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Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE Students' Technology Symposium

3-4 April 2010, lIT Karagpur
Design Of Intelligent Robotic Ar For Visually
'A boon for physical ailment'
Seima Saki S
, Sabita Devi D
ECE 1, Mechatronics2
Sri |rishnaColIc¿cOf Lh¿ihccrih¿ And 1cch.
Coimbatore, India,
Abstract-A physically disabled person nourishing himself was
considered as a great deed in the 19th century. But this age has
become an era where talents are considered as the matter of fact,
in spite of their physical weakness. Here is a newfangled
technology, through which a robot imitates human handwriting
and acts as a proxy during strenuous circumstances. What the
robot does is that, it acts according to the voice commands
imposed on it, thereby fulflling the physical ailment of the needy.
Writing is brought by feeding a particular style in the form of
images, which is stored as fonts in its memory. This not only
assists disabled persons, but also supports people who need a
proxy for their hand writing. When a particular font is fed, it
writes what was dictated, thereby, acting as a human hand. This
methodology that has been proposed here is much practical and
the design shows improved efciency.
Keywords-Servo mechanism, manipulator, Bresenham's
algorithm speech analysis
Scientists fed their entire lifetime in developing
technologies that would act as a substitute to hide physical
impairent. Past achievements infer that there were devices
which when coupled with a physically challenged person,
would assist in erasing the traces of the abnormality. But still
the originality of humans retains its color. No device could do
the job with so much perfection as a human does. And every
human, physically able or disabled, is unique. Why can't a
robot imitate human's uniqueness, say, writing .. ! This paper
presents the study of robotic arm that has been committed to
paper writing.
As a matter of fact, the system recognizes human language
using speech analysis techniques and the signal obtained is
converted into text. Texts are processed and converted into
digital data. These digital signals control the servos present.
Servos move in accordance with the information stored in the
controller. This movement accomplishes writing.
Our aim is to make the arm trace the letters in accordance
with the speech. Ar movement can be brought up with
manipulators and servo motors. Since servos are fully self
Mahoj S
Computer Technology,
PSG College of Technology,
Coimbatore, India
contained, the velocity and angle control loops are very easy to
implement, while prices remain very affordable. For this, each
alphabet, number or a special character is to be represented by
a unique values, so called as 'onts', and fed into a memory.
And servo caries out the activity in relation to those values.
And we need a micro controller to take up memory and control
activities. We require a speech analyzer to convert human
language into text and text is processed further into digital data.
Microcontollers work with digital inputs. So the speech has to
be converted into digital string.
To position and orient the robotic arm, manipulators of 6-
DOF or 3-00F can be employed. The OOF of the manipulator
are distributed into sub assemblies of ar and wrist. The end
effectors which are exteral to the manipulators are attached to
it to hold the pen. The proper shape and size of the gripper and
the method of holding are determined by the objects to be
grasped and task to be performed. Inclination angle is to be
specifed to the motor, so that it writes accordingly.
Given below is the outline of technical blocks of the robotic
humanoid hand.
[ SPEeCH 1c
IHAhr M f... .
¯[ 2OO2O2O
�   �
�� i
A 0000
• 0001
c 0010 �
Figure I. Basic Building Blocks-Overview
THOP094 978-1-4244-5974-2/10/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE 49
A. Speech Analyses
Speech recognition (also known as automatic speech
recognition or computer speech recognition) converts spoken
words to text. People with disabilities can beneft fom speech
recognition programs. Individuals with learing disabilities
who have problems with thought-to-paper communication
(essentially they think of an idea but it is processed incorectly
causing it to end up differently on paper) can beneft fom this
A speech recognizer is a device that automatically
transcribes speech into text. It can be thought of as a voice­
actuated 'tpewriter' in which a computer program carries out
a transcription and the transcribed 'tet' appears on a
workstation display. The recognizer is usually based on some
vocabulary that restricts the words that can be 'rinted' out.
Until we state otherwise, the designation word denotes a word
form defned by its spelling. [2]
The speech signal is analyzed and the feature is extracted
for comparison with stored references in the patter matching
block. The reference patters which characterize individual
speech classes to be recognized are obtained by a training
procedure using a large set of known examples. A decision
scheme determines the word or class of the unknown input
based on the matching scores or evaluated similarity measures.
Methods to be discussed for dealing with adverse conditions
may take place in various blocks in the diagram. [7].
Figure 2. Blocks Of Speech Analyses System
B. Servo Motor
A servo mechanism or servo is an automatic device that
uses eror-sensing feedback to correct the perforance of a
mechanism. The term correctly applies only to systems where
the feedback or eror-correction signals help contol
mechanical position or other parameters. The servomotors uses
optical encoders which are in the for of discs, the motor
rotates through which the encoders tacks the count. In tum this
servo is connected to MCU which executes in accordance to
the track. AC servo motors are used because of their high
efciency and cont ol. They need not to be replaced ofen as
DC servos due to absence of brushes. Servo Pulse width
modulation (PWM) is a powerful technique for controlling
Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE Students' Technology Symposium
3-4 April 2010, IIT Karagpur
servo with a controller's digital outputs. The general concept is
to simply send an ordinary logic square wave to the servo at a
specifc wave length, and the servo goes to a particula angle
(or velocity if the servo is modifed). The wavelength directly
maps to servo angle. In our system, the motor is driven by the
microcontoller which relates input digital string with its stored
20 representations of symbols. The standad time vs. angle is
represented in this chat:
J � � n

HÛ Luwú1æc
�sWKl2 l
Figure 3. Angle variation of servo in relation to the width of clock
/) Servo Motor-Design:
A servo motor system, comprising a servo motor unit, a
servo driver unit, power transmission lines for supplying
electric power fom servo driver unit to servo motor unit, ad
signal transmission lines for supplying electric signals to servo
driver unit.
a) Servo motor unit comprises:
It has a servo motor; a pole sensor for detecting a magnetic
state, a rotary encoder for detecting a mechanical state of servo
motor; a parallel-serial signal conversion circuit for converting
an output fom pole sensor and an output fom rotary encoder
into a single serial signal; and a line driver for sending out
serial signal through one of signal transmission line, a three­
phase AC motor, and outputs fom pole sensor and rotary
encoder include Pu-phase, Pv-phase and Pw-phase signals from
pole sensor and a Z-phase signal fom rotary encoder.
b) Driver logic circuit comprising:
Three AND circuits is connected to the input ends of
parallel-serial signal conversion circuit, Pu-phase, Pv-phase
and Pw-phase signals being each supplied to an input end of
associated one of AND circuits whose other ends are
commonly connected to receive sensor output signal while Z­
phase signal is directly supplied to one of the inputs of
parallel-serial signal conversion circuit; and a motor logic
circuit comprising a NOR circuit is connected to the output
ends of serial-parallel signal conversion circuit, detected Pu­
phase, Pv-phase and Pw-phase signals separated fom serial­
parallel signal conversion circuit being supplied to different
input ends of NOR circuit so as to produce an abnormal
condition detection signal fom an output end of NOR circuit
in case an abnormal condition is detected by abnoral
condition sensor while a detected Z-phase signal is directly
obtained fom one of output ends of serial-parallel signal
conversion circuit.
c) Driver logic circuit:
It comprises of an AND circuit and three OR circuits is
connected to the input ends of frst parallel-serial signal
conversion circuit, Pu-phase signal and Z-phase signal being
supplied to diferent input ends of AND circuit while an output
of AND circuit, and Pv-phase and Pw-phase signals are each
supplied to an input end of associated one of OR circuits whose
other ends are commonly connected to receive sensor output
signal; and a motor logic circuit comprising a NOR circuit, an
AND circuit and an OR circuit is connected to the output ends
of said second serial-parallel signal conversion circuit, three
outputs from second serial-parallel signal conversion circuit
being connected to different inputs of NOR circuit as well as to
diferent inputs of AND circuit while an output of NOR circuit
and one of output ends of second serial-parallel sigal
conversion circuit being connected to different inputs of OR
circuit so that a detected Z-phase signal, a detected Pu-phase
signal and a detected sensor output signal may be obtained
fom output end of NOR circuit, and output end of OR circuit
and an output end of said AND circuit, respectively, while
detected Pv-phase and Pw-phase signals may be obtained
directly fom associated ones of output ends of second serial­
parallel signal conversion circuit.
d Servo driver unit comprises:
A line receiver for receiving serial signal transmitted fom
line driver through signal transmission line; a serial-parallel
signal conversion circuit for separating output signals fom
rotary encoder and pole sensor from serial sigal, and a
controller for contolling supply of electric power to servo
motor unit through power transmission lines according to
separated parallel signals.
C Manipulators
A robot is required to carry out specifc task by moving its
end effectors accurately and repeatedly. The dynamic control
of manipulator motion and interaction forces requires know­
ledge of forces and torques that must be exerted on a manipu­
lated joints to move the links and the end effectors fom the
present location to the desired location, with or without the
constrains of the particular planned end effectors trajectory
and planned end effector force/torque.
1) Confgurations of the arm of robot:

Gantry: These robots have linear joints and are
mounted overhead. They are also called Cartesian
and rectilinear robots.

Cylindrical - Named for the shape of its work
envelope, cylindrical anatomy robots are fashioned
fom linear joints that connect to a rotary base joint.
Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE Students' Technology Symposium
3-4 April 2010, IIT Kharagpur

Polar - The base joint of a polar robot allows for
twisting and the joints are a combination of rotary
and linear types. The work space created by this
confguration is spherical.

Jointed-Arm - This is the most popular industrial
robotic confguration. The arm connects with a
twisting joint, and the links within it are connected
with rotary joints. It is also called an articulated
2) Degrees offeedom:
To enhance robot hand dexterity, the robot should be
designed to have a redundant number of degrees of feedom.
In redundant robotic systems, inverse kinematics fom task
description space to joint space becomes ill-poised, making a
diffcult to determine joint motions. To avoid this ill-posed
ness, most proposed methods introduce an additional input
term calculated from an intentionally introduced artifcial
index of performance. A 4 DOF redundant handwriting robot,
whose endpoint is constrained on a two dimensional plane,
such as a sheet of paper, is presented here. [9]
x,y and Z are the Cartesian co-ordinates, ql,q2,q3 and q4
denotes vector of joint angles. Ll,L2,L3 and L4 is the distance
between two vector of joint angles. [ 1].
Figure 4. 4DOF Hand Writing Robot
The schematic diagram of a manipulator control system is
shown. The dotted lines for the feedback indicate that the
control system may or may not employ feedback of the actual
joint locations and velocities. The parameters q,q' ,q" ,t etc. are
shown in the fgure, where q gives the history of position and
q' ,q" ,t are its derivatives.
AposmON OF
Figure 5. Manipulator Block Diagram
The Bresenham line algorithm is an algorithm which
determines which points in an n-Dimensional raster should be
plotted in order to form a close approximation to a straight line
between two given points.
functi on line(xO, xl, yO, yl)
in! deItax := x I - xO
in! deltay := y I - yO
real error := 0
real deltaerr := deltay / deltax
in! y := yO
fo r x from xO t o xl
eror := error + deltaerr
if abs(error) 2 0. 5 then
y:= y + I
error := error - 1.0
In computer graphics, the midpoint circle algorithm is an
algorithm used to determine the points needed for drawing a
circle. The algorithm is a variant of Bresenham's line
algorithm, and is thus sometimes known as Bresenham's circle
algorithm, although not actually invented by Bresenham.
void circle(int cx, int cy, int radius)
int error = -radius;
int x = radius;
int y = 0;
while (x >= y)
plot8points(cx, cy, x, y);
error += y;
error += y;
error -= x;
error -= x;
void plot8points(int cx, int cy, int x, int y)
plot4points(cx, cy, x, y);
Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE Students' Technolog Symposium
3-4 April 2010, IIT Kharagpur
if(x ! = y)
plot4points(cx, cy, y, x);
void plot4points(int cx, int cy, int x, int y)
setPixel(cx + x, cy + y);
if (x ! = 0) setPixel(cx - x, cy + y);
if(y ! = 0) setPixel(cx + x, cy - y);
if(x ! = 0 && y ! = 0) setPixel(cx - x, cy - y);
Figure 6. A Sample character shown as a combintion of line and
. We used Digital Differential Analyzer Algorithm at
the beginning but we did not end up with accurate results. So
we ended up using Bresenham's algorithm.
. Positioning the write head afer horizontal retrace and
vertical retrace was not precise. Rectifed it afer minor
adjustments with the coordinates.
. 65 rpm servo was found to miss match with the
processing delays by the recognition system. Hence we ended
up with 45 rpm motor.
The proposed model can be efciently applied for all
categories of people, more specifcally physically challenged.
The world itself is becoming automated and hence we are
forced to go forward by leaps and bounds across the
technology to make up a better living. This technology would
surely assist such escalating advancements, not only made for
normal people but also for the disabled.
[I] R K Mittal, I J Nagrath: "Robotics and control", Tata McGraw-Hili
Publ ications.
[2] Frederick: "Stastical methods for speech recognition" (chapter 1) -1997
[3] IEEE transaction on "Audio, speech and language processing", sep
2006, vol. 14, issue 5.
[4] IEEE transaction on "Robottics and Automation", march 2003, vol. 10,
Issue I.
[5] Third Interational conference on "Information technology and
applications" 2005.Volume 2 issue 4 to 7 pages 21 to 24
[6] IEEE transaction on "Speech And Audio Processing", July 2004 Volume
12, Issue 4
[7] Ravi P. Ramachandran, Richard Mammone: "Modem methods of
Speech processing", Kluwer academic publications 1995. pg no. 236.
Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE Students' Technology Symposium
3-4 April 2010, IIT Kharagpur
[8] Third international conference on "Information technology and
applications", july, 2005. Vol. 2, issue 4-7.
[9] IEEE joural of robotics and mechatronics: "Control of handwriting
robot with DOF redundancy based on feedback in task coordinates",
Vol.16 No.4, 2004.