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# Experiment 1: CALIBRATION OF WIND TUNNEL TE-54 Aim: Calibration of wind tunnel TE-54 Goal: To establish a relationship between dynamic pressure (observed

) and velocity. Instruments: Pitot-static tube, TE-54 small wind tunnel, U tube manometer, thermometer, pressure gauge. Theoretical background: Bernoulli‟s equation for incompressible flows.

Explore and find out: Incompressible flow, Bernoulli‟s equation, static pressure, dynamic pressure, total pressure Pitot-static tube, hydraulic diameter, Reynolds number You will need to record: Local air temperature, atmospheric pressure, static pressure, dynamic pressure. You will require: Air density, air viscosity. Report: All measurements, plot of velocity (y-axis) vs. ∆p (in mm of water), discussion.

4. Compare with theory. Report: Report should contain: Measured data. Definition of uniformity of velocity. To establish the uniformity of velocity in the test section along the vertical direction at two locations in the longitudinal direction. 2: UNIFORMITY OF VELOCITY AND BL THICKNESS IN SMALL WIND TUNNEL (TE-54) Aims: 1. 3. Pressure gradient along the test section. Pressure gradient along a surface and its measurement? 6. Report your data and results. 5.EXP. is it laminar or turbulent? Give reasons for your answer. 8. Reynolds number for test section. plots of boundary layer profiles at the two sections. Ideal pressure gradient in a good wind tunnel test section. Classification of BL in this test section. Estimate the thickness of the boundary layer on the bottom and top walls of the test section at the two locations. Boundary layer on a flat plate. answers to questions and issues raised in „explore and find out‟. 7. . Other flow qualities of a good wind tunnel test section. Laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Comparison with theory. Expression in mathematical terms? 2. Typical theoretical profile for BL on a flat plate with and without pressure gradient. 9. Discussion on results obtained. 2. plots of velocity profiles at each individual section. Theoretical background: Explore and find out: Bernoulli‟s equation for incompressible flows. To do: Plan an experiment to achieve the aims. 1. BL thickness. How to measure velocity using Pitot-static tube? Instruments required? 3. Items 1 and 2 to be repeated at two different Reynolds numbers.

Results from inviscid theory. Theoretical background: Explore and find out: 1.SURFACE PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION Aims: Measure the pressure distribution on surface of a cylinder. comparison with published experimental and theoretical data. previous experimental. Definition of static. Reynolds number. 3: FLOW PAST A CYLINDER. 5. Precautions when measuring pressure. Techniques to measure them. Published experimental data for subcritical and supercritical flow past a cylinder. 2. trapezoidal rule. numerical integration.EXP. Report your data and results with comparisons and discussion. angle. Compare with theory. Bernoulli‟s equation for incompressible flows. lift and drag coefficients. and CFD data. Reynolds number. theoretical and CFD data. total. 6. [Bonus] 4. To do: Plan an experiment to achieve the aims. Report:Your report should contain graphs of measured pressure coefficient vs. Use data to compute drag and lift. See text book on Aerodynamics for experimental and theoretical data for flow past a cylinder. comparison with theory. Your critical comments. Compare with available experimental. 3. CFD solution of flow past cylinder using STAR CCM or FLUENT and determination of surface pressure distribution. dynamic pressure and pressure coefficient. .

Report your data and results with comparisons and discussion. To do: Plan an experiment to achieve the aims. Pitot-static tube. Measurement of velocity at a point. relationship between wake velocity profile of object and drag.EXP. Trapezoidal rule. dependence of drag coefficient on Reynolds number. published data on variation of Cd of a cylinder with Reynolds number. 4: FLOW PAST A CYLINDER.ESTIMATION OF DRAG FROM WAKE VELOCITY PROFILE Aims: Estimation of drag and drag coefficient of a cylinder from wake velocity profiles at several Reynolds numbers. Report: Measured velocity profiles. Compare with theory. comparison with published data. drag. Bernoulli‟s equation for incompressible flows. drag coefficient. . wake of a cylinder. Reynolds numbers. critical comments. application of trapezoidal rule using MS-EXCEL and MATLAB or equivalents. numerical integration. Theoretical background: Explore and find out: 1. drag coefficient.

To do: Plan experiments to observe the phenomenon of choking. Your critical comments and discussion. compute important numbers for comparison. Predict pressure in the nozzle using 1D inviscid theory and compare with experimental results. use graphical representation. existence of shocks. . critical pressure.EXP. behaviour of nozzles with varying back ressure ratios. Explore and find out: Theoretical behaviour of converging and converging-diverging nozzles in 1D inviscid compressible flow. back pressure. choking. Comparison of experimental and theoretical behaviour of converging and converging-diverging nozzles. variation of pressure along the length of the nozzles. McGraw-Hill. Report: Measured data. Theory : Study Chapter 8 of Compressible Fluid Flow text book by Oosthuizen and Carscallen. stagnation pressure. critical pressure ratio. shocks in nozzles. 5: COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN NOZZLES Aims: To observe the behaviour of converging and converging-diverging nozzles at various back pressure to stagnation pressure ratios.

Explore and find out: Thin airfoil theory. 6: MEASUREMENT OF LIFT. Goal: Measure lift. finite wing. theoretical aerodynamic coefficients.EXP. To do: Plan an experiment to use the 3-component balance and determine aerodynamic coefficients. . See: Text book in Aerodynamics or Principles of Flight. limits of theory. comparison of theory with past experiments. discussion. comparison with thin airfoil theory. airfoil. Report: Measured data. drag. critical comments. variation of lift. DRAG AND PITCHING MOMENT Aim: Use a 3-component balance to measure forces and moments. drag and moment coefficients with angle of attack. and pitching moment at various angles of attack. and their variation with angle of attack. determine aerodynamic coefficients. stall. relationship between aerodynamic coefficients of airfoil and finite wing.

mean. mean velocity. turbulence intensity. Report: Calibration curve. To do: Read the CTA manual on calibration and determination of TI. (round jet). rms velocity. 7: CALIBRATION OF CTA AND MEASUREMENT OF TURBULENCE INTENSITY Aim: Calibrate the Hot-wire anemometer (CTA) and use it to determine the turbulence intensity in a one-dimensional flow field. fluctuating. Goal: Perform calibration of the CTA using the 1-D probe in the selected velocity range. CTA probes and their uses. and rms velocities. turbulence intensity. Explore and find out: Turbulence. Use the calibration curve to determine mean and rms values of the velocity and the turbulence intensity. .EXP.

The tunnel and atmospheric pressure data are absolute pressures. Bothe the upper and lower surface coordinates are given. Draw smooth curves. Hence the absolute pressure at any tapping point on the airfoil surface is the gauge pressure at that point + atmospheric pressure. The electronic gauges are located outside the tunnel. All pressures are in Pascals (N/m2). Check second data sheet on location of wake velocity measurement points. Repeat computations for the data from the textbook.EXPERIMENT 8: ESTIMATION OF AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS OF NACA 4412 USING IIUM LSWT DATA Aim: Compute lift. Use simplified equations(assuming small angle) to compute all aerodynamic properties at various angles of attack. Description: Check the data sheet on airfoil pressure tapping coordinates. . Discuss your results in the same file. Once the pressures have been computed at all points. Plot the results separately for both case A and Case B. Assume small angle of attack so that the equations simplify. The pressures at the tapping points are measured using electronic gauges. hence they are gauge pressures. Draw curves using suitable scale. Data in EXCEL file (Case A): These are pressures measured at the tapping points in the IIUM LSWT. Report: EXCEL file showing all computations and graphs. Also use the wake velocity profile data to estimate drag coefficient. compute Cp at each point. and pitching moment coefficients from the data provided. These are to be used in the expressions for the aerodynamic coefficients. Compare and discuss the results. drag. The data points must be shown. Estimate all aerodynamic coefficients at various angles of attack. Compare with available experimental data. P∞ for the airfoil is the pressure inside the tunnel. These are from previous experiments and available in the book “Aerodynamics for Engineers” by Bertin and Smith. Each column represents a different angle of attack. (Case B) NACA 4412 pressure data at various angles of attack (different than those in the EXCEL data sheet) are given.

BL thickness and its variation along the length for laminar and turbulent flows.EXP. (Zero pressure gradient) at several Reynolds numbers. estimation of BL thickness. Boundary Report: Measured BL profiles. Theoretical background: layer theory. Reynolds number. Compare with theory. To do: Plan an experiment to achieve the aims. All results and discussion may be made on EXCEL or equivalent file. . critical comments. laminar and turbulent BL profiles on a flat plate. Description: Flat plate with several BL mice is installed in the wind tunnel TE-54. Boundary layer on a flat plate. 2. Aim: Measure boundary layer profiles at three locations on a flat plate at zero angle of attack. Use EXCEL or equivalent. Draw a diagram and show location of BL with distance from the leading edge. See books on fluid mechanics and aerodynamics. 9: MEASUREMENT OF BOUNDARY LAYER ON A FLAT PLATE. Check the connections and their sequence. Bernoulli‟s equation for incompressible flows. comparions with theoretical results. Description of Re on a flat plate. Report your data and results with comparisons and discussion. Number the locations. Explore and find out: 1.