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Rubber Handbook

Struktol Rubber Handbook Table of Contents
About Struktol Company of America Introduction Function of Processing Additives What are Processing Additives? History of Processing Additives Classification of Processing Additives Lubricants Fatty Acids Fatty Acid Esters Metal Soaps Fatty Alcohols Fatty Acid Amides Organosilicones Polyethylene and Polypropylene Waxes Other Products Properties and Mode of Action of Lubricants Processing with Lubricants Struktol Products and their Use Applications with STRUKTOL® ZB 47 Physical and Chemical Peptizers What are the Benefits of Peptizing Agents? Low Viscosity Natural Rubber Processing with Peptizing Agents Struktol Products and their Use 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 14 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 24 25 25a 26 31 32 33 33

Table of Contents

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Homogenizing Agents Hydrocarbon Resins Coumarone Resins Petroleum Resins Copolymers Terpene Resins Asphalt and Bitumen Rosins Phenolic Resins Lignin Processing with Homogenizing Agents Struktol Products and their Use Dispersing Agents Processing with Dispersing Agents Struktol Products and their Use Tackifiers Processing with Tackifiers Struktol Products and their Use Plasticizers Processing with Plasticizers Struktol Products and their Use Preparations Struktol Products and their Use Metal Oxide Preparation Sulphur Preparations Activators Processing with Cure Activators

35 37 38 38 38 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 43 43 44 45 45 46 49 49 50 52 52 52 54 59

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Table of Contents

Silane Coupling Agents Properties An Overview Rubber Industry Applications Parting Agents Parting Agents for Uncured Compounds and In-process Materials Mold Release Agents Dusting Agents Organic Mold Release Agents Silicone Oils Semi-permanent Mold Release Agents Compound Lubricants Struktol Products and their Use Mandrel Release Agents Semi-permanent Mold Release Agents Struktol Permalease Grades Silicone Oils Mold Cleaning Compounds The Influence of Processing Additives on Discoloration Peroxide Disperisons Peroxide Demand Rubber to Metal Adhesion Test Methods – Assessment of Processing Additives Dispersion and Homogeneity Rheological Tests Mooney Shearing Disc Viscosimeter Defo Tester 60a 60a 60c 60f 61 61 62 63 64 65 65 66 67 67 68 68 69 70 70 70a 71 72 72 73 73 74 74 Table of Contents 3 .

High Pressure Capillary Rheometer Torsion Strain Rotorless Shear Rheometer Rubber Processability Analyzer Oscillating Disc Cure Meter Laboratory Extruder Plasticorder Laboratory Open Mill and Spiked Roller Rheo-vulcameter Transfer Sprial Test Building Tack Mold Release Processing Additives in Pharmaceutical Articles Ecology and Toxicology of Processing Additives Application of Processing Agents .Examples Lubricants Peptizers Homogenizing and Tackifiers Plasticizers Metal Oxide Preparations Sulphur Preparations Vulcanization Activators Mold Release Agents Mold Release Agents / Shaped Hose Release Agents Mold Cleaning Compounds Lubricants in Selected Elastomers Higher Extrusion Rates with STRUKTOL® WB 16 STRUKTOL® WS 280 Paste in FKM STRUKTOL® WB 42 – Bloom Study 74 74 75 75 75 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 112 114 116 4 Table of Contents .

2004 STP0206 /rca Table of Contents 5 .STRUKTOL® ZP 1014 – Curative for XNBR STRUKTOL® ZEH vs. Stearic Acid in NR Homogenization Study Mold Cleaning with STRUKTOL® MC-A Additional Useful Information Crazing Frosting 119 120 123 124 125 126 Revision – Sept.

ISO Certification and premier customer service to establishing a leadership role with engineered additives for the rubber and plastics compounder.a name that has become synonymous with both quality and performance. Chemistry is as the heart of everything we do. Struktol products are designed to meet the challenges and exacting demands of our customers. Our technical specialists. Struktol has become North America’s dominant force in performance additives for the polymer industry. The Struktol approach to the polymer additive business is by no means typical or ordinary. Struktol customer service initiatives have become the industry benchmark. A global organization with over a century of specialty chemical expertise. Since the late 1970’s. better quality parts and lower overall cost. Providing Intelligent Additive Solutions for polymers and compounds. R&D chemists and compound laboratory are dedicated to creating innovative solutions for the ever-changing polymer industry.com 6 About Struktol Company of America . www. Struktol chemicals are found in rubber and plastics as well as manmade fibers.struktol. Struktol has committed its research and development. Schill & Seilacher markets most of their polymer processing products under the brand name STRUKTOL® .About Struktol Company of America Struktol Company of America is a member of the Schill & Seilacher family of companies. textiles and leather and paper products. In addition to premium product performance. with representation in over 100 countries around the world. solutions that keep you ahead of your competition with increased productivity.

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Also offers heat stability (Reversion Resistance). a blend of fatty acid derivatives. The product is especially suitable for extrusions. They are mainly used as physical peptizers in NR compounds STRUKTOL® EF 44 A is a blend of fatty acid derivatives with zinc soaps predominating. STRUKTOL® HM 97 is a mixture of low viscosity polyethylene waxes. The product serves as a dispersing agent for powdered materials and has excellent release properties. STRUKTOL® W 34 is a dispersing agent and lubricant for nearly all elastomers. Lubricants 25 . hydrophilic fatty acid ester. STRUKTOL® A 50. which have been designed and selected to give maximum polymer to additive interactions. STRUKTOL® WS 180 and STRUKTOL® WS 280 are organosilicone compounds which combine outstanding release performance with good flow properties. Due to their special lubricating effect. STRUKTOL® WB 42. Very effective in mineral filled NR compounds. and improves overall processing. STRUKTOL® WB16 is an excellent lubricant mainly for non-polar rubbers. HM 97 is highly recommended in EPMD compounds. promoting release. It is a highly effective lubricant and release agent predominantly used for polar elastomers. STRUKTOL® ZB 47 is a formulated zinc soap that can be used for masticating NR compounds.Struktol Products and their Use STRUKTOL® WB 222 is an ester of saturated fatty acids. STRUKTOL® HPS 11 is composed of fatty acid derivatives. STRUKTOL® WS 180 can drastically reduce mold contamination. *For further information on ZB 47 contact Struktol for our new ZB 47 Brochure and CD. STRUKTOL® W A 48 is successfully used in epichlorohydrin rubber as an effective release agent and lubricant. Faster filler incorporation and avoidance of filler agglomeration in highly filled compounds can be achieved. It acts as a cure activator. and A 60 are zinc soaps of unsaturated fatty acids. STRUKTOL® WB 212 is based on high molecular. HPS 11 is effective in increasing flow. provides improved flow in a wide range of elastomers. As a mixture of calcium soaps and amides of saturated fatty acids it can exhibit an activating effect.

The compounded stock was aged 11 weeks and then tested for processing as stored. There is a faster incorporation and lower mixing torque. Box 1649 • Stow. There were only minor shifts in max torque. The rheometer cure reflects the viscosity improvements as well as the cure delay. The quality of the extrudate was the best with the combination of ZB 47 and silane. The initial reading for the blank and the silane stock was off scale. Steels Corners Road • P. The biggest change is seen in the long-term dynamic distortion on the Flexometer where the combination was shut off before the sample failed. the scorch delay shows significant improvements with the combined products. The ZB 47 stocks showed only a 5-6 point increase for ML (1+4). The ZB 47 by itself gave a slight increase in state of cure. 2004 (addition April 20. Cured physicals showed an increase in modulus with the silane and even a greater increase with the combination. The extruder results also showed that the ZB 47/silane decreased the pressure and torque.Struktol Company of America 201 E. The combination gave the lowest % change. Firestone Flexometer. When the silane was added it was at a level of 5% of the silica. The ML (1+4) for these two stocks was higher than the initial readings for the ZB 47 stocks. 25a Lubricants . Conclusion: The combination of 1 phr disulfide silane (added as STRUKTOL®SCA 985 PL) with ZB 47 (added at 2. and increased the rate. There was an increase in initial viscosity of 40 to 50 Mooney units for the ZB 47 containing stocks. and tan delta were all improved by the combination of additives. The mixing curves show that most of the processing improvements came from the addition of ZB 47. The reversion resistance was the greatest for the combination. O. The final T90 was increased about 1 to 2 minutes with the combination.5 and 5 phr) showed both processing and physical property synergism. On air aging the retention of physicals was good. In addition. Tear resistance (Die C) was improved with all stocks over the noncoupled control. Ohio 44224-0649 Producers of Specialty Chemicals Struktol Rubber Lab Project 04003 February 3. The resulting Mooney viscosity of the compounds was significantly improved with a drop of about 40 points with the initial viscosity. 2004) Project: Evaluate STRUKTOL® ZB 47 in a black / silica natural rubber tread compound with and without silane coupling agent. and 10-15 points with the ML (1+4). The dynamic properties as measured by rebound.

25 40 20 2.5 4 2. ZB 47.5 1.5 1.5 6 – SCA985PL.5 184.5 6 100 .5 181.75 1.5 183.5 4 100 .25 40 20 2.5 1.5 4 – ZB47.5 4 2.5 1 6 0 0 2 100 .5 179. ZB47.5 1 6 0 2.5 186.25 1.5 4 2.5 181.5 1 6 2 0 3 100 .5 1.25 100 .25 1.5 4 2.5 1 6 0 5 5 100 .5 1 6 2 5 First Pass Compound 1 .5 1. 2.5 4 2.Formulae 1 SMR 5 STRUKTOL A 86 N220 SILLCA VN3 STEARIC ACID ZNO 6PPD FLECTOL H STRUKTOL 40 MS STRUKTOL SCA 985PL STRUKTOL ZB 47 2ND PASS TBBS SULFUR TOTAL: 1. 5 5 – SCA985PL.5 4 2.75 1.25 1.5 1 6 2 2.25 40 20 2.25 40 20 2.25 40 20 2.Control 1 2 – SCA 985PL 3 – ZB47.25 40 20 2. 5 Note: 70% fill factor Temperature (°C) 140 137 140 136 139 135 Energy (WH) 217 197 202 183 190 176 Lubricants 25b . 2.5 1.

82 25.92 16.33 9.29 18.01 3.5 6 – SCA985PL.2 125.3 56.5 4 – ZB47.4 ML (1+4) 86. 5 Torque 66.06 26.59 76.5 4 – ZB47.93 27.47 Surface Rating B B A A A A Edge #6 #7 #8 #8 #9 #9 25c Lubricants .00 3.6 54.71 15. 3:1 Meeting Screw Cold feed 19 mm roller feeder Weight (g) RPM Temp PSI 10 inch 26 108 864 25.7 ML (1+4) Aged 11 weeks 213.29 15.7 123.92 Mooney Viscosity ML (1+4) @ 100°C Compound 1 .93 26.58 26.63 8.0 74. 100 Range. 5 Initial Viscosity 147. 2.29 9.29 13.16 75.8 113.5 70. ZB47.7 75.0 54.2 56.5 150.58 8.Control 1 2 – SCA 985PL 3 – ZB47. ZB 47. ZB47. 2.45 75.4 80. ZB47.5 113.00 8.5 6 – SCA985PL.29 18.4 Extruder Data Brabender Plasti-Corder Compound 1 .00 18.5 218.64 One minute Extrudate 24.23 15.8 76.83 4.50 10.4 83.6 85. 5 5 – SCA985PL. 5 160°C.6 Initial Viscosity aged 11 weeks 196. 2. 2.5 177.63 10.98 26 26 26 26 27 108 117 115 112 107 726 736 733 747 690 25.75 3.Control 1 2 – SCA 985PL 3 – ZB47.Control 1 2 – SCA 985PL 3 – ZB47. 3° arc.15 80.5 4 – ZB47.0 74. 5 5 – SCA985PL. 30 minutes Min Max Ts2 T50 Torque Torque 19. 5 5 – SCA985PL.98 78.74 4.33 7.08 8.44 26.8 51.7 79.6 154.75 7.76 27.29 26.5 6 – SCA985PL.41 25.4 161.75 16.08 4.42 T90 8. 2.13 8.00 25. ZB47.25 T-2 Reversion 13.Rheometer Data Compound 1 . 2.74 72. ZB47.0 Garvey Die.

Change 106 90 117 100 90 78 200% Pct.2 -15.1 -17. (MPa) 4.3 60.2 8.8 8. 2.5 65.8 3.5 4 – ZB47.1 9.41 29.0 9.3 7.1 Pct.7 2.0 4. 5 5 – SCA985PL.95 38. ZB47.0 Pct. 5 Cure Time 160°C 9 8 10 10 10 10 Shore A Duro 62 67 65 65 69 67 Tensile (MPa) 24. (MPa) 1.6 -11. 2.0 25.19 46.6 2. ZB 47.6 300% Mod. (MPa) 3.54 8.9 3.3 23.6 9.3 5.0 4.6 Elongation (%) 635 620 597 643 612 605 100% Mod.24 45.41 33.4 -16. Mod.5 6 – SCA985PL.95 28.4 Elong (%) 498 477 495 454 510 471 Pct.5 4 – ZB47.3 3.0 5.2 22. (MPA) 8.75 33.82 Cure Index 16.9 23.1 103 9. 5 5 – SCA985PL.1 100% Mod.1 15.84 49.4 4.1 -5.1 2.6 -22. 2.4 9.Control 1 2 – SCA 985PL 3 – ZB47. Change -21.3 200% Mod.5 6 – SCA985PL.5 88 119 100 81 70 300% Mod.Mooney Scorch ML @ 125°C Compound 1 .78 12.51 10.2 4.1 72.8 10.5 Pct.9 64.0 5. (MPa) 13.1 13.6 T5 24.5 3. Change 69 55 82 72 54 47 Lubricants 25d .29 17.2 Oven Aged 70 Hrs @ 100°C Cmpd 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shore Points A Change Duro 71 +9 76 75 77 75 76 +9 +10 +12 +6 +9 Tensile (MPa) 21. ZB47.16 Tensile Data Unaged Compound 1 .8 23.09 15.66 T35 40.2 15.8 26.0 1.7 22.8 19.8 1.8 63. 2.6 9.5 22.1 -29.7 15.6 24. Change -9.6 -23.9 -16. Change (MPa) 8. 5 Min Torque 72.23 47.72 37.1 15. ZB 47.Control 1 2 – SCA 985PL 3 – ZB47.

2.325” Throw. ZB47.5 4 – ZB47. 5 Cure Time @ 160°C 36 32 40 40 40 40 Duro 57 64 58 61 63 64 Temp. 5 5 – SCA985PL. test until sample fails Compound 1 .5 4 – ZB47. 2. ZB 47.2 113. 2. Weight. ZB 47. 2. 5 5 – SCA985PL.6 132.325” Throw. ZB47. Weight.Firestone Flexometer Heat Build-up 250 lb. 5 5 – SCA985PL.Control 1 2 – SCA 985PL 3 – ZB47. ZB47.2 102. 2. test Compound 1 . 0. 5 Time 1 Hr 5 Min 11 Hrs 20 Min 3 Hrs 50 Min 14 Hrs 42 Min >103 Hrs > 143 Hrs 51 Min Tear Strength ASTM D-624 Die C Compound 1 .5 6 – SCA985PL. 0. °C 164 129 141 139 133 127 Blow Out 250 lb.3 25e Lubricants .5 4 – ZB47. 5 Tear Strength (N/mm) 92.5 6 – SCA985PL.3 108. 2. ZB 47.Control 1 2 – SCA 985PL 3 – ZB47.5 95.Control 1 2 – SCA 985PL 3 – ZB47.5 6 – SCA985PL. 45 min.

Rebound
Compound 1 - Control 1 2 – SCA 985PL 3 – ZB47, 2.5 4 – ZB47, 5 5 – SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 – SCA985PL, ZB 47, 5 0°C 18 16 16 15 17 15 Room Temp 35 34 33 33 34 32 100°C 50 53 51 52 54 55

MER / COMPRESSION / CYLINDRICAL / 1 HZ / 23°C
Compound 1 - Control 1 2 – SCA 985PL 3 – ZB47, 2.5 4 – ZB47, 5 5 – SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 – SCA985PL, ZB 47, 5 Complex Power .3198 .2016 .2556 .2145 .2052 .1841 Loss Power .05150 .02703 .04223 .03164 .02953 .02400 Tan Delta .163 .135 .167 .149 .145 .131 Stiffness 37.21 15.54 12.23 14.63 15.35 16.94

MER / COMPRESSION / CYLINDRICAL / 1 HZ 100°C
Compound 1 - Control 1 2 – SCA 985PL 3 – ZB47, 2.5 4 – ZB47, 5 5 – SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 – SCA985PL, ZB 47, 5 Complex Power .1534 .4330 .5836 .5043 .4400 .4257 Loss Power .0656 .0482 .0796 .0597 .04452 .04041 Tan Delta .131 .112 .152 .119 .102 .095 Stiffness 6.118 7.219 5.403 6.18 7.154 7.341

Lubricants

25f

Mix Data-Control/Si
10 9 8 350

Motor (KW) Control Motor (KW) Si Temperature (F°) Control Temperature (F°) Si
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 150 200 250

Energy (KW)

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Time (Sec.)

Figure 1

Mix Data-Control/2.5ZB
10 9 8 7 350

Motor (KW) Motor (KW) 2.5ZB Temperature (F°) Temperature (F°) 2.5ZB
300

Temperature (F°)
200 150 100 50 0

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 150 200

250

Time (Sec.)

Figure 2

25g

Lubricants

Temperature (F°)

250

Energy (KW)

Mix Data-Control/5.0ZB
10 9 8 7
Motor (KW) Control Motor (KW) 5.0ZB Temperature (F°) Control Temperature (F°) 5.0ZB

350 300 250 200 150 100 50

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 150 200

0 250

Time (Sec.) Figure 3

Mix Data-Control/2.5ZB, Si
10 9 8 7 350

Motor (KW) Control Motor (KW) 2.5ZB, Si Temperature (F°) Control Temperature (F°) 2.5ZB, Si
300

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 150 200

200 150 100 50 0 250

Time (Sec.)

Figure 4
Lubricants 25h

Temperature (F°)

250

Energy (KW)

Temperature (F°)

Energy (KW)

0ZB. Si Temperature (F°) Control Temperature (F°) 5. Si 10 9 8 350 Motor (KW) Control Motor (KW) 5.Mix Data-Control/5.) Figure 5 25i Lubricants Temperature (F°) 250 .0ZB. Si 300 Energy (KW) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 200 150 100 50 0 50 100 150 200 250 Time (Sec.0ZB.

and faster mixing cycles! Contact Struktol Company of America now for our new brochure on ZB 47. Phone: 800-327-8649 or 330-928-5188 E-mail: customerservice@struktol.STRUKTOL® ZB 47 Developed for high natural rubber compounds. both black and mineral-filled. faster filler incorporation. ZB 47 allows for: • • • • • • • • • Lower compound viscosity Lower heat build-up Higher compound modulus Improved permanent set Improved physical properties Improved dynamic properties Improved blowout resistance Improved heat aged properties Improved cut growth resistance With STRUKTOL® ZB 47 you will have lower mixing temperatures.com Lubricants 25j .

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EPDM and BR and is used in elastomer blends and homopolymer compounds. STRUKTOL® STRUKREZ 110 is a polymeric resin blend. NR. It is designed for light-colored compounds where non-staining is specified. NBR. In particular difficult to process tire tube and innerliner compounds have been significantly improved with STRUKTOL 40 MS FLAKES. STRUKTOL® TH 64 is a mixture of low molecular weight resins. This product has proven its value.Processing with Homogenizing Agents The homogenizing agents are usually added at the beginning of the mixing cycle. particularly in compounds based on NBR/EPDM blends. IIR. BIIR. STRUKTOL® STRUKREZ 220 is a molecular assembled resin designed for unique qualities in polymer processing. Its action is comparable with that of STRUKTOL 40 MS FLAKES. 42 Homogenizing Agents . Due to the balanced combination of the tackifying resins and homogenizing agent. It can be used as a tackifier for natural and synthetic elastomers for improving long-term building tack. particularly when elastomer blends are used. Blending of elastomers with different polarities or viscosities are significantly facilitated. STRUKTOL 60 NS FLAKES is a mixture of light-colored aliphatic hydrocarbon resin. CR. The recommended dosage is between 4 and 5 phr. Green tack is improved with STRUKREZ 220. such as SBR. They exhibit optimum effectiveness at around their softening temperature. aromatic hydrocarbon resin which has a very good compatibility with most standard elastomers. Struktol Products and their Use STRUKTOL® 40 MS FLAKES is a mixture of dark. Blending of elastomers with different polarities and/or viscosities are significantly facilitated. Difficult to blend elastomers will require an addition of 7 to 10 phr. STRUKTOL TH 10 A is a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic resins. It is a processing additive that gives good tack and homogeneity in row compounds. an optimum dispersion of the ingredients in the raw compound is achieved which maintains its greet tack for several weeks under normal storage conditions.

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5-16% Off white powder Specific gravity: 1. Product name: STRUKTOL® SCA 98 Chemical composition: Bis (3-triethoxysilylpropyl) tetrasulfide Features: • Improves reinforcing capabilities of fillers with silanol groups • Improves abrasion resistance • Provides higher compound modulus • Improves rolling resistance in tread compounds STRUKTOL® SCA 98CB Typical data: Sulfur content: 21-23% Product form: Yellow liquid Specific gravity: 1. They provide coupling of non-black pigments to the polymer backbone allowing for: Improved abrasion resistance. Higher compound modulus.089 Same as SCA 98 • Same as SCA 98 Sulfur content: 10-12% Black powder Specific gravity: 1. Improved compression set.04 Silane Coupling Agents 60a .43 STRUKTOL® SCA 984 3-Thiocyanatopropyltriethoxy silane • Improves compound modulus • Improves compression set • Improves abrasion resistance Sulfur content: 12% Amber colored liquid Specific gravity: 1. Lower hystersis.Silane Coupling Agents Struktol Silane Coupling Agents are used in rubber compounding.34 STRUKTOL® SCA 98PL Same as SCA 98 • Same as SCA 98 Sulfur content: 10-12% Pale yellow pastille Specific gravity: 1.00 STRUKTOL® SCA 98WT Same as SCA 98 • Same as SCA 98 Sulfur content: 7. Improved rolling resistance in tire tread compounds.03 STRUKTOL® SCA 985 Bis (3-triethoxysilylpropyl) disulfide • Improves reinforcing capabilities of fillers with silanol groups • Improves abrasion resistance • Provides higher compound modulus • Improves rolling resistance in tread compounds Sulfur content: 12-14% Yellow liquid Specific gravity: 1.

020 Clear liquid STRUKTOL® SCA 1100 Aminopropyl triethoxy silane • Improves the reinforcing Min.040+0. ABS.020 polymer matrix STRUKTOL® SCA 974WT Same as SCA 974 • Same as SCA 974 SCA 974 content: 70.01 (07/07/04)AAC/rca 60b Silane Coupling Agents .0% Clear liquid Density: 1.070+0.0% Density: 1.040+0.0+2.598+0.20 Light gray powder STRUKTOL® SCA 960 γ-Glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxy silane • Mainly used in glass reinforced epoxy resin.00 STRUKTOL® SCA 989 ≥95% 3-Mercaptopropyltriethoxy silane • Improves tensile strength • Improves tear strength • Improves abrasion resistance MPTES content Clear liquid Specific gravity: 0.941+0. nylon and PBT • Improves tensile strength • Improves tear strength • Improves relative extensibility SCA 960 content: >95.050 STRUKTOL® SCA 972 Vinyl tri(2-methoxyethoxy) silane • Improves the reinforcing capability of fillers with silanol groups in peroxide cured compounds • Improves tensile strength • Improves tear strength • Improves abrasion resistance SCA 972 content: >98.98 STRUKTOL® SCA 989 WT 3-Mercaptopropyltriethoxy silane • Same as SCA 989 SCA 989 content: 70% Specific gravity: 1.0% Colorless properties of fillers liquid containing hydroxyl groups Specific gravity: 0.0 Density: 1. and fiberglass in the resin/ Density: 1.0% Clear liquid with silanol groups.020 Clear liquid STRUKTOL® SCA 974 γ-Methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane • Improves coupling of fillers SCA 974 content: >97. purity: 98.Silane Coupling Agents Product name: STRUKTOL® SCA 985PL Chemical composition: Bis (3-triethoxysilylpropyl) disulfide Features: • Same as SCA 985 Typical data: Sulfur content: 6-7% Product form: Pale orange pastille Specific gravity: 1.

The SCA 98 is a tetra-sulfide silane while the SCA 985 is a di-sulfide silane. The sulfur portion of the molecule is available for curing activity and can enter into the vulcanization mechanism. When the SCA 985 is used as a 1:1 replacement for the SCA 98.0 6–7 1–4 3 . a reduction in the cured modulus and maximum tensile may be noticed. THE REINFORCEMENT OF NON-BLACK FILLERS IS ENHANCED BY STRUKTOL®SCA 98 & SCA 985 Silica.3 – 1. When used in rubber compounding. This can usually be regained by increasing the sulfur level in the final mix pass.STRUKTOL® SCA 98 & SCA 985 An Overview STRUKTOL® SCA 98 and SCA 985 are silane coupling agents for use in rubber compounding. ppt Clay Calcium Stearate Magnesium Silicate (talc) Fumed Silica Suggested Dosage phr Levels per 100 phr filler 3 – 13 0.15 Silane Coupling Agents 60c . they provide coupling of non-black pigments to the polymer backbone allowing for: Improved abrasion resistance Higher compound modulus Lower hysteresis Improved compression set Improved rolling resistance in tire tread compounds The theory for their effectiveness is that the silane portion of the molecule couples with OH groups on the silica and silicate surfaces in non-black pigments.

zinc oxide AO2 .MIXING AND DUMP TEMPERATURE Part or all of the non-black filler should be dispersed with the STRUKTOL® SCA 98/SCA 985 in the first mixing stage. if present. AO3 Clean Dump Because of the sulfur present in the STRUKTOL® SCA 98/SCA 985. it is necessary to control the maximum mixing temperature. oil. Curatives should be added in the last mixing stage. The remaining ingredients should be added after the silane coupling agent and the filler have been incorporated. SUGGESTED TYPICAL MIX SCHEDULE 0' ½' 2½' 3½' 4½' 5' Rubber ½ to all non-black pigment STRUKTOL® SCA 98/SCA 985 Black. The following are recommended dump temperatures: Natural Rubber SBR NBR 150°C 150-160°C 140°C 60d Silane Coupling Agents . stearic acid.

NDA .STRUKTOL® SCA 98/SCA 985 has an effect on physical properties producing enhanced modulus and improved abrasion.No data available in actual experience with STRUKTOL® SCA 98/SCA 985.STRUKTOL® SCA 98/SCA 985 favorably influences properties. Silane Coupling Agents 60e . Good .POLYMERS AND STRUKTOL® SCA 98/SCA 985 EFFECTIVENESS ACM IIR CM XNBR EPDM ECO FKM HIIR HALOBUTYL CSM NATURAL RUBBER CR NBR BR IR SBR URETHANTE VAMAC NDA GOOD GOOD GOOD EXCELLENT EXCELLENT NDA GOOD EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT GOOD GOOD Excellent . producing significant improvements in physical properties and state of cure.

compression set reduction .better heat aging .reduced swell to polar liquids .improved adhesion to reinforcing elements Solid Tires .increased modulus .filler substitution (non-black for black) Hose .processing .better heat aging .dynamic property improvement .lower hysteresis Mechanical Molded Goods .abrasion resistance .abrasion resistance .aging resistance .lower compression set .flex life improvement Rolls .improved abrasion .increased modulus .improved processing 60f Silane Coupling Agents .improved abrasion on cover .lower hysteresis .reduced water swell .cutting and chunking resistance .set reduction (better load bearing) .AREAS OF RUBBER INDUSTRY WHERE STRUKTOL® SCA 98/SCA 985 WOULD BE BENEFICIAL Footwear .higher modulus .

lower hystersis .improved reversion resistance .increased abrasion . improved rolling resistance.improved cord adhesion .treads for abrasion.breaker (belt) stocks for adhesion Belts .carcass for adhesion and/or filler substitution .Flat Belts .increased flex life and modulus Belts .reduced cost with clay substitution for black .increased modulus .longer flex life .improved adhesion to reinforcing elements Silane Coupling Agents 60g . .Tires .improved abrasion .V Belts . hot tear.

and allow for: • • • • • • • • Lower compound viscosity Higher compound modulus Improved abrasion resistance Lower hysteresis Improved compression set Improved rolling resistance in tire tread compounds Improved dispersibility Faster incorporation Contact Struktol Company of America now for our Silane Coupling Agents brochure with CD. Phone: 800-327-8649 or 330-928-5188 E-mail: customerservice@struktol.com 60h Silane Coupling Agents . particularly mineral-filled.Struktol Silane Coupling Agents Struktol silane coupling agents are for use in rubber compounds.

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The proprietary carriers aid in dispersing the peroxide and will reduce incorporation time. as well as acting as a viscosity reducer in polypropylene.955 off-white pastille Peroxide Dispersions 70a .Peroxide Dispersions Struktol peroxide dispersions are widely used in crosslinking several polymers in the rubber industry.071 Product form: white pastille STRUKTOL® Peroxide DBDB 60 60% active α.α’-bis (tert-butylperoxy)diisopropylbenzene • Higher peroxide content • Improved dispersion • Easy handling Dropping point: Specific gravity: 73-82 °C 0. Product name: STRUKTOL® Peroxide DCP 70 Chemical composition: 70% active Dicumyl Features: • Higher peroxide content • FDA sanctioned • Improved dispersion • Easy handling Typical data: Melting point: Specific gravity: 30-40 °C 1.

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MOLD CLEANING WITH STRUKTOL® MC-A Moving Die Rheometer Cavity Press Mold 124 Examples for the Application of Processing Agents .