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IEEE Std 400-2001

(Revision of IEEE Std 400-1991)

IEEE Standards

400

TM

IEEE Guide for Field Testing and Evaluation of the Insulation of Shielded Power Ca le S!ste"s

IEEE Power Engineering So#iet!


Sponsored by the Insulated ondu!tors o""ittee

#ublished by The Institute of Ele!tri!al and Ele!troni!s En$ineers% In!& ' #ar( )venue% *e+ ,or(% *, 1001--.99/% 0S) 19 2anuary 1001

#rint3 S4949/1 #563 SS949/1

Recognized as an American National Standard (ANSI)

IEEE Std 400 -2001


(Revision of IEEE Std 400-1991)

IEEE Guide for Field Testing and Evaluation of the Insulation of Shielded Power Cable S ste!s

Sponsor

Insulated Condu"tors Co!!ittee of the IEEE Power Engineering So"iet


Approved 29 April 2002 #!eri"an $ational Standards Institute Approved ecem!er "# 2001

IEEE-S# Standards %oard

#bstra"t& $%is &'ide lists t%e vario's field test met%ods t%at are c'rrentl( availa!le or 'nder development )it% *'idance on +,- to perform eac% test. $%e &'ide covers s%ielded# ins'lated po)er ca!le s(stems rated / 01 t%ro'*% /00 01 'nless t%ese volta*es are modified !( t%e specific 2point3 doc'ment. 'e words& alternatin*-polarit( dc-!iased ac volta*e# dissipation factor testin*# field tests# %i*%-volta*e dc testin*# lo)-volta*e dc testin*# oscillatin* )ave# partial disc%ar*e# propa*ation c%aracteristics spectroscop(# 'nder*ro'nd residential distri!'tion# ver( lo) fre4'enc(
$%e Instit'te of Electrical and Electronics En*ineers# Inc. 5 6ar0 Aven'e# Ne) 7or0# N7 1001"-/998# 9SA :op(ri*%t ; 2002 !( t%e Instit'te of Electrical and Electronics En*ineers# Inc. All ri*%ts reserved. 6'!lis%ed 29 <an'ar( 2002. 6rinted in t%e 9nited States of America. Print: PDF: IS=N 0-85>1-50>"-9 IS=N 0-85>1-50>8-8 S+94982 SS94982

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher

IEEE Standards doc'ments are developed )it%in t%e IEEE Societies and t%e Standards :oordinatin* :ommittees of t%e IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) Standards =oard. $%e IEEE develops its standards t%ro'*% a consens's development process# approved !( t%e American National Standards Instit'te# )%ic% !rin*s to*et%er vol'nteers representin* varied vie)points and interests to ac%ieve t%e final prod'ct. 1ol'nteers are not necessaril( mem!ers of t%e Instit'te and serve )it%o't compensation. -%ile t%e IEEE administers t%e process and esta!lis%es r'les to promote fairness in t%e consens's development process# t%e IEEE does not independentl( eval'ate# test# or verif( t%e acc'rac( of an( of t%e information contained in its standards. 9se of an IEEE Standard is )%oll( vol'ntar(. $%e IEEE disclaims lia!ilit( for an( personal in?'r(# propert( or ot%er dama*e# of an( nat're )%atsoever# )%et%er special# indirect# conse4'ential# or compensator(# directl( or indirectl( res'ltin* from t%e p'!lication# 'se of# or reliance 'pon t%is# or an( ot%er IEEE Standard doc'ment. $%e IEEE does not )arrant or represent t%e acc'rac( or content of t%e material contained %erein# and e@pressl( disclaims an( e@press or implied )arrant(# incl'din* an( implied )arrant( of merc%anta!ilit( or fitness for a specific p'rpose# or t%at t%e 'se of t%e material contained %erein is free from patent infrin*ement. IEEE Standards doc'ments are s'pplied 2 #S IS.3 $%e e@istence of an IEEE Standard does not impl( t%at t%ere are no ot%er )a(s to prod'ce# test# meas're# p'rc%ase# mar0et# or provide ot%er *oods and services related to t%e scope of t%e IEEE Standard. A'rt%ermore# t%e vie)point e@pressed at t%e time a standard is approved and iss'ed is s'!?ect to c%an*e !ro'*%t a!o't t%ro'*% developments in t%e state of t%e art and comments received from 'sers of t%e standard. Ever( IEEE Standard is s'!?ected to revie) at least ever( five (ears for revi- sion or reaffirmation. -%en a doc'ment is more t%an five (ears old and %as not !een reaffirmed# it is reasona!le to concl'de t%at its contents# alt%o'*% still of some val'e# do not )%oll( reflect t%e present state of t%e art. 9sers are ca'tioned to c%ec0 to determine t%at t%e( %ave t%e latest edition of an( IEEE Standard. In p'!lis%in* and ma0in* t%is doc'ment availa!le# t%e IEEE is not s'**estin* or renderin* professional or ot%er services for# or on !e%alf of# an( person or entit(. Nor is t%e IEEE 'nderta0in* to perform an( d't( o)ed !( an( ot%er person or entit( to anot%er. An( person 'tiliBin* t%is# and an( ot%er IEEE Standards doc'ment# s%o'ld rel( 'pon t%e advice of a competent professional in determinin* t%e e@ercise of reasona!le care in an( *iven circ'mstances. InterpretationsC ,ccasionall( 4'estions ma( arise re*ardin* t%e meanin* of portions of standards as t%e( relate to specific applications. -%en t%e need for interpretations is !ro'*%t to t%e attention of IEEE# t%e Instit'te )ill initiate action to prepare appropriate responses. Since IEEE Standards represent a consens's of concerned interests# it is important to ens're t%at an( interpretation %as also received t%e conc'rrence of a !alance of interests. Aor t%is reason# IEEE and t%e mem!ers of its societies and Standards :oordinatin* :ommittees are not a!le to provide an instant response to interpretation re4'ests e@cept in t%ose cases )%ere t%e matter %as previo'sl( received formal consideration. :omments for revision of IEEE Standards are )elcome from an( interested part(# re*ardless of mem!ers%ip affiliation )it% IEEE. S'**estions for c%an*es in doc'ments s%o'ld !e in t%e form of a proposed c%an*e of te@t# to*et%er )it% appropriate s'pportin* comments. :omments on standards and re4'ests for interpretations s%o'ld !e addressed toC Secretar(# IEEE-SA Standards =oard 44/ +oes Dane 6.,. =o@ 1551 6iscata)a(# N< 0>>//-1551 9SA NoteC Attention is called to t%e possi!ilit( t%at implementation of t%is standard ma( re4'ire 'se of s'!?ect matter covered !( patent ri*%ts. =( p'!lication of t%is standard# no position is ta0en )it% respect to t%e e@istence or validit( of an( patent ri*%ts in connection t%ere)it%. $%e IEEE s%all not !e responsi!le for identif(in* patents for )%ic% a license ma( !e re4'ired !( an IEEE standard or for cond'ctin* in4'iries into t%e le*al validit( or scope of t%ose patents t%at are !ro'*%t to its attention. A't%oriBation to p%otocop( portions of an( individ'al standard for internal or personal 'se is *ranted !( t%e Instit'te of Electrical and Electronics En*ineers# Inc.# provided t%at t%e appropriate fee is paid to :op(ri*%t :learance :enter. $o arran*e for pa(ment of licensin* fee# please contact :op(ri*%t :learance :enter# :'stomer Service# 222 Rose)ood rive# anvers# EA 01925 9SAF G1 98> 8/0 >400. 6ermission to p%otocop( portions of an( individ'al standard for ed'cational classroom 'se can also !e o!tained t%ro'*% t%e :op(ri*%t :learance :enter.

Introdu"tion
($%is introd'ction is not part of IEEE Std 400-2001# IEEE &'ide for Aield $estin* and Eval'ation of t%e Ins'lation of S%ielded 6o)er :a!le S(stems.)

$%is is a ne) omni!'s &'ide t%at %as !een in preparation for nine (ears. It provides an overvie) of 0no)n tec%ni4'es for performin* electrical tests in t%e field on s%ielded po)er ca!le s(stems. It is intended to %elp t%e reader select a test t%at is appropriate for a specific sit'ation of interest. It provides a !rief description of all t%e 0no)n so'rces 'sed to perform field tests )it% a s%ort disc'ssion of specific tests. $%e material presented is descriptive and t'torial and does not address t%e eval'ation of test res'lts nor t%e specification of test volta*e levels nor time of application. Additional details )ill !e provided in 2point3 doc'ments (t%at are presentl( 'nder preparation)# s'c% as IEEE 6400.1 # direct volta*e testin*F IEEE 6400.2 # ver( lo) fre4'enc( testin*F and IEEE 6400.5# dissipation factor testin*.

Parti"i(ants
At t%e time t%is &'ide )as completed# t%e -or0in* &ro'p on Aield $estin* and Eval'ation of S%ielded 6o)er :a!le S(stems %ad t%e follo)in* mem!ers%ip. 1otin* mem!ers at t%e time of p'!lication are mar0ed )it% an asteris0 (H). )illia! #* Thue+ !hair %en ,an-+ "ice-!hair T* #* %alas.a+ "ice-!hair
$or!en Aa!o Eic%ael &. =a(er Eartin =a'rH =r'ce S. =ernstein &len <. =ertini Darr( &. =onner -illem -. =ooneH Ro!ert D.:'nnin*%am E'*ene Aavrie Step%en D. AitB%'*% Ro!ert E. Alemmin* 6%illip <. &eor*e +ans R. &nerlic%H <orma +aapanen Iennet% +ancoc0 Ric%ard D. +arp -olf*an* +aver0amp Stanle( R. +o)ell :arlos IatB Aran0 <. Ira?ic0 +o)ard -. De)is R'ssell . Do)e <o%n E. Ea0al Eatt%e) S. Eas%i0anH <ames . Eede0H :. avid Eercier S%antan' NandiH S%i*e0i ,sa)a Ro!ert A. Res'ali 6eter Re(noldsH Ra( E. Saccan( :. Saldivar-:ant' Na*' N. SrinivasH <. 6. SteinerH -illiam $oro0 Eilan 9Belac Ared +. von +ermann $. S%a(ne -ri*%t Nic0olas A. Jem(an

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iii

$%e follo)in* mem!ers of t%e !allotin* committee voted on t%is standard. =alloters ma( %ave voted for approval# disapproval# or a!stention.
$or!en Aa!o Ro( -. Ale@ander R. -. Allen $%eodore A. =alas0a Eartin =a'r Eic%ael &. =a(er E. $%omas =lac0 avid $. =o*den +arve( D. =o)les Ient -. =ro)n 6a'l S. :ardello <ac0 E. :%err( <o%n +. :ooper <ames E. al( S)arn S. %illon Art%'r R. AitBpatric0 Ro!ert =. &ear Iennet% +ancoc0 Ric%ard D. +arp Stanle( 1. +e(er Da'ri <. +iivala <o%n -. +offman Stanle( R. +o)ell Ric%ard A. +'!er :. IatB Da)rence <. Iell( :arl Dandin*er Ear0 E. Do)ell &lenn <. D'BBi <o%n E. Ea0al Eatt%e) S. Eas%i0ian <o%n E. Eerando# <r. ennis :. 6ratt 6eter Ralston arrell E. Sa!at0a &il!ert D. Smit% +enr( <. Soles0i 6eter -. Spencer ,rloff -. St(ve <o%n $ana0a -illiam A. $%'e on $omasBe)s0i aniel <. -ard Roland +. -. -at0ins :arl <. -entBel -illiam . -il0ens -illiam &. -immer <osep% $. Jimnoc%

-%en t%e IEEE-SA Standards =oard approved t%is standard on " mem!ers%ipC /onald $* 0eir!an+ !hair 1a!es T* Carlo+ "ice !hair 1udith Gor!an+ #ecretary

ecem!er 2001# it %ad t%e follo)in*

Satis% I. A**ar)al Ear0 . =o)man &ar( R. En*mann +arold E. Epstein +. Dandis Alo(d <a( AorsterH +o)ard E. AraBier R'!en . &arBon

<ames +. &'rne( Ric%ard <. +olleman Do)ell &. <o%nson Ro!ert <. Iennell( <osep% D. Ioepfin*erH 6eter +. Dips D. =r'ce Ec:l'n* aleep :. Eo%la

<ames -. Eoore Ro!ert A. E'nBner Ronald :. 6etersen &erald +. 6eterson <o%n =. 6ose( &ar( S. Ro!inson A0io $o?o onald -. Jipse

HEem!er Emerit's

Also incl'ded is t%e follo)in* nonvotin* IEEE-SA Standards =oard liaisonC


Alan :oo0son# N$#% Representative onald R. 1olB0a# %&' Representative

on Eessina IEEE Standards 6ro?ect Editor

Contents
1. ,vervie)..................................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Scope.................................................................................................................................................. 1 1.2 6'rpose............................................................................................................................................... 2 2. 5. 4. References................................................................................................................................................... 2 efinitions...................................................................................................................................................5 Introd'ction................................................................................................................................................. 5 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.4 4./ /. Environmental infl'ences...................................................................................................................5 S'mmar( of direct volta*e testin*......................................................................................................4 S'mmar( of alternative testin*...........................................................................................................4 Need for testin*.................................................................................................................................. " Safet( a)areness................................................................................................................................."

irect volta*e testin*...................................................................................................................................8 /.1 /.2 /.5 /.4 /./ Introd'ction........................................................................................................................................8 Rationale for 'sin* dc.........................................................................................................................8 6erformin* D1 : tests......................................................................................................................> 6erformin* +1 : tests......................................................................................................................9 S'mmar( of advanta*es and disadvanta*es.......................................................................................9

".

6o)er fre4'enc( testin*............................................................................................................................10 ".1 ".2 ".5 ".4 "./ Introd'ction......................................................................................................................................10 $est apparat's re4'irements..............................................................................................................11 :%aracteristics of test s(stems..........................................................................................................11 $est proced'res................................................................................................................................. 12 Advanta*es and disadvanta*es.........................................................................................................15

8.

6artial disc%ar*e testin*.............................................................................................................................15 8.1 8.2 8.5 8.4 8./ Introd'ction......................................................................................................................................15 A'ndamentals....................................................................................................................................15 6artial disc%ar*e c%aracteriBation.....................................................................................................15 Eeas'rement of partial disc%ar*e.....................................................................................................14 Advanta*es and disadvanta*es.........................................................................................................14

>.

1er( lo) fre4'enc( (1DA# less t%an 1 +B) testin*...................................................................................1/ >.1 >.2 >.5 >.4 >./ Introd'ction......................................................................................................................................1/ 1DA testin* )it% cosine-p'lse )aveform.........................................................................................1" 1DA testin* )it% sin'soidal )aveform............................................................................................1> issipation factor testin* )it% 1DA (0.1-+B) sin'soidal )aveform................................................19 :oncl'sions......................................................................................................................................21

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9. 9.1 9.2 9.5 9.4 9./ 9." 9.8 9.> 10.

issipation factor testin*.........................................................................................................................21 Introd'ction.......................................................................................................................................22 ielectric loss....................................................................................................................................22 Eet%od.............................................................................................................................................. 25 Eeas'rement and e4'ipment.............................................................................................................24 Advanta*es and disadvanta*es..........................................................................................................24 Eet%od and assessment.....................................................................................................................2/ issipation factor )it% 1DA sin'soidal )aveform............................................................................2/ Advanta*es and disadvanta*es..........................................................................................................2/

,scillatin* )ave testin*.......................................................................................................................... 2/ 10.1 10.2 10.5 10.4 10./ 10." 10.8 Introd'ction.......................................................................................................................................2" &eneral description of test met%od....................................................................................................2" Advanta*es and disadvanta*es..........................................................................................................2" $est apparat's................................................................................................................................... 28 $est proced're...................................................................................................................................28 Safet( preca'tions.............................................................................................................................2> A'rt%er development )or0................................................................................................................2>

Anne@ A (informative) 6o)er fre4'enc( testin*.................................................................................................29 Anne@ = (informative) =i!lio*rap%(..................................................................................................................51

:op(ri*%t ; 2002 IEEE. All ri*%ts reserved.

IEEE Guide for Field Testing and Evaluation of the Insulation of Shielded Power Cable S ste!s

1* 2verview
$%is omni!'s &'ide provides an overvie) of 0no)n tec%ni4'es for performin* electrical tests in t%e field on s%ielded po)er ca!le s(stems. It is intended to %elp t%e reader select a test t%at is appropriate for a specific sit'ation of interest. Aield applied tests can !e !roadl( divided into t%e follo)in* cate*oriesC a) $(pe 1 Aield $ests are intended to detect defects in t%e ins'lation of a ca!le s(stem in order to improve t%e service relia!ilit( after t%e defective part is removed and appropriate repairs are performed. $%ese tests are 's'all( ac%ieved !( application of moderatel( increased volta*es across t%e ins'lation for a prescri!ed d'ration. S'c% tests ma( !e cate*oriBed as KpassLfailK or K*oLno *o.K $(pe 2 Aield $ests are intended to provide indications t%at t%e ins'lation s(stem %as deteriorated# %ence# are Kdia*nostic.K Some of t%ese tests )ill s%o) t%e overall condition of a ca!le s(stem# and ot%ers )ill indicate t%e locations of discrete defects t%at ma( !ecome t%e sites of f't're service fail'res. =ot% varieties of s'c% tests are 's'all( performed !( means of moderatel( increased volta*es applied for relativel( s%ort d'ration# or !( means of lo) volta*es.

!)

$%is &'ide provides a !rief description of all 0no)n volta*e so'rces 'sed to perform !ot% cate*ories of tests as )ell as a !rief introd'ction to specific tests. $%e material presented is descriptive and t'torial and does not address t%e 4'estions of eval'ation of test res'lts nor t%e specification of test volta*e levels. Some of t%e met%ods descri!ed are )ell 0no)n and )idel( accepted. ,t%er met%ods are still in development sta*es# )it% limited field e@perience. Eac% met%od descri!ed %as advanta*es and disadvanta*es t%at are disc'ssed in t%eir respective cla'ses.

1*1 S"o(e
$%is &'ide lists t%e vario's field test met%ods t%at are c'rrentl( availa!le or 'nder development )it% *'idance on +,- to perform eac% test. $%e &'ide covers s%ielded# ins'lated po)er ca!le s(stems rated / 01 t%ro'*% /00 01 'nless t%ese volta*es are modified !( t%e specific KpointK doc'ment. A complete t'torial or de!ate for'm for one met%od vers's anot%er is not !ein* attempted. A !rief listin* of Kadvanta*esK and Kdisadvanta*esK is incl'ded# !'t t%e 'sers s%o'ld avail t%emselves of t%e tec%nical papers t%at are referenced# t%e material listed in t%e !i!lio*rap%( in Anne@ =# man'fact'rersM literat're# and recent researc% res'lts to ma0e decisions on )%et%er to perform a test and )%ic% test met%od to 'se. In ma0in* s'c% decisions# consideration s%o'ld !e *iven to t%e performance of t%e connected ca!le s(stem# incl'din* ?oints# terminations# and associated e4'ipment.

:op(ri*%t ; 2002 IEEE. All ri*%ts reserved.

,A $+E INS9DA$I,N ,A S+IED E 6,-ER :A=DE S7S$EES

IEEE Std 400-2001

($%e man'fact'rers of t%e associated e4'ipment s%o'ld !e cons'lted# or t%eir instr'ction !'lletins read# for t%e applica!ilit( of t%e c%osen test to t%at partic'lar t(pe of e4'ipment.) $%is &'ide does not propose to cover# !'t ma( appl( to# comm'nication ca!les# control ca!les# %i*%fre4'enc( ca!les# and ot%er special p'rpose ca!les# or 'ns%ielded po)er ca!les.

1*2 Pur(ose
$%e p'rpose of t%is &'ide is to provide an overvie) of t%e vario's tests availa!le for eval'atin* t%e ins'lation of ca!le s(stems in t%e field# and to set t%e sta*e for a series of *'ides coverin* eac% test met%od.

2* 3eferen"es
$%is &'ide s%all !e 'sed in con?'nction )it% t%e follo)in* p'!lications. -%en t%e follo)in* standards are s'perseded !( an approved revision# t%e revision s%all appl(. AEI: &8-90 (1st Edition)# &'ide for Replacement and Dife E@tension of E@tr'ded 9nder*ro'nd istri!'tion :a!les# Ea( 1990.1 ielectric /-5/ 01

AS$E 1/0-199># Standard $est Eet%ods for A: Doss :%aracteristics and 6ermittivit( ( ielectric :onstant) of Solid ielectric Ins'lation.2 IEEE Std 4-199/# IEEE Standard $ec%ni4'es for +i*%-1olta*e $estin*.5 # 4 IEEE Std 4>-199"# IEEE Standard $est 6roced'res and Re4'irements for Alternatin*-:'rrent :a!le $erminations 2./ 01 $%ro'*% 8"/ 01. IEEE Std "2-199/# IEEE &'ide for ia*nostic Aield $estin* of Electric 6o)er Apparat's-6art 1C ,il Ailled 6o)er $ransformers# Re*'lators# and Reactors. IEEE 6400.1# IEEE raft &'ide for Ea0in* +i*%- irect-1olta*e $ests on S%ielded 6o)er :a!le S(stems in t%e Aield./ IEEE Std 404-2000# IEEE Standard for :a!le <oints for 9se )it% E@tr'ded ielectric :a!le Rated /00015>#000 1 and :a!le <oints for 9se )it% Daminated ielectric :a!le Rated 2/00-/00#000 1. IEEE Std /10-19>5 (Reaff 1992)# IEEE Recommended 6ractices for Safet( in +i*%-1olta*e and +i*%6o)er $estin*.

AEI: p'!lications are availa!le from t%e Association of Edison Ill'minatin* :ompanies# "00 N. 1>t% Street# 6. ,. =o@ 2"41# =irmin*- %am# AD 5/291-0992# 9SA (%ttpCLL))).aeic.or*L). AEI: p'!lications are also availa!le from &lo!al En*ineerin* oc'ments# 1/ Inverness -a( East# En*le)ood# :olorado >0112-/804# 9SA (%ttpCLL*lo!al.i%s.comL). 2 AS$E p'!lications are availa!le from t%e American Societ( for $estin* and Eaterials# 100 =arr +ar!or rive# -est :ons%o%oc0en# 6A 1942>-29/9# 9SA (%ttpCLL))).astm.or*L). 5 $%e IEEE standards or prod'cts referred to in :la'se 2 are trademar0s o)ned !( t%e Instit'te of Electrical and Electronics En*ineers# Incorporated. 4 IEEE p'!lications are availa!le from t%e Instit'te of Electrical and Electronics En*ineers# 44/ +oes Dane# 6.,. =o@ 1551# 6iscata)a(# N< 0>>//-1551# 9SA (%ttpCLLstandards.ieee.or*L). / $%is IEEE standards pro?ect )as not approved !( t%e IEEE-SA Standards =oard at t%e time t%is p'!lication )ent to press. Aor information a!o't o!tainin* a draft# contact t%e IEEE.

:op(ri*%t ; 2002 IEEE. All ri*%ts reserved.

IEEE Std 400-2001

IEEE &9I E A,R AIED $ES$IN& AN

E1AD9A$I,N

4* /efinitions
Aor t%e p'rposes of t%is &'ide# t%e follo)in* terms and definitions appl(. IEEE 100# %he &uthoritative Die- tionary of l((( #tandards %erms and Definitions# Sevent% Edition N=50O" s%o'ld !e referenced for terms not defined in t%is cla'se. 4*1 a""e(tan"e tests& A field test made after ca!le s(stem installation# incl'din* terminations and ?oints# !'t !efore t%e ca!le s(stem is placed in normal service. $%e test is intended to f'rt%er detect installation dama*e and to s%o) an( *ross defects or errors in installation of ot%er s(stem components. (IEEE Std 4>199" and IEEE Std 404-2000).8 4*2 basi" i!(ulse level 5%I,6& Imp'lse volta*e t%at electrical e4'ipment is re4'ired to )it%stand )it%o't fail're or disr'ptive disc%ar*e )%en tested 'nder specified conditions of temperat're and %'midit(. $%e( are desi*- nated in terms of crest volta*e of 1.2 /0 Ps f'll-)ave imp'lse volta*e test. (IEEE Std 4199/). 4*4 installation tests& Aield tests t%at are cond'cted after ca!le installation !'t !efore ?ointin* (splicin*) or terminatin*. $%e test is intended to detect s%ippin*# stora*e# or installation dama*e. 4*4 !aintenan"e tests& A field test made d'rin* t%e operatin* life of a ca!le s(stem. It is intended to detect deterioration of t%e s(stem and to c%ec0 t%e servicea!ilit( so t%at s'ita!le maintenance proced'res can !e initiated.

4* Introdu"tion
4*1 Environ!ental influen"es
4*1*1 Te!(erature $%e dielectric stren*t% of some ca!le ins'lation is red'ced at increased temperat'res. $%is ma( necessitate a red'ction of t%e test volta*e at t%ose %i*%er temperat'res. $emperat're *radients in t%e ca!le s(stem ins'lation# ca'sed !( %eat dissipation from t%e cond'ctor# can res'lt in a!normal potential distri!'tion 'pon application of volta*e# especiall( )it% direct volta*e. 4*1*2 #t!os(heri" "onditions +i*% %'midit( or ot%er conditions favorin* condensation on e@posed s'rfaces can affect test res'lts to a mar0ed de*ree. :ontamination of termination s'rfaces can *reatl( increase cond'ction c'rrent and red'ce flas%over levels. Relative air densit( affects t%e meas'rement of test volta*e !( *aps or similar means and t%e flas%over at terminations. At elevations %i*%er t%an 1 000 m# additional ins'lation at terminations is re4'ired to )it%stand !ot% )or0in* volta*es and prescri!ed test volta*es. -ind can ca'se erroneo's lea0a*e c'rrent readin*s# as descri!ed in IEEE Std 4>-199"# IEEE Std "2-199/# and IEEE 6400.1. $%e !i!lio*rap%(# Anne@ =# provides some specifics for ca!les and ca!le s(stems. 4*1*4 2ther energi-ed "ondu"tors 6reca'tions s%o'ld !e ta0en to allo) ade4'ate volta*e clearance )%en testin* cond'ctors in close pro@imit( to ot%er ener*iBed cond'ctors. Aail're to maintain safe clearances ma( lead to flas%over !et)een t%e test cond'ctor and ot%er live cond'ctors# partic'larl( )%en test volta*es a!ove t%e rated operatin* volta*e are

" 8

$%e n'm!ers in !rac0ets correspond to t%ose in t%e !i!lio*rap%( in Anne@ =. Information on references can !e fo'nd in :la'se 2.

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'sed. $%is consideration m'st !e made for dc# ac# or ver( lo)-fre4'enc( (1DA) test volta*es. -%en spacin* is mar*inal# special preca'tions ma( !e re4'ired to prevent flas%over.

4*2 Su!!ar of dire"t voltage testing


: testin* %as !een accepted for man( (ears as t%e standard field met%od for performin* %i*%-volta*e tests on ca!le ins'lation s(stems. -%enever dc testin* is performed# f'll consideration s%o'ld !e *iven to t%e fact t%at stead(-state direct volta*e creates )it%in t%e ins'lation s(stems an electrical field determined !( t%e *eometr( and cond'ctance of t%e ins'lation# )%ereas 'nder service conditions# alternatin* volta*e creates an electric field determined c%iefl( !( t%e *eometr( and dielectric constant (or capacitance) of t%e ins'lation. 9nder ideal# %omo*eneo'sl( 'niform ins'lation conditions# t%e mat%ematical form'las *overnin* t%e stead(-state stress distri!'tion )it%in t%e ca!le ins'lation are of t%e same form for dc and for ac# res'ltin* in compara!le relative val'esF %o)ever# s%o'ld t%e ca!le ins'lation contain defects in )%ic% eit%er t%e cond'c- tivit( or t%e dielectric constant ass'me val'es si*nificantl( different from t%ose in t%e !'l0 of t%e ins'lation# t%e electric stress distri!'tion o!tained )it% direct volta*e )ill no lon*er correspond to t%at o!tained )it% alternatin* volta*e. As cond'ctivit( is *enerall( infl'enced !( temperat're to a *reater e@tent t%an t%e dielectric constant# t%e comparative electric stress distri!'tion 'nder dc and ac volta*e application )ill !e affected differentl( !( c%an*es in temperat're or temperat're distri!'tion )it%in t%e ins'lation. A'rt%er- more# t%e fail're mec%anisms tri**ered !( ins'lation defects var( from one t(pe of defect to anot%er. $%ese fail're mec%anisms respond differentl( to t%e t(pe of test volta*e 'tiliBed. Aor instance# if t%e defect is a void )%ere t%e mec%anism of fail're 'nder service ac conditions is most li0el( to !e tri**ered !( partial dis- c%ar*e# application of direct volta*e )o'ld not prod'ce t%e %i*% partial disc%ar*e repetition rate t%at e@ists )it% alternatin* volta*e. 9nder t%ese conditions# dc testin* )o'ld not !e 'sef'l. +o)ever# if t%e defect tri*- *ers fail're !( a t%ermal mec%anism# dc testin* ma( prove to !e effective. Aor e@ample# dc can detect t%e presence of contaminants alon* a creepa*e interface. In t%e case of ?oints and accessories# t%eir dielectric properties ma( differ from t%at of t%e ca!le )it% re*ard to cond'ctivit(. $%is ma( res'lt in a dc stress distri!'tion at t%e interfaces !et)een t%e ca!le and t%e accessor( t%at is ver( different from t%e stress 'nder ac volta*e. A caref'l e@amination of t%e s(stem is necessar( prior to a dc test in order to avoid diffic'lties. $estin* of ca!les t%at %ave !een service a*ed in a )et environment (specificall(# QD6E) )it% dc at t%e c'rrentl( recommended dc volta*e levels (see IEEE 6400.1) ma( ca'se t%e ca!les to fail after t%e( are ret'rned to service (see Ais%er# et al. N=25O# and Stennis# et al. N=4>O). $%e fail'res )o'ld not %ave occ'rred at t%at point in time if t%e ca!les %ad remained in service and not !een tested )it% dc (see Ea*er# et al. N=21O# and Srinivas# et al. N=48O). A'rt%ermore# from t%e )or0 of =ac%# et al. N=8O# )e 0no) t%at even massive ins'lation defects in e@tr'ded dielectric ins'lation cannot !e detected )it% dc at t%e recommended volta*e levels. After en*ineerin* eval'ation of t%e effectiveness of a test volta*e and t%e ris0s to t%e ca!le s(stem# %i*% direct volta*e ma( !e considered appropriate for a partic'lar application. If so# dc testin* %as t%e considera!le advanta*e of !ein* t%e simplest and most convenient to 'se. $%e val'e of t%e test for dia*nostic p'rposes is limited )%en applied to e@tr'ded ins'lations# !'t it %as !een proven to (ield e@cellent res'lts on laminated ins'lation s(stems.

4*4 Su!!ar of alternative testing


Alternatin* volta*e tests at po)er line fre4'encies stress t%e ins'lation in a similar manner to normal operation# and t%e test is similar to t%at 'sed in t%e factor( on ne) reels of ca!le. A serio's disadvanta*e of po)er fre4'enc( ac tests at increased volta*e levels is t%e re4'irement for %eav(# !'l0(# and e@pensive test transformers t%at ma( not !e readil( transporta!le to a field site. $%is pro!lem ma( !e miti*ated t%ro'*% 'se of resonant (!ot% series and parallel) test sets# compensated (*apped core) test sets t%at are desi*ned to resonate )it% a ca!le of avera*e len*t% at po)er fre4'enc(# t%e ran*e of resonance !ein* 4 :op(ri*%t ; 2002 IEEE. All ri*%ts reserved.

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ad?'sta!le to a ran*e of ca!le len*t%s t%ro'*% a moderate c%an*e of t%e e@citation volta*e fre4'enc(# or a p'lse resonant s(stem. 6o)er fre4'enc( ac tests are ideall( s'ited for $(pe 2 Aield $ests# s'c% as partial disc%ar*e location# and dissipation factor (tan ) eval'ation. Some of t%e practical disadvanta*es of po)er fre4'enc( tests are red'ced )%ile retainin* t%e !asic advanta*es !( t%e 'se of 1DA (0.1 +B) volta*e or !( t%e 'se of ot%er time-var(in* volta*es. E@amples of t%ese latter are t%e oscillatin* )ave (,S-# :la'se 10) and t%e alternatin*-polarit( dc-!iased ac volta*e (A6 A:). -%en s'c% variations of po)er fre4'enc( test sets are 'sed for cond'ctin* $(pe 1 $ests# it is necessar( to esta!lis% t%e e4'ivalence of t%e res'lts o!tained at vario's volta*e levels and test d'rations )it% correspondin* res'lts o!tained !( testin* at po)er fre4'enc(. A ma?or o!?ection to $(pe 1 Aield $ests is t%e concern t%at application of increased volta*es )it%o't an( ot%er accompan(in* dia*nostic meas'rements tri**ers fail're mec%anisms t%at )ill not s%o) d'rin* t%e test !'t t%at ma( ca'se s'!se4'ent fail'res in service. $%e selected test volta*es can !e 'sed not onl( to force ca!le s(stems to fail at t%e sites of defects# !'t also to provide a 'sef'l eval'ation of t%e condition of t%e ins'lation s(stem. As ca!le s(stem ins'lations a*e# t%eir dielectric properties 'nder*o c%aracteristic c%an*es. $%ese can !e 'sed to perform vario's $(pe 2 ( ia*nostic) Aield $ests. A !rief overvie) of t%e 0no)n met%ods follo)sC Aor defective ca!le ins'lation# t%e dc lea0a*e c'rrent vers's volta*e plot departs from linearit( as t%e volta*e is increased !e(ond some t%res%old val'e (tip-'p c'rve)# allo)in* a simple dia*nostic test to !e performed in t%e field. Anot%er set of tests consists of appl(in* a moderatel( elevated direct volta*e across t%e ca!le ins'lation# removin* t%e volta*e so'rce# s%ortin* t%e ca!le )%ile monitorin* t%e s%ort-circ'it c'rrent as a f'nction of time (depolariBation c'rrent test)# or meas'rin* t%e volta*e !'ild'p as a f'nction of time after t%e removal of t%e s%ort (ret'rn volta*e test). $%e rate of depolariBation c'rrent deca( or t%e rate of ret'rn volta*e !'ild'p can !e 'sed as indicators of t%e de*ree of ins'lation a*in*. Eeas'rement of polariBation inde@ (Ratio of ins'lation resistance after 10 min to resistance after 1 min'te of a volta*e application) can also !e 'tiliBed as an ins'lation dia*nostic test. As a ca!le deteriorates# its dissipation factor (tan ) vers's volta*e plots can ass'me a *rad'all( %i*%er rate of increase (tip-'p) !e(ond some t%res%old volta*e. $%is test can !e cond'cted eit%er !( means of a po)er fre4'enc( volta*e or !( means of a 1DA volta*e. -ater treein* in e@tr'ded ca!les ca'ses a sli*%t rectification of t%e ac volta*e impressed across t%eir ins'lation# prod'cin* a ver( small dc component in t%e ac lea0a*e c'rrent. $%e ma*nit'de of t%is component %as !een s%o)n to increase )it% t%e severit( of treein*. Anot%er developin* dia*nostic test# propa*ation c%aracteristics spectroscop( (6:S)# monitors t%e c%an*es in t%e )ave propa*ation c%aracteristics (atten'ation vers's fre4'enc( spectr'm) of a ca!le !( means of a lo)-volta*e p'lse t%at can !e applied )%ile t%e ca!le is ener*iBed and in service. E@periments %ave s%o)n t%at t%e atten'ation spectr'm c%an*es c%aracteristicall( as t%e ins'lation a*es.

$%e $(pe 2 Aield $ests previo'sl( descri!ed are intended to monitor t%e overall condition of a ca!le ins'lation t%ro'*%o't its len*t%. At least t)o additional dia*nostic met%ods are intended to identif( t%e locations of discrete defects t%at ma( !e t%e sites of f't're fail'res in service. Service-a*ed ca!les )it% )ater trees %ave !een s%o)n to prod'ce partial disc%ar*e (6 ) si*nals from t%e tips of t%eir lon*est trees )%en s'!?ected to time-var(in* volta*e in t%e ran*e of one to t%ree times service level. $%e e@act identification of t%ese disc%ar*e sites is no) possi!le !( means of e4'ipment capa!le of f'nctionin* even in %i*% am!ient noise environments. $%e severit( of defects is assessed !( t%e closeness of t%e 6 inception volta*e to service volta*e. 6artial disc%ar*e location in installed ca!les is 's'all( performed !( means of po)er fre4'enc( e@citation volta*e so'rces# !'t it also %as !een s%o)n to !e possi!le !( means of A6 A:# 1DA# imp'lse volta*e# or oscillator( volta*e. A *'ide coverin* t%e 'se of t%is met%od 'sin* 1DA volta*e )ill !e /

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IEEE Std 400-2001

provided in t%e f't're. Anot%er dia*nostic test# 0no)n as t%e IA:S met%od# identifies t%e location of discrete impedance discontin'ities or anomalies in t%e ca!le ins'lation t%ro'*% lo)-volta*e reflectometr(. -ater trees are reported to act as discontin'ities after t%e ca!le %as !een preconditioned for some len*t% of time !( means of 'nipolar %i*% dc and imp'lse volta*es. $%e a!ilit( of t%is met%od to assess t%e severit( of anomalies and to identif( defective ?oints %as (et to !e demonstrated.

4*4 $eed for testing


Alt%o'*% medi'm- and %i*%-volta*e po)er ca!les are caref'll( tested !( t%e man'fact'rer !efore s%ipment )it% alternatin* or direct volta*e# some defects ma( not !e detected or# more li0el(# dama*e d'rin* s%ipment# stora*e# or installation ma( occ'r. Additional testin* of completed installations incl'din* ?oints and terminations prior to !ein* placed in service ma( !e cond'cted. Additionall(# man( 'sers find t%at )it% time# t%ese ca!le s(stems de*rade and service fail'res !ecome tro'!lesome. $%e desire to red'ce or eliminate t%ose fail'res ma( lead ca!le 'sers to perform periodic tests after some time in service. As )ell# ca!le 'sers need special dia*nostic tests as an aid in determinin* t%e economic replacement interval for deteriorated ca!les. AEI: &8-90 states t%at K$%ere are no field tests availa!le t%at )ill provide an e@act meas'rement of remain- in* service life in an operatin* ca!le s(stem.K 9sers ma( mi@ ca!le t(pes on a s(stem# and a need e@ists to !ase t%e test volta*es and time on t%e circ'it !asic imp'lse level (=ID) rat%er t%an on t%e t(pe and t%ic0ness of t%e ins'lation. $%e traditional met%od of factor( testin* t%e ins'lation of medi'm-volta*e ca!le s(stems %as !een to s'!?ect it to %i*% alternatin* potential follo)ed !( direct potential. =eca'se of t%e previo's 'navaila!ilit( of compact ac field test e4'ipment# man( s(stems %ave !een field tested )it% dc or no field testin* %as !een performed. E@perience )it% paper ins'lated# lead-covered ca!le s(stems t%at %ave !een tested in t%e field )it% dc for over "0 (ears %as s%o)n t%at testin* )it% t%e recommended dc volta*e does not seem to deteriorate so'nd ins'lation# or if it does# it is at a ver( slo) rate of de*radation. $%e decision to emplo( maintenance testin* m'st !e eval'ated !( t%e individ'al 'ser# ta0in* into acco'nt t%e costs of a service fail're# incl'din* intan*i!les# t%e costs of testin*# and t%e possi!ilit( of dama*e to t%e s(stem. As proven nondestr'ctive dia*nostic test met%ods !ecome availa!le# t%e 'sers ma( )ant to consider replacin* )it%stand-t(pe volta*e tests )it% one or more of t%ese met%ods.
C#7TI2$ $%e conse4'ences of e@periencin* a fail're d'rin* t%e performance of a maintenance test s%o'ld !e considered prior to 'nderta0in* an( s'c% test. A fa'lted circ'it )o'ld !e o't of service 'ntil repairs can !e completed.

4*8 Safet awareness

)#3$I$G Aor all tests involvin* %aBardo's volta*e levels# special attention m'st !e paid to ens're t%e safet( of personnel. Refer to :la'se "# Safet( 6roced'res in t%e Aield# IEEE Std /10-19>5# e4'ipment ma0ersM instr'ctions# and all applica!le re*'lations.

+i*%-volta*e field testin* of ca!le s(stems involves all of t%e factors normall( associated )it% )or0in* on ener*iBed circ'its# as )ell as several 'ni4'e sit'ations t%at m'st !e addressed.

"

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E1AD9A$I,N

:a!le circ'its )ill normall( %ave one or more ends remote from t%e location of t%e test e4'ipment and t%e test operator. $%ese ends m'st !e cleared and *'arded to ens're t%e safet( of personnel. Relia!le voice comm'nication s%o'ld !e esta!lis%ed !et)een all s'c% locations and t%e test operator. $%e 'se of an ener*iBed circ'it indicator or ot%er s'ita!le device ma( !e 'sed to indicate t%at t%e circ'it is completel( de-ener*iBed !efore application of safet( *ro'nds. :a!les %ave %i*% capacitance and dielectric a!sorption c%aracteristics. 6artic'lar attention m'st !e directed to t%e special tec%ni4'es re4'ired for disc%ar*in* ca!les after testin* to eliminate personnel %aBards.
C#7TI2$ :a!les s'!?ected to %i*%-volta*e testin* t%at are not *ro'nded for s'fficientl( lon* periods of time after s'c% tests can e@perience dan*ero's c%ar*e !'ild'ps as a conse4'ence of t%e ver( lon* time constant associated )it% dielectric a!sorption c'rrents. Aor t%is reason# t%e *ro'ndin* proced'res recommended in t%e appropriate )or0 r'les s%o'ld !e follo)ed.

8* /ire"t voltage testing


8*1 Introdu"tion
$%e 'se of direct volta*e %as a %istorical precedent in t%e testin* of laminated dielectric ca!le s(stems. Its application for testin* e@tr'ded dielectric ca!le s(stems at %i*% volta*e is a matter of concern and de!ate. IEEE 6400.1 contains information relevant to t%ese concerns. $%is section presents t%e rationale for 'sin* dc testin*# incl'din* t%e advanta*es and disadvanta*es and a !rief description of t%e vario's dc field tests t%at can !e cond'cted. $%ese are *enerall( divided into t)o !road cate*ories# delineated !( t%e test volta*e levelC lo)-volta*e dc testin* (D1 :) coverin* volta*es at and a!ove / 01 and %i*%-volta*e dc testin* (+1 :) coverin* volta*e levels a!ove / 01.

8*2 3ationale for using d"


Ideall(# t%e field testin* of ca!le s(stems is !est performed !( means of ac volta*es at po)er fre4'enc(F %o)ever# t%e siBe and inp't po)er re4'ired for s'c% tests 'sin* conventional transformers led to impracticall( lar*e and costl( test transformers. $%e apparent po)er ratin* of t%ese transformers is *iven !( E4'ation (1). # R "l R 2 f!" 10
12 2 -

(1)

)%ere # " l f ! is t%e apparent po)er of t%e transformer in voltamperes# is t%e ma@im'm test volta*e level p%ase-to-*ro'nd in volts# is t%e c'rrent in amperes# is t%e po)er fre4'enc( in %ertB# is t%e total capacitance of t%e ca!le to !e tested in pA.

:op(ri*%t ; 2002 IEEE. All ri*%ts reserved.

As an e@ample# to test a 1 >00-m-lon* 5/-01 ca!le s(stem (20 01 p%ase-to-*ro'nd) %avin* a capacitance of 550 pALm )o'ld re4'ire a conventional transformer rated at >0 01# 1 /00 01A. If t%is transformer is fed from a 4>0-1 so'rce# t%e primar( c'rrent )o'ld !e over 5 000 amperes. $%is set is not readil( transporta!le to a field locationF it is costl( and re4'ires an 'nreasona!l( %i*% primar( c'rrent s'ppl(. See :la'se " for a disc'ssion of resonant e4'ipment.> $estin* )it% a dc volta*e so'rce re4'ires t%at onl( t%e dc cond'ction c'rrent !e s'pplied rat%er t%an a contin'o's capacitive c%ar*in* c'rrent 'tiliBed in E4'ation (1). A 10-- (10-1A) dc test set s%o'ld !e satisfactor( for testin* t%e ca!le mentioned in t%e previo's e@ample. S'c% a test set is relativel( small# eas( to %andle# and reasona!l( ine@pensive.

8*4 Perfor!ing ,9/C tests


E4'ipment for prod'cin* t%ese volta*es is t(pified !( commerciall( availa!le ins'lation resistance testers. Some %ave m'ltivolta*e ran*e capa!ilit(. :a!le p%ases not 'nder test s%o'ld %ave t%eir cond'ctors *ro'nded. :a!le ends# !ot% at test location and remote# s%o'ld !e protected from accidental contact !( personnel# ener*iBed e4'ipment# and *ro'nds. Appl( t%e prescri!ed test volta*e for a specified period of time. It ma( !e advanta*eo's to cond'ct t%e test )it% more t%an one volta*e level and record readin*s of more t%an one time period. 8*4*1 Insulation resistan"e test S'c% test e4'ipment provides meas'rements of t%e ins'lation resistance of t%e ca!le s(stem as a f'nction of time. Interpretation of t%e res'lts# covered in *reater detail in IEEE 6400.1# 's'all( ma0es 'se of t%e c%an*e in resistance as testin* pro*resses. A val'e of polariBation inde@ can !e o!tained !( ta0in* t%e ratio of t%e resistance after 10 min to t%e resistance after 1 min'te. I:EA provides val'es of minim'm ins'lation resistance ) in me*o%ms for 50/ m NE4'ation (2)O# )%ic% are fo'nd in t%e applica!le ca!le standards. $%ese are !ased on ne) sin*le cond'ctor ca!le after an ac volta*e test in t%e factor(# at /00 1 dc for 1 min# corrected to a !ase temperat're of 1/." S:. Also refer to t%e :ENEDE: standards.9 R R ) lo*10(D d ) )%ere R ) is t%e me*o%ms for 50/ m of ca!le# is t%e constant for specific ins'latin* material# (2)

D is t%e o'tside diameter of ins'lation# d is t%e diameter over cond'ctor s%ield.

> 9

1 >00 m is appro@imatel( " 000 ft. 50/ m is appro@imatel( 1 000 ft.

8*4 Perfor!ing 09/C tests


E4'ipment for prod'cin* t%ese volta*es is t(pified !( rectification of an ac po)er s'ppl(. ,'tp't volta*e is varia!le !( ad?'stin* t%e ac inp't volta*e. ,'tp't c'rrent# i.e.# c'rrent into t%e ca!le s(stem 'nder test# ma( !e meas'red on t%e +1 : side or ratio transformation of t%e ac inp't. Aor t%e latter case# t%e test e4'ipment lea0a*e ma( mas0 t%e test c'rrent and t%e interpretation of res'lts. Appl( t%e prescri!ed test volta*e for t%e specified period of time. IEEE 6400.1 provides *'idance for t%e selection of test volta*e and time. $%e follo)in* t%ree *eneral t(pes of tests can !e cond'cted )it% t%is e4'ipment. 8*4*1 /C withstand test A volta*e at a prescri!ed level is applied for a prescri!ed d'ration. $%e ca!le s(stem is deemed to !e accepta!le if no !rea0do)n occ'rs. $%is ma( !e cate*oriBed as a KpassLfailK or K*oLno *oK test ($(pe 1 Aield $est). 8*4*2 ,ea.age "urrent-ti!e tests $otal apparent lea0a*e o'tp't c'rrent is recorded as a f'nction of time at a prescri!ed volta*e level. $%e variations of lea0a*e c'rrent )it% time (rat%er t%an its a!sol'te val'e) provide dia*nostic information on t%e ca!le s(stem. 8*4*4 Ste(-voltage test or lea.age "urrent ti(-u( tests $%e volta*e is increased in small steps )%ile t%e stead(-state lea0a*e c'rrent is recorded# 'ntil t%e ma@im'm test volta*e is reac%ed or a prono'nced nonlinear relations%ip !et)een c'rrent and volta*e is displa(ed. S'c% depart'res from linearit( ma( denote a defective ins'lation s(stem.

8*8 Su!!ar of advantages and disadvantages


Some of t%e advanta*es and disadvanta*es of dc testin* are listed !elo). 8*8*1 #dvantages Relativel( simple and li*%t test e4'ipment# in comparison to ac# facilitate porta!ilit(. Inp't po)er s'ppl( re4'irements are readil( availa!le. E@tensive %istor( of s'ccessf'l testin* of laminated dielectric ca!le s(stems and )ell-esta!lis%ed data !ase. It is effective )%en t%e fail're mec%anism is tri**ered !( cond'ction or !( t%ermal consideration. It is effective on interface pro!lems of ?oints and terminations and s'rface pro!lems of terminations. 6'rc%ase cost is *enerall( lo)er t%an t%at of non-dc test e4'ipment for compara!le 0ilovolt o'tp't.

8*8*2 /isadvantages It is !lind to certain t(pes of defects# s'c% as clean voids and c'ts. It ma( not replicate t%e stress distri!'tion e@istin* )it% po)er fre4'enc( ac volta*e. $%e stress distri!'tion is sensitive to temperat're and temperat're distri!'tion. It ma( ca'se 'ndesira!le space c%ar*e acc'm'lation# especiall( at accessor( to ca!le ins'lation interfaces.

It ma( adversel( affect f't're performance of )ater-tree-affected e@tr'ded dielectric ca!les. Dea0a*e c'rrent readin*s ma( %ave )ide variations d'e to atmosp%eric conditions and lac0 of control of c%ar*es at termination l'*s.

:* Power fre;uen" testing


:*1 Introdu"tion
As t%e name implies# t%ese test met%ods are !ased on 'sin* alternatin* c'rrent at t%e operatin* fre4'enc( of t%e s(stem as t%e test so'rce. $%ese met%ods %ave t%e advanta*e# 'ni4'e amon* all test met%ods descri!ed in t%is &'ide# of stressin* t%e ins'lation compara!l( to normal operatin* conditions. It also replicates t%e most common met%od of factor( test on ne) ca!les and accessories. In t%e past# a !'l0( and e@pensive test *enerator )as re4'ired )%en a capacitive load s'c% as a ca!le s(stem )as stressed a!ove normal operatin* levels. $%is %as !een offset !( t%e 'se of varia!le ind'ctance and varia!le fre4'enc( resonant and p'lsed resonant test so'rces. A f'rt%er advanta*e of po)er fre4'enc( testin* is t%at it allo)s partial disc%ar*e and dissipation factor (tan ) testin* for dia*nostic p'rposes. Some ot%er test so'rces also permit t%ese meas'rements# !'t *ive rise to some 'ncertaint( in interpretation# !eca'se t%e meas'rements are t%en made at a fre4'enc( ot%er t%an t%e normal operatin* fre4'enc(. $%e factor( 4'alit( tests on ne) ca!le are almost invaria!l( made at t%e po)er fre4'enc( on )%ic% t%e ca!le )ill operate in service. $%e siBe of t%e necessar( e4'ipment can !e s'!stantiall( red'ced !( 'sin* t%e principle of resonance. If t%e effective capacitance of t%e ca!le is resonated )it% an ind'ctor# t%e m'ltipl(in* effect of t%e resonant circ'it (its T factor# presentl( !et)een /0 and 120) )ill allo) t%e 'se of a smaller test so'rce. In t%e ideal case of a perfect resonance# t%e test so'rce )ill onl( !e re4'ired to s'ppl( ener*( to !alance t%e tr'e resistive loss in t%e ind'ctor and ca!le s(stem. ,ne of t)o resonant circ'its is normall( 'sed# eit%er series or parallel. ,t%er %(!rid arran*ements of series-parallel com!inations can !e 'sed )it% advanta*e in special circ'mstances# !'t are 'n's'al and )ill not !e considered %ere. In practical resonant test s(stems# provision is made for var(in* !ot% t%e ma*nit'de of t%e ind'ctance and t%e s(stem volta*e. Ai*'re 1 s%o)s a series resonant circ'it.

9ariable Ga( Indu"tor

,ine In(ut

9oltage 3egulator

E<"iter Transfor!er

,oading Ca(a"itor

Cable 7nder Test

Figure 1-Series resonant "ir"uit

A f'rt%er and si*nificant red'ction in siBe and )ei*%t of t%e test volta*e *enerator can !e ac%ieved !( 'se of t%e p'lsed resonant circ'it. See Ai*'re 2 for t%e s%ape prod'ced !( t%is t(pe of test circ'it.

Figure 2-Four "o!(lete out(ut " "les of (ulsed resonant s ste!

:*2 Test a((aratus re;uire!ents


$%e follo)in* re4'irements are common to all t%ree t(pes of line fre4'enc( and resonant testin* s(stemsC $%e apparat's s%o'ld !e provided )it% an o'tp't voltmeter )%ic% responds to t%e test )aveform. See IEEE Std 4-199/. $%e o'tp't )aveform s%o'ld !e sin'soidal and s%o'ld contain minim'm line fre4'enc( %armonics and noise. $%is is of partic'lar importance if dia*nostic meas'rements (partial disc%ar*e# dissipation factor# etc.) are to !e performed. See IEEE Std 4-199/ for a disc'ssion of %armonic distortion. It s%o'ld !e noted t%at older t(pes of volta*e re*'lators 'sin* ind'ctive met%ods for re*'lation tended to prod'ce lar*e amo'nts of %armonic distortion. $%e test s(stem s%o'ld !e e4'ipped )it% a means of controllin* t%e o'tp't volta*e smoot%l( and linearl(. $%e resol'tion of t%e volta*e ad?'stment s%o'ld !e not more t%an 1U of t%e ma@im'm o'tp't volta*e. Aor )it%stand tests# t%e detection and indication of t%e point at )%ic% !rea0do)n occ'rs is determined !( t%e overc'rrent protective device of t%e test s(stem. Aor t%is reason# a %i*%-speed and repeata!le electronic circ'it ma( !e 'sed to operate t%e s(stem circ'it !rea0er as fast as practical. isconnection of t%e ca!le from t%e test s(stem s%o'ld occ'r in less t%an t)o c(cles of inp't fre4'enc(. It is desira!le t%at t%e o'tp't volta*e !e controlled !( an a'tomatic volta*e re*'lator to maintain t%e constant volta*e for t%e d'ration of t%e test. In resonant s(stems# it is convenient to %ave an a'tomatic resonance control t%at operates initiall( to resonate t%e test s(stem and ca!le s(stem 'nder test. If t%e test s(stem is to !e 'sed for dia*nostic meas'rements# t%e internal partial disc%ar*e s%o'ld !e lo)F less t%an / p: is normall( accepta!le.

:*4 Chara"teristi"s of test s ste!s


$%e operatin* c%aracteristics of a conventional test transformer are similar to a po)er transformer# alt%o'*% si*nificant differences e@ist in t%e desi*n.

Resonant s(stems operate differentl( t%an do conventional transformers# in t%at t%e( %ave a specific t'nin* ran*e for t%e capacitance of t%e ca!le 'nder test. :apacitance o'tside of t%is ran*e cannot !e ener*iBed. $%e minim'm ca!le capacitance t%at can !e ener*iBed can !e red'ced to Bero# in t%e series resonant s(stem# !( 'sin* an a'@iliar( capacitor of appropriate ratin* in parallel )it% t%e test sample. $%e parallel resonant test s(stem can !e ener*iBed )it% no connected capacitance. $%e ma@im'm val'e is independent of t%e c'rrent or t%ermal ratin* of t%e test s(stem and cannot !e e@ceeded. A t(pical t'nin* ran*e is of t%e order of 20C1# ma@im'm to minim'm capacitance. =ot% conventional and resonant test sets provide an o'tp't t%at stresses t%e ca!le s(stem 'nder test identicall( to t%at 'nder normal operations.

$%e o'tp't of a p'lsed resonant test s(stem consists of a po)er line fre4'enc( mod'lated at a lo) fre4'enc(# s'c% as 1 +B (see Ai*'re 2). $%e stress distri!'tion in t%e ca!le s(stem 'nder test is t%erefore almost identi- cal to t%at 'nder normal operation. $%e onl( difference is t%at t%e ma*nit'de of t%e stress varies periodicall(. $%e d'ration of t%e test m'st t%erefore !e e@tended so t%at t%e ca!le 'nder test is s'!?ected to t%e same volt- time e@pos're as )it% a constant amplit'de line fre4'enc( test.

:*4 Test (ro"edures


:*4*1 Conventional transfor!ers -%en t%e ca!le %as !een prepared and appropriate safet( preca'tions %ave !een ta0en# t%e test set is ener*iBed and t%e volta*e is increased at a slo)# constant rate 'ntil t%e specified test volta*e is ac%ieved. It is t%en %eld constant for t%e specified test period. At t%e concl'sion of t%e test period# it is red'ced to Bero at t%e same rate as t%at 'sed for raisin* t%e volta*e. :*4*2 3esonant s ste!s 6roceed as in ".4.1# e@cept t%at t%e volta*e is first raised to appro@imatel( /U of t%e specified test volta*e. $%e s(stem is t%en t'ned# eit%er man'all( or a'tomaticall( if t%e facilit( is availa!le. $%e t'nin* ma( also re4'ire minor ad?'stment )%en specified volta*e is ac%ieved. :*4*4 3ate of "hange of voltage $%e recommended rate-of-rise and rate-of-decrease of t%e test volta*e is appro@imatel( 1 01Ls at po)er fre4'enc(. In t%e 1DA test mode# t%e applied volta*e )ill !e reac%ed immediatel( after s)itc%in* on t%e test set. :*4*4 Ti!e (eriod $%e d'ration of an acceptance test on a ne) ca!le s(stem is normall( 1/ min at specified volta*e. Eaintenance tests ma( !e / to 1/ min. An( dia*nostic tests (s'c% as partial disc%ar*e or dissipation factor) ma( !e performed d'rin* t%is period. $%e volta*e s%o'ld !e maintained at t%e specified val'e to )it%in V1U. :*4*8 Testing with s ste! voltage 5!ediu! voltage6 It %as !een t%e 'tilit( practice for field cre)s to reclose an over%ead circ'it after vis'all( inspectin* t%e circ'it. $%e vis'al inspection is important in order to verif( t%at an( dama*ed e4'ipment %as !een removed# do)ned lines %ave !een restored# and feeds from alternate circ'its %ave !een disconnected. A'sin* 'sed in t%ese operations is normall( t%e siBe and t(pe t%at )as ori*inall( fo'nd in t%e s)itc%. $%is practice %as !een carried over to t%e 'nder*ro'nd residential distri!'tion (9R ) circ'its !( t%e same operatin* cre)s t%at s)itc%ed t%e over%ead s(stem. 9R circ'its %ave !een re-ener*iBed eit%er !( t%e over-

%ead f'se connection or !( t%e 'se of a separa!le connector (el!o)). In some cases# contin'al reclosin* and sectionaliBin* %ave !een 'sed to isolate a fail're. $%is practice s%o'ld not !e 'sed !eca'se it ma( !e dama*in* to t%e 'nder*ro'nd s(stem. Reclosin* in t%is manner ma( ca'se %i*%-volta*e transients to !e *enerated and# %ence# s'!?ect t%e circ'it to e@cessive c'rrent s'r*es. =ot% of t%ose conditions ma( red'ce t%e life and relia!ilit( of t%e 'nder*ro'nd circ'it. evices %ave !een developed to eliminate t%e need to re-ener*iBe a fa'lted 'nder*ro'nd circ'it. -it% t%e 'se of a standard operatin* tester# a %i*%-volta*e rectifier# t%e correct adapters# and an ac s(stem so'rce# a test can !e applied to t%e 'nder*ro'nd circ'it t%at )ill indicate )%et%er a circ'it is s'ita!le for reener*iBation. A voltmeter p%asin* tester# in common 'se for over%ead testin*# can !e modified to test 'nder*ro'nd circ'its )it% t%e application of a %i*%-volta*e rectifier and proper adapters. $%e voltmeter indicates t%e amo'nt of c%ar*in* c'rrent t%at is on t%e circ'it !ein* tested. =eca'se t%e 'nder*ro'nd ca!le is a *ood capacitor# an 'nfa'lted circ'it )o'ld *ive a %i*% readin* )%en t%e tester is first connected to t%e circ'it. As t%e capaci- tance c%ar*es# t%e readin* on t%e voltmeter )ill decrease. If t%e readin* fails to decrease# a fa'lted circ'it is indicated.

:*8 #dvantages and disadvantages


:*8*1 #dvantages Readil( availa!le at "0

:*8*2 /isadvantages +eav( e4'ipment and e@pensive a!ove "0 oes not assess condition of ins'lation

=* Partial dis"harge testing


=*1 Introdu"tion
6artial disc%ar*e meas'rement is an important met%od of assessin* t%e 4'alit( of t%e ins'lation of po)er ca!le s(stems# partic'larl( for e@tr'ded ins'lation materials. $%is &'ide considers partial disc%ar*e from t)o points of vie)C t%e meas'rement of all partial disc%ar*es occ'rrin* )it%in t%e ca!le s(stem and t%e location of individ'al partial disc%ar*e sites.

=*2 Funda!entals
A partial disc%ar*e is an electrical disc%ar*e (formation of a streamer or arc) t%at does not !rid*e t%e entire space !et)een t)o electrodes. $%e disc%ar*e ma( occ'r in a *as-filled void )it%in t%e e@tr'ded ca!le ins'lation# at t%e interface !et)een a s%ield protr'sion and t%e ins'lation# at a s%ield s0ip# at t%e !o'ndaries of a contaminant# or at t%e tip of a )ell-developed )ater tree )%en a ca!le is s'!?ected to moderatel( %i*% volta*e. 6artial disc%ar*es can also occ'r in a ca!le termination# in a ?oint# in air# or )it%in a ca!le.

=*4 Partial dis"harge "hara"teri-ation


1olta*e e@citation !( ac prod'ces# d'rin* eac% %alf c(cle# a series of 6 p'lses. $%e rise time of t%ese p'lses is in t%e ran*e of nanoseconds to tens of nanoseconds. At t%e meas'rin* end# t%ese p'lses tend to !ecome )ider !eca'se of t%e )ave propa*ation c%aracteristics of t%e ca!le and t%e !and)idt% of t%e meas'rin* cir-

c'it. $%e narro)er !and)idt%s prod'ce a !roader and more ro'nded p'lse. $%e time interval !et)een p'lses varies randoml( and can ran*e from 10 to over 200 ms. Anot%er important aspect of partial disc%ar*e is t%e fact t%at 'nder dc volta*e e@citation conditions# t%e c%ar*in* of t%e capacitor containin* t%e defect is affected !( t%e ver( %i*% resistance of t%e ca!le ins'lation. $%e rec%ar*in* time constant of t%e cavit( can !e several %o'rs# t%'s# limitin* t%e repetition rate of t%e 6 p'lses to one per several %o'rs. It follo)s t%at t%e repetition rate at 0.1 +B is slo)er t%an at /0 or "0 +B. As t%e 6 p'lse is of a ver( s%ort d'ration# it tends to set 'p an electroma*netic field t%at propa*ates in !ot% directions alon* t%e ca!le )it% a velocit( of propa*ation t%at is dependent on t%e dielectric constant of t%e ca!le ins'lation (*enerall(# 14" to 181 mLms in a 1/-01 9R ca!le).10

=*4 >easure!ent of (artial dis"harge


6er%aps t%e most si*nificant factor( test made on t%e ins'lation of f'll reels of e@tr'ded ca!le is t%e partial disc%ar*e test. $%is is 's'all( done at po)er fre4'enc(# !'t it can also !e carried o't at 1DA and at some volta*e si*nificantl( %i*%er t%an normal )or0in* volta*e to *ro'nd. E@perience %as s%o)n t%at t%is test is a ver( sensitive met%od of detectin* small imperfections in t%e ins'lation s'c% as voids or s0ips in t%e ins'lation s%ield la(er. It )o'ld t%erefore seem lo*ical to repeat t%is test on installed ca!les to detect an( dama*e done d'rin* t%e s%ippin* or la(in* or an( pro!lems created !( ?ointin* and terminatin* t%e ca!le. 9nfort'natel(# t%is is a dif- fic'lt meas'rement to perform in t%e field !eca'se of t%e presence of e@ternal noise. In spite of t%e diffic'lt(# t%is test %as !een performed in t%e field# )%ere some special circ'mstances s'**est it is )ort% t%e time and e@pense involved. $(picall(# t%is ma( !e )%en dama*e or fa'lt( installation is s'spected or t%e ca!le ro'te re4'ires it to !e of t%e %i*%est possi!le relia!ilit(. ,nce t%e necessar( steps are ta0en to red'ce t%e noise level !elo) t%e partial disc%ar*e level to !e meas'red# t%e test can provide a *reat deal of 'sef'l dia*nostic data. =( o!servin* t%e ma*nit'de and p%ase of t%e par- tial disc%ar*e si*nals and %o) t%e( var( )it% increasin* and t%en decreasin* t%e test volta*e# res'lts )ill disclose information on t%e t(pe and position of t%e defects and t%eir pro!a!le effect on ca!le life. Noise red'ction met%ods necessar( for field tests of partial disc%ar*e 's'all( incl'de t%e 'se of an independent test volta*e so'rce s'c% as a motor-*enerator# po)er line and %i*%-volta*e filters# s%ieldin*# and sometimes !rid*e detection circ'its. $%e references t%at follo) provide information on noise red'ction met%ods and t%e interpretation of t%e res'lts. 6artial disc%ar*es can also !e detected at s(stem volta*e )it% special sensors connected to a splice or termination# 'sin* t%e fre4'enc( spectr'm of t%e disc%ar*es. In s'mmar(# if t%e ca!le s(stem can !e tested in t%e field to s%o) t%at its partial disc%ar*e level is compara!le )it% t%at o!tained in t%e factor( tests on t%e ca!le and accessories# it is t%e most convincin* evidence t%at t%e ca!le s(stem is in e@cellent condition.

=*8 #dvantages and disadvantages


=*8*1 #dvantages 10

Eodest siBe# )ei*%t# and cost 9sef'l for !ot% laminar and e@tr'ded dielectrics

14" to mLPs is appro@imatel( 4>0 to /"0 ftLPs.

Are4'encies from 0.1 to "0 +B availa!le Eeas'res and pinpoints defects

=*8*2 /isadvantages $rained operators re4'ired ,ne lar*e 6 site ma( mas0 ot%ers Ei@ed dielectrics conf'se res'lts

?* 9er low fre;uen" 59,F+ less than 1 0-6 testing


?*1 Introdu"tion
Eedi'm- and %i*%-volta*e po)er ca!les are caref'll( tested !( t%e man'fact'rer !efore s%ipment )it% ac or dc volta*es to ens're conformance )it% p'!lis%ed specifications and ind'str( standards. 'rin* transport# installation# and !ac0fillin*# ca!les are v'lnera!le to e@ternal dama*e. $%erefore# ca!les ma( !e tested prior to placin* t%em in service to locate an( e@ternal mec%anical dama*e and to ens're t%at ?ointin* and terminat- in* )or0 %as !een satisfactor(. 6eriodic testin* of service-a*ed ca!les ma( also !e performed )it% t%e desire to determine s(stem de*radation and to red'ce or eliminate service fail'res. 1DA testin* descri!es a testin* tec%ni4'e for testin* of service-a*ed or ne) ca!le s(stems in t%e field. 1DA testin* met%ods can !e cate*oriBed as )it%stand or dia*nostic. In )it%stand testin*# ins'lation defects are ca'sed to !rea0 do)n (fa'lt) at t%e time of testin*. Aa'lts are repaired# and t%e ins'lation is retested 'ntil it passes t%e )it%stand test. $%e )it%stand test is considered a destr'ctive test. ia*nostic testin* allo)s t%e identification of t%e relative condition of de*radation of a ca!le s(stem and esta!lis%es# !( comparison )it% fi*'res of merit# if a ca!le s(stem can or cannot contin'e operation. ia*nostic testin* is considered nondestr'ctive. In e@treme cases# )%en t%e ca!le s(stem ins'lation is in an advanced condition of de*radation# t%e dia*nostic tests can a**ravate t%e condition of t%e ca!le and ca'se !rea0do)n !efore t%e test can !e terminated. $%e 1DA -it%stand $est Eet%ods for :a!le S(stems are 1DA $estin* )it% :osine-6'lse -aveform 1DA $estin* )it% Sine -aveform 1DA $estin* )it% S4'are -ave )it% 6ro*ramma!le Sle)

Rate $%e 1DA ia*nostic $est Eet%ods for :a!le S(stems are 1DA issipation Aactor (tan ) Eeas'rement

1DA 6artial isc%ar*e Eeas'rement

Aield testin* tec%ni4'es fre4'entl( emplo( a com!ination of dia*nostic and )it%stand test met%ods. $%e( are selected !ased on t%eir ease of operation and costL!enefit ratio. $%e vario's 1DA test met%ods descri!ed are in commercial 'se and are accepted as alternative test met%ods in international standards. $a!le 1 is incl'ded as an aid to identif(in* t%e effectiveness of t%e 1DA test for vario's ca!le ins'lation pro!lems.

Table 1-Tree growth rates as a fun"tion of voltage and fre;uen"


Growth rate at 80-0test voltage 5!!@h6 1.8-2.4 2.2 -/.9 18/-"11 Growth rate at 0*1-0sinusoidal test voltage 5!!@h6 2.5 10.9-12." />.5-"4.2 55" Growth rate at 0*1-09,F Cos-3e"tangular voltage 5!!@h6 1.4 5.4-8.> 22.2-50.5 12/

Test voltage fa"tor 5 " " 0) 2 5 4 /

:%annel tree *ro)t% rate on field a*ed samples of QD6E at different test volta*e levels and )aveforms )%ere " is test volta*e and "0 is operatin* volta*e to *ro'nd.

Avera*e c%annel *ro)t% rate on partial disc%ar*e defects 'sin* different t(pes of QD6E ca!le samples at dif- ferent test volta*e levels and )aveforms )%ere " is test volta*e and "0 is operatin* volta*e to *ro'nd. $%e fastest tree *ro)t% is s%o)n in millimeters per %o'r.

?*2 9,F testing with "osine-(ulse wavefor!


?*2*1 >ethod $%e 1DA ca!le test set *enerates a 0.1-+B !ipolar p'lse )ave t%at c%an*es polarit( sin'soidall(. Sin'soidal transitions in t%e po)er fre4'enc( ran*e initiate a partial disc%ar*e at an ins'lation defect# )%ic% t%e 0.1-+B p'lse )ave develops into a !rea0do)n c%annel. -it%in min'tes# a defect is detected and forced to !rea0 t%ro'*%. It can t%en !e located )it% standard# readil( availa!le ca!le fa'lt locatin* e4'ipment. :a!le s(stems can !e tested in preventive maintenance pro*rams or after a service fail're. Identified fa'lts can !e repaired immediatel(# and no ne) defects )ill !e initiated d'rin* t%e testin* process. -%en a ca!le s(stem passes t%e 1DA test# it can !e ret'rned to service. ?*2*2 >easure!ent and e;ui(!ent A dc test set forms t%e %i*%-volta*e so'rce. A dc to ac converter c%an*es t%e dc volta*e to t%e 1DA ac test si*nal. $%e converter consists of a %i*%-volta*e ind'ctor (c%o0e) and a rotatin* rectifier t%at c%an*es t%e polarit( of t%e ca!le s(stem !ein* tested ever( / s. $%is *enerates a 0.1-+B !ipolar )ave. A resonance circ'it# consistin* of a %i*%-volta*e ind'ctor and a capacitor in parallel )it% t%e ca!le capacitance# ass'res sin'soidal polarit( c%an*es in t%e po)er fre4'enc( ran*e. $%e 'se of a resonance circ'it to c%an*e ca!le volta*e polarit( preserves t%e ener*( stored in t%e ca!le s(stem. ,nl( lea0a*e losses %ave to !e s'pplied to t%e ca!le s(stem d'rin* t%e ne*ative %alf of t%e c(cle. $%e 0.1-+B test set is easil( inte*rated into a standard ca!le fa'lt locatin* and ca!le testin* s(stem !( ma0in* 'se of availa!le dc %i*% potential test sets. Stand-alone 1DA s(stems s%o'ld !e s'pplemented !( ca!le fa'lt locatin* e4'ipment. See Ai*'re 5 for a simplified sc%ematic of a 1DA test set.

Figure 4-9,F test set generates a 0*1-0- bi(olar wave with "osine-sha(ed transitions between (ositive and negative (ulse a!(litudes $%e ca!le s(stem to !e tested is connected to t%e 1DA test set. In t%ree to fo'r steps# t%e test volta*e is re*'lated to t%e test volta*e level 'p to 5 "0 ( " is rated p%ase-to-*ro'nd volta*e). $%e recommended testin* time is 1/ to "0 min. -%en t%e ca!le s(stem passes t%e 1DA volta*e test# t%e test volta*e is re*'lated to Bero and t%e ca!le and test set are disc%ar*ed and *ro'nded. -%en a ca!le fails t%e test# t%e 1DA test set is t'rned off to disc%ar*e t%e s(stem. $%e fa'lt can t%en !e located )it% standard ca!le fa'lt locatin* e4'ipment. ?*2*4 #dvantages and disadvantages ?*2*4*1 #dvantages $%e 1DA test 'ses a 0.1-+B s4'are )ave or cosine-rectan*'lar )ave t%at c%an*es polarit( sin'soidall(. $%e sin'soidal transitions in t%e po)er fre4'enc( ran*e ma( initiate a partial disc%ar*e at a defect t%at t%e 0.1-+B p'lse )ave ma( develop into a !rea0t%ro'*% c%annel. 'e to sin'soidal transitions !et)een t%e +1 p'lses# travelin* )aves are not *enerated. 'e to contin'o's polarit( c%an*es# space c%ar*es cannot develop. :a!les can !e tested )it% an ac volta*e 'p to t%ree times t%e normal p%ase-to-*ro'nd volta*e )it% a device compara!le in siBe# )ei*%t# and po)er re4'irements to a dc test set. $%e 1DA test can !e 'sed on e@tr'ded as )ell as on fl'id impre*nated paper ins'lations. $%e 1DA test )it% cosine-rectan*'lar p'lse )aveform )or0s !est )%en eliminatin* a fe) sin*'lar defects from an ot%er)ise *ood ca!le ins'lation. $%e 1DA test is 'sed to Kfa'ltK t%e ca!le defects )it%o't ?eopardiBin* t%e ca!le s(stem inte*rit(. -%en a ca!le passes t%e recommended 0.1-+B 1DA test# it can !e ret'rned to service.
0

?*2*4*2 /isadvantages -%en testin* ca!les )it% e@tensive )ater tree dama*e or ioniBation of t%e ins'lation# 1DA testin* alone is often not concl'sive. Additional tests t%at meas're t%e e@tent of ins'lation losses )ill !e necessar(. 6resent limitations are t%e ma@im'm availa!le test volta*e of /" 01. A lon* testin* time ma( !e seen as an inconvenience rat%er t%an as a limitation.

'e to t%e la(o't of cosine-rectan*'lar test volta*e *eneration# t%e )aveform is dependent on t%e ca!le len*t% !ein* tested. A dc offset or !ias ma( !e possi!le. $%e disc%ar*e and polarit( s)itc%in* mec%anism over a spar0 *ap ma( ca'se %i*%er %armonics and transients on t%e ca!le 'nder test.

?*2*4 Caution -it%stand testin* is considered a destr'ctive test. :a!le fa'lt locatin* )ill !e re4'ired )%en t%e ca!le fails t%e test.

?*4 9,F testing with sinusoidal wavefor!


?*4*1 >ethod $%e 1DA test set *enerates sin'soidall( c%an*in* )aves t%at are less t%an 1 +B. -%en t%e local field stren*t% at a ca!le defect e@ceeds t%e dielectric stren*t% of t%e ins'lation# partial disc%ar*e starts. $%e local field stren*t% is a f'nction of applied test volta*e# defect *eometr(# and space c%ar*e. After initiation of partial disc%ar*e# t%e partial disc%ar*e c%annels develop into !rea0t%ro'*% c%annels )it%in t%e recommended testin* time. -%en a defect is forced to !rea0 t%ro'*%# it can t%en !e located )it% standard# readil( availa!le fa'lt locatin* e4'ipment. :a!le s(stems can !e tested in preventive maintenance pro*rams or after fail're. Identified fa'lts can !e repaired immediatel(. -%en a ca!le passes t%e 1DA test# it can !e ret'rned to service. ?*4*2 >easure!ent and e;ui(!ent $%e 1DA test set is connected to t%e ca!le or ca!le s(stem to !e tested. $%e test volta*e is re*'lated to t%e test volta*e level of appro@imatel( 5 "0 . 1DA testin* *'ides 's'all( recommended a test time d'ration of "0 min or less. 1DA sets %ave to %ave s'fficient capacit( to !e a!le to s'ppl( and dissipate t%e total ca!le s(stem c%ar*in* ener*(. -%en t%e ca!le s(stem passes t%e 1DA volta*e test# t%e test volta*e is re*'lated to Bero and t%e test set and ca!le s(stem are disc%ar*ed and *ro'nded. -%en a ca!le fails t%e test# t%e 1DA test is t'rned off to disc%ar*e t%e ca!le s(stem and test set and t%e ca!le fa'lt can t%en !e located )it% standard ca!le fa'lt locatin* e4'ipment. In addition to standard 0.1-+B sin'soidal 1DA test sets# )%ic% %ave !een in 'se for man( (ears for 1DA test- in* of electrical mac%ines# see IEEE Std 455-1984 N=51O# )%ere several variations are also availa!le to meet specific ca!le s(stem test re4'irementsC a) 1DA# less t%an 0.1-+B# %i*%-volta*e *enerator )it% pro*ramma!le test volta*e )aveforms for ca!le s(stems )it% mi@ed ins'lationC 1) 2) 5) 4) !) c) d) Sine )ave test volta*e. =ipolar p'lse )ave )it% defined sle) rate. Re*'lated dc test volta*e )it% positive and ne*ative polarit(. 6ro*ramma!le step test for all volta*e )aveforms.

1DA# 0.1-+B# %i*%-volta*e *enerator )it% dissipation factor (tan ) meas'rement capa!ilit( (see >./). 6artial disc%ar*e free# 1DA# 0.1-+B# %i*%-volta*e *enerator for partial disc%ar*e testin*. 6artial disc%ar*e free# 1DA# !ipolar p'lse )it% defined sle) rate# %i*%-volta*e *enerator for partial disc%ar*e testin*.

?*4*4 #dvantages and disadvantages ?*4*4*1 #dvantages :a!les are tested )it% an ac volta*e 'p to t%ree times t%e normal p%ase to *ro'nd volta*e. After initi- ation of a partial disc%ar*e# a !rea0t%ro'*% c%annel at a ca!le defect develops ver( rapidl(. 'e to contin'o's polarit( c%an*es# dan*ero's space c%ar*es do not develop in t%e ca!le ins'lation. $est sets are transporta!le# and po)er re4'irements are compara!le to standard ca!le fa'lt locatin* e4'ipment. $%e 1DA test can !e 'sed on e@tr'ded as )ell as on fl'id impre*nated paper t(pe ca!le ins'lations. $%e 1DA test )it% sin'soidal )aveform )or0s !est )%en eliminatin* a fe) defects from an ot%er)ise *ood ca!le ins'lation. $%e 1DA test is 'sed to Kfa'ltK t%e ca!le defects )it%o't ?eopardiBin* t%e ca!le s(stem inte*rit(. -%en a ca!le passes t%e recommended 0.1-+B 1DA test# it can !e ret'rned to service. 'e to t%e sin'soidal re*'lated )aveform and to t%e %i*%est electrical tree *ro)t% rate as compared to t%e cosine-rectan*'lar )aveform# electrical trees )ill !e initiated at a defect )it%in min'tes. $%e test volta*e level and )aveform is defined as RES volta*e and is completel( independent of t%e ca!le len*t%.

1DA test sets )it% 0.1-+B dissipation factor (tan ) meas'rement capa!ilit( for identif(in* ca!les )it% %i*%l( de*raded ca!le ins'lations are availa!le and can !e 'sed )it% a 0.1-+B )it%stand test. $%is test is descri!ed in >.4. ?*4*4*2 /isadvantages* -%en testin* ca!les )it% e@tensive )ater tree dama*e or ioniBation of t%e ins'lation# 1DA )it%stand testin* alone is often not concl'sive. Additional tests t%at meas're t%e e@tent of ins'lation losses )ill !e necessar(. Dimitations are t%e ma@im'm availa!le test volta*e of /8 01 rms and t%e ma@im'm capacitive load of appro@imatel( 5 mA at 0.1 +B (50 mA at 0.01 +B). $%e total c%ar*in* ener*( of t%e ca!le %as to !e s'pplied and dissipated !( t%e test in ever( electrical period. $%is limits t%e siBe of t%e ca!le s(stem t%at can !e tested. A lon* testin* time m'st !e seen as an inconvenience rat%er t%an as a limitation. ?*4*4 Caution -it%stand testin* is considered a destr'ctive test. :a!le fa'lt locatin* )ill !e re4'ired if t%e ca!le fails t%e test.

?*4 /issi(ation fa"tor testing with 9,F 50*1-0-6 sinusoidal wavefor!


?*4*1 >ethod =a%der# et al. N=>O first 'sed dissipation factor (tan ) meas'rements to monitor a*in* and deterioration of e@tr'ded dielectric ca!les. =ac%# et al. N=8O reported a correlation !et)een an increasin* 0.1-+B dissipation factor and a decreasin* ins'lation !rea0do)n volta*e level at po)er fre4'enc(. $%e 0.1-+B dissipation factor is mainl( determined !( )ater tree dama*e of t%e ca!le ins'lation and not !( )ater alon* t%e cond'ctin* s'rfaces. $%e meas'rement of t%e dissipation factor )it% a 0.1-+B sin'soidal )aveform offers comparative assessment of t%e a*in* of fl'id impre*nated paper# 6E# QD6E# and E6R t(pe ins'lations. $%e test res'lts permit differentiation !et)een ne)# defective# and %i*%l( de*raded ca!le ins'lations. $%e dissipation factor )it% a 0.1-+B sin'soidal )aveform can !e 'sed as a dia*nostic test. :a!les can !e tested in

preventive maintenance pro*rams and ret'rned to service after testin*. $%e dissipation factor meas'rements at 1DA can !e 'sed to ?'stif( ca!le replacement or ca!le re?'venation e@pendit'res. ?*4*2 >easure!ent and e;ui(!ent A pro*ramma!le %i*%-volta*e 1DA# 0.1-+B test *enerator )it% dissipation factor meas'rement capa!ilit( is connected to t%e ca!le s(stem 'nder test. See Ai*'re 4. $%e dissipation factors of tan at "0 # tan at 2 "0 # and t%e differential dissipation factor tan (tan at 2 "0 min's tan at "0 ) are meas'red. $%e meas'red val'es are 'sed as fi*'res of merit to *rade t%e condition of t%e ca!le ins'lation as *ood# defective# or %i*%l( deteriorated. See AS$E 1/0-199/ N=1O.

Figure 4-9,F 50*1-0-6 test set for dissi(ation fa"tor !easure!ents of "able insulation Aor e@ample# )%en QD6E ins'lation is tested at 0.1 +B )it% a test volta*e of "0 # service-a*ed ca!le s%o'ld -5 !e replaced )%en t%e dissipation factor (tan ) is *reater t%an 2.2 10 . If for a 0.1-+B test volta*e of 2 "0 # t%e dissipation factor is less t%an 1.2 -5 and t%e differential dissipa 10 -5 tion factor tan is less t%an 0." 10 # t%e service-a*ed ca!les can !e ret'rned to service !'t s%o'ld !e monitored periodicall(. If for a 0.1-+B test volta*e at 2 "0 # t%e dissipation factor is *reater t%an 2.2 -5 and t%e differential dissi 10 -5 pation factor is tan is *reater t%an 1.0 10 # t%e ca!le is %i*%l( de*raded. It m'st !e 'nderstood t%at for different ins'lations# installations# and ca!le t(pes# dissipation factor (tan ) fi*'res of merit can var( si*nificantl( from t%e val'es listed a!ove. $%e test *ives t%e !est res'lts )%en com- parin* present meas'rements a*ainst esta!lis%ed %istorical fi*'res of merit for a partic'lar ca!le. No side effects %ave !een reported t%at )o'ld restrict 0.1-+B 1DA tan testin* of service-a*ed ca!les )it% e@tr'ded dielectric ins'lation or t%at )o'ld indicate t%at t%e 0.1-+B 1DA test volta*e levels 'sed d'rin* dissipation factor testin* adversel( affect t%e ca!lesM life e@pectanc(. See $a!le 2. ?*4*4 #dvantages and disadvantages ?*4*4*1 #dvantages $%is test is a dia*nostic# nondestr'ctive test. :a!le s(stems are tested )it% an ac volta*e e4'al to t%e line to *ro'nd volta*e. :a!le s(stem ins'lation can !e *raded !et)een *ood# a*ed# and %i*%l( de*raded. :a!le s(stem ins'lation condition can !e monitored over time# and a ca!le s(stem %istor( can !e developed. :a!le replacement and ca!le re?'venation priorit( and e@pendit'res can !e planned.

Table 2-Table of "riterion


Tan at 2" Dess t%an 1.2 10 /ifferential of Tan #ssess!ent &ood
-5 -5

o -5 -5 -5

tan 2" o - tan " o


Dess t%an 0." 10
-5

&reater t%an or R 1.2 10 &reater t%an or R 2.2 10

&reater t%an or R 0." 10 &reater t%an or R 1.0 10

A*ed +i*%l( de*raded

N,$E-It %as !een fo'nd t%at copol(mer dielectric materials s'c% as $R-QD6E or silicon fl'idtreated ins'lations e@%i!it different tan c%aracteristicsF t%erefore# ot%er criteria are valid.

$est sets are transporta!le# and po)er re4'irements are compara!le to standard ca!le fa'lt locatin* e4'ipment. $%e dia*nostic test res'lts represent *lo!al# inte*ral information a!o't t%e a*in* condition of t%e ca!le ins'lation. A dielectric )it%stand test can onl( *ive information a!o't t%e )ea0est point (see &nerlic% N=2/O). $%e a*in* c%aracteristic meas'red )it% a dissipation factor test at 1DAs (less t%an 1 +B) s%o) more si*nificant res'lts as compared )it% po)er fre4'encies of /0 to "0 +B.

?*4*4*2 /isadvantages Aor a 0.1-+B 1DA test set# t%e ma@im'm presentl( availa!le test volta*e is /8 01 RES and t%e ma@im'm capacitive load is appro@imatel( 5 mA at 0.1 +B. +istorical comparative ca!le s(stem data s%o'ld !e acc'm'lated !efore t%e test !ecomes reall( 'sef'l.

?*8 Con"lusions
$%e s'ita!ilit(# practicalit(# and effectiveness of t%ese testin* met%ods for service-a*ed po)er ca!les )it% e@tr'ded dielectric ins'lation )ill %ave to !e determined !ased on several criteriaC a) !) c) At )%at volta*e level can a defect !e detectedW Is it possi!le to miss a defect t%at )ill fa'lt )%en t%e ca!le is ret'rned to serviceW oes t%e test a**ravate )%at )as a ne*li*i!le defect so t%at it )ill fa'lt )%en t%e ca!le is ret'rned to serviceW

1DA test tec%ni4'es are effective for testin* of service-a*ed s%ielded po)er ca!les )it% e@tr'ded dielectric ins'lation.

A* /issi(ation fa"tor testing


N,$E-Some of t%is material is also incl'ded in :la'se > a!ove# !'t is left %ere to aid in an 'nderstandin* of t%is met%od.

A*1 Introdu"tion
6eriodic testin* of service-a*ed ca!les is practiced )it% t%e desire to determine s(stem de*radation and to red'ce or eliminate service fail'res. issipation factor testin* descri!es a dia*nostic testin* tec%ni4'e for field testin* of service-a*ed s%ielded ca!le s(stems.

A*2 /iele"tri" loss


Service-a*ed# s%ielded ca!le can !e descri!ed !( an e4'ivalent circ'it# as s%o)n in Ai*'re /. Aor lossless ins'lation# t%e ca!le capacitance per 'nit len*t% ! is s%o)n in E4'ation (5). ! R 2 * eo ln (d i de ) )%ere eo is t%e permittivit( of free space R >.>/ 10 * is t%e dielectric constant of t%e ins'lation#
-12

(5)

ALm#

di is t%e diameter over t%e ins'lation# di is t%e diameter 'nder t%e ins'lation (over t%e cond'ctor s%ield)# ln is t%e nat'ral lo*arit%m (lo*e).

Figure 8-E;uivalent "ir"uit of a high loss (ortion of a (ower "able If t%e space !et)een t%e coa@ial cond'ctors is filled )it% a conventional ins'latin* material# t%e ca!le cond'ctance per 'nit len*t% + is s%o)n in E4'ation (4). + R 2 f ! tan (4)

$%e 4'antit( tan is a meas're of t%e losses of t%e ins'latin* dielectric in an ac electric field. $%is is called dissipation factor or t%e tan*ent of t%e loss an*le of t%e material. $(pical val'es of * and tan are s%o)n in $a!le 5. Aor an applied volta*e " # t%e c'rrent t%ro'*% t%e loss-free dielectric is l! and t%e c'rrent d'e to t%e losses of t%e ins'lation is l+ (see Ai*'re "). $%e an*le formed !( t%e c'rrent l R l! G l+ # and t%e c'rrent l! is .

Table 4-T (i"al values of dissi(ation fa"tor 5tan 6 and diele"tri" "onstant 5'6
T (e of insulation Impre*nated paper Impre*nated 666 QD6E + 6E E6R ' 5./ 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.> tan

2.5 10 0.8 10 0.1 10 0.1 10 5./ 10

-5 -5 -5 -5 -5

$%e an*le formed !( t%e c'rrent l R l G l # and t%e volta*e " is and cos is t%e po)er factor. l # l # ! + ! and l+ are p%asor 4'antities. Aor an applied volta*e " # t%e c'rrent t%ro'*% t%e loss-free dielectric is l! and t%e c'rrent d'e to t%e losses of t%e ins'lation is l+ (see Ai*'re "). $%e an*le formed !( t%e c'rrent l R l! G l+ # and t%e c'rrent l! is . $%e an*le formed !( t%e c'rrent l R l! G l+ # and t%e volta*e " is and cos is t%e po)er factor. l # l! # and l+ are p%asor 4'antities.

Figure :-Phasor diagra! for high loss diele"tri" !aterial

A*4 >ethod
$%e dissipation factor (tan ) test is a dia*nostic test t%at allo)s an eval'ation of t%e ca!le ins'lation at oper- atin* or test volta*e levels. $%e test is cond'cted at operatin* fre4'enc( or at t%e 1DA fre4'enc( of 0.1 +B. -%en t%e tan meas'rement e@ceeds a %istoricall( esta!lis%ed val'e for t%e partic'lar ins'lation t(pe# t%e ca!le is considered to !e defective and ma( %ave to !e sc%ed'led for replacement. If t%e tan meas'rements are !elo) a %istoricall( esta!lis%ed val'e for a partic'lar ins'lation t(pe# additional tests %ave to !e performed to determine )%et%er t%e ca!le ins'lation is defective. $ests cond'cted on 2 400 0m of QD6E-ins'lated ca!les %ave esta!lis%ed a fi*'re of merit for QD6E# -5 -5 tan R 2.2 10 . If t%e ca!leMs meas'red tan is *reater t%an 2.2 10 # t%e ca!le ins'lation is

contaminated !( moist're ()ater trees). $%e ca!le ma( !e ret'rned to service# !'t it s%o'ld !e sc%ed'led for replacement as soon as possi!le.11 If t%e ca!leMs meas'red tan is less t%an 2.2 10 # t%e *eneral condition of t%e ins'lation is pro!a!l( *oodF %o)ever# t%e ca!le ins'lation co'ld %ave man( small defectsF in )%ic% case# t%e ca!le ma( operate satisfactoril( for man( more (ears. $%e tan s%o'ld !e monitored re*'larl(# and 'pon f'rt%er deterioration of t%e dissipation factor# proper action s%o'ld !e ta0en. +o)ever# t%e ca!le co'ld %ave onl( a fe) isolated lar*e defects# )%ic% co'ld ca'se it to fail 'pon ret'rnin* it to service or )it%in da(s after it %as !een re-5 ener- *iBed. $%erefore# if t%e meas'red tan is *reater t%an 2.2 10 # it is recommended t%at a 1DA test at 5 " 0 !e performed to identif( t%e lar*e defects# remove t%em# and repair t%em.
-5

A*4 >easure!ent and e;ui(!ent


=rid*e t(pe circ'its are 'sed to meas're ca!le capacitance and tan . $%e most common are t%e Sc%erin* !rid*e and t%e transformer ratio arm !rid*e. =ot% test sets re4'ire an ac +1 so'rce and a loss-free capacitor standard. Aor !alanced !rid*es# t%e dissipation factor and ca!le capacitance are s%o)n in E4'ation (/) t%ro'*% E4'ation (>). Sc%erin* =rid*e (/) (")

tan R 2 f ! R 1 1 !, R !N ( R 1 R2 )

$ransformer Ratio Arm =rid*e (8) (>)

tan R 2 f ! R 1 1 !, R ! N ( - 1 -2 )

A*8 #dvantages and disadvantages


A*8*1 #dvantages $an meas'rements are dia*nostic tests t%at permit assessment of t%e state of a*in* or dama*e of t%e ca!le ins'lation. :a!les are tested )it% an ac volta*e at operatin* volta*e at dia*nostic levels or )it% levels 'p to 5 "0 . $%e tests are performed at operatin* or at 1DA fre4'encies. $%e dissipation factor test is s'ita!le for e@tr'ded dielectric as )ell as for laminar t(pe ins'lations. -%en a ca!le fails t%e dissipation factor test# it can still !e ret'rned to service 'ntil repair or replacement %as !een sc%ed'led. Eonitorin* of t%e dissipation factor )ill esta!lis% a ca!le %istor(# and deterioration )ill !e o!served.

11

2 400 0m is appro@imatel( 1 /00 miles.

A*8*2 /isadvantages -%en a ca!le passes t%e dissipation factor test# it is not possi!le to declare t%e ca!le ins'lation so'nd !eca'se a localiBed defect in a lon* ca!le ma( not !e detected. A !rea0do)n test )ill %ave to !e performed to identif( an( lar*e defects in t%e ca!le s(stem ins'lation.

A*: >ethod and assess!ent


$%e test sample is connected to a 1DA *enerator prod'cin* a sin'soidal +1 o'tp't. $%e test volta*e and c'rrent are meas'red and correlated )it% Ao'rier anal(sis. $%e tan o'tp't is calc'lated as a time difference !et)een t%e volta*e and t%e c'rrent si*nals.

A*= /issi(ation fa"tor with 9,F sinusoidal wavefor!


A*=*1 >ethod =ac%# et al. N=8O reported t%at dissipation factor (tan ) meas'rements at 1DA (0.1-+B sin'soidal) can !e 'sed to monitor a*in* and deterioration of e@tr'ded dielectric ca!les. $%e 0.1-+B dissipation factor is mainl( determined !( )ater tree dama*e of t%e ca!le ins'lation and not !( )ater alon* t%e cond'ctin* s'rfaces. $%e meas'rement of dissipation factor )it% a 0.1-+B sin'soidal )aveform offers comparative assessment of t%e a*in* condition of 6E# QD6E# and E6R t(pe ins'lations. $%e test res'lts permit differentiatin* !et)een ne)# defective# and %i*%l( de*raded ca!le ins'lations. $%e dissipation factor )it% a 0.1-+B sin'soidal )aveform is a dia*nostic test. :a!le s(stems can !e tested in preventive maintenance pro*rams and ret'rned to service after testin*. $%e dissipation factor meas'rements at 1DA can form t%e !asis for t%e ?'stification of ca!le replacement or ca!le re?'venation e@pendit'res. A*=*2 >easure!ent e;ui(!ent A pro*ramma!le %i*%-volta*e 1DA test *enerator )it% dissipation factor meas'rement -5 capa!ilit( is con# t%e service-a*ed nected to t%e ca!le 'nder test. If# for a test volta*e of "0 # t%e tan is *reater t%an 4 in order to prevent 10 ca!les s%o'ld event'all( !e replaced. $%e test volta*e s%o'ld not !e raised a!ove "0 -5 # t%e service-a*ed ca!les ins'lation !rea0do)n. If for test volta*e of "0 t%e tan is less t%an 4 10 s%o'ld additionall( !e tested )it% 1DA at 5 "0 for "0 min. -%en t%e ca!le passes t%is test# it can !e ret'rned to service )it%o't reservation. issipation factor meas'rements at 1DA ma( form t%e !asis for t%e ?'stification of ca!le replacement or ca!le re?'venation e@pendit'res.

A*? #dvantages and disadvantages


A*?*1 #dvantages $%e test is a nondestr'ctive# dia*nostic test. :a!les are tested )it% an ac volta*e e4'al to t%e p%ase-to-*ro'nd volta*e at )%ic% t%e( operate. :a!le s(stem ins'lation can !e *raded as e@cellent# defective# or %i*%l( deteriorated. :a!le s(stem ins'lations can !e monitored and %istor( developed. :a!le replacement and re?'venation priorit( can !e planned. $est sets are transporta!le# and po)er re4'irements are compara!le to standard ca!le fa'lt locatin* e4'ipment.

A*?*2 /isadvantages $%e ma@im'm availa!le test volta*e is /8 01 RES# and t%e ma@im'm capacitive load is a!o't 5 mA at 0.1 +B. $%e test )or0s !est after comparative ca!le s(stem data %ave !een developed.

10* 2s"illating wave testing


10*1 Introdu"tion
$%is cla'se presents information )it% respect to oscillatin* )ave testin*. $%is met%od )as selected !( a :I&RE tas0 force Kalternative tests after la(in*K (see A'clair# =oone# and 6apadopo'los N=2O# and A'cort# et al. N=5O) as an accepta!le compromise 'sin* t%e follo)in* criteriaC $%e a!ilit( to detect defects in t%e ins'lation t%at )ill !e detrimental to t%e ca!le s(stem 'nder service conditions# )it%o't creatin* ne) defects or ca'sin* an( a*in* $%e de*ree of conformit( !et)een t%e res'lts of tests and t%e res'lts of /0- or "0-+B tests $%e comple@it( of t%e testin* met%od $%e commercial availa!ilit( and costs of t%e testin* e4'ipment

$%e p'rpose of t%e oscillatin* )ave (,S-) testin* met%od is to detect defects t%at ma( ca'se fail'res d'rin* service life )it%o't creatin* ne) defects t%at ma( t%reaten t%e life of t%e ca!le s(stem. Alt%o'*% ,S- testin* does not %ave a )ide rep'tation )it% respect to ca!le testin*# it is alread( 'sed for testin* in metal-clad s'!stations (see Ea*er and =a%der N=1>O) and is !ein* recommended for *as ins'lated ca!le testin* (see A'co'rt# et al. N=4O).

10*2 General des"ri(tion of test !ethod


$%e test circ'it consists of a dc volta*e s'ppl( t%at c%ar*es a capacitance !1 and a ca!le capacitance ! . 2 After t%e test volta*e %as !een reac%ed# t%e capacitance is disc%ar*ed over an air core coil )it% a lo) ind'ctance. $%is ca'ses an oscillatin* volta*e in t%e 0ilo%ertB ran*e (see A'co'rt# et al. N=4O). $%e c%oice of !1 and . depends on t%e val'e of !2 to o!tain a fre4'enc( !et)een 1 and 10 0+B.

10*4 #dvantages and disadvantages


10*4*1 #dvantages $%e ,S- met%od is !ased on an intrinsic ac mec%anism. $%e principal disadvanta*es of dc (field distri!'tion# space c%ar*e) do not occ'r. $%e met%od is eas( to appl(. $%e met%od is relativel( ine@pensive. Aor !ot% +1 and E1 ca!le s(stems# fH ,S-L : is lo) (0.2 to 0.>)# indicatin* t%e s'periorit( of ,S- over dc volta*e testin*.

10*4*2 /isadvantages $%e effectiveness of t%e ,S- test met%od in detectin* defects is !etter t%an )it% dc !'t )orse )%en compared )it% ac ("0 +B). In partic'lar for medi'm-volta*e ca!le s(stems# t%e factor fH ,S-L"0-+B volta*e is approac%in* 1# indicatin* t%e m't'al e4'ivalence. Aor +1 ca!le s(stems# fH ,S-L"0 +B is si*nificantl( %i*%er (1.2 to 1.9)# )%ic% means t%at ,S- is less effective t%an "0 +B.

N,$E-fH ,S-L"0 +B is t%e ratio of !rea0do)n val'es for a dielectric containin* a standard defect )%en 'sin*# respectivel(# ,S- volta*e and "0-+B volta*e.

10*4 Test a((aratus


$%e ca!le is c%ar*ed )it% a dc volta*e and disc%ar*ed t%ro'*% a sp%ere *ap into an ind'ctance of appropriate val'e so as to o!tain t%e desired fre4'enc(. $%e volta*e applied to t%e ca!le is e@pressed in E4'ation (9). "( t) R " 1e e@p [ - t )%ere "1 is t%e c%ar*in* volta*e provided !( t%e *enerator# a ! is t%e dampin* ratio# .! ] cos ( 2 f t ) (9)

is ! 1 G ! 2 # 1 f is t%e .! . 2 ,t%er test circ'its are descri!ed in more detail in =ertani# et al. N=12O# )%ic% *ives alternative sol'tions t%at 'se different circ'it confi*'rations.

10*8 Test (ro"edure


Eost of t%e tests carried o't so far are of an e@perimental nat're. Artificial defects li0e 0nife c'ts# )ron* positions of ?oints# and voids in t%e ins'lation )ere created and s'!?ected to different testin* proced'res of )%ic% one met%od )as t%e ,S- testin* (see A'clair# =oone# and 6apadopo'los N=2O# A'cort# et al. N=5O# and =ertani# et al. N=12O). $%ese test proced'res )ere intended to o!tain !rea0do)n as a criterion for comparison. $%e *eneral testin* proced're is as follo)sC Start to c%ar*e t%e ca!le )it% a dc volta*e of a!o't one or t)o times t%e operatin* volta*e. Increase )it% steps of 20 to 50 01. 6rod'ce /0 s%ots at eac% volta*e level. $ime interval !et)een s%ots to !e 2 to 5 min. 6roceed 'ntil !rea0do)n occ'rs.

In one case# t%e 'tc% testin* specification for +1 e@tr'ded ca!les ( 'tc% $est Specification for +1 E@tr'ded :a!les# NEN 5"50 N=18O)# t%e ,S- met%od# is mentioned as a )it%stand test to !e 'sed as an after la(in* (installation) test. $%e test proced're is as follo)sC :%ar*e t%e ca!le slo)l(# 'sin* t%e dc po)er s'ppl(. After reac%in* t%e val'e of 5 "0 # t%e dc so'rce )ill !e disconnected and t%e rapid closer activated. $%e ca!le circ'it )ill !e disc%ar*ed t%ro'*% a reactor# ca'sin* t%e ,S- testin* volta*e. $%is proced're s%o'ld !e repeated /0 times.

In $%e Net%erlands# t%e ,S- testin* met%od is applied several times as an after la(in* test for +1 e@tr'ded ca!le s(stems. etails are *iven in Ioevoets N=55O.

10*: Safet (re"autions


No special preca'tions need to !e ta0en ot%er t%an t%e 's'al *ro'ndin* )%en t%e test proced're is completed.

10*= Further develo(!ent wor.


=eca'se t%e effectiveness of t%e ,S- testin* met%od is not as %i*% as )o'ld !e desired# it ma( !e ver( attractive to com!ine ,S- )it% partial disc%ar*e (6 ) site detection as an additional so'rce of information. In 6lat% N=45O# details are *iven of an a'tomatic 6 meas'rement s(stem# ena!lin* statistical anal(sis and *eneratin* p%ase# time# and amplit'de resolved 6 fin*erprints. :ompared )it% ac (/0L"0-+B) *enerated 6 fin*erprints# additional information res'lts from t%e decreasin* volta*e amplit'de of eac% ,S- p'lse. Aor medi'm-volta*e ca!le s(stems accordin* to 6lat% N=45O# t%is meas'rin* s(stem loo0s feasi!le.

#nne< #
(informative)

Power fre;uen" testing


#*1 Introdu"tion
$estin* )it% alternatin* c'rrent (ac) ma( !e accomplis%ed in t%e field )it%o't t%e 'se of conventional test e4'ipment. A testin* set'p ma( !e assem!led 'sin* vario's pieces of e4'ipment and volta*e availa!le to t%e tec%nician. E@istin* volta*es ma( !e 0 to 1 000 1 (secondar( class) or distri!'tion volta*es ran*in* from 4 01 to 5/ 01 (medi'm volta*e# E1). A: availa!le from field so'rces is normall( sin'soidal and %as a fre4'enc( of /0 to "0 +B. Alternative )aveforms and fre4'encies# normall( *enerated !( special e4'ipment# are addressed in ot%er sections.

#*2 #lternating "urrent 5a"6


-ave s%ape of t%e ac volta*e availa!le from t%e field is sin'soidal. $%is means t%at eac% c(cle )ill %ave a positive and ne*ative ma@im'm of appro@imatel( 1.4 times t%e RES val'e of t%e circ'it. E@ampleC A circ'it operatin* at 8 200 1 RES to *ro'nd )ill %ave a pea0 ne*ative and positive volta*e of 1.4 8 200 R 10 000 1 appro@imatel(.

#*4 Field sour"es& 9oltage and "urrent


:'rrent availa!le from primar(# medi'm-volta*e circ'its in t%e field is man( ma*nit'des %i*%er t%an t%ose availa!le from testin* instr'ments. :irc'its ma( %ave an()%ere from 100 to 40 000 amperes. -it% t%is amo'nt of c'rrent operatin* at s(stem volta*e# t%e ener*( availa!le ma0es it essential to protect t%e e4'ipment and personnel )%en performin* an( field tests. Aast-actin* f'sin* is commonl( 'sed to provide t%is protection. $%is tec%ni4'e is 'sed )%en over%ead and 'nder*ro'nd circ'its are ener*iBed in t%e restoration of service after o'ta*es %ave occ'rred.

#*4 Testing with s ste! voltage 5>96


It %as !een t%e practice for over%ead operatin* cre)s to reclose a circ'it )it%o't testin* to restore service to c'stomers. Normall(# t%is proced're is follo)ed after a vis'al patrol is cond'cted to verif( t%at all )ires are 'p and cleared of an( tree lim!s. $%e ener*iBation is accomplis%ed )it% a f'sed s)itc%# and replacement f'ses are of t%e t(pe and siBe 'sed to coordinate t%e circ'it. $%is practice %as !een carried over to t%e 9R circ'its !( t%e same operatin* cre)s t%at s)itc% t%e over%ead s(stem. In most cases# t%e operatin* personnel %ave not !een trained properl( in t%e operatin* proced'res re4'ired for 9R # and t%e( %ave not !een *iven t%e test e4'ipment to accomplis% testin* proced'res. 9se of separa!le connectors (load!rea0 el!o)s) as a s)itc%in* device %as allo)ed cre)s to isolate defective s(stem sections. In doin* t%is# t%e cre)s %ave 'n0no)in*l( e@posed t%e circ'its to e@cessive c'rrents and dama*in* transients. Alt%o'*% t%e precedin* proced're %as !een 'sed# it is stron*l( recommended t%at it not !e contin- 'ed )it%o't ade4'ate circ'it protection.

Ean( 'nder*ro'nd circ'its are normall( fed from an over%ead s(stem. $estin*# follo)in* an o'ta*e# can !e accomplis%ed !( 'sin* a small# fast-actin* f'se (e.*.# c'rrent limitin*) in t%e same f'se s)itc% normall( 'tiliBed. $%is red'ces t%e ener*( fed into t%e s(stem and t%'s red'ces dama*e to s(stem components.

#*8 ,ow-voltage sour"es


Do)-volta*e testin* is normall( accomplis%ed in t%e field !( ener*iBin* t%e circ'it t%ro'*% a distri!'tion transformer. $ransformers installed and operatin* are readil( availa!le for 'se as a testin* so'rce. 1olta*e c%ec0s and p%asin*# )%ere re4'ired# can !e made !efore additional testin* is started. Ai*'re A.1 and Ai*'re A.2 s%o) %o) a lo)-volta*e so'rce ma( !e o!tained from an over%ead and an 'nder*ro'nd circ'itC

Figure #*1-73/ transfor!er

Figure #*2-2verhead se"ondar

#nne< %
(informative)

%ibliogra(h
N=1O AS$E 1/0-199/# Standard $est Eet%od for A: Doss :%aracteristics and 6ermittivit( ( ielectric :onstant) of Solid Electrical Ins'lation. N=2O A'clair# +.# =oone# -.# and 6apadopo'los# E. S.# K evelopment of a ne) after la(in* test met%od for %i*% volta*e po)er ca!le s(stems#K :I&RE# 19>># 6aper 21-0". N=5O A'cort# :.# =oone# -.# Ial0ner# -.# Na(!o'r# R. .# and ,m!ello# A.# KRecommendations for a ne) after la(in* met%od for +1 ca!le s(stems#K :I&RE# 1990 Session# 6aper 21-10/. N=4O A'co'rt# :.# =aer# &.# iessner# A.# I)ata# J.# Eosca# -.# and 6ac%ot# <.# K,n-site dielectric testin* of A: compressed *as ins'lated ca!les#K (le*tra# no. 20# ,ct. 19>>. N=/O =ac%# R.# and Ial0er# -.# K:omparison of different volta*e t(pes for eval'ation of laid medi'm volta*e ca!les#K /th lnternational #ymposium on 0igh "oltage (ngineering# 7o0o%ama# <apan# 1995# 6aper "1.04. N="O =ac%# R.# and Jin!'r*# E.# K$estin* a 110 01 e@ternal *as press're ca!le to eval'ate contin'ed operation relia!ilit(#K (le*trizitatswirtsehaft# <*. 9"# +eft 11# pp. /45-/48# 1998. N=8O =ac%# R.# et al.# K1olta*e tests to assess medi'm volta*e ca!le s(stems#K (le*trizitaetswirtsehaft# <*. 92# +eft 18L1>. pp. 108"-10>0# 1995. N=>O =a%der# &.# et al.# KDife e@pectanc( of crosslin0ed pol(et%(lene ins'lated ca!les rated 1/ to 5/ 01#K l((( %ransaetions on Power (leetronies# vol. 100# pp. 1/>1-1/90# 19>1. N=9O =ar*inia# D.# EaBBa# &.# 6i*ini# A.# and $%ione# D.# KSt'd( of t%e dielectric stren*t% of SA" ins'lated metal clad s'!stations and applications to t%eir desi*n and testin*#K :I&RE# 19>2# 6aper 55-12. N=10O =artni0as# R.# K etection of partial disc%ar*es (corona) in electrical apparat's#K l((( %ransaetions on (leetrieal lnsulation# vol. 2/# no. 1# Ae!. 1990. N=11O =a'r# E.# K$estin* and dia*nostics )it% dissipation factor (tan delta) meas'rement at 0.1 +B on distri!'tion ca!les#K l!! 1inutes# Nov. 5-"# 199"# St. 6eters!'r*# AD. N=12O =ertani# E.# Aarneti# A.# Eosca# -.# and ,m!ello# A.# K&eneration of oscillatin* )aves for after la(in* test of +1 e@tr'ded ca!le lin0s#K :I&RE# 1990 Session# 6aper 21-110. N=15O =oone# -.# 1an Sc%ai0# N.# et al.# KE1 ca!le maintenance practices and res'lts#K 2ieable 33# =/.4# 1999. N=14O =rinco'rt# $.# et al.# KEval'ation of different dia*nostic met%ods for t%e Arenc% 9nder*ro'nd E1 net)or0#K 2ieable 33# =/.2# 1999. N=1/O :I&RE -or0in* &ro'p 21.05# KReco*nition of disc%ar*es#K St'd( :ommittee No. 21 (+i*% 1olta*e :a!les) (E@tract in Electra No. 11)# ecem!er# 19"9.12

N=1"O IN 1 E 028"-"20# ec. 199"# 6o)er :a!les- istri!'tion :a!les of Nominal 1olta*es of 5."L" to 20.>L5" 01# + "20 S1# 6arts 1.5 :# 4 :# /:# and " :. N=18O 'tc% $est Specification for +1 E@tr'ded :a!les# NEN 5"50. N=1>O Ea*er# &. S.# <r. and =a%der# &.# K isc%ar*e etection in E@tr'ded 6ol(et%(lene Ins'lated 6o)er :a!les#K IEEE $ransactions on 6o)er :a!le Apparat's and S(stems# 1ol. 6AS->"# pp. 10-54# <an. 19"8. N=19O Ea*er# &. S.# <r.# =a%der# &.# and Silver# . A.# K:orona detection e@perience in commercial prod'ction of po)er ca!les )it% e@tr'ded ins'lation#K l((( %ransaetions on Power Delivery# 6aper "> $61/-6-R. N=20O Ea*er# &. S.# <r.# =a%der# &.# S'areB# R.# and +einric%# ,. Q.# KIdentification and control of electrical noise in ro'tine reel corona detection of po)er ca!les#K l((( %ransaetions on Power Delivery# 6aper "9 $6-100- 6-R. N=21O Ea*er# &. S.# <r.# et al.# KEffect of : testin* )ater tree deteriorated ca!le and a preliminar( eval'ation of 1DA as an alternative#K l((( %ransaetions on Power Delivery# vol. 8# no. 5# <'l( 1992. N=22O Aa)cett# $.# et al.# K6ractical e@perience in partial disc%ar*e site location of QD6E ca!les 'sin* di*ital disc%ar*e detector#K 2ieable 33# :10.15# 1999. N=25O Ais%er# E. <.# et al.# KDon*-life ins'lation for ind'strial and 'tilit( ca!les#K l((( %ransaetions on lndustry &pplieations# vol. IA-22# no. /# pp. 94"-9/1# Sept.L,ct. 19>". N=24O &arros# =.# A'dr(# :.# et al.# KEval'ation of ins'lation de*radation of stressed QD6E ca!les#K 2ieable 33# =4./# 1999. N=2/O &nerlic%# +. R.# KAield testin* of +1 po)er ca!lesC 9nderstandin* 1DA testin*#K l((( (leetrieal lnsulation 1agazine# vol. 11# no. /# pp. 15-1"# Sept.L,ct. 199/. N=2"O &ross# ="."# 1999. . -.# K,n-site partial disc%ar*e dia*nosis and monitorin* on +1 po)er ca!les#K 2ieable 33#

N=28O +einric%# R.# et al.# KN'merical model for radial s(mmetric sensors for partial disc%ar*e detection on QD6E-ins'lated %i*% volta*e ca!les#K 2ieable 33# :10."# 1999. N=2>O +etBel# E.# and EacIinla(# R.# K ia*nostic field testin* of paper ins'lated# lead covered E1 ca!les#K 2ieable Proeeedings# pp. 482-48/# 199/. N=29O I:EA 6'!lication $-24-5>0# K&'ide for 6artial neers Association# =elmont# EA# 1994. isc%ar*e $est 6roced'res#K Ins'lated :a!le En*i-

N=50O IEEE 100# $%e A't%oritative ictionar( of IEEE Standards $erms and efinitions# Sevent% Edition. N=51O IEEE 455-1984 (R1991)# IEEE Recommended 6ractice for Ins'lation $estin* of Dar*e A: Rotatin* Eac%iner( )it% +i*% 1olta*e at 1er( Do) Are4'enc(. N=52O Iamen0a# .# et al.# K$%e Ret'rn 1olta*e Eet%od...in Romania#K 2ieable 33# =/."# 1999. ielectric $est for 9nder*ro'nd +i*%-volta*e E@tr'ded

N=55O Ioevoets# R. :. A. E.# KA Ne) After Da(in* :a!les#K l((( %ransaetions# 1990# $oronto.
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N=54O Iossler# E.# KErfa%r'n*en mit der 1DA ia*nose#K Neeharwer*e (le*trizatsversorgungs &+ (sslingen, 'aur !able #ymposium# =ad ri!'r*# AR&# ,ct. ># 199". N=5/O Ire'*er# A. +.# Diseharge Deteetion in 0igh "oltage (4uipment. Ne) 7or0C Elsevier# 19"/. N=5"O I'sc%el# E.# et al.# M ia*nostic tec%ni4'es for service a*ed QD6E ins'lated medi'm volta*e ca!les#K $ec%nical 9niversit( of =erlin# REE Special :a!les# 199"# pp. ""-82. N=58O I'sc%el# E.# et al.# K$ime and fre4'enc( domain !ased non-destr'ctive dia*nosis in comparison to destr'ctive dia*nosis of service-a*ed 6ELQD6E ins'lated ca!les#K 2ieable 33# :10.8# 1999. N=5>O Eas%i0ian# E.# et al.# KEedi'm volta*e ca!le testin* !( partial disc%ar*e location#K 2ieable 33# =".5# 1999. N=59O Eo%asci# &.# K,n site e@amination for predictin* t%e remainin* life-time of paper and s(nt%etic ins'lated ca!les#K I(( &et 56/, !lR(D !onferenee# 6aper 5.10.1# vol. 1# <'ne 2-/# 1998. N=40O E. E'%r# et al.# K isc%ar*e c'rrent met%od. A test proced're for plastic-ins'lated medi'm-volta*e ca!les#K 2ieable 33# =/./# 1999. N=41O E'rp%(# E.# and Eor*an# S.# K$%e dielectric properties of ins'latin* materials#K 'ell #ystem %eehnieal 2ournal# =S$<A# vol. 1"# pp. 495-/12# 1958. N=42O 6eppeer# .# and Ial0ner# -.# KInfl'ence of test volta*e s%ape and fre4'enc( on 6 activit( of defects in QD6E ins'lated medi'm volta*e ca!les#K 2ieable 33# :10.11# 1999. N=45O 6lat%# R.# K,scillatin* )aves als 6r'fspann'n* B'r 1ort-,rt-6r'fin* 'nd $E Eess'n* I'nststofisolierter Ia!el#K $%esis# $ec%nical 9niversit( =erlin# 1994. N=44O ,%ata# E.# et al.# K:%aracteristics of lon* term deterioration of QD6E ca!le and its dia*nostic tec%ni4'es in <apan#K 2ieable 33# =/.5# 1999. N=4/O Reeder# -.# K6artial disc%ar*e# predictive ca!le testin* e@perience and lessons learned#K 2ieable 33# =".4# 1999. N=4"O Srinivas# N.# and A%med# N.# K6artial disc%ar*e meas'rement in transmission-class ca!le terminations#K 2ieable 33# :10.2# 1999. N=48O Srinivas# N. +.# et al.# KEffect of : testin* on a*ed QD6E ins'lated ca!les )it% splices#K 2ieable 37# 6aris# Arance# <'ne 1991. N=4>O Stennis# E. A.# et al.# K-ater treein* in service a*ed ca!les# e@perience and eval'ation proced're#K l((( %ransaetions on Power (leetronies# vol. 6ES-/# no. 1# pp. 40-4"# <an. 1990. N=49O $ana0a# +.# et al.# KSt'd( on dia*nostic met%od for )ater treed QD6E ca!le !( loss c'rrent meas'rement#K 2ieable 33# =".1# 1999. N=/0O -ester# A. <.# et al.# KElectrical and aco'stical 6 on-site dia*nostics of service a*ed medi'm volta*e po)er ca!les#K 2ieable 33# :10.4# 1999. N=/1O -onna(# <.# and Eat%is# +.# K1olta*e tests and dissipation factor dia*nosis of medi'm volta*e ca!les )it% ne) %i*% volta*e f'nction *enerator#K 3th l#0# &raB# A'stria# 6aper 44/"-1# A'*. 2> to Sept. 1# 199/.