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T 0 By




Jame. F. Baboock

reprinted with correctioRs January, 1976

Notice to students in OT503-504: The packet of materials as you pick .uGh up at the bookstore is only the initial instalment. The rest will be handed out in class, and you will have to assemble the pages into a sensible whole, using the page numbers in the upper lefthand corner (for basic sheets) or following the list of materials in the appendix as shown on the lime green sheet enclosed. Purchasers subsequent to late May, 1976 will find everything here and all in sequence at that!


OT502 Elementary Hebrew Mr. J. F. Babcock COMmNTS ON mOMAS O. LAMBDIN'S



FOREWORD BY COMmNTATOR The purpose of this series of comments is to provide the student with an accurate statement of slight differences of approach between that of the textbook and that of the instructor , to call attention to the convention which will be adopten by us when the textbook suggests alternatives from which to choose , and to provide additional summary statements of some of the material scattered throughout the textbook. References in the left margin are to page numbers. Reference numbers
paragraph numbers, unless

in the body of these Comments are to
otherwise indicated by lip. _ttl which

will refer to pages in the textbook.


Having read the Preface, the student is bound to wonder whether it is really realistic to attempt to work th~ough a textbook, 'tlesignedfor a full year's course in elementary Biblical
Hebrew at the college level,



two quarters

(or even


weeks in the Summer session) at TEDS. A comparison of study time invested, etc. will help alleviate your fears: Items to be Compared meeting times per week

Typical Course 3 2 semesters = 32 weeks 96 hours 2 hours .192 hours 288 hours


TEDS(Sum. ) 5 (3 hours) 6 weeks 90 honns 2~ hrs 225 hours 315 hours

of the course

2 quarters 20 weeks 80 hours 3 hours 240 hours 320 hours

hours spent in class

study time per class hour total expected total time invested

As the various totals indicate, not only is it reasonable to study the contents of this text in the time allowed, it is also possible to have an introduction to Hebrew exegesis as well --including such fringe benefits as learning how to use standard tools (such as lexica, concordances, commentaries, and periodicals) and reading various Biblical passages in addition to the 'various selections co-ordinated with the Lessons in the textbook. Transliteration can be a hinderance, as well as a help, if the student comes to depend on transliteration as a substitute

and such may not be assigned as voeabulary words to be mastered for vocabulary quizzes. XVII INTRODUCTI(l\I XIII . 2 for work with the Aramaic square character Hebrew script in which he will eventually be doing all of his reading. an index which will have to be Supplemented from the Contents section.). 316ff.. but the student will enjoy reading the Hebrew Bible more later because he will be prepared to do just that.. "The UlL.ting the students flounder in the Biblical text because they have had only a'Skeleton presentation of the language previously.j. as opposed to let. At an appropriate point we will give an overview of the Hebrew verbal system in a somewhat more traditional manner. ff . XI). simply notice that there are several usefUl appendices (pp. In addition. For this reason.o~ Lam~din follows the widely held view of the ComPOS1 :on 0 . 1nclud1ng such early works as . scattered throughout the textbook.. though we will in fact follow the basic approach used in this textbook. 285-315). The inclusion of considerable amounts of Hebrew syntax. greatly facilitates reading in the Bible later. To aid in the task of learning the vocabulary assigned. iv The general approach of this textbook is to prepare the student for reading in the Hebrew Bible with as little dofficulty as possible once the student reaches that point. two glossaries (pp. and an index of verb paradigms (p. so that by the end of the course the student will have mastered all of the vocabulary words which occur more than fifty times in the Old Testament.. Later. • XVI CQitENTS X-XI At this point. by teaching the basics of the language thoroughly beforehand. other words which are common have been included by your teachers at appropriate points. vocabulary cards will be made available which will include all of the words to be mastered and will be in the order of their being assigned for mastery. this course will seem to have more content than ones using other methods.Comments. e Son -" Debo ~u 9 rah. Force yourself to use transliteration as sparingly as possible. Vocabulary words have been chosen by the author rather carefully to go along with his lessons.. George M. This "extra" material is one of the great strengths of this most welcome textbook. p.(f.::ofes. 329ff. together with ·a few others of lesser frequency. and ". XIV .. he B1blical writings beginning in the time of the Judges. as many common items often omitted from discussion in other books will be found here. 345--though it is not mentioned on p . Landes' A Students Vocabulary of Biblical Hebrew will be of use to increase your vocabulary ability. However some of the words chosen are rather infrequent.

we will use the sound of tee a in "thatU. Consideration of this and other views will be taken up in courses on Old Testament Introduction. note the following: (1) the student may use either the glottal stop ([?]) or the sound indicated ([~1) for the sound transliterated by t • (2) the student should use the sound (x) as in German Bach for the sound transliterated by Q.Comments. nand Balaam's oracles.. e." - ~ --------~-- - - -----~-~- -~ . Vowels XVII The most important thing to notice about the transliteration of the vowels is that the convention adopted has nothing to do with diacritical markin s of vowel len h in En lish. You may wish to learn how to use the phonetic symbols. XV.. ed. rather than guttural--for all four of the gutturals as he terms them.. Still. but you are not required to do so. The Sounds of 8iblical Hebrew a. for a. namely (kJ as in li~e. Change your book as a reminder. a 10ng-1 has the sound of mach1ne for which the E. they are helpful. 3d. "prepalatal. • XVI For the palatal sound k. and for a. Do not worry about learning the classification sounds.!glish dictionary spelling will list a long. SOUNDS AND SPELLING 1. the compelling reason is that gutturals in Hebrew (. and chi) • b. h t 9) have nothing at all to do with the sounds called gutturals in Greek (gamma. 1n Hebrew. For the choices given. Thus. we will use an easier sound. (3) the term we will use is laryngeal. 1937) for which the standard abbreviations are BH3 and BHK. ~.. The subject of Kethib~ere will be important later when reading the Hebrew Bible and reading the various marginal information which the standard editions contain. 3 Song of the Sea. Consonants Heed the note on p. Elliger and W. 1966-) for which the standard abbreviation is BHS.'. we will use the a-sound in "father. kappa. Rudolph. (e): m <>-shen. Under the section marked Guttural.g. XIV A new standard edition of the Hebrew Bible is in progress and will supercede the Kittel edition (Biblia Hebraica. It of the various . p. rather than [H) indicated. This new edition is Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (edited by K.

Syllabification (dividing a word into syllables) XVIII The accent sign in transliteration is (') written over the vowel.Comments. it will. stress) with these terms: DeL accented syllable near open syllable distant open syllable 4. 5. a. XIX Vowel Reduction Vowel reduction also occurs in E ng1according to predictable rules.-1:. TIIi'!l Is in aecord with th b ' " tions (a) and ill at the top of p XIX Con' d e a s~rva~c ~. 2.nEng11sh th . .be important to notice that Professor Lambdin. r.' vice. chooses rather to use the sound in "father" consistently. open pretonic syllable open propretonic syllable = as the hegadkepat The name is simply a tomnemonic device for remembe' r1ng the con~onants invo 1ved: b 9 d "". the accent is understood to be on the last syllable. p.. 4 (For those who do read the phonetic symbolS.ei5<tt. Thus. the accent on the next to the last syllable of the word m. are spirants.-\ you will see in the examples at the top of p. . .~ d ) ps an our (g d _. as is discussed in the next paragraph of the textbook. XVII. On the other hand. you will understand how these six lett ebthe mnemon1C deers ehave.immlnnt (from me) is marked.e var10US y 1ndicated in spelling. 3. i1I "dch two of these letters (b and k) are sto d -f. changes 1n vowel length are not ~erierall " . as he suggests on p. but not . rather than mak1ng a distinction between a and a/~. S1 er th1s carefully because once you understand how to transliterat . Furthe :Sh wor~s. as .) Diphthongal combinations: choice. pant. Stress (= Accent) Be sure to learn what the following grammatical terms DeL mean: stress ultima penultima ("penult" for short) I tonic syllable pretonic syllable propretonic syllable At times we will find it convenient to refer to the syllables in relation to the tone (accent. Because the majority of Hebrew words are accented (or "stressed") on the last syllable it is conventional practice to indicate the stress only when it is on the next to the last syllable. XVIII. The consonants"known = = = tonic syllable stressed syl. because miQb~ (wilderness) has no accent shown. we will use the first in each case where there is a choice. The accent sign in phonetic symbols is a vertical line (I) written before the syllable accented._ with vowels is b&gadf<.

(The latter half of this·statement is what the textbook calls "pretonic reduction. there is no way for the.ab.") *Distant (propretonic) open syllables usually require reduced vowels in nouns (the textbook calls this "propretonic reduction") but may require a secondarily accented lengthened vowel in verbs.'ter-nat-iv .more.~t-e . that vowel length is in some way related to the position of stress and secondary stress.(~-) 'na1.lly. ." because accent and vowel length are indicated in every Hebrew word. as even the transliteration indicates.'graf-ik fa. p. KEY: THE KIND OF SYLLABLE 'DETERMINES'" THE LENGTH OF TRE VOWEL 'l1a- I sy1. vowel length in Hebrew words is directly related to the position of stress and the type of syllable involved --whether open or closed. 5 \ "~I (XIX! )This lack of indication of vowel reduction and 'lowe 1 length in English words makes learning to read English much more difficult than learning to read Hebrew. the following comments (illustrated in the chart on the next page) apply: *Unaccented. For the majority of wordS. closed syllables require short vowels.. Once the phonetic system has been learned./noun: 'ol-tar-nat. after a consideration of the examples syllables usually require lengthened vowels in nouns but may have reduced vowels in verbs and nouns/participles of the pattern Xiii34 (pl. 01. : de- *Near (pretoilic) .Comments. as the following groups of words will show: a photograph photographic photographer object objective ob jectivity alternate alternative a1 terna ti on native nativity nation national e 'fot-e.nat the ( I ) to yl- nationali ty nationalistic 'nat-iv na-'tiv-2t-e 'na-shiit'n 'nash-n~l or 'nash-~n-~l . but that. :he Furthe.jek-'tiv-et-e adj . since the stress is not indicated in English spelling.. verb: ab-'jekt 3b-'jek-tiv or lib-'jek-tiv .l-'is-tik It is probably clear.reader to know the pronunciation of any given word for certain without hearing it and then being told to learn it. the student will be able to pronounce correctly any word in Hebrew at sight by "sounding it out.ol-tar-'na-shan verb: 'bl-tar. (continued on Dext Pll&e ~ious ~ng• . . Hebrew.'tag-ra-f~r noun: 'ab-jikt.fot-a.graf .nash. XilP3tun ). by contrast is written phonetically...nash-n.

9. Y..x. 11DIllaterial) Unchangeably Lor..·~. and becau s> it was ( and con. reduced or lengthened or retained.78). I Reduced (I 2) Open (Pretonic) preceded by a secondary accent :'lear " " The above chart applies to vowels whicn} "t at one time short vowels but which hovl~ ~"i~rc rc"ica~lYJ depending on the 1.8.he rs Which you will s Lso c.' b rmally has a ~ 01 ~.»t f rorr..77. most nouns as h . lable and its relationship to tOle accent. U'-~J lo(..l1. _ •. OF BASIC form for easier .'.. 1r. .-opretonic) without cny . ."d "unchdo!."ed vowel 1... ...• t'.~ . . re-~.. as the word is inilected: hE-ncC'this ty.-d and Unacccnt00 1) Nc~ar Kind of VOWEL Short .Jeable ~inaen '.r 5 nO an accnntpd ~ .: .•• ~ . There are o t.. . 1.~ of . p . 1 ...Commc.13. .14. #2abcd) and (2) nouns with ppncltimate stre~s on .. r class • if a-class but a lC'ngth. Accented --nouns" -. . secondary accen .~L.)f ~yl- Thor' is ano t ne r "type of vowel which H 1S no ":m-. -- .. ve z y rarp 1 A A eo r e I I 0 A or fl *There are two very common ba5ic types of nouns ~O which the comment ~hat the accen~ed syllable r~quircs a l~noth~nedvowel in ~ouns does not apply: (1) monosyllablic nouns with ~(sce Appe~dix A. . put 1nto .. it was called "unchangeably long..~. time to time. --verbs Acce:1ted Secondarily --v.. .'" ....j\\ . chart can ~..0 uTh c f ore going material A .1... inl . ca~. u a e or o or lL Open (P re t on i c] --nouns and verbs I if Lengthened ) e 75 2) ..- use: CHART VlMEL LENGmS CLASS OF VOWEL: i a Kind of SYLI ABLR elos...~nts. h .0 .·o:)(~cor .'rbs and nouns "(exception: a \ 3) 0: e- \ \ O 1) Distant Opcn (P. 6A (XIlCf ) .a lengt hC'\1C'd VOW" 1.(..) ! " . . or ~ (#7.t vow~l ·An accented syllablp .. . syllabL~ in vP.

...r. zaqen elder.> ka!a~ he wrote) i-class:lPIO u-cla ss: 'rn .T .'T : -t'f -. sadeh field..".. qaton he was small.'1\) •• Of deaf sopet judge/judging) Distant (Propretonic) open syllables usually have reduced vowels in nouns. :LJ.. nahar 1-. '-' ~ U)'1n • T T: holayim illnesses •• -• .TID T : .. 5. t - • An accented a-cIa 55: syllable in most words has a lengthened vowel (exc... 'T: T" .Jl"1{1 T : n~har8! rivers ~ elders zaqeDl.-f'U i-class: u-class: .- kahed he was heavy) -. .im ... too) a-class: "LP0JX i-class: u-class: )'oJ . + '\iJ na car lad T170 mEllek king ": -: L'" < .m - 0'31" . a-class:· i-class: u-class: closed syllables require short vowels..T :> kat~bah she wrote (cf• .- .-TO:)n hokmah wisdom.. • -------------------------------------------------------------------------------I!J:') (. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------. T! T ...\ (irreg.J. o.. - lTI70 .(~ah wife.n. but usually used as a singular) + )w anaSl. • ..rr J.'Jn malkah queen..D kab"1dah she was heavy (cf.: . 1'-j 1J>~'S~ elohim God. verbs) (BUT vru..~ 'i1~X )i. (pl.Comments. charted on p.--Near a-cIa (Pretonic) open syllables usually require lengthened vowels in nOUDS 55: -. of fl3>J!. ) i~man) L.. J. 6B Here are several examples of the rules stated at the bottom of p. (and occasionally in verbs.'T katwbah she wrote (cf. : P'..J.of 0-.- "<1JOjl T: qat1lnah she was small (cf.. 6A.) (usually the preceding syllable will have a secondary accent) a-class: i-class: u-class: 7lJ"n<> 'T :.. . t . : • . Unaccented.)'l tt'T ..m men A _ltJ.? e '0 rI. ka!ag he wrote) food J Distant (Propretonic) open syllables may have secondarily lengthened vowels (This is especially common in inflected verbs and participles.SD sejjerbook ...':D •• T -. __ sopet judge • • . · _ • -T (pI.) TI~ l? ~CJ sop"&tim " judge s!jUdging (cf. . . <.) a-class: 113. i-cIa ss: u-class: Il1 R . '):J'X >~el o. .~ .. • . pI. T: In !}o11 illness) Near (Pretonic) open syllables are commonly reduced in verbs (and ptcs.of > ... p .. " herb-.. • • river :lnD -e . .+ ~ulhan table .. a-cl·. gods (pl..T Ii1R he was small ) .J1<> katab he wrote) -T -. 1- lebab heart. ..

...9. DeL lO . heen ~tul\i!"l\.- T . IQ (XIXf) b<\a. #2abcd) and (2) nouns with penultimate stress on £ or Q. . hence this type of vowel is called Ifunchangeable" and because it was (and continued to be) long. were at one time short vowels but which have become reduced or lengthened or retained. i or II DeL *There are two very common basic types of nouns to which the comment that the accented syJlablc requires a lengthened vowel in n~uns does not apply: (1) monosyl1ablic nouns with 4 (see Append1X A.14. • .or u-class..13. (Immaterial) Unchangeably Long very rare •" or' . p. or . secondary accent : : : The above chart applies to vowels which.8. at least thea". an accented syllable in verbs normally has a short vowel if a-class but a lengthened vowel if i.Comments..78). depending on the type of syllable and its relationship to the accent. (#7. There is another type of vowel which is normally retained intact as the word is inflected.' A CHART OF BASIC VOWEL LENGTHS - Kind of SYLLABLE Closed and Unaccented 1) Near Open (Pretonic) --nouns and verbs Kind of VOWEL Short CLASS OF VOWEL: a i .' retically. 2) Accented --nouns*' --verbs 3) Secondarily Accented --verbs and nouns 1) Distant Open (Propretonic) without any secondary accent Lengthened ~except ion: ) - .- u . IT r- I Reduced 2) Near Open (Pretonic ) prec"dcd by a .-. it was called "unchangeably long.. 6C (Ignore this sneet until Par.77.. There are others which you will also spot from time to time. or . The foregoing material can be put into chart form for easier usP.l *An accented syllable in most nouns has a lengthened vowel.

A-t (my prophet ) . b (to) + IOp. has reduced from (c·f. The Hebrew Alphabet Use the chart on the top of p.. Another name for "virtually doubled" is "implicitly doubled.t'. Even as the word"nationality" is pronounced two ways in EngliSh--some people sound a vowel for io and some do not (see p." and when you see it. is: 6. ni!-g~).. 0: (to) + n.." N.. the basic word is n~g~-'Z tmy prophet) in which the first syllable. Special Features of the Guttural Consonants A third type of peculiarity of gutterals!laryngeals (c) Laryngeals tend to prefer a-class vowels before and after them. 5 of these Comments). you should take heed! 7.t'~ (my prophet)..n ri A . In the textbook example. 7 xx THE RULE OF SHEWA as stated in the textbook could be handled slightly differently. De f .. -( DeL . There are two ways to handle this: a (1) Professor Lambdin's approach is to (a) change the first of the shewa's to i. is the Latin abbreviation of nota bene. XIX warns the student to expect at some subsequent time: ~ (to) + ~g. and (b) drop the second shewa entirely. (2) Other grammarians prefer to (a) change the first of the two expected shewa's to i--this is the same. XXII for interest's sake . A problem arises when one wants to add (~ (to) onto the basic word ~p. It is for this reason that a word 11ke na ~ (boy) differs from one like mie. rather than the i-class vowels of the basic pattern of which metek is representative.. because Hebrew does not allow two successive syllables to contain shewa. and (b) retain the second shewa. which (c) accounts for the spirantization of the following begadkepat letters. XXII only. being distant open (propretonic open). but (c) retain the spirantization of following begadkepat letters--which is what the footnote on p. p._.t'-f (my prophet) __ Ung. prophet) to~. so Hebrew speakers differ on how to handle the situation to which the rule of shewa applies..B.. and R.t'~ (my prophet) .ek (king): the laryngeal in the middle of tu£<aJt requires the a-class vowels.t .( .Comments...u. (3) A compromise solution would be simply to indicate that some readers pronounce the sound and some do not: <I 0_ bA. Un:. "note well.p. lb _-t' -c..t'-f.

1"111 or 60 70 [s] [r] o pi'1r . P> 8 DeL The linguistic term "zero used in connection with the letters aleph.11 w x 300 400 S S t sill lalr m [s] [t] [0] t .\i'mrels "'. T h w [ll] or ~ero [w] or zero [z] =cidll Irei Ii'! . PHONETIC VALUE 1 glottal stop or zero [b] SIGNIFICATION OF THE NAME Ox tlr('p be.5] he U'ihr . and yod simply means that sometimes these letters have no sound at all. waw.Comments. This occurs when they are vowel letters.'"0(1 kafJ Weapon Fence Snake? Hand Bent hand z n II !:I ! y k [H] [t] [y] or zero [k] 10 20 • k Iimreg Ox-goao IIIi'm 11/11/ t i 'J 30 40 50 J:l" J II 1I !l !l I C [x] [I] [m) [n] Water Fish Prop Eye Mouth Fish hook? Eye of needle? Head Tooth Sign: cross m n s p T .'~. ill ill l'l 11 [q] [r] .. which are crude pictographs of the objects which the-names of the letters at one time named. House 1 2 3 b b g [v] [g] [g] [d] glmel Camel dlJler Door Airhole/window? Hook g d 4 d 5 6 7 8 9 [. the numerical va~ues will be used THE NAME • ~1 HEBREW EARLY FORM ALPHABET VALUE LETTER TRANS. H (Optional: the student may find it interesting to compare the Aramaic square character script with the early Phoenician letters. [pI [f] Its] p s q r "~Meh 'loP 3 l' res V .J 80 90 100 200 9 . as explained in paragraph 9. he..

temen-t ro PM." "final mem. F..! n' ALEPH-BETH" ~heet. 7 A STYLE SHEET FOR THE See :the lleveMe ~-i.OT502 J.." etc.. to how to Me ~ ] -ro V I uL][][][][] t 1:3J (y 91D 1) nCLi tv }p~ 9 VDH') 7 J' LJTII1illl:l}{ Read the letters in parentheses as "final A sample alphabet in normal size printing: ..ili a. Babcock Supp.. ~~ " . (A Pattern for Printing the Letters) . ...fi2.~ '-'1" [I I ::. .

-.-- I i .OT502 NAME. As you practice writing the alphabet. 5 the third. There is no great value in sitting d. ><sa p1 -.y 2.).'-I ~ Y '" c I. - Da 1 +-.t to PaIL. 2 J. IDa 2 i . I .7. getting periodic practice is.: Yj I i--- LJ I --- 1 --_. .. . t.. showing in circles the places where errors are most likely to be madeby beginners and showing the stroke sequences to be followed (numberedsrrows).L. . --.- .."m to cOlllp1ete the sheet the night befoee it is due.. F. .. u. etc. 6 the second.:-- --- - - ---+. llebcock It is very deslresb1e that the student develop a legible hand in writing the Hebrewcharacters.. it at fntervals I T (J. ". n. I . etc. be sure to say the names of the letters at the slIlIle tilne to double the benefit.. so that both he and his teachers and other readers can read his writing (especially on exama I) • Refer to the reverse side where the letters are done in a rather large script. Getting it done 18 not the important thing. ~ . I ). I I I I I I I ._.. Do 6 1tlfes the first day.S. P. Thie exercise is of value only if the student will work on (Day 1. Campu6 Box NumbeJt D_ _ Supplemva... p.

di'7<'~€ Q - 8'1f3D< X . Driver. as the following table will show. or even books such as G. devoted to the subject. accent.g. ~un..ic Hebron' j Arumuic Arabic z j n t s t H~·~) t.H(G)I" E D C B A the sUbject of the to consult articles in New Bible Dictionary.riting... p~t. digamma(~). xenon.'' The 1341-51 with illustrations.¢ Z . !. o!.o'i'~1To'.v/"A". :optional) (XXIIf) The student who has had Greek will especially profit from comparing the Greek with the Hebrew alphabet.N M L K JI . Pictograph to Alphabet. .. lu~urious. ubiquitous. fa£e. history. R.t. 9 later in connection with reading items in the margin of the Hebrew Bible: when the letters are to be read as numerals. Eour.. exist. thoug!!.ugar. Kame. fa£t. and qoppa(q) fell into disuse: A COMPARATIVE Hebrew Transliteration TABLE 01"ALPHABETS n (0'/7:5:) t ss r q ~ p V" V-U J ( r/?:l ~UTI n ITI A J.. Some of the Hebrew consonants are similar. as is the case with many of the letters of our alphabet. they have a dot over them.or. BE-ite. .etc. Note. sampi(~). ru~e... d d z t Ugarit. d d . off. 2.Comments. lu~ury. e~istential.. Semitic Writing from (Optional: Though we today assign one sound to each of the Hebrew letters. especially as to the names of the letters.) (Optional: students who are interested in development of the alphabet are encouraged Bible Dictionaries. such as ''W. too. X J s n m 1 k y t ~z w h d 9 b Greek English wi' f.WVU T S R P 0 . however. university. waKe. p. Semitic ---+------'----~---. it is clear for various reasons that several of the letters had more than one consonental sound in Biblical times.y v 1: o'. that the Greek alphabet introduced vowels into the alphabet at precisely the points where it had no letter corresponding to the Phoenician (and Hebrew) alphabet. b~t.. e. See the next page first..

(2) spective./ . from the standp?int of the Hebrew column compared with the Semitic column. l~1ffi is sometimes written 01:>':.alterespecially when final letters are involved. liSt'). p.ii.(l) When reviewing this section.. any other final vowel) m. 0) .><. or ~ OTh = iih. aY1n .l -tilWf6nlth is sometimes written J=fn~.5'l m~a(' I )(~f. without further ado: Hebrew Word Possible Transliteration Alternatives Textbook Alternative 0)(1 head found 1t. not to confuse the transliteration of the Semitic letters with that of the standard adopted in the textbook and :Optional) typed in 6cM. Be careful 8. Y) = c . [h. from a reading peris that a reader becomes used to recognizing certain fonns to recognize the same word spelled in a less frequent. Def ~)= ~. . Some XXIII Features of Hebrew Orthography (Spelling).P. The real difficulty of this section. or oh (rare) (I . ~ 1. Remarks (1).. A summary of the use of the letters vowel indicators: Vowel Letter ) W A 'w. compare these selected examples with the comments on Paragraph 10. 10 (Xl (XXIIf) ( Examination of the table.> blYth.{. z VA S1n ( '& ( 0) = 1. and 11 h as x At End of Word U 4 In Middle of Word = A U A or A A 0 A .>. = 1. 'y.g (not shown: za'yin ( z. g. w1ll show tha~ the Hebrew sadeh probably had three sounds in Hebr~w at one t1me.Comments. T T .aktiibn.1 (~. ~.:ttLUcA. and the reverse--~=t""':::>J. Y XXIIIf =. TT) )- ) = 2.e .) It will become clear when reviewing after studying Paragraph and that several others probably had two sounds ap1ece: ~a<ieh (~ .i.1. that the way to recognize quiescent aleph in a Hebrew word in Hebrew script is to note that aleph is quiescent when it has no vowel point under (or over) it: (ch{. c. (3) Some teachers will prefer to have the student simply indicate the aleph in transliteration. For example. (not so used) XXIV ~.. and fails nate way. = -t" e.

if the begadkepat letter begins a word after a break.. bu (or bU.' to . ": "(or /ill )"50 that the line reads: 3.l bu. ~i. = spelling a word g. Scriptio defectiva) spelling a word without a vowel letter otherwise to be expected.Comments.": add. letter follows does not have a dagesh.d(l). XXV. or if the begadkepat letter follows a consonant sound. write).'1. straight + grapho. 9. (b) the dagesh is a dagesh lene. make this addition to the line beginning nq. (a) the letter is hard in pronunciation. matres lectionis) = vowel letter Full writing (also. -. To the chart in the textbook on p. 1) Orthography correct spelling (from Greek orthos.}' I~ T • T qiiqlim he will arise he will raise big -0'. XXIVf The Dagesh and Mappiq statement on begadkepat letter then and letters: = Summary When a begadkepat (1) does have a dagesh.) -1. (2) 10. 11 (XXlllf)\Terms to be masteredlin DeL Mater lectio~is this paragraph: (pl. .. in the column lab led "Plain. The Vowel Points. which are given below with Hebrew vocalization: Full: 1]-l jJ~ yiiqtun ·T Defective: "D-.ibb1U.~gl1goR. if the begadkepat a vowel sound. Defective writing (also. then it is spirantized. p. Remark (1) can now be understood in the light of the examples of B. arranged in terms of vowel length and including all of the commonly used vowels which are important at this stage. bl1 -. xxv see the next page for a chart of the Hebrew vowels. Scriptio plena) with a vowel letter which is to be expected. +. • • . but the dagesh is a dagesh forte.' T yiiJWn u' > '7'n T qWm gagoR. Quiescent aleph = = an aleph which has no sound at all.

. iWteq CiLUed ~olem wiW Originally (SClUptio CHANGEABLE Long den ectiva J .6uJteq . ~ '13.6ogal .« ~ip-pt$ft . ~ e ~M. which is defective for bt.ho-f.. closed syllable..!l6ogo-f. e 3. . e 3[to-f. i ..~ Hcompound shewa fI 3. cf. "a always read b'i5. b.. and how to tell whether ~ bo is a regular bo and when it is defective forfb8.eq !fog 3.em 0" !>M. ~3.6 '. For ~ read bu if it is in an unaccented otherwise re~d bIT. which is defective for bu.1 T Short ~ Lengthened a.comments. ep-=-. -r a 3.tUne.:l . "- u fJt!r. 6B. c -l. As it turns out. p . a - :. hiiC. and do not worry at this point whether it or not.em 75 qWn~ Reduced .e (Some. the latter question is not very crucial.6ilWa "simple shewa" ~Vte . . 3.e /fog '3. Type of Vowel a class UNCHANGEABLE Originally Long (SClUp.. IT qibbil6 "THE SHORT VOWEL CHART") .a z i}atep-.u. For ~ read bi if it is in an unaccented otherwise read bZ. (For is defective closed syllable.• p qibbiU.O plena) The Vowel Classes of the Hebrew Vowels I i-class u-class p. lZ Perhaps you are rightly wondering how to distinguish when ~ indicates biand when b£ and when ~ indicates bu and when bu..:). They are most easily learned in relation to their transliterations.J.) A CHART OF THE HEBREW VOWELS Hebrew vowels fall into two basic categories--unchangeable and changeable vowels) with several subdivisions. comments. but the former one is so attention can be given it at this point.eq qiim~ h7ttQ. e 0 3- u !UJr.~ . .:.

>IJUable.Uh any k'. and it implies that the shewa. 4. on this basis: timfolka your name. medial shewa is a shewa middle of the word): T.> afwa. maf(oJ~e kings.eding '~yllab. :the 6.n. 0. vowd.lLf.Uh daguh w.{gn oecuns undelt . 13 XXVI it Remark (3) (b) "But after any other vowel it represents zero"(Le.eMive c. 25(a) (Par.) in most situations in the language.> aiJlJayl. and 11.) This statement is usually true.ndelt a c. judgment wisdom angel (Parr. following rules must be correctly. and 11.>.> I. 1>$7Q ""11. learned· in order to pronounce the written shewa is a shewa under the first letter. Three other words which have already been encountered at various points in the Lessons illustrate the common situation: the shewa indicates a closed syllable after the short vowels ( a.:t iJ. Medial 6hwa iI. 3. no sound at all. and all of the textbookJs examples are of this latter category. (8): I SUMMARY OF THE SHEWA SIGN: so the script final under I 11.>hwail." if it is incorrectly spelled in the printing which you have of the textbook. maf)ak messenger.>Uen:C when th». 0.>impllJ indica.oMonan:t u. Medial I. 6B. but they are sometimes used in partly closed syllables. and u. Shewa (. p . the last letter. 33) ~q u: Correct the spelling of the transliteration: replace a by 0 underlined: ~. #3).t. 60Jt:te (cf.>hwa iJ. these are typical examples: p . in which case both are silent. I~l. i.Comment s .c..two 1. 25(a) and 28) LJ30n miX~ or : • ~o~ah (Par. . but that it is given some sound by some speakers-at least enough to cause a following begadkepat letter to be spirantized. plteceding COMOnan:t hM a I.c.>I.>hwa iI.>. The transliterations would be. cf. (3(b) ) 5.>u. #2)(3(a) and 8).iu.ilok'.> I. 8).af (3(c».ile. because the begadkepat letter following in each of the three examples is spirantized (though see the footnote on p. but this is not too common.sign indicates the end of a syllable after every a. When the. e. True. "'~?~ (7) and as 1i4 Def.) are used in unaccented closed syllables. A bettel transliteration would be "(0):' indicating that the shewa is neither fully vocal nor silent. unless #6 (infrequent) applies (3(b) as amended above).D.:tu a etased I. e.> (unless the second is under the last consonant. and yl6mok(olga he will watch you.yl. 6hwa I. usually the short vowels (a. The three examples in the textbook each indicates ·ahat the shewa has some sound.> voc. Fil'l. i.) can be either silent or vocal. (initial shewa is a shewa under any other letter in the 4 aMeIt a pltec.>hoJt:tvoweL and l. Remarks (3). as it occurs only in certain final kapns or in indicating doubly closed syllables (7.I. i. second Ls voc.e shadows (not ~mt).>Uen:C and the. XIX where Lambdin prepares the reader for Rema£k (3)(b».

D<' my food ~k("I.. closed syllable.u.antized begadkepat or an equivalent situation obtains in non-begadkepat letters. Before a syllable with ~ii:tep 'lam~: shewa disallows ''?~~ 3. p . a summary state- \ A SUMMARY OF QAME~-~rfiP I this is common: Qiim~-iJ~p occurs mainly in the following situations: 1. 'ofuldh food ~o1yniih wisdom 2.'.Comments. In an unaccented. 'aget . 14 #6. vocabulary) form: j 7~". (The second set of examples in 3(b) apply here." XXVIIf 11(2 and 3) deal with qames hatup in a way which makes ment with a few additions desirable. 1~¥..u.£Jr. but be oareful not to confuse this with ''medial shewa. a 6p.) Def. .. king.eeJtem their foods. In many inflected forms of nouns of this and related patterns (##11 and 12 in Appendix A) which have a penultimate stress on a u-class vowel in the singular (i. ho 'ama!! with ~I~ ho 'ornfltffi they were set up 4. Such a shewa is called a "6hwa medA.e.:>>? • : T U01'7:>X ': -.£6 :the pltececUng con6onant ha6 a shotu: vowel and :the 6oUowing cOn6onant . Me£Ual 6hwa. t T a food 'O~ . the most common cases of this are with certain forms of pronominal suffixes and with inflected forms of words like metek. as will be explained at an appropriate time. .um" by some grammarians because it is about midway between silent shewa and vocal shews. -'lame!> . Instead of often this results of. [uss: b04e-fJj vocal . .'J bo~aU with a sickness when a following in two successive it was set up ~ep-'lam~ 'lam~-~p's: hatep.

~ and~. The. 5 6 neg~ ha'am (1/#11 . -<. Be sure to learn the gender with the vocabulary meaning of the vocabulary words. the student could work carefully through the introductory material as follows: Before Lesson In the Summer. because line.Comments. 21). The example (line I.(not ha-) because the C does not double in Hebrew (as will be explained in Par.. Study: 1-3 4-7 8.. Study: 1-3 4-6 7. " because they are inseparably joined to their object. and the word takes the article in a slightly different spelling than for just the vocabulary word itself (cf. 6). p.9 10 In the Winter. vowel 7 the ~rst b-<. Write the following in Hebrew unless the instructor states (d) Change the directions to: tkan6~bed otherwise. only feminine gender is noted.. 1-11) nest es and lned at ier-e . before reading the Lessons themselves. l~ (to). the if in (-Ihabbaifit is not clear in the typeset of the examples of these two paragraphs. ~. c. ) bebe So that the student can begin reading in Hebrew script at a slightly earlier time than that contemplated by the author of the textbook. Prepositions of the type b~ (in).10 In the author's plan. Par. study: 1-3 4-6 7 8. before the people. the article is ha. 15. .nto fngl-<. In some printings' of the textbook.8 9. Exercises (a) transcription On Det.qqa£-V:/iD-. 15 xu: ha6 a or ALTERNATE APPROACHES FOR POSSIBI. p. The Noun: Gender. as the following comparative chart will show. p.E REASSIGNMENT OF INTRODUcrORY MA1ERIAL (PARR. is premature: in a word like 'am. and k~ (like) are often called "inseparable prepositions.9 10 11 t state- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 11 LESSON 1 3 5 12.6h chanact~.major point of the paragraph is still true: some prepositions are written as separate words. the accent is missing in the of difficulties in printing "over . 6). Prepositions. 7.

ilh. p~. (')11 c • However. Usually before • h" lit.It). i. p.n~. The answer to the last question in the paragraph is: because the first letter is a guttural. l\'). T VageX 60Jtte hnpuc. or the laryngeal is said to be virIT hiitually doubled.1} (read. Noun Plurals. Vocabulary 2. to recognize a definite article on a word is much easier than to learn how to attach one to a word. .' The Definit'e--Article. Be sure to learn the irregulAr plurals as they come up in the vocabularies. dageX 6oJt-te"). as you will be using them frequentl~. which even instructors and textbook authors sometimes fail to state or to apply consistently and correctly. 2. T:. the article attached to a word which begins with a laryngeal must have a different spelling. 6.c. the form has e (l>egot) rather than a or 11 he- a: If •• - n • ha- Usually.Comments. "he. _a remains and a "compensatory dagel 60Jtte is lengthening" said to be implied from _a to ~a in the laryngeal. >t .ented & y'(1i. 'Jc. Because laryngeals can not orHinarily be doubled (have a dageX 6oJtte). 16 LESSON 2 18.e. The difference varies as follows: a. 20. the normal form of the definite article is: ha.j1 Except before the laryngeals ([I. . Usually before b. \I ~. I . . before 11M 'T • & nhii. The student may find it convenient to have the material of Parr. • and before IT T l OJM gnac. especially in the case of 2. takes place. See Par."14 and 18 summarized in one place: SUMMARY: 1.. "7lh and n ~ (and (which lo not quite rarely Y C) • double). THE DEFINITE ARTICLE.c. 19.itum is the Latin name for this implied Dages.. 11 if.+ doubling of the following consonant.

. I :e or rph is: come The king is good 1) cOpj". 'T~~ i] . Youwill see that Par. the predicative adjective occurs (as an adjective--see on the next page) only in clauses of classification.. 6 will explain the differences in pointing/spelling. and Hebrew Attributive Adjectives: English A a good king 1) 2) ore • the Ii T Greek Hebrew ~. For those who have had Greek.TJ.e. "'let "'DS N.'. Compare: #3." :j1 ~ 6oJde). but the predicativeadjective is always indefinite. Compare the forms of the monosyllabic adjec-i tives "bitter" and "evil" with the others shown.r JrC(&o~. and (2) number--sing.. (continued on the back) .. is an adjective which qualifies a noun directly by attributing some quality to the noun. 2 ) 0/ __ dL"e-U. Compare the English.>S" j1or6<... as in English "The king is good. (b) number--sing..'c> D "'.. w.." In Hebrew. ~"J VOS <A". w. w. pl.0/ 6egotl II or a: TI rt . it will be worth noting that the Hebrew attributive adjective is syntactically placed the same as the Greek. "The king is good" means that "the king" belongs to the class of people who can be classified "good. the predicative adjective regularly precedes (contrary to the textbook) and agrees with its subject in (1) gender--masc.s . Comments./' ".B.A~JS. and (c) definiteness. or dual. than (2) nIB PREDICATIVE (or Predicate) ADJECTIVE. pl. Greek.-------------. must have In Hebrew." In Hebrew prose.FrJ ..:tO~ hammetek. as in English Ita good king. which by definition is an adjective which predicates some quality to the subject of its clause. w. X~. The Use of Adjectives. or fem. or dual subjects.{)()· . • j3Dtd"A~<. 10 'f'7. Adjectives. sing. sing.~0~r .4lA.fem. . i. • B the good king 1) o C' A .. pl.4eefs: > 6(1"" CTOS . pl. which by definition.Y"&los . j3"'4. the attributive adjective always follows the noun which it modifies and agrees with it ~i~n~(~a~)~g=e==n3d~e~r~-~-~m~a~s=c~. 23. p.c ..y'" a r"''' .1io hammetek tab hlP 2) 'Afol.. SUMMARY: nm nJREE USES OF HEBREW ADJECTIVES \are (1) nm ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVE. l7A LESSON 3 have the 22.

~~ 'UI.~ ~p hu~' :11'-' " . note the following corrections: )l. which identify Sequence S-P S-P SSus.} ~·1>T 0'~iJ The man is the king.P-SRes (2) VERBlESS .SRes_P 1'?.11 i0 710::m • -e T : T ~ogma. e. . to!! ha. The man i s the king. Corrections: on p. The woman is good. It e t c ... and correct their improper orders as you find them. "a. use) (2)The good are fortunate. consider the word order in the exercises to be suspect. (3) mE SUBSTANTIVE' (=NOUN) in Hebrew when a word usually USE OF THE ADJECTIVE. (adj. This difference will be explained subsequ~ly..h1:8pah lUi Wisdom is good. 14. '-. As it turns out from careful linguistic study which was in progress while Professor Lambdin's outstanding book was in preparation. z: '.r "':l 0 . rather much like the word "good" in its second use: (I)The people are good. (noun use) or in this use: (3)Good is an ambassador's aim. hii). J\. beginning with the examples good. w .nrnUek hammtUe~ a SUbject :r7~ iJ t as a part1cular OF IDENTIFICATION person. I 'T~~!J )nil :IiI' CLAUSES 1)1:) The king The king is good." '~=.o » UJL 'IA. .~ ha..u . p.g. bad things. li'" ~ u» T' r t. i.. The man is good. but not in the case of the example as stated. which classify a subject of a particular class.~i} 0'~1] 1~~'.tJ hammUek . . Meanwhile. which wrongly oversimplifies the matter.ldh WlJ. hii(-Ut glJg8. (noun use) In its third use above.) I BEGINNII«i SUMMARY: tWO TYPES OF CLAUSES WITHOUT VERBS I (1) VERBLESS as a member Sequence P-S P-S SSu8. When a subject noun is indefinite. 15. (See the discussion at the top of p.Comments. item etc. Sus = Suspended CLAUSES OF CLASSIFICATION.-l"r +.']'. because: good wisdom ~'71 .. 17B The two possibilites rew equivalent for given on the previous is good" are page for the Hebdifferent from "The king slightly the statements in the textbook. [L: ~~~:~:=: ] t:op hU. classified as an ad- which occurs jective is used syntactically as a noun.¢piih h1IThe city is great and good... h.'h "-U +. the situation turns out to be slightly different when the Waw-conjunction is attached. T1 . The student may wish to correct the examples in the book to conform to the actual pattern as it occurs in the Hebrew Bible --at least in most prose passages and all of the Pentateuch. -co -<.l "The man is . is good . there is sometimes a chance of ambiguity.<. "Good" is an abstract noun. good things. eta.

---(xQ.. (3) As a noun. is evil• Judging very much. nd The man was/is writing. etc. 26.Yi:!the writer l~j a 11~<6 giver." This use is sometimes called the predicative use because in usage the participle is the verbal predicate of some subject..J. Usually. p. again.'90 rO>X"".1] 3~ :dr w' ~'J the man wri ting " the man who was writing is writing is about to write. J. the Hebrew participle is used in a non-restrictive way (see the illustrations of restrictive and non-restrictive clauses and phrases in the Comments on Par." but others will have noun equivalents in Bnglish. judging very much. the man is evil.. etc . because definite nouns are more common in usage than indefinite nouns. The Active Participle k PRELIMINARY SUMMARY: THE FOUR COMMON USES OF TIlE PARTICIPIE: (1) As a verb to express (a) continuous action: or (b) imminent action: "is writing" .) Contrast with: The man was good. (Time determined from the context. :l D :.' "was writing" "is going 'to write . . use) :t :ate ] OIled 'ended e t c . normally with the article.l ~n (a) The man. .. will be translated by English words ending in "-er. A man was writing. in contrast to (b) which is restrictive . one who gives a judge (4) As a true participle--true from the English perspective--.:J.. and notice the difference in word order between the adjective properly discussed (see Comments on Lesson 3) and the participle. J] ~ liS' ~ a man writing . (2) As an adjective in the attributive position. Many such participles.g. O=:>WI1 . . who was writing. . 18 A lESSON 4 m . if verbal use. 1. 32) as in (a). etc. Alternately.. .------------~ Comments.1\:.- 0 -x n y... • T --- i)?f.) . the noun and the participle will have the article. since they indicate the doer of some action. e. T (b) The man judging very much is evil. because definite nouns are more common than indefinite ones in usage .

'.~'5.) and Samson C1 10 Q~) are mi ssing: names.. and Nos. \~~.~~ 36.. in other ways to be shown later • . 26. 35. 33. Israel David Judah Judean . ?. . . SPECIAL NOm - ON PROPER NA/o£S Proper names have not been included on the vocabulary cards.Comments. as well as (c) nouns made . 24. . -s- ~" .:. .~ "" ~"'i'1:i' . r-rtlN 32.) Landes gives the following list of high frequency proper from which Abraham (U~ . ~':'~29. . they should be inserted between Nos.'1!r(~ L.~ Absalom 28... 15.N 12.. Jeremiah P''': .. ~"o . . 8. Cl~ "j. 33...' . if he desires to do so to have such words on cards.. 14.~ 20. .J~~ 31. - :'wr. 17. . ~'"l1'. 7. j~ Bethel Gad Reuben 38.'l:"'~ II...37..which are of two types: (a) Proper nouns (which need no article to be definite) and (b) Common nouns made definite by the definite article. :n. '~I!~ C. 111~ 30. 39.~:o ':~"!? .-ry'~ 'T'm. Eleazar Elijah ~l'M 1.<:~ .. PROPER AND PLACE NAMES OCCURRING OVER 70 TIMES IN THE OLD TESTAMENT Arranged in Decreasing Frequency Order ". loab 19.. p." i" . so the student is encouraged to examine the vocabularies at the end of the lessons to see whether there are any such new words and to make his own cards for such.. Moses Egypt \"'.. Ephraim Benjamin Zion Aram ~~ ' !:.8.:! 13. The Object Marker. . 7 and 8.pCt '¥'~23 . Assyria Samuel Manasseh Gilead Hezekiah Jonathan m 2. lJ.-o 4. Esau Ahab Canaan Canaanite Philistine Pharaoh Babylon 9.definit . 27. I. 22. (The first time this may prove to be a problem is Lesson 5. Joshua Jordan Moab Jehoshaphat Amorite Daniel Chaldeans (#)j:r. 30 and 31. ""'~J 34. ~"~"7:l 5. Be sure to observe that this is used with defini te (but not with indefinite) direct objects . 10.~ 16. Egyptian Jerusalem Aaron em: 01'l1!i:J" • 'f· Jeroboam . l8B 27. T.'''' . 3. Par..l~i~ em. 6. 'm'I:l1!i WX) 21. 25.C ~~.

These three prepositions are called "inseparable" because they are inseparably attached to their objects to form a longer word.~:'. Elision occurs 'I'. ( SUMMARY: (1) THE PREPOSITION Jf." in grammatical terminology. More s~ply. regardless of the form of the article.Jl is a near open syllable)...1)(L)'11':::1 before a word beginning with a yod Changedto .:. ) es.l before yod vocalized with vocal shewa (min + Ifl' = mUjya* = mtl. te r . .) min ~an be either separable or inseparable... but also fJpecial forms of pronouns.> • . (2) a reduoed Towel: (a) simple shewa ~ .t::l before regular consonants. t~hamrn€1. AND 29.. re osition is attached involved? is there an articl.e' or T T t when '7. b.e) le . (J) a harmoniziJJg before a consonant vocalized with short vowel . --Whenattached to ARTIaJLAR words..~. which is the samevocalization as for the articl. It is i and Sepa~le before articular words. 30 ..r '. 19A LESSON 1 5 ~. '!) ::::l the Vocalization is: before an accented syllable (i. . In the folloWing discussion. and Y.ization .. (b) simple ahewa before consonants with a vocal attenuated ~ :~ shewa (because two successive to hireq vocal shewasare not pronounceabl. and ' . (1) sometimes qames < <. ~. 'vooa1ized with a vooa1 shewa (this hireq yod (n">70-n» is really an extension of 2. (2) -1t? Inseparable before anarthrous words.a}.' what happens is that two weak sounds are drop.f the '? sown 3.'d. .drops. note that the recoize whether or not the word to which the real problem is to s tae1 de te or inde inite. participles am the verbal nouns knownas "infini tiTe constructs"). Their _ objects maybe sUbstantives of any kind (uSually nouns. ~. 3 before consonants with a full .e). --Whenattached to ANARTIiROUS words. case of 2.). vowel. The Pr epos ition )12 m. For eXample.Comments. _ E~sentiallY.(usually '7:J~is a distant open syllabl. .e The becomes ~aJm1(Ue~. and it takes the following forms: (a) (b) (c) The 6~nat nun assimilates .in.e).~. (c) phonetically --o. ~ "elision.) Compensatory Lengthening occurs before the laryngllals and /tel (6-(. as the '21h. so ~ lengthens to e). TIffi (INSEPARABLE 1 PREPOSITIONS '.of and Visual cue to the definiteness of the object is the vocalization the preposition.nat IULn cannot assimilate. This dropping of the weak 21h-sound is called so .::l a compound shewa (really a speoial -: . ey e.e. ::J. the vocal.

#2 is the way English expresses a comparison of quality between two subjects. 1S a non-restr1ctive . It can now be seen that #3b is quite similar to #2. TT T ha'l~ \ll!\sBin hu' mehanna~ar or 0'~~n~~ ~!I1sBm 1i8'18 mehann~'ar. Filling out the understood words in the point of the comparison is illuminating: #2 . 19B OT JF: Sp. etc. 32.. 7:17. 24'~s Dot likely to be correct so far as word order is concerDelT.) at the time. ~~. .Comments. Co 31. DeL Rest:ictive: The ~~den6~L~0~k their question to the teacher (who was) an the house ( eJt I. even fine gold. though there is not a clear example a n the Pentateuch: the lafter order does occur (e.eJt and one withou't it. (No comma before "who": assumption-_more than one teacherth' ." found on p.) Non-restrictive: The students took th ' e'r question to the teacher (Who was) in the house (babbitjit) at the time. p.g.JU. despite the fact that there is a significant dif ference between a prepositional phrase with >(fJ. Gen. 1164 of the Kittel edition of Biblia Hebraica.. The Hebrew would more likely use" either .'. The first examPle gtVaD on p. Word Order.! and my yield than choice silver. but #2 compares the quality(beautifulness) of the first subject with the second (the woman with the girl). and #3aiand . 1S One was available./1i1r.#3b are alternate ways in which English expresses a contrast between ability of a second subject and a quality of the first. D:Jn It). The Comparative. the latter (also given in the author's second example on p. #2 DeL A prepositional phrase without '>:'". The Relative Word The subject of the use of the relative word '""Y abet is not treated well by any elementary Hebrew grammar. except that the item compared is different: #3 compares the ability (of the man) in relation to the difficulty of the subject (The work).g. 29:19). Provo 8:19. b The work is harder than the man (can<do).. More imnortant is to understand the difference between the second and the third examples on p. if not actually the only one.\!liJ~ The woman is more beautiful than the girl (is beautiful). 24. In Proverbs. phrase. but in more complicated sentences than the student can handle at the present time. 49:12.. 12:9. . e. (The ambitious student may wish to check 8:19 "My fruit is better than gold. IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS #1 A prepositional phrase preceded by )Q.6eJt is a restrictive phrase. (Note the comma: ~nly one teacher.. 17. or #3a The work is too hard for the man (to do it). and he happened to be in the house.1'X'lTI ___ •.. 24)seems to be dominant. 15:16.!.) ..

. Landes has prepared A Student's Vocabulary of Biblic~l H~brew: Listed Accordin to Fre uenc and Co ate. . e. A... ~ -food --book ~: ...T tn/".x'((1'lSeK. if noticed. Since one usually learns a verb as the basic root..6' ni>c.s. TIT eating . e.--to be king "')~~ --to count.'''1 --to come near --... wh ch may be of some help.g. wh~ch ~s much to e cornmene or ~ncreas~ng one's vocabulary.X'" --Passover: --Passover Hebrew cognates aid learning considerably.. ~f~tt. "Natha!!iel" = God gives: 'l:J]~--to give.. (poetic) i17:»l--food.:O(). For this reason.. "Immanuel" = God is with us: ny--with .... George M. adjectives and other words to verbal roots. . closed first syllable for f. e.?--king -... except in proper names... and laryngeals) appear in IDorethan one equivalent in English to learn Hebrew vocabulary words.abaoth" ZOf~""''....: " '7:> .s. I.~~ t es the time a name reaches English from Hebrew via Greek and Latin.?*--high place "'~v--Corban: -':"a gift. it is easiest to suggest that one relate nouns..?~--queen il'~ Tf':?r..g. --a raised platform..Eha1" = the LORD jUdges: 13~~--to judge.n lso - . the consonants may have undergone some change s. sibilants.. as indicated in the last two examples.'1' TIP$.) (and an unaccented. too.--------- . """"'. p. enumerate --to eat "')~-o --book . Greek cognates occasionally will help. .. 11.) 13.::>~ -T .:l¥ "Melchi~edek" Me). 20A The following is by no means exhaustive but it is hoped that it will be found helpful to the beginne~.. .§.. tr.. once a basic group of words is known. several Hebrew consonants (primarily dentals. and :l.'l~. '"""'~~o--. "Sabbath" o-/iAAQ T\~ _ fV~ ~rov T . C. t RELATE WORDS TO THEIR COGNATES (words from the same root). "Jeho~a.. tribunal: 7Tr... "Sarah" = princess: 7l'W--princess..---. ed a oe "Lord .. 'W--chieftain One problem which will be encountered is that. n~-'~'?9 and. .. Enflish cognates are infrequent.....~ "~l" ~..'""""""'":'"... Basic "segholate" patterns (with penultimate stress for m. t..g..======_~~I I OT502 JFB and KWSHelps For Learning Hebrew Vocabulary Special Supplement Comments. by noting the following ways worde appear: 1. . r-o T..

20B 2. . will have shewa and a long vowel~ '77<... He...»)ln--food "t-~11.s. Roots with a sufformative a. --boundary '. ....l. --to fight ~:.--boundary '7:l·)..:> --to -. Yodh. ~Taw "=:l~ . (other than just -ah) from concrete nouns 7. : T ~ -T border ~':l) --prophet illC':U --prophetess X:U--to prophesy • . after the second radical... but rarely. inl'Tl--law :H) i:F\--so j ourner c. . Vocab. H ( (The m. TT teach :JJc)·_-toreside Aleph. Roots with an unchangably long vowel . _.1 n n--camp '": T\"'!>'It~--knife . w: T . Nun.. Mem (often of place TT:- or instrument) 71~'t')n--kingdom 1] ij)n--place. u : ~"c.. spoil ask the first judge radical... will have two long vowels in vocab.. 7~t. the f. . 4.5 --spoil( ..l--prophecy \ 5. 2 Roots with two short vowels originally.. Roots with an unchangably long v. -it form abstract 1\'\ ::>~9--kingdQ.t • D'li' --to stand 1JTT~ .17 U. ill' --to throw. .'~3--firstborn I "·l':H...._ " .. "I" s) fT'?>t0--request .. .v -T 6.Heb.l'Y-to testify .\..~ --deaf leiln --to be deaf I~.>--to -T after lH)W--to 3.s... and Shin are used...... ..--to bound.~iJ--judge "tJ'7iy--eterni ty . locale i1~TT~\')--war T e.--testimony "~--wi tness ".. Roots with a doubled middle radical (or equivalent) ~~~--throne --blind -ny--to blind -T ri"). --to eat II i1In --to camp • T b. --king -u! and " A n~ n·l"IY.. :r~r: -to be king . form· whereas. p. 71l{·l. Roots with a preformative a..

- orchardland) ? ll-r?--vineyard root or related cry out roots ~ 8. Vccab . -1 occasionally t. .) shepherd strive direct l]/k/q) obj. Near-homonyms(to the English ear: "il)("l-to "'T "Ie... B.. Comments.. .. out reason e. -~--with --to -J"\~-def.. -i (mostly for nationality st radical.)""1 ::>--Carmel (= ~ ..--to be pleased . . see "il\n -to ..: c. shepherd ?D--all ~'i'-voice c.... Wi'--head qr ordinals) b. Israeli .. radical.. f.. be good and 1. marker N'>Iy"' i1Y'..lnD--to -or write (~~--scribe)"\1\lT--to count ('9t)--scribe) .... : . ::l'" ) -... with. '"l~n .. .>"--by day T "O'i'--day l~--grace l)~n--gratis..n 4. .. 200 ~>~~1--begi~~ing 3 .Heb . l~{~--table d... : --Egyptian 't1'-1~I')--Egypt . p.T by a footnote system in Landes' Vocab.. W[~-the T· go up remember 7".»)?iJ ..... .. jl -. pVS--to ~i"--good II.m (mostly -am for forming adverbs) Uv. --to :::L.» .I7'--to -T LEARN WORDS IN CATAGORIES such as A... CrA'0'--Israel . --to i1~... --three ~ ( usually -on or -en) Most High "il7Y-to TT . Homonyms (indicated iWi -evil . Synonyms . Roots from the same original j1Vl'--to cry out -...>1' --memorial IbnT --pleasure 3Y ) . >7Y-iW>--Israelite. .. ~>"W--third . ::::l'"')-strife rely....

later. II'Y . Divide into levels of difficulty and review differently: (1) mastered--review weekly at first. III. etc. ' II.. vocabulary list. and listening aids learning. phrase. 1. or go ough the motion (if a verb). VOCABULARY CARDS. you can come back to the lexicon notice that the ~ord. either because you did not know or remember the meaning. and retention of your Hebrew skills. set in order • VI. and (4) new words--review three times per day at least (vocabulary break time from other work).--bad. DOODLE ACTUALIZE: Create a mental picture. Vocab. ASSOCIATE the oral vocabular~ word with some English word. a stic . sometimes aloud.. parts of the body. Antonyms :l)'O--good ~1. Indicate where you first encountered the word. card.Heb. To this point. etc. vocalizing. "0Y . (2) almost learned--review bi-weekly.g. monthly later. items in a scene. and revie~ the passage where 1t flrst oame up. Guess words from their context and/or cognates. if it is warranted. Then.g. CONCEPTUALIZE V.) yrnNORIZEA FEW I~WORTANT VERSES: even doing one per week will do wonders for your Hebrew vocabular.y knowledge of syntax. E..\ (a rackJ--to arrange. ( READ THE HEBREW BIBLE. READ WRITEGoing through the mechanics of eyemovement han -movemen . --rich III. One of the cleverest diagrams of Greek prepositions showed named mice in relation to a piece of cheese! Draw a stick figure or label a picture.B. or because a special nuance was involved. . pun. in brief units of time is advantageous.igure scene. N. read the English. (Do not confuse this with exegesis!) MARK YOUR LEXICON. (3) active review--review daily. The more you do this the easier it gets. a non-idiomatic translation such as ASV is best for this purpose. or word list to indicate words which you have had to look up before. rework the Hebrew. IV. consideration has been given primarily to beginning the process of learning vocabulary words. Don't be afraid to do this in parallel with your English Bible: attempt the Hebrew. The following suggestions may help you retain them... (Make a Vocab. (halem) .had given yOu ~roblems before. Look up as few as possible. e. 20D 4 r ?:!:--poor D. Studying words. so keep ~cratch paper handy to write out a word twenty times (if need be) and study aloud some of the time.

N. n"x. sign uses the form alternative 3mp. 38.B. To remember them.(and Second. The man is not (over) there. The Inseparable Prepositions and~~ with Pronominal Suffixes. As an adverb of place. is in the house. There is (2) a man. e."have two different uses in English. ~ )~. the second use above corresponds to the Hebrew word~"(over) there. in that place. except in the forms with two consonants as suffix--2mp. 61). house" isn't is in the is formed with the verb "to be" and will be explained later (Par.Comments. a man in the house. 21 (There il!l no "p . There's the man! Quite 9bviously. w~ich is difficult to represent in printed form.on LESSON 7 6. obj. you could add them as alternatives to the paradigms. (holem) . First. The man is (bve~) there. e." but what does the first use of English ''there'' correspond to in Hebrew'? The Hebrew equivalent to "There is a man" is a sentence without a verb. f English.g.g. more usually.g. The Hebrew equivalent to "There is a man" (wnich predicates existence) and to "There isn't a man" (which predicates nonexistence) is a sentence with the quasi-verbal words £6~. 3fp). 2fp. .h Lea. notice the alternative forms given for three of the third plural forms. e.g. There A man is a man in the house. notice that the def. (IA) or. depending upon the vocal intonation. e.) 37. p . What is important to see in this connection is that the words "There is a man" or "There is not a rp. (IB) There is There Another Hebrew equivalent to "A man a man in the house. except perhaps 1n the case of (lB) by underlining the verb. 20" d. (1) In clauses in which the real subject follows the verb of the clause. There is not a man.a~ing wi1. Predication of Existence Be sure you understand the two common uses of "therell in .