You are on page 1of 48

EE5702R Advance Power System

Analysis:: Introduction
Panida Jirutitijaroen
Fall 2011
17/08/2011
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 1
ABOUT THIS CLASS
Assessment
Tentative syllabus
Learning outcomes
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 2
About This Class
• Instructors:
– Asst. Prof. Panida Jirutitijaroen (1
st
half)
– Assoc. Prof. Chang Che Sau (2
nd
half)
• Core module for MEng or PhD students majoring in Power
and Energy area, seen from suffice ‘R’.
• Assume that all students have adequate background in
power systems analysis equivalent to EE4501.
• Assume that all students are familiar with software used to
perform analysis such as C program or MATLAB.
• Fundamental materials for power systems analysis.
• Followed by case studies to discuss current research
activities. Students prepare report and discuss their
findings in class.
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 3
Assessment
• Homework 20%
– To test your understanding in the fundamental concepts
• Case Study 10%
– To apply your knowledge to analyze and evaluate related
materials in research papers
• Two Mini-Projects 40%
– To be able to formulate the problem, run experiments,
analyze the results and draw conclusion based on the
knowledge acquired.
• Final 30%
– To test your knowledge in the subject.
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 4
Tentative Syllabus
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 5
Week Topics Instructor Assignment Due
1
2:17/08 Overview of power system
operation. Network representation.
PJ Homework 1,
Homework 4
3:24/08 Power flow analysis I PJ Mini-Project 1
4:31/08 Power flow analysis II PJ Homework 2 Homework 1
5:07/09 Economic dispatch and optimal
power flow
PJ Case Study 1 Homework 2
6:14/09 Power system state estimation I PJ Homework 3
Recess:
21/09
Power system state estimation II PJ Case Study 2,
Mini-Project 2
Homework 3
7:28/09 Case study 1&2 presentation PJ
8:05/10 Transient stability I CS Mini-Project 1
9:12/10 Transient stability II CS Homework 4
10:19/10 Small-perturbation stability I CS Homework 5
11:26/10 Small-perturbation stability II CS Homework 5
12:02/11 Load-frequency stability CS Homework 6 Mini-Project 2
13:09/11 Homework 6
Learning Outcome
• Understand fundamental concepts in power
system analysis, namely, power flow, optimal
power flow, state estimation, transient stability,
small-perturbation stability, load-frequency
control.
• Apply fundamental to solve application problems.
– Formulate the problem
– Design the experiment
– Draw conclusion
• Understand and evaluate research papers using
fundamental concepts.
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 6
Today’s Outline
• Overview of power systems
• Component modeling
• Network modeling
• Network solution
• IEEE test system
• Homework 1
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 7
Reading Materials
• MATLAB tutorial
• Background reading
– Chapter 2 Basic Principle, “Power Systems Analysis 2nd edition”
by Arthur R. Bergen and Vijay Vittal.
– Chapter 2 Fundamentals, “Power System Analysis and Design
4th edition”by J. Duncan Glover, Mulukutla S. Sarma, Thomas J.
Overbye.
• Today’s material
– Chapter 9.1-9.3, Network Matrices, “Power Systems Analysis
2nd edition” by Arthur R. Bergen and Vijay Vittal.
• Supplementary reading
– Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Electric Power System by Xiao-Ping
Zhang
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 8
OVERVIEW OF POWER SYSTEMS
Main components in power systems
One line diagram
Power system operation and control
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 9
Main Components of a Power System
• Generation (11 – 36 KV)
• Transmission and distribution (110 – 765 KV)
• Load (0.12 – 138 KV)
– Industrial customer (23 – 138 KV)
– Commercial customer (4.16 – 34.5 KV)
– Residential customer (120 – 240 V)
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 10
Taken from FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRIC
POWER SYSTEMS by Xiao - Ping Zhang
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 11
Balanced 3Ф Circuit
• Why 3-phase?
– More efficient use of equipment
and materials: 3 conductors
instead of 6.
– Saving in losses
• Any pair of voltage sources
differ by 120° with equal
impedance
• 2 sequences, positive and
negative
• In practice, phase sequence
depends on how we label the
wires.
R I
2
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 12
° Z = 0 1
an
V
° ÷ Z = 120 1
bn
V
° + Z = 120 1
cn
V
Positive
sequence,
abc
° Z = 0 1
an
V
° + Z = 120 1
bn
V
° ÷ Z = 120 1
cn
V
Negative
sequence,
acb
A One-line Diagram
• Show the
interconnections of a
transmission system
– Generator
– Load
– Transmission line
– Transformer
• 3Ф circuit
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 13
Power System Operation and Control
• Power flow analysis is the fundamental tool
for,
– Operational planning
– Operation control
– Security analysis
– Power system planning
• Security-constrained economic dispatch
• Optimal power flow
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 14
Energy Management System
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 15
COMPONENT MODELING
Generator
Transmission line
Transformer
Load
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 16
Generator
• Simple steady-state equivalent circuit.
• Governor controls valve which, as a result,
controls constant power.
• Generator field current controls constant
voltage magnitude.
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 17
+
~
-
o Z
a
E
i i
D D
jQ P +
G
z
i i
G G
jQ P +
Load
• Steady-state mode, three types:-
– Constant power (kVA with pf) such as motor load.
– Constant current (A) such as welding machine
with constant current source.
– Constant impedance (Ohm) such as lighting.
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 18
i i
D D
jQ P +
i
D
I
i
D
z
Transmission Line Model
• Medium-length model (Π-equivalent circuit)
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 19
1
I
2
I
1
V
2
V
2
y
2
y
z
+
-
+
-
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷
÷ +
=
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1 1
2
V
V
z
y
z
z z
y
I
I
Z is the series impedance of the line = R + jX (ohm)
Y is the total shunt admittance of the line = -jB (mho)
Transformer Model
• Transformer (except phase shifting
transformer)
• Caution: usually the transformer parameter is
given as ‘per unit’. If there is a change of base,
this value needs to be adjusted accordingly.
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 20
1
I
2
I
1
V
2
V
p.u.
y
+
-
+
-
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
p.u. p.u.
p.u. p.u.
2
1
V
V
y y
y y
I
I
A Tap-Changing Transformer
• A tap-changing transformer,
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 21
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
2
2
1
V
V
y
a
y
a
y
a
y
I
I
1
I
2
I
1
V
2
V
+
-
+
-
a:1
p.u.
y
1
I
2
I
1
V
2
V
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
p.u.
1
a
a
y
+
-
+
-
a
y
p.u.
|
.
|

\
|
÷
a
a
y
1
p.u.
What will happen if the we have phase-shift transformer instead
of a tap-changing transformer?
A Transmission Line with Transformer
• Transmission line with transformer
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 22
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
÷ + +
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
2 2
2
1
1
2
1 1 1
1 1
2
1 1
V
V
az
y
z a
a
az
az az a
y
z a
a
I
I
1
I
2
I
1
V
2
V
z
+
-
+
-
a:1
2
y
2
y
1
I
2
I
1
V
2
V
+
-
+
-
az
1
2 2
2
1 1
a
y
z a
a
+
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
1 1 y
z a
a
+
|
.
|

\
|
÷
NETWORK MODELING
Node voltage equation
Bus admittance matrix
Bus admittance matrix by inspection
Example
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 23
Node Voltage Equation
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 24
( )
q p
q p
p p
V
z
V
z
y
z
V V
y V I
1 1
1 1
÷
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
÷
+ =
( )
q p
p q
q q
V
z
y V
z z
V V
y V I
|
.
|

\
|
+ + ÷ =
÷
+ =
1 1
2 2
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷
÷ +
=
(
¸
(

¸

q
p
q
p
V
V
z
y
z
z z
y
I
I
1 1
1 1
2
1
p
I
q
I
p
V
q
V
1
y
2
y
z
+
-
+
-
Z = impedance (R+jX) and Y = admittance
Bus Admittance Matrix
• : Bus admittance matrix
• Matrix form of node voltage equation,
where = Vector of injected node current
= Vector of node voltage
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 25
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷
÷ +
=
(
¸
(

¸

q
p
q
p
V
V
z
y
z
z z
y
I
I
1 1
1 1
2
1
p
I
q
I
p
V
q
V
1
y
2
y
z
+
-
+
-
V Y I
bus
=
I
bus
Y
V
bus
Y
Bus Admittance Matrix by Inspection
• Symmetric matrix:
• Diagonal entries:
= Sum of the admittance of all components
connected to node i.
• Off-diagonal entries:
= Negative of the admittance of all components
connected between node i and j.
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 26
( ) k k,
bus
Y
( ) m k,
bus
Y
( ) ( ) k m m k , ,
bus bus
Y Y =
Can Y-bus be non-symmetric?
Bus Admittance Matrix: Example
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 27
G1
G2
Load
1 2
3 4
12
y
13
y
24
y
34
y
load
y
1
G
z
2
G
z
Z- impedance
Y- admittance
NETWORK SOLUTION
Motivation
Triangular Factorization
Gaussian elimination
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 28
Motivation
• Given Ybus, nodal voltage equation is,
• Our goal is to find node voltage magnitude
and angle.
• Different operating condition leads to
different external sources (current injection).
• Most of the time Y bus remains constant.
• To find ‘V’, (not so) simple Y bus inversion?
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 29
V Y I
bus
=
Numerical Solution of Linear Equations
• Matrix inversion is NOT an easy job for a large
dimension problem.
• Common computationally efficient algorithm:-
– Triangular factorization
L is lower triangular matrix
U is upper triangular matrix.
– Applicable to square matrix, not necessarily
symmetric.
– Together with Gaussian elimination
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 30
LU Y =
bus
Solution Procedure
• From ,
• First we find,
• Then,
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 31
LU Y =
bus
LUV V Y I = =
bus
V L I
~
=
UV V =
~
Backward substitution
Forward substitution
Lower and Upper Triangular Matrix
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 32
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
33
23 22
13 12 11
32 31
21
0 0
0
1
0 1
0 0 1
u
u u
u u u
l l
l LU M
Work backward to find the
l’s and u’s elements
Y21(1) ← Y21(0)/Y11(0)
Y31(1) ← Y31(0)/Y11(0)
Y22(1) ← Y22(0) – [Y21(0)Y12(0)]/Y11(0)
Y23(1) ← Y23(0) – [Y21(0)Y13(0)]/Y11(0)
Y32(1) ← Y32(0) – [Y31(0)Y12(0)]/Y11(0)
Y33(1) ← Y33(0) – [Y31(0)Y13(0)]/Y11(0)
2nd iteration
Y32(2) ← Y32(1)/Y22(1)
Y33(2) ← Y33(1) – [Y32(1)Y23(1)]/Y22(1)
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= '
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
u l l
u u l
u u u
Y
Calculate new value and overwrite
the original Y bus to save memory
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + +
+ + =
33 23 32 13 31 22 32 12 31 11 31
23 13 21 22 12 21 11 21
13 12 11
u u l u l u l u l u l
u u l u u l u l
u u u
M
From original Y bus
1
st
iteration
Triangular Factorization Algorithm
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 33
END
kk
ik
ik
Y
Y
Y =
kk
ki ik
ij ij
Y
Y Y
Y Y ÷ =
i = k+1, …, n
i, j = k+1, …, n
START, k = 1
0 =
kk
Y
No
Yes
k = k+1
k = n
Yes
No
Y bus is n x n matrix
When will the algorithm
be unstable and how to
prevent it?
Triangular Factorization Example
• Find L and U of the following matrix.
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 34
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
5 1 3
1 2 3
2 3 5
A
Ill-Conditioned Y bus Matrix
• If Ykk is very small, the algorithm may be unstable.
• Can be fix by permutation.
• In addition, the computation time depends on number
of non-zero elements, permutation may help to reduce
this number.
• For more information, read:
– FERNANDO L. ALVARADO, WILLIAM F. TINNEY, and MARK
K. ENNS, “SPARSITY IN LARGE-SCALE NETWORK
COMPUTATION”, Advances in electric Power and Energy
Conversion System Dynamics and Control,” Academic
Press, 1991, C. T. Leondes, editor (with permission).
Corrections 15 Feb 93.
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 35
NETWORK REDUCTION
Motivation
Kron reduction
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 36
Motivation
• Consider the matrix in this example.
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 37
G1
G2
Impedance
Load
1 2
3 4
What is the current injection to node 2 and 3?
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

4
3
2
1
44 43 42 41
34 33 32 31
24 23 22 21
14 13 12 11
4
1
0
0
V
V
V
V
y y y y
y y y y
y y y y
y y y y
I
I
KRON Reduction
• Eliminate node with zero injection to reduce
the size of Y bus matrix.
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 38
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

3
2
1
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
2
1
0 V
V
V
y y y
y y y
y y y
I
I
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
33
32 23
22
33
31 13
21
33
32 13
12
33
31 13
11
2
1
V
V
y
y y
y
y
y y
y
y
y y
y
y
y y
y
I
I
2
33
32
1
33
31
3
V
y
y
V
y
y
V ÷ ÷ =
kk
kj ik
ij
new
ij
y
y y
y y ÷ =
To eliminate node k: i,j = I,2, .. ,n,
IEEE TEST SYSTEM
Test case archive
IEEE common data format
14 bus test system
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 39
Power Systems Test Case Archive
• Managed by Richard D.
Christie, an Associate
Professor at the
University of
Washington, Seattle,
Washington, USA
• http://www.ee.washing
ton.edu/research/pstca
/
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 40
Thanks!, Richard.
IEEE Common Data Format
• http://www.ee.washing
ton.edu/research/pstca
/formats/cdf.txt
– Title data
– Bus data
– Branch data
– Loss zone data
– Interchange data
– Tie line data
• Data type codes:
– A - Alphanumeric (no
special characters)
– I - Integer
– F - Floating point
– * - Mandatory item
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 41
14-Bus Common Data Format
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 42
Title data
Bus data
Branch data
Title Data
• Columns 2- 9 Date, in format DD/MM/YY with
leading zeros. If no date provided, use 0b/0b/0b
where b is blank.
• Columns 11-30 Originator's name (A)
• Columns 32-37 MVA Base (F*)
• Columns 39-42 Year (I)
• Column 44 Season (S - Summer, W - Winter)
• Column 46-73 Case identification (A)
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 43
Date Originator’s name MVA base Year Season Case Identification
Bus Data
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 44
Bus number
Name (left justify)
Type of bus, 0-load bus, 2-generator bus, 3 swing bus
Final voltage (pu) and angle (degree)
Load P (MW)
Load Q (MVAR)
Generation (MW) Generation (MVAR)
Controlled voltage (pu) Shunt susceptance B (pu)
Branch Data
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 45
Branch resistance R (pu)
Branch reactance X (pu)
Line charging B (pu) (total line charging,
for each bus, this has to be divided by
two)
Transformer turns ratio
Tap bus number
Z bus number
7
V
4
V
+
-
+
-
0.978:1 j0.20912
Example:
Homework 1: 14-Bus Test System
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 46
Find Ybus of this system
MATLAB Basics
• http://www.mathworks.com/help/techdoc/le
arn_matlab/bqr_2pl.html
• Read
– Matrices and Arrays:
http://www.mathworks.com/help/techdoc/learn_
matlab/f2-8955.html
– Programming:
http://www.mathworks.com/help/techdoc/learn_
matlab/f4-8955.html
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 47
Next Lecture
• Power flow equations
• Power flow problem
• Iterative solution techniques
• N-R Application to power flow problem
• Mini-project I
8/11/2011 EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen 48