gain observer to make the system with the uncertainty domain robustly stochastic stable with disturbance attenuation level . respectively. can be joint independently. in i. and are the coupling inertia matrices of the mobile denote the Centripetal and Coriolis platform. we adopt the element-wise uncertainties in the mode transition rate matrix.2: The total degree of freedom for the reduced model of the two-wheeled driven mobile manipulator with two joints is . in this brief. Moreover. We assume that the mobile manipulator is subject to known nonholonomic constraints. : the Centripetal and Coriolis torque matrices of the operational . Specifically. in order to evaluate fault tolerant wheeled mobile manipulators by Markovian control theory. the control inputs . Apparently. the dynamics of mobile manipulator can be expressed as (2) where this brief. Since the velocity signals are generally not available for the robotic system and it is indirectly obtained from the measured position. Considering the above equation and its derivative. the links respectively. Comparatively. and . The symmetric positive definite inertia matrix . respectively. We partition the dynamics (2) into two parts. 2) considering a more realistic element-wise way to describe the transition-rate uncertainty. in this brief. The vehicle subject to nonholonomic constraints can be ex.: MARKOVIAN-BASED FAULT-TOLERANT CONTROL FOR WHEELED MOBILE MANIPULATORS 267 Due to Brocketts theorem [18]. This distribution is spanned by a set of smooth and linearly independent vector fields . the links. is the input vector associated with the left driven wheel and the right driven wheel. denote the external disturbances on the mobile platform. is the associated Lagrangian multipliers with the generalized TABLE I MODES OF OPERATION nonholonomic constraints. the operational part and the failed part. Then we can rewrite the dynamics (2) as Remark 2. and . are the coupling Centripetal and Coriolis torques of the mobile platform. respectively. the known the external disturbance input transformation matrix . Remark 2. SYSTEM MODELLING Consider a robotic manipulator with degrees of freedom mounted on a two-wheeled driven mobile platform. the gravitational torque vector . we choose . The nonholonomic con. . the links. and are the control input vectors for the joints of the manipulator. and describe the forces inertia matrices for the mobile platform.e. constraint matrix related to nonholonomic constraints.1: In where : the coupling inertia matrices of the operational parts and the failed parts. we first design a reduced model for the wheeled mobile manipulator. torques for the mobile platform. improved from [5] and [6].KANG et al. we introduce a control. respectively. such that straint implies the existence of vector . represented by “ ” and “ ”. we allow transition rate uncertainties within an uncertainty domain. . II. Then associated to Table I depending on which torque has failed. respectively. The main high-gain observer output feedback to contributions of this brief lie in: 1) developing a reduced model for mobile manipulators such that Markovian theory can be used to model the fault tolerant.. the following relation [2]. wheels and Now we suppose failures may appear in left wheel and each modes of operation. local coordinates. the links. Note that is of full rank. Assume that the annihilator of the co-dispressed as is tribution spanned by the covector fields -dimensional smooth nonsingular distribution on an . the proposed control in [3] and [4] for robotic manipulators is not suitable for the robots with velocities constraints. the links. and Coriolis torques . and are the gravitational torque vectors for the mobile platform. the Centripetal . which satisfy.

we get (8) where . we define the : following variables with The fully operational mobile manipulator can be represented by (3) with . : the gravitational torque vector for the operational parts and the failed parts. we obtain (3) where and its first derivaLemma 3. After some simple manipulations. Proof: The proof can be found in [23]. OUTPUT FEEDBACK CONTROLLER BASED ON HIGH-GAIN OBSERVER Since it may be difficult to measure the velocity signal. represent the controlled output. by linearizing the dynamics (3) around an operation point with position and velocity . VOL. a high-gain observer is employed to estimate the states of the system. 1. denotes the th derivative of . Transform the above equations into matrix form. only is measurable.268 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY. Then.1: Suppose the function tives are bounded. there and such that for (6) (7) where is any small positive constant. we need to estimate the position signal to implement the feedback control. Applying observer (5). respectively. : the control input torque vector for the operational parts of the manipulator. : the control input torque vector for the failed parts of the manipulator satisfying . JANUARY 2012 parts and the failed parts. 20. and . we have the following linear system: (4) where we have the equation at the bottom of the page and represents the state tracking error. Then. respectively. Let the measured output be the position measured in the -link tracking error signal manipulator system (4). NO. the control input and exogenous disturbance. III. respectively. rank input transformation matrix of the operational parts and the failed parts. : the external disturbance on the operational parts and the : the known full failed parts. and and are constant matrices defined by the designer and are used to adjust the Markovian controllers. Therefore. Consider the following linear system: (5) where the parameters to mial exist positive constants we have all are chosen so that the polynois Hurwitz.

the Markovian modes are the manipulator dynamic model linearized properly according to (4) in these linearization points for all configurations. are selected Remark 4. we have totally bile manipulator with two wheels and possible configurations as discussed in Section II. While applying Markovian method. but also describes the probability of a fault occurrence. In order to tackle the estimation error. for each is a second-order real valued random vector. The output feedback controller on observer (8) is given by (9) where is the controller gain to be designed. Remark 3. linearization points with computed as modes are found. Then. The following Assumptions are in order. To distinguish the operation point level and the fault occurrence level more blocks with each block clearly. Unlike other exact linearization approach. we may partition into matrix. These matrices are given by is a homogeneous Markov process taking the system (4).. the exogenous disturbance signal that belongs to are real constant matrices with appropriate dimensions. As mentioned in Section II. For each range of of workspace into each joint. the controlled output. MARKOVIAN MODEL AND PROBLEM STATEMENT The Markovian model developed in this section not only contains the transition among the operation points in system (4). The choice of these sectors and the number of the sectors need to be first decided in order to guarantee the effectiveness of the Markovian jump model. We may consider the workspace of each joint with a positioning domain which range to .1: The dimensions of the matrix sets may be different among all the configurations. while notes the uncertainties in the system matrices satisfying . the number of all the possible combinations of posijoints may be tioning of the two wheels and . and divide the from sectors. This problem will be described in detail in Section V. Moreover.KANG et al. Consider the following hybrid system: (10) where are. be a complete probability space with Let satisfying the usual conditions (increasing a filtration contains all -null sets).: MARKOVIAN-BASED FAULT-TOLERANT CONTROL FOR WHEELED MOBILE MANIPULATORS 269 with the parameters chosen so that the polynomial is Hurwitz. . the input.1: The output feedback controller proposed here is easy to implement because it is simply a state feedback design with a linear high-gain observer without a priori knowledge of the nonlinear systems. Remark 4. which means a transition rate matrix is needed. for . IV. with generator value in a finite state space satisfying and for . the highgain observer has certain disturbance rejection and linearization properties. it is defined as a linearization point for the manipulator. For all . is and the measured output for the system (10). The probawhere bility initial distribution of the Markov process is given by in such a way that . the state trajectory. Note that although the transitions among the plant linearization points are not a genuine stochastic event in contrast with the moment of a fault occurrence. Assumption 4.2: The mode transition rate matrix belongs to the following admissible uncertainty domain: (14) where while is a known constant transition rate matrix. Hence. denotes the uncertainty. which means they cannot be precisely known as a priori. The evolution of the jump component is described by (11) . An illustrative example will be be an shown in Section VI.2: Note that all the elements of empirically. both system matrices and the mode transition rate matrix are not precisely known as a priori. there exist two sets of macorresponding to all the trices configurations.e. We deand right continuous and the Hilbert space formed by the stochastic note by process such that. respectively. the Markovian techniques can be applied in this case since the Markovian transition rate is related with the expected mean time the system is supposed to lie in each state of the Markovian chain. we consider a more realistic way where the nominal estimated value of the transition rate matrix is measured in practice and error bounds are given. i. -measurable and . Assumption 4.1: Divide the parameter matrices into a nominal part and a perturbed part (12) where the uncertain parameters are assumed to be in following forms: (13) are known constant real where dematrices of appropriate dimensions. Now we proceed to consider the linearization configurations. with the velocities set to zero. lines and columns of zeros may be introduced to make sure that the system matrix sets of all modes have the same dimension. For each linearization point. it is not necessary to search for a nonlinear transformation and an explicit control function. For a mojoints.

acting on functional . we define a positive-definite maby . we consider the robust stochastic stability for the system . The state and output equations for this -dimensional system may be written as (16) where . For simplicity. (13). V. and of appropriate Lemma 4. Then for any scalar and vectors . we have (17) . and the which can take any error between them is referred as to . for all satisfying . we have . 20. in the sequel.2 [12]: Given matrices dimensions with satisfying . holds. STABILITY ANALYSIS A. where . VOL. Robust Stochastic Stability First. we suggest the reader to see related work in [13] and [14]. According to (8) and (9). rate after lots of statistics in practice. . NO. . (18) With (12). For further references on the associated operator of the hybrid system (10). into a closed-loop system. . could be deterRemark 4. with the augmented state variable for any . (10) with uncertainty domain (12) when Theorem 5. Proof: We consider the equivalent closed-loop Markovian ). real number . there exist positive-definite matrices and positive real numbers such that the LMIs (17).270 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY. if and only if there exists some such that . For each . the linear mode-dependent output control law is given by (15) It is possible to incorporate both systems (10) and (15). shown at the bottom of the page.3: The estimation error bound mined empirically from an admissible portion of the nominal which is the estimated value of the mode transition value . for and any initial distribution any finite initial condition for . for any .e. 1. 10% of A dynamic output feedback controller based on the high-gain observer is adopted to solve the problem of fault-tolerant manipulator control described in Section II. For all and value in . let denote the corresponding for each . Then we construct trix a stochastic Lyapunov functional candidate as Applying the Markovian infinitesimal operator. and Lemma 4. . .1 [15]: The system (10) with stochastic stable (SS) if . is said to be Definition 4. . . JANUARY 2012 denotes the estimated value of . The weak infinitesimal genmatrix erator. for example. is defined by .1 [16]: Given matrices of appropriate dimensions.. and (14).1: The Markovian jump system (10) with uncertainty domain (12) and dynamic output feedback control law (15) is robustly stochastic stable if. jump linear system (16) without disturbance (i. .

: MARKOVIAN-BASED FAULT-TOLERANT CONTROL FOR WHEELED MOBILE MANIPULATORS 271 (19) where holds for each . Then we have . the LMIs (17) guarantee that . Using Dynkin Formula [17]. Letting and noting that .KANG et al. It follows that Obviously. holds for some given scalars From Lemma 4. We choose . Now multiply the above equation by on with . . we know that real numbers such that if and only if there exist holds for each . This completes the proof. which is equivalent to (17) in view of Schur complement equivalence. The following theorem gives the result. for any matrices and positive real numsuch that the LMIs (21).1. Theorem 5.1. it is deduced that the above inequality holds if and such that only if there exist real numbers (21) . Hence. together with . implies . we know the system (10) achieves robustly stochastic stable according to Definition 4. Robust Consider the Disturbance Attenuation performance function as (20) for . Then using Lemma both sides and replace 4. there exist positive-definite uation if. B.2: The Markovian jump system (10) with uncertainty domain (12) and dynamic output feedback control law atten(15) is robustly stochastic stable with -disturbance . where page. we have which.1 again. . shown at the bottom of the bers .

Observing the zero initial condition and considering the performance function. it is verified that (21) guarantees plement and letting for any .1.1: Theorem 5. it can be easy to obtain the condition (17) from (21). Then by From Lemma 4. we define a positive-definite matrix each by . Note that can be any scalar in view of Lemma 4. Hence. Using Dynkin’s formula again. we have . we have (22) where using Lemma 4. from Remark 5. the closed-loop system (16) is robustly stochastic stable. Wheeled mobile manipulator in the simulation. Taking (22) into the above inequality gives Proof: Consider the equivalent closed-loop Markovian jump linear system (16). Lyapunov functional candidate as Applying the Markovian infinitesimal operator.1 and Schur complement. Applying Schur com. for any . it follows that is defined in (19). we have such that and only if there exist real numbers if with any real positive number for each . which in turn guarantees -disturbance attenuation of the closed-loop system (16) to .2. VOL. for . NO. It can be seen that the condition in (21) is not an LMI with respect to the parameter since appears in (21) in a nonlinear fashion.2 presents a sufficient condition for control problem via output the solvability of the robust feedback controllers based on a high-gain observer. and construct a stochastic . 20.2. 1. 1. as we .272 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY. Hence. we have holds for any given and each . Similar as Theorem 5. JANUARY 2012 Fig.

In the case when is not fixed.2 is an extension of Theorem 5. Tracking error response. better results will be obtained by solving this BMI directly.2. such as the Lagrangian dual global optimization algorithm and the branch-and-cut algorithm proposed in the works by [21] and [22].KANG et al. 2. VI. which can be implemented by resorting to some effective algorithms.: MARKOVIAN-BASED FAULT-TOLERANT CONTROL FOR WHEELED MOBILE MANIPULATORS 273 Fig.1 since the parameter has been already given. have applied in Theorem 5. such an approach was also adopted in [19] and [20]. it may cause some conservativeness compared with Theorem 5. 3. it can be shown that (21) is equivalent to a bilinear matrix inequality (BMI). 1): . Control signals. which defines a convex solution set. an easy way to design an output feedback controller is to fix the parameter to solve a strict LMI in and . Fig.1.2: Although the method proposed in Theorem 5. Therefore. SIMULATION STUDIES The following variables have been chosen to describe the : the torques wheeled mobile manipulator (see also Fig. if one can afford more computational efforts. Remark 5.

moment of the mobile platform. : the distance between two wheels. then the fault configuration to validate the prooccurs in posed methodology is the OOF configuration. respecpoints with respect to I and II are chosen as tively. wheel and the right wheel of the mobile platform respectively. From the uncertainty domain assumption (14). 1.0 can be set as 1. VOL. : the torques of the under-actu: the rotation angle of the left ated joint. one can deduce that probability that the fault in certain joint is repaired. OOF. 20. 1. we can obtain the dynamic model with . : the distance between the manipulator and the driving center of the : the mass of the mobile platform. Using Lagrangian approach. : gravity acceleration. : the inertia moment of each : the mass of each wheel. The system parameters 1. tain the dynamics as follows The details can be found in [25].274 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY. The mobile manipulator is subject to the following constraint: . We may partition into 16 submatrices of 8 8 dimension as the following form: (23) where . Then we set the estimation error to 10% of the nominal values. mobile manipulator system. JANUARY 2012 Fig. The linearization and 7 . kgm 2. of two wheels.0 m. ertia moment. that is. OFO. We consider a workspace with a positioning domain which ranges from to 12 . 10. From Markov process . and groups the relationships among the operation points in the set OOO. and : the mass. : the mass. related to the probability that a fault occurs in joint and . and OFF. then we could ob. respectively. : the forward velocity of the mobile platform. 2 kg. 8 linearization points with 32 modes are found. the inertia moment. Then. and the tuated link.0 kgm 1. : the rotation velocity of the mo: the joint angle of the under-acbile platform. and the length for the link 2. describes the theory. where O represents operational joints (or wheels) and F represents failed joints. : the inertia mobile base. 4. and use 2 sectors of –2 ) and II (2 –12 position in each joint. which means a 32 32 dimension transition rate matrix is needed. and are OFO. according to Section IV. respectively. Then from (4).0 kgm 0.1 kg. : the direction angle of the mobile platform. NO. and OFF. 1. respectively.0 kg. : the radius of the wheels.0 kg. In the . we often assume which means the defective joint cannot be repaired. we set the fully operational configuration represented by OOO while three possible fault configurations can occur: OOF. 1 Nm. denoted as I ( ) to map the mobile manipulator workspace. wheel. with the velocities set to 1 . Fault sequence.5 m. 1. respectively. we suppose that and the nominal value selected heuristically as . while represents the rate of fault occurrence in and simultaneously. respectively. if we find that a fault . For example. As discussed in Section II. we get the MIMO . which are shown in Table II. 1. There exist 32 modes for the above fault-tolerant example.0 m.8 m. the inlength for the link 1.

which shows the fault tolerant characteristic. and W. For the page limit. Control Syst. Parametric where uncertainty is set as and torque disturbances are introduced to verify the robustness of the controllers and . 16. a fault first occurs in at Then another fault occurs in at so that the system mode transfers from OFO set to OFF set. We further assume that the noise attenuation and. The tracking error decays to equilibrium point under the mode-dependent controller.1 with the mode dependent controller gain solved from LMIs. S. no. Meanwhile for comparison. Adams.: MARKOVIAN-BASED FAULT-TOLERANT CONTROL FOR WHEELED MOBILE MANIPULATORS 275 Fig. VII. The uncertainty of the transition rate matrix is considered in an element-wise way. Fig. pp. S. We assume the output matrix parameters are mode-independent. 5. Other consisting of parametric uncertainties are set matrices to be within an appropriate range and are not listed for details . REFERENCES [1] Z. We choose mode-independent output controller parameters in (15) are obtained from (8). 1308–1315. Solving the LMIs . .KANG et al. Li. for simplicity and without generality. we level take arbitrarily four modes in Table II.” IEEE Trans. It is obvious that the tracking performance is then unbelievable as Fig. . vol. Ge. “Adaptive robust output-feedback motion/force control of electrically driven nonholonomic mobile manipulators. CONCLUSION A Markovian fault-tolerant model is developed for a mobile manipulator with two independent wheels and multiple joints. Wijesoma. 2008. we use a traditional output feedback controller without considering robustness and fault tolerant method as in [24]. From the simulation results. Nov. 6. S. M. We have presented sufficient conditions on the existence of mode-dependent dynamic output feedback control based on a high-gain observer. The here. we omit these matrices. Technol. Tracking error response with traditional controller. TABLE II MODE OF OPERATION linearized system matrices which are not listed here for economy of space. 2 gives the tracking error and using the controller we get response of from Theorem 5. we obtain the in (21) while setting mode-dependent controller gain . set represents the 3 3 zero matrix. The disturbance is turned off after the fault introduction in corresponding joint or wheel. The initial condition we used for simulation is .. and . 5 shows.

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