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Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators for Flow Control∗
Thomas C. Corke,1 C. Lon Enloe,2 and Stephen P. Wilkinson3
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Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2010.42:505-529. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. For personal use only.

Center for Flow Physics and Control, Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556; email: tcorke@nd.edu Department of Physics, U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80840 Flow Physics and Control Branch, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia 23681-2199

2 3

Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2010. 42:505–29 First published online as a Review in Advance on September 21, 2009 The Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics is online at fluid.annualreviews.org This article’s doi: 10.1146/annurev-fluid-121108-145550 Copyright c 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 0066-4189/10/0115-0505$20.00 The U.S. Government has the right to retain a nonexclusive, royalty-free license in and to any copyright covering this paper.

Key Words
aerodynamic control, ionized gasses, body force

Abstract
The term plasma actuator has now been a part of the fluid dynamics flowcontrol vernacular for more than a decade. A particular type of plasma actuator that has gained wide use is based on a single–dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) mechanism that has desirable features for use in air at atmospheric pressures. For these actuators, the mechanism of flow control is through a generated body-force vector field that couples with the momentum in the external flow. The body force can be derived from first principles, and the effect of plasma actuators can be easily incorporated into flow solvers so that their placement and operation can be optimized. They have been used in a wide range of internal and external flow applications. Although initially considered useful only at low speeds, plasma actuators are effective in a number of applications at high subsonic, transonic, and supersonic Mach numbers, owing largely to more optimized actuator designs that were developed through better understanding and modeling of the actuator physics. New applications continue to appear through a growing number of programs in the United States, Germany, France, England, the Netherlands, Russia, Australia, Japan, and China. This review provides an overview of the physics and modeling of SDBD plasma actuators. It highlights some of the capabilities of plasma actuators through examples from experiments and simulations.

505

1. BACKGROUND
There has been increasing interest in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators for flow control in the past 10 years worldwide. The tremendous growth in research stems from their special features, including the fact that they are fully electronic with no moving parts; a fast time response for unsteady applications; a very low mass, which is especially important in applications with high g-loads; the ability to apply the actuators onto surfaces without the addition of cavities or holes; the efficient conversion of the input power without parasitic losses when properly optimized (Enloe et al. 2004b, Orlov 2006, Roth & Dai 2006, Thomas et al. 2009); and the ability to simulate easily their effect in numerical flow solvers (Corke et al. 2006, Orlov 2006). The specific DBD configuration used for plasma actuators consists of two electrodes, one uncoated and exposed to the air and the other encapsulated by a dielectric material; hence, we refer to this configuration as single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD). For plasma actuator applications, the electrodes are arranged in a highly asymmetric geometry as opposed to the parallel-plate arrangement common in industrial DBD uses. An example configuration is shown in Figure 1. The electrodes are supplied with an AC voltage that, at high enough levels, causes the air over the covered electrode to weakly ionize (typically less than 1-ppm weakly ionized gas). In the classic description, the ionized air is a plasma, which is why these are referred to as plasma actuators (Cavalieri 1995, Corke & Matlis 2000, Corke et al. 2001). The ionized air appears blue, characteristic of the composition of the air as ionized components of the air recombine and deexcite (Davidson & O’Neil 1964). The emission intensity is extremely low, requiring a darkened space to view by eye. In the presence of the electric field produced by the electrode geometry, the ionized air results in a body-force vector field that acts on the ambient (nonionized, neutrally charged) air. The body force is the mechanism for active aerodynamic control. Langmuir (1928) introduced the term plasma into the physics literature to denote a net electrically neutral region of gas discharge. This definition has been broadened since and now refers to a system of particles whose collective behavior is characterized by long-range Coulomb interactions

Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2010.42:505-529. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. For personal use only.

a

Induced flow

Plasma Dielectric layer

Voltage source

AC

Actuator location reference

b
Covered electrode

Exposed electrode edge

Figure 1 Schematic illustration of a single–dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator (a) and photograph of ionized air at 1-atm pressure that forms over an electrode covered by a dielectric layer (b).
506 Corke

· ·
Enloe

Wilkinson

A traditional (industrial) arrangement for creating a self-sustained gas discharge at low pressures of a few torr or less has involved separated facing electrodes. The minimum breakdown electric field is a function of the driving frequency. the electric field needed to sustain the plasma. which is the value needed to sustain electron-ion pairs in the gas in the absence of spacecharge fields (Kunhardt 1980.e. At atmospheric pressure. Nonetheless. as to almost all. the current density in a normal glow discharge scales with the square of the static pressure. As the static pressure increases at constant current. For AC fields. LLewellyn-Jones 1966. Ic . they are often described as collisional. with only small deviations possible locally. The current in the boundary region consists of two components: the conduction current. In addition. Kunhardt & Luessen 1981. the cross-sectional area of plasma decreases with increasing pressure at constant current. Eb .. Raizer 1991). and the displacement current. This favors AC operation over DC because of the lower breakdown voltage requirement and lack of real currents responsible for electrode corrosion effects. that flows between the electrodes. is lower than Eb . I. When the operating conditions (applied field. Therefore. whose role is to provide current continuity at this interface. Kunhardt & Luessen 1981). Es . when considering any gain an application might provide in system efficiency. Raizer 1991). A gas discharge is created when an electric field of sufficient amplitude is applied to a volume of gas to generate electron-ion pairs through electron impact ionization of the neutral gas (Kunhardt 1980.annualreviews. Id is zero. As a consequence of the plasma conductivity. This is a property of air at atmospheric pressures typical of flight. Rev. LLewellyn-Jones 1966. For DC fields. the total density of negatively and positively charged particles in any region of the plasma is approximately equal. Fluid Mech. Highlighting another property of plasma discharges in air. and neutral particles. Kunhardt & Luessen 1981. Meek & Craggs 1978. Roth 1995). Once created. For personal use only. the discharge is called a normal glow discharge (Kunhardt & Luessen 1981. Downloaded from www. The threshold current for the development of the glow-to-arc transition depends on the operating conditions of the discharge. the quasi-neutral approximation applies to these. The plasma is generated by increasing the amplitude of the electric field above the breakdown electric field. the air discharges consist of a multiplicity of species in numerous charge states. and static pressure) are such that the current density in the boundary region near the cathode is independent of the current flowing in the circuit. the contribution of the displacement current to the total current increases with frequency and can become an important practical consideration in power-supply design. The electric field established by the two electrodes can either be by direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC).org • DBD Plasma Actuators 507 Annu. the plasma frequency (the characteristic frequency of electrostatic oscillations in the plasma). which can either be present from ambient conditions or introduced purposely (Kunhardt 1980. there is a current. . i. and the remaining conduction current consists of electron and ion components. or greater than. The optimum AC frequency depends on the static pressure and the particular gas. Nasser 1971. Id . Meek & Craggs 1978. This requires the presence of an initiating number of free electrons. LLewellyn-Jones 1966. Many aerodynamic flow-control applications would require plasma actuators to operate near atmospheric pressure.42:505-529. positive ions. 2010. one needs to factor in the www.annualreviews. the current density increases until the threshold for the development of instabilities leading to a transition to an arc phase is reached. Although plasmas are often simply considered as interpenetrating fluids consisting of electrons. Raizer 1991. the electron-neutral collision frequency is of the order of. The difference between the breakdown and sustaining electric fields is a function of the operating conditions (LLewellyn-Jones 1966. electrode cross-sectional area. the relevant regime for DBD plasma actuators.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. For constant current. plasmas—that is. Raizer 1991). Nasser 1971.(Kunhardt 2000). including negative ions. A region is formed between the plasma and the cathode electrode. Eb is generally lower for an AC input.

Barrier discharges can be operated in various modes (e. 1994. This is because of the self-termination of the discharge. Several discharge stages could occur during a halfcycle of the driving oscillation. For personal use only.annualreviews.g. The dielectric barrier configuration also supports a uniform diffuse discharge operation. the electrodes must be energized with an AC field. use a dielectric barrier on the surface of one or both electrodes. the conditions that support this mode of the discharge are specific enough that they are unlikely to be encountered in a device designed for aerodynamic applications. each of which has a limited lifetime. The timescale of the process depends on the gas composition. during one half of the AC cycle. In sinusoidally driven DBDs. rising only slightly. The internal electric field caused by the accumulation of electrons on the dielectric surface reduces the local field strength. each producing a distinct filament pattern. 1994. 1997). the plasma forms in nonthermal equilibrium (not to be confused with nonequilibrium plasma due to excitation time dependency) in which the electrical energy coupled into the gas is mainly used to produce energetic electrons while the gas remains approximately at ambient temperature. Roth 1995. Self-termination results from the accumulation of electrons at the dielectric surface facing the cathode. The passage of the streamer across the discharge gap locally charges this capacitance. The electrode separation is usually small. The filaments are essentially streamer discharges whose lifetimes are governed by the capacitance of the dielectric barrier (Eliasson & Kogelschatz 1991). 1989. the gas type. Kogelschatz et al..org by Brown University on 10/14/13. 2010. 1994. Downloaded from www. although other gases have been used including air (Decomps et al. 1996. · · Enloe Wilkinson . For an SDBD. 1990.power required to operate the actuators.42:505-529. (2001) have studied time-resolved images of spatiotemporal patterns in a onedimensional (1D) DBD system. Decomps et al. 1998. 1990). In air at atmospheric pressure.g. 1998. 1998). Massines et al. In this mode. They obtained images of plasma filaments that revealed discharge stages that lasted only approximately 100 ns. however. Trunec et al. excitation frequency. and the excitation power. 1998). The mechanisms that play a role in this are well understood (e. Kanzawa et al. electrons are supplied by surface discharges on the dielectric and move toward the metal electrode. Kogoma & Okazaki 1994. 1996. In some discharges. Rev. 1990. 1988). because of the dielectric layer. Although interesting from a scientific standpoint. diffuse. Yokoyama et al. Fluid Mech. there was a temporal structure but spatial disorder. Okazaki and coworkers were among the first to use this approach (Kanazawa et al. Barrier discharges have been operated historically in the microdischarge mode (Eliasson & Kogelschatz 1991. A good review of the various modes and terms is presented by Kogelschatz (2002). it occurs within a few tens of nanoseconds (Falkenstein & Coogan 1997). Roth 1995. which prevents microdischarges from degenerating into thermal arcs (Falkenstein & Coogan 1997). and the terminology can often become confusing. electrons leave the metal electrode and move toward the dielectric.. 1988. of the order of a few centimeters. All techniques. 1994) developed a 1D model for the DBD dynamics based on the numerical solution of the electron and ion continuity and momentum transfer equations coupled to Poisson’s equation. filamentary. where they accumulate locally. Massines and coworkers (BenGadri et al. Thus there is a need to consider the actuator’s most efficient operating conditions to maximize its effect with respect to input power. The electron density of the plasma generated by this mode is of the order of 1010 cm−3 . Rabehi et al. In the reverse half of the cycle. Massines et al. As is typical in 508 Corke Annu. patterned. and the microdischarges choke themselves as the extinction field is reached (Falkenstein & Coogan 1997). Kline et al. 1993. the discharge consists of a number of parallel filaments. reversing the local field and thus terminating the filament. Trunec et al. Massines et al. and other parameters. and in others there was both temporal and spatial disorder. The discharge is most stable in helium and mixtures that contain helium. as shown by Okazaki and coworkers (Kanazawa et al. 1998. In this case. The stability of the diffuse mode depends on the AC frequency. Okazaki et al. microdischarge).

indicate it to be a highly dynamic. (1998. the electrons and ions were assumed to be in equilibrium with the electric field. Velocity surveys of the actuator-induced flow by Roth et al.annualreviews. Any simulation models for these actuators need to produce this behavior. To the unaided eye. the air ionizes. Their model gave space and time variations in the electric field. marked by smoke. they observed that ambient air. They investigated a number of electrode geometries. When the AC amplitude is large enough so that the electric field exceeds Eb . and the electron and ion densities. spatially evolving.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. With this electrode configuration. was drawn toward the covered electrode. The authors accounted for the charge accumulation on the dielectric as the discharge develops and derived the voltage boundary conditions for dielectrics by considering an equivalent circuit of the gas gap in series with the equivalent capacitor of the dielectric. Photograph of smoke tube introduced at the edge of a boundary layer that is bent toward the wall by a plasma actuator oriented so that the electrodes are parallel to the streamwise direction. the electrodes are aligned parallel to the mean flow direction. the input waveform is sinusoidal. Figure taken from Post 2001. Enloe et al. Time-resolved images of the ionization process. 2000). Fluid Mech. 2000) documented a wall-normal mean velocity profile that is similar to what might be produced by a tangential wall jet. A similar photograph recorded by Post (2001) is shown in Figure 2. Experimental Observations In classic DBD processes. For personal use only. The ionized air is always observed to form over the electrode that is covered by the dielectric. The deflection of the external flow toward the surface of the dielectric and the jetting of the flow in the direction of the exposed electrode toward the covered electrode are hallmarks of this actuator design. Rev. One of the earliest low-speed demonstrations of a plasma actuator was performed by Roth et al. This accentuates the width of the stream tube that is drawn toward the wall by the actuator. the ionized air appears to be generally uniform in color and distribution.42:505-529. high-pressure discharges. one of which was similar to that shown in Figure 1. with some structure evident that often appears attached to a particular location on the exposed electrode. The photograph in Figure 1 is a typical example. (2004a) studied the space-time evolution of the ionized-air light emission over a surface-mounted plasma actuator using a photomultiplier tube fitted with a double-slit aperture www. In this case. 2010. however. Downloaded from www. 2.org • DBD Plasma Actuators 509 .1. They utilized an array of electrodes separated by a glass-epoxy printed-circuit board to manipulate the boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at free-stream velocities from 4 to 26 m s−1 . DIELECTRIC BARRIER DISCHARGE ACTUATOR PHYSICS 2. nonequilibrium process with features that develop on the timescale of the AC period (milliseconds) or less.Flow direction Covered electrode Exposed electrode Plasma actuator (top view) Figure 2 Annu.annualreviews. (1998.

There are several fundamental features of light-emission time series. (2007) and plays an important role in the efficiency of the momentum coupling to the neutrals. For example. they come in the form of fewer. Finally.annualreviews. As time increases. It further suggests that some optimization can come in the selection of the AC waveform to improve the performance of the plasma actuator. Rev. First. in fact. Fluid Mech.4 0. the plasma sweeps out from the junction to cover a portion of the encapsulated electrode. These apparently do not come off as readily. (1998). The slit was parallel to the edge of the exposed electrode and could be moved to different locations over the electrode covered by the dielectric. For personal use only. (2004a). Downloaded from www. This asymmetry has been modeled by Boeuf et al. or when they do. who generally characterize this process as a DBD. (1997). and Kogelschatz et al. The space-time character of the plasma light emission over the covered electrode has a number of interesting features. when it does ionize.6 Time (10–4 s) Time series of photomultiplier-tube (PMT) output (a) that is viewing ionized-air light emission at one location over an electrode covered by a dielectric and corresponding AC input (b) to a plasma actuator. the light emission is made up of narrow spikes that might indicate numerous microdischarges. Figure taken from Orlov 2006. of the AC cycle.0 a 4000 3000 b PMT output normalized by maximum 0. make up the apparently uniform actuator discharge (Figure 4).42:505-529. which is essentially an infinite source that readily gives them up. there is a sharp amplitude peak near the edge of the exposed electrode at the first initiation of the plasma. In the positivegoing half-cycle. The explanation for the difference in the emission character in the two half-cycles is associated with the source of electrons. Time (10–4 s) Figure 3 Voltage 0. Figure 5 shows a composite of light-emission time series similar to the one in Figure 3 but measured at different positions over the dielectric surface. T. This was similarly noted by Gibalov & 510 Corke · · Enloe Wilkinson .8 2000 1000 0 –1000 –2000 –3000 0 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 –4000 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 0. Eliasson & Kogelschatz (1991). A sample time series from Orlov (2006) of the photomultiplier-tube output that was acquired phase locked with the AC input to the actuator is shown in Figure 3. Similar observations have been documented by Enloe et al. Second. 2010.2 Annu. The light emission is taken as an indication of the plasma density. which is a good assumption based on the disparate timescales between the recombination time (order of 10−8 s) (Vidmar & Stalder 2003) and the discharge timescale (order of 10−3 s). its character differs between the first and second halves of the AC cycle. the air is ionized only over part of the AC cycle. The structural difference in each discharge mode is evident in high-speed images of the microdischarges that. to focus on a narrow 2D region of the plasma.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. larger microdischarges. These are shown as contours of constant light-emission intensity for one period. Massines et al.1. the electrons originate from the bare electrode. the electrons originate from the dielectric surface. During the negative-going half-cycle.

As mentioned above. 2003. 2004). Although Hoskinson et al. and it was independent of the AC frequency.42:505-529. However.a b Annu. Rev. the velocity of the fronts is approximately the same for the two halves of the AC cycle. Downloaded from www. Pietsch (2000). As the plasma sweeps out away from the edge of the exposed electrode.annualreviews. He found that the maximum extent increased linearly with increasing AC voltage amplitude. plasma actuators with the asymmetric electrode design in Figure 1 induce a velocity field similar to that of a tangential wall jet. 2006) indicate that the intensity decreases exponentially from the junction.org • DBD Plasma Actuators 511 . the velocity of the plasma front increased linearly with both AC amplitude and frequency. Orlov et al. Orlov 2006. www. but the plasma extent differs. 2004a. no experimental apparatus exists that can implement frame rates in the hundreds of megahertz that would be necessary to image the development of an individual microdischarge event. its light emission appears to become less intense. Voikov et al. (2008) have been able to make some estimates of the development rate of individual microdischarges through careful examination of fast (2–80 ns) gated images. Orlov & Corke 2005. The velocity is represented by the slope. In Orlov’s measurements.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. In Figure 5. For personal use only. 2010. Estimates (Enloe et al. 2008. We note that these measurements indicate the time development of the envelope of the multiple microdischarges that compose the DBD. Enloe et al. This led to the use of an exponential weighting to correct the spatial dependency of the plasma actuator body force in earlier electrostatic flow simulations (Orlov et al. Figure taken from Enloe et al. (2004b) correlated the reaction force (thrust) generated by the induced flow with the actuator AC amplitude.annualreviews. Orlov (2006) investigated the effects of voltage and AC frequency on the extent and propagation velocity of the discharge. A similar experiment was performed by Thomas et al. of the front. highlighting the structural asymmetry between the phases. Fluid Mech. Two global features of the space-time evolution of the plasma formation are the velocity at which the plasma front moves across the dielectric and the maximum extent of the plasma during the AC cycle. (2009) to investigate parameters in the actuator design. dx/dt. the velocity of the discharge front ranged from 70 to 190 m s−1 . Figure 4 High-speed (5-ms exposure) photographs of individual microdischarges in the negative-going (a) and positive-going (b) phases of plasma-actuator discharge.

Thus the dielectric area needed to store charge can be too small to take full advantage of the applied voltage.0 0.5 0.9 0. 2006. C1 .1.3 0. of the input AC cycle. Thomas et al. Post (2004) and Enloe et al.1 0. This was first observed by Enloe et al.3 0.7 0.5 as VAC and begins to asymptote.9 0. the 3. When the air ionizes. Figure 7 shows this model for the SDBD plasma actuator. Fluid Mech. T.5 0.1 0.1 0. corresponds to the value for air. At the lower voltages.3 0.1 0. Orlov et al.7 0. (2004b) showed that.5 0. Figure taken from Orlov 2006. 0. The x axis is the distance over the covered electrode measured from the edge of the bare electrode at the interface of the covered electrode.5 induced thrust was proportional to VAC . (2009) verified the consistency between the reaction force and the fluid momentum by integrating the velocity profiles downstream of the actuator. Downloaded from www. A schematic of their setup and sample results are shown in Figure 6. the maximum velocity induced by the plasma actuator was limited by the area (extent for a unit spanwise width) of the covered electrode. (2004b).1 0.1 t /T 0. For personal use only. Post (2004) found that the maximum 3.org by Brown University on 10/14/13.3 0. which is consistent with conserved momentum in the self-similar velocity-profile region near the actuator. the capacitor. The dissipated power also followed VAC .5 0. Enloe et al.annualreviews. indicating a direct proportionality with the induced momentum.3 0. They considered a model for the air above the dielectric material covering the electrode that consisted of a capacitor and resistor in series.1 Annu. This effect can be observed in the thrust measurements in Figure 6 at the highest voltages for the Teflon dielectric.1 0 0 5 10 20 x (mm) Figure 5 Space-time variation of the measured plasma light emission for a single–dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator corresponding to one period. (2004a) computed the power dissipation in the discharge by sampling the voltage and current waveforms across the electrodes and numerically integrating the product of the waveforms over one period of the discharge to integrate out the reactive power and account exclusively 3.42:505-529. 2010. this capacitor effectively becomes 512 Corke · · Enloe Wilkinson .5 for the power dissipated in the plasma.5 induced velocity was proportional to VAC . at which the thrust no longer increases 3. Before the air ionizes.7 0. Rev.5 0. with increasing AC amplitude.

then form a voltage divider. where ω = 2π/ f AC . For personal use only. The remaining circuit elements. Then one might expect that the 2 2 electrical power dissipated by the plasma would be VAC / R1 or generally be proportional to VAC . a short circuit.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. These include (a) that C2 is not constant but increases with the applied AC voltage and/or (b) that R1 decreases with increasing applied AC voltage.annualreviews. Considering that the sweep-out velocity of the plasma front has been documented to increase with increasing voltage. is given as Z2 = −i /ωC2 . Fluid Mech. There are several possible reasons why the power dissipated by the plasma is not proportional 2 to Vac . C2 would be a constant. Therefore. Downloaded from www. C2 . Rev. of the capacitance.5 Electrodes Induced flow Annu. For a fixed frequency. (2009). 2004a) indicate that this is not the case.annualreviews. experiments (Enloe et al. R1 and C2 . www. the area over the dielectric that composes the capacitance. However. 2004a. the value of C2 is not constant but increases in proportion Plasma Exposed electrode Rp Vac C3 C1A C1B Dielectric surface C2A C2B Insulated electrode Figure 7 Lumped-element circuit model of a single–dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator. increases faster with increasing voltage. Figure taken from Enloe et al. 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 VAC (kV–rms) Figure 6 Schematic of experimental setup for measuring induced thrust from a single–dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator (a) and measured thrust versus applied AC voltage (b).42:505-529.org • DBD Plasma Actuators 513 . 2010.a Dielectric Insulator 100 b Spring scale Induced thrust Thrust (gm) 10–1 Teflon Glass T = C1V3. C2 . Figure taken from Thomas et al. The impedance. and fAC is the AC frequency. Z2 .

2.42:505-529. 2010. specifically the dramatic difference that the presence of oxygen in the air makes in the actuator’s force production. Enloe et al. both effects are in play. (1999) developed a particle-in-cell simulation to study the time-dependent evolution of the potential and the electrical field surrounding 2D objects during a high-voltage pulse. With regard to R1 . Rev. 2004a). However. Fluid Mech. developed by Massines et al. (2006) showed. 2. Therefore.08 0. One final attribute of DBD plasmas as aerodynamic actuators (as opposed to their discharge characteristics alone) is the importance of the species composition of the plasma.org by Brown University on 10/14/13.06 0.’s (2004) electrical model for DBD addressed this with the addition of electrical elements (Zener diodes) that switch the current path between different passive circuit elements to control the characteristics with voltage and frequency. Paulus et al.14 0. These results indicate that models must include the dynamics of the plasma initiation and sweep-out over the dielectric covered electrode that occurs twice during the AC period. (1998). The propensity of oxygen to form negative ions (by electron attachment) adds a species to the composition of the plasma that is usually not accounted for in the typical analysis of plasmas that assumes that positive ions and negative electrons are formed in equal numbers. The dependency of the dissipated power in the plasma and the induced momentum on the applied voltage is an important characteristic that any physical model needs to replicate. that removing oxygen from the air surrounding the plasma actuator only modestly changes its discharge properties (20% in such parameters as discharge current for a given voltage). Figure taken from Enloe et al. to VAC .annualreviews. Downloaded from www. its removal results in a dramatic reduction in the net force produced (by up to 80%). was a 1D model based on a simultaneous solution of the continuity equations for charged and excited particles and the Poisson equation.0.02 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Gas composition (% O2) Figure 8 Plasma-actuator net-force production as a function of the percentage of oxygen. This is illustrated in Figure 8. numerical simulations of the circuit in Figure 7 intended to reproduce the output waveforms observed in experiments indicated that the resistance needed to vary inversely with the applied voltage (Enloe et al.04 0. Naude et al. For personal use only. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Body-Force Models One of the first models for a DBD plasma actuator. The numerical procedure was based on the solution of the Poisson equation on a grid in a 514 Corke · · Enloe Wilkinson . 2006. 0.12 Efficiency (mN/W) Annu.10 0. and other experimenters have subsequently confirmed.

Suzen & Huang 2006) utilized the electrostatic model with an imposed Gaussian distribution for the spatial charge distribution to compute the plasma body force using Enloe et al.42:505-529. Qualitatively.’s model. www. the model overpredicts the actuator effect. comparable with a DC force in surface corona discharges. Furthermore. Similar to Shyy et al. and the net body force does not scale properly with voltage. as observed in experiments. creating a high-electric-field strength near the electrode’s edges. it showed that the plasma builds up on a very short. they also concluded that it is the electric-field effects on the charged particles left after these microdischarges terminate that are the predominate cause of force production by the actuator. Roth & Dai 2006). timescale.b) formulation. Downloaded from www. Orlov 2006. Ey = Ez = 0. Enloe et al.and negative-going discharges that experimenters have observed. Boeuf & Pitchford (2005) considered a collisional discharge in a numerical estimation of the force acting on gas molecules in a 2D asymmetric surface DBD. Such scaling is a closed-form solution of the electrostatic model (Orlov 2006). In addition.5 function of the AC voltage rather than being proportional to VAC . . A basic assumption of this model is that the electric-field strength. the net body-force vectors appear 2 to be physical. the body-force magnitude in the model is a linear 3. Finally. 2 (1) This model can be problematic as it is based on a static formulation and does not account for the presence of the charged particles. They concluded that the asymmetry in the electrode configuration induces an asymmetry in the flow. both of which have been shown to be important in experiments. This approach makes the calculation of the body force a curve-fitting problem that is only valid for a single-actuator configuration. A model for the body force produced by the plasma on the neutral air was presented by Roth and colleagues (Roth et al. Shyy et al. (2004b) further showed that the body force given by Equation 1 is only correct in the special case ˆ . it produces body-force vectors that point away from the dielectric surface. This model was based on a derivation of the forces in gaseous dielectrics given by Landau & Lifshitz (1984). For this. being proportional to VAC . Suzen and colleagues (Suzen et al. namely fb = d dx 1 ε0 E 2 . This assumption is not consistent with experiments (Enloe et al.annualreviews. it does not include temporal characteristics of the body force. 2000. microsecond.’s (2004a. 2004b. (2002) presented a model for the body force that is widely used in the literature because of its simplicity. decreases linearly from the edge of the bare electrode toward the dielectric-covered electrode. Orlov et al. from which Suzen et al. which show an exponential spatial decay. The simulation showed that the charged particles move toward the regions of high electric potential.org • DBD Plasma Actuators 515 Annu. They proposed to split the electrostatic equations into two parts: the first part due to the external electric field and the second part due to the electric field created by the charged particles. Boeuf & Pitchford (2005) raised the same warning in their derivation of Equation 1. the scaling with AC voltage is incorrect.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. and ∂/∂ y = ∂/∂ z = 0. they considered nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. As a result. This special case is not of a 1D condition where E = E x i relevant to physical applications that are at least 2D. 2010. (2007) subsequently extended their simulation to encompass multiple microdischarge events and not only were able to simulate the qualitative difference between positive. Rev. 2006).’s model originated. Fluid Mech. Boeuf et al. The body force is proportional to the gradient of the squared electric field. However. 2005. Singh & Roy (2008) used the results of the body forces obtained from a first-principle simulation along with empirical observations of actuator behavior to develop an approximation for the 2D body-force components. E. For personal use only. which is again inconsistent with experiments.domain containing an L-shaped electrode to determine the movement of the particles through the grid.annualreviews.

However.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. Downloaded from www. subcircuits that are furthest from the edge of the electrodes have the lowest air capacitance and the largest air resistance. The properties of each parallel network depend on its distance from the exposed electrode. which extends the furthest distance over the covered electrode. these models were developed for simple 1D geometries consisting of axisymmetric facing electrodes. Orlov 2006). For a time-varying (AC) applied voltage. ion-neutral. Font & Morgan 2005) recently considered the plasma discharge in a 2D asymmetric plasma actuator that included only nitrogen and oxygen reactions. Fluid Mech. and positive and negative ions that included ionization and recombination processes. and the air resistance of the n-th subcircuit is proportional to n. Can + Cdn (2) Annu. (2006) modeled the weakly ionized-air plasma as a four-component mixture of neutral molecules. which is closest to the exposed electrode. Generally speaking. the voltage on the surface of the dielectric at the n-th parallel network is given as d Vapp (t ) d Vn (t ) = dt dt Can Can + Cdn + kn Ipn (t ) . 2006) model is shown in Figure 9. These were designated parallel network 1. Likhanskii et al. These models usually include 20–30 reaction equations. The N-circuit arrangement is illustrated in Figure 9. which experiments had shown to be important. Pai et al. and the length of path. Orlov and colleagues (Orlov 2006. Orlov et al.annualreviews. a dielectric capacitor. To simplify the chemistry. With this model. Assuming that the paths are parallel to each other. electrons. Golubovskii et al. Can . during which they believe it acts as a “harpoon” pulling positive ions forward and accelerating the gas in the anode phase. 1996). is proportional to 1/n. Based on this. The unique aspect of this model is the division of the domain over the covered electrode into N parallel networks.There have been numerous models developed for DBDs in air that include complicated chemistry. each with different reaction times and energy outputs. The values of the air capacitor and resistor in the n-th subcircuit are based on their distance from the edge of the exposed electrode. they are computationally time-consuming and require significant computer resources. Font and coworkers (Font 2004. Orlov et al. 2004a. the charged-particle models can precisely describe all the different processes involved in the plasma actuator. and a plasma-resistive element. These equations account for electron. 516 Corke · · Enloe Wilkinson . 2001. 2002. 2006) addressed the need for an efficient method to predict the body-force field of SDBD plasma actuators by developing a space-time lumpedelement circuit model that is a variation of the one proposed by Enloe et al. A schematic of Orlov and colleagues’ (Orlov 2006. they were able to simulate the propagation of a single streamer from the bare electrode to the dielectric surface and back. Kozlov et al. as in the earlier model (Enloe et al. In . it then follows that the air capacitance of the n-th subcircuit.42:505-529. n. For personal use only. 2010. Each parallel network consists of an air capacitor. Madani et al. is proportional to its position number. and neutral-neutral reactions in different gases that are present in the air (Gibalov & Pietsch 2000. They also suggest that the charging of the dielectric surface by electrons in the cathode phase is critical. 2003. The value of the dielectric capacitor for each subcircuit is a property of the dielectric material. Zener diodes were added to set a threshold voltage level at which the plasma initiates and to switch into the circuit the different plasma-resistance values based on the current direction. to parallel network N. Their simulations indicated the importance of the presence of negative ions in the air. Such simulations are not suitable to be a part of a design tool that would be used in the iterative optimization of the plasma actuators and the design of flow-control applications based on plasma actuators. (2004a) shown in Figure 7. This is especially true if they are applied to air at nearatmospheric pressures. Rev. For the most part.

and the diodes are represented by the variable kn . I p n (t ). Orlov et al. based on the current direction.42:505-529. Rev. Vn (t). The solution of the model equations gives the voltage on the surface of the dielectric. 2010.annualreviews. Orlov et al. kn = 0. The current through the n-th plasma resistance is given by I p n (t ) = 1 Vapp (t ) − Vn (t ) . Figure taken from Orlov 2006. and the current. For personal use only. kn = 1. which was based on the difference in the currents measured in experiments (Orlov 2006). 2006) was Rnf /Rnb = 5. Rn (3) where Rn = Rnf or Rn = Rnb . ϕ . The ratio of the two plasma resistances used by Orlov and colleagues (Orlov 2006. Orlov et al. Otherwise. 2006). When the threshold voltage is exceeded. Vn (t). where Ipn (t) is the time-varying current through the plasma resistor. Downloaded from www. found in the solution of the electrostatic Poisson equation: ∇ (ε ∇ ϕ ) = 1 ϕ. from the lumped-element model serves as the timedependent boundary condition for the electric potential.annualreviews. 2 λD (4) www. AC voltage source b D1f R1f D1b R1b C1a D2f R2f D2b R2b C2a Dnf Rnf Dnb Rnb Cna Exposed electrode C1d Vapp C2d Dielectric surface Cnd Covered electrode Figure 9 Space-time lumped-element circuit model for a single–dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator that divides the region over a covered electrode into N subregions (a) that each represents a parallel arrangement of circuit elements (b). Fluid Mech. The space-time variation in the rectified current agreed well with the experimental observations of the plasma light emission (Figures 3 and 5) for a large range of AC voltages and frequencies (Orlov 2006. 2006. The space-time dependent voltage. for each parallel circuit element.org • DBD Plasma Actuators 517 .org by Brown University on 10/14/13.a Parallel subcircuits ln Exposed electrode 1 2 3 4 N Dielectric layer Covered electrode Annu.

the net (AC cycle-averaged) body force from this model scales as VAC . Rev. there is an optimum AC frequency that maximizes the net body force. Computational domain for calculation of unsteady plasma body force.annualreviews. The electric potential. This defines a moving boundary. 2010. Equation 5 effectively states that the force on the neutrals is the same as the force on the plasma. the boundary conditions are ϕ = 0. given by fb∗ (t ) = ρc E (t ) = − ε0 2 λD ϕ (t ) E (t ). BC refers to boundary conditions used in solving Equation 4. Downloaded from www. Nonetheless. The time-dependent extent of the plasma on the surface of the dielectric. These are considerations that relate directly to how an actuator might be fielded in a practical system. The results of the modeling done by Boeuf et al. x(t). ϕ . or is too much of the essential physics lost? Orlov and colleagues’ model allows the plasma boundary conditions to evolve over a timescale that is short compared with that of the AC waveform that is driving the actuator. At the outer boundaries at infinity.42:505-529. Orlov and colleagues’ model does not explicitly address the effect of oxygen and its propensity to form negative as well as positive ions. This model certainly has the benefit of being computationally efficient. but in fact it does encompass this phenomenon implicitly. Fluid Mech. It also predicts an asymptote in the body force at higher voltages if the covered electrode is too small. It is then used to calculate the time-dependent body force produced by the plasma. As a direct 3. more accurately. which signifies the sign on the charge. specifies the region where charged particles are present above the covered electrode. and therefore the sign convention for the body force. This may not be as significant a drawback as one might think. the model. is determined at small time steps of the AC cycle. For personal use only. The question is. in fact the largest contribution to the total force is a result of the electric field’s interaction with the charged particles remaining after the microdischarges have terminated because these particles outlive the microdischarges by orders of magnitude (microseconds). On one hand. The boundary value of the electric potential on the bare electrode is the applied voltage Vapp (t). during which time the local nonuniformities in charge density are the most extreme. cannot describe the evolution of the microdischarges themselves.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. (5) where it is necessary to keep track of the direction of the current. (2007) indicate that although the forces on the plasma are greatest during these short (tens of nanoseconds) periods. this is an excellent assumption: The ionized particles represent such a small fraction 518 Corke · · Enloe Wilkinson . The model also indicates that for a given plasma actuator design. do the assumptions of the model made in the interest of efficiency still allow it to replicate the behavior of the actuator. is it correct? Or.5 consequence. on the dielectric. as shown in Figure 10.x(t) Bare electrode BC: Vapp(t) Dielectric BC: Vn(t) Dielectric BC: V = 0 Figure 10 Annu. by necessity. which agrees with experiments (Orlov 2006). ϕ (t).

They suggested that during the forward discharge (when the electrons are pushed away from the bare electrode and the positive ions are pulled back toward the bare electrode). What is the experimental evidence? Forte et al. www. to compute the force on the neutrals by the plasma is incorrect. their simulations have a resultant force that is away from the bare electrode. in particular the quasi-steady assumption that the timescale of the electron and ion movement is much smaller than the AC period. Font & Morgan 2005) that included nitrogen and oxygen reactions followed the propagation of a single streamer from the bare electrode to the dielectric surface and back.annualreviews. This result supports a PUSH-push scenario. Annu.3. enough electrons attach themselves to the oxygen molecules to form large. This could be the result of the assumptions made in the formulation of the model. 2009. The charged-particle simulations of Font and colleagues (Font 2004. so the assumption that one can simply track the net charge density. the momentum-transfer cross section for electrons on neutrals is substantially smaller than that for ions on neutrals. 2006) model]. 2007) indicate (using an entirely different experimental method) a PUSH-push scenario when the net effect of the actuator is concerned. Orlov 2006) model. the body force is always oriented in the direction from the bare electrode toward the covered electrode. 2009). If. in fact. but the momentum-transfer cross section is increased. and was never negative. Optimization The insight that comes from developing a better understanding of the physics behind the SDBD plasma actuator can suggest approaches to optimize its performance. bringing these experimental results into closer agreement with those predicted by Orlov and colleagues’ (Orlov et al. it seems well established that both half-cycles of the discharge add momentum to the flow in the same direction. They were able to capture the streamwise and wall-normal velocity components within a period of the AC input. Orlov et al. The formulation given in Equation 5 indicates that throughout the AC cycle. Kim et al. as observed in the time-averaged experiments (Thomas et al.or lowercase words signify the relative magnitude.of the air that the probability of an ion or electron crossing the gap between the electrode and the dielectric surface (or back) without interacting with a neutral molecule is vanishingly small. in which the upper. (2006) performed time-resolved laser-Doppler-velocimetry measurements of the flow induced by an SDBD plasma actuator similar to that shown in Figure 1. the implicit assumption of Equation 5 is satisfied. In the back discharge (when the electric field is reversed). A frequently discussed topic is the vector direction of the plasma body force during the AC cycle. so that. heavy negative oxygen ions. with the magnitude of the effect of the plasma alone being comparable on both the negative. (2007) arrived at the same conclusion by observing flows with time-resolved particle-image velocimetry. Fluid Mech. toward the dielectric [as in Orlov and colleagues’ (Orlov 2006. ρ c . The following sections provide some examples. Rev. the u component oscillated between a large positive u and a small but positive u. Recent experiments by Enloe and colleagues (Enloe et al. 2010. conversely. This is certainly true for the electrons. The question is whether it is true for the ions. Porter et al. On the other hand. For personal use only. Downloaded from www.42:505-529.annualreviews.and positive-going half-cycles.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. the electric force on the ions is the same as on the original electrons. 2006. The laser-Doppler-velocimetry measurements indicated that during the AC cycle. The magnitude of body force in the back discharge was significantly larger than in the forward discharge so that the cycle-averaged vector from the simulation was overwhelmingly toward the dielectric. Given that the same effect is shown by drastically different means. the net momentum is not zero. 2. but favors the ions so that there is a net momentum toward the bare electrode. Font and colleagues’ scenario might be categorized as PUSH-pull. in a quiescent neutral flow. Orlov and colleagues’ model would indicate PUSHpush.org • DBD Plasma Actuators 519 .

520 Corke · · Enloe Wilkinson . Therefore.05 mm typical for Kapton). The observations that the ionization occurs as long as the difference between the instantaneous AC potential and the charge buildup on the dielectric exceeds a threshold value suggest that there are AC waveforms that are optimal.4.annualreviews.1. The general objective is to lower the capacitance of the actuator. 2. Geometry.2. a square wave is least optimum. lowering the capacitance (ε/h) lowers the power loss through the dielectric. to be positive when there was a nonoverlapping distance between the edges. The capacitance is proportional to ε/h. The visible indication of the increased current is the appearance of the bright filaments in the plasma. The voltage at which these first occur varies linearly with fAC as expected based on the relation for power loss through the dielectric. Fluid Mech.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. Thomas et al. and the 1-kHz frequency has the highest thrust. (2006) and Thomas et al. The minimum thickness of the dielectric needs to be sufficient to not break down at the applied voltage. a sine wave is better. For example. low-level signal inputs to high-voltage amplifiers can experience significant filtering and shape alteration. the 8-kHz AC frequency has the lowest maximum thrust.3. 2. (2009) investigated this using a 6. the applied voltage (V) will decrease and the body force (thrust) will decrease. The results are shown in Figure 11. (2006) experimentally examined the effect of the amount of overlap between the bare and covered electrodes in an asymmetric arrangement similar to that shown in Figure 1. we expect that the effect of multiple actuators is linearly additive. (These are waveforms measured at the actuator input. 2009). In practice. AC waveform. Forte et al. Enloe et al. They defined the gap spacing. the effectiveness of the plasma actuator dropped off rapidly. Interpreting their results. g.35-mm-thick glass dielectric actuator. this can be accomplished with only a fraction of a millimeter of thickness (0. where h is the thickness of the dielectric. Rev. Orlov and colleagues’ (Orlov 2006. 2. and allows higher voltages to be reached. The power loss through the dielectric is proportional to fAC ε/h. Recent evidence (Thomas et al. These are sometimes used in combination with sinusoidal waveforms or small DC components (Opaits et al. For personal use only.3. although for some materials.1. An alternate waveform receiving some attention is very narrow (nanosecond) pulses. Orlov et al. Because the body force 3.3. 2006) model indicates that there is an optimum AC frequency to maximize the body force that depends on the actuator capacitance. There are two important properties of the dielectric material: the breakdown voltage per thickness (volts per millimeter) and the dielectric coefficient.Annu. and a triangle wave is better yet.3. (2004a) verified this experimentally.3. AC frequency.42:505-529. Such a waveform would be a sawtooth with the greatest duty cycle possible allocated to the polarity of the dV/dt such that electrons are emitted from the exposed electrode and deposited on the dielectric surface. and normalizing the gap by the width of the covered electrode Lce . which must be a factor. 2. The addition of a DC generally leads to a so-called sliding discharge. ε. For this actuator design. A new plasma actuator based on that effect is discussed in Section 4. Downloaded from www. 2010.5 is proportional to VAC . (2009). 2009) shows a benefit in using thicker dielectric layers made of materials that have lower dielectric coefficients. For larger (positive) gaps or overlap. they found that there was little effect on the maximum induced velocities for 0 ≤ g / Lc e ≤ 2. Again at fixed power (I × V). Because the effect of the plasma actuator on the neutral flow is through a body force. the motivation is to be able to operate at higher voltages. if the current (I) is too large. Thick dielectrics. which is otherwise manifest in heating.) This can be extended further by considering a waveform that emphasizes the time given to the PUSH and minimizes the time of the push. This was first confirmed by Post (2004) and later by Forte et al.

Figure 13a shows the AC cycle-averaged body-force vector field computed for the simulation. Downloaded from www. The plasma actuators kept the flow attached on the lee side of the cylinder.000. The dielectric was the 6.0 a b 1 kHz 2. The other four images correspond to the maximum thrust point at the respective AC frequencies shown in the left panel.5 0 5 10 15 20 25 8 kHz 4 kHz 2 kHz 1 kHz 30 VAC (kV–rms) Figure 11 (a) Induced thrust from a single–dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator for a 6. on average. 2010. Mertz & Corke (2009) performed a simulation of Thomas et al. 2009. Figure 12 shows two particle-image-velocimetry images taken with the plasma actuators off and on at ReD = 33.0 8 kHz Annu.org by Brown University on 10/14/13.35-mm-thick glass dielectric for different AC frequencies of the applied voltage.5 power. Rev. As an example.’s experiment and modeled the plasma actuator in the manner of Orlov (2006). 0.4-mm-thick glass wall of the cylinder. The lowest image represents the uniform ionization that occurs within the voltage range at which the thrust is proportional to voltage to the 3. This illustrates the actuator design.5 1. 135◦ . showing the ionized air produced by the actuator.42:505-529. www. The effect of the body force on the flow around the cylinder was simulated using FLUENT with the body-force vector array supplied through a user-defined input. oriented the mean body-force vector in the mean flow direction and toward the wall of the cylinder. Streamlines from the simulation with the plasma actuator effect off and on are shown in Figure 13b. The actuators were the asymmetric electrode design shown in Figure 1. resulting in a merged jet of fluid on the wake centerline that modified the mean flow and suppressed the vortex shedding.0 Thrust (gm) 4 kHz 1.annualreviews.3. which.b). and 270◦ positions.org • DBD Plasma Actuators 521 . For personal use only.2.5 2 kHz 2. Figure taken from Thomas et al. Fluid Mech.annualreviews. EXAMPLE APPLICATION: EXPERIMENT AND SIMULATION A visual experimental demonstration of SDBD plasma actuators was the suppression of the von K´ arm´ an vortex street behind a circular cylinder given by Thomas et al. These corroborate well with the experiment. as described in Section 2. as measured in the clockwise direction from the stagnation line on the upstream side of the cylinder. 3. 225◦ . (b) Corresponding images of plasma for each frequency at maximum thrust. Four plasma actuators were located on the downstream half of the cylinder at the 90◦ . (2008a.

Fluid Mech.2 0.a b Annu. Louste et al. Figure taken from Thomas et al.8 Y (m) 0. The concept is to utilize the AC DBD to weakly ionize the air.3 –0. and then to superpose a DC potential that establishes a corona discharge between spatially separated electrodes.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. Zouzou et al.42:505-529.1 0 –0.6 0.3 0.2 –0. Figure taken from Mertz & Corke 2009.4 –0. a b Y (m) 0. 522 Corke · · Enloe Wilkinson . 2008.2 –0. Downloaded from www. Sliding Discharge A relatively new design for plasma actuators is based on a sliding discharge.. Figure 12 Particle-image-velocimetry images of the flow behind a circular cylinder at ReD = 33.2 0 X (m) 0. 2005.2 0.2 0 –0. This concept was first developed for laser-pumping applications (Arad et al.1 –0. Rev. 4. A number of researchers have adapted it to atmospheric-pressure plasmas (e.2 0 X (m) 0.annualreviews. The DC component induces the sliding discharge.4 0. The advantages of this concept are that large plasma sheets can be produced and the plasma is stable with no glow-to-arc transition.000 with plasma actuators on the lee side of the cylinder off (a) and on (b). except when the DC component is above the DC breakdown limit for the air. 2007).2 0. 2010.6 0.8 Figure 13 Body-force vectors for a plasma actuator (a) and flow streamlines (b) from flow simulations that include the plasma actuator body force off and on.4 0. Thomas et al.1. 2008a. For personal use only. FUTURE EXPECTATIONS 4.g. 1987).

4. The thrust in this case then varied approximately linearly with the AC level. 1990. Matlis 2004). When the DC was off. For personal use only. When the triode actuator is operating only with the AC input on. 2008). there was a thrust produced even at zero AC level. The thrust measurement was performed in an identical manner to that shown in Figure 6. 2008a. 2001. it is quite well suited for low-speed flows. the thrust was significantly larger with the sliding discharge. Obviously.5 (Corke et al.annualreviews.6 cm –50 kV DC Sliding–DBD discharge (DC on) Annu.42:505-529.a Plasma DC voltage Catode Induced air flow Anode b Ground Ground Dielectric Excitation electrode AC voltage Additional insulator 0 kV DC SDBD discharge (DC off ) 7. or applications in which harsh conditions make more conventional flow sensors unusable. Thomas et al. There was also a clear threshold voltage below which thrust was too low to be measured. A partial list of these includes exciting boundary-layer instabilities on a sharp cone at Mach 3. It is referred to as a triode plasma actuator because the electrode arrangement and the use of the dielectric material are similar to that of a discrete triode amplifier. 2010. Figure 14b shows that the plasma generated in this case is only visible near the edges of the two exposed electrodes.org • DBD Plasma Actuators 523 . Figure 15 shows a comparison between the thrust generated by the triode plasma actuator when operated in DBD and sliding discharge modes. Fluid Mech. Although it was originally intended for high–Mach number. the thrust followed the power-law growth that is characteristic of SDBD plasma actuators. 5. Plasma Sensor In addition to flow control. When the DC was on. Kosinov et al. However. Figure 14 (a) Schematic of triode plasma actuator and (b) photographs of plasma for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operation and with sliding discharge operation. the addition of the DC caused the visible plasma to completely fill the space between the electrodes. a new AC plasma sensor for velocity measurements has recently been developed by Matlis & Corke (2005). Downloaded from www. Further optimization is forthcoming. SUMMARY There is an ever growing number of applications of SDBD plasma actuators that have appeared in the literature.annualreviews. it functions as an SDBD device. A schematic of the triode plasma actuator is shown in Figure 14a. but these results suggest great potential for this approach.org by Brown University on 10/14/13.’s approach is unique from the others cited above. Rev. lift augmentation on a wing www.2. A recent example of its use includes the detection of traveling stall cells in a transonic compressor stage (Matlis et al. high-enthalpy flows. This technology offers the unique opportunity for combined plasma actuators and sensors that could be beneficial for closed-loop feedback control in a single element. Figure taken from Thomas et al.

15 0.20 0. List et al. Huang et al. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT T. 2004).539. Do et al.E is a co-inventor of U.C. Rizzetta & Visbal 2007. 2006). Downloaded from www. turbine tip-clearance flow control (Douville et al. unsteady vortex generation and control (Nelson et al. 2007). Figure taken from Thomas et al. Morris et al. Wilkinson 2003).W. 2006). 2008a. 2006. Suzen et al.” and S.0.42:505-529. Post & Corke 2003. For personal use only. 2006a. 2007. 2007. Goeksel & Rechenberg 2004. turbulent boundarylayer control (Balcer et al. 2003. Goeksel et al. Patel et al. 2006. New applications continue to appear as more investigators gain experience in using these flow actuators. Nelson et al. 2006. is a co-inventor of U.380.C.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. Post 2004. 2004. 2006.200.05 0 0 20 40 60 VAC (p–p kV) Figure 15 Comparison between thrust generated by a triode plasma actuator for dielectric barrier discharge and sliding discharge operation. 7. Our understanding of the SDBD physics inherent to the plasma actuators has led to the development of quantitative models that have shown remarkable agreement with experiments. bluffbody flow control (Asghar et al. Wall et al. 2002.10 0.30 0.35 DC off DC on (–48 kV) 0. and airfoil leading-edge separation control (Corke et al. Patent No. which point to improved designs and operation. low-pressure turbine blade separation control (Huang 2005.S. 2006b. Van Ness et al. 2006). 2005.25 Thrust (N/m) Annu. Hultgren & Ashpis 2003. 2007. Patent No. 2006.annualreviews. section (Corke et al. 2006. 2007. 0.L. 6.” 524 Corke · · Enloe Wilkinson . “Single dielectric barrier aerodynamic plasma actuator. “Paraelectric gas flow accelerator. Porter et al. Rev. The recent optimization of the actuators produced by better choices of thick dielectric materials and AC input frequencies and waveforms has led to order-of-magnitude improvements in their performance compared with earlier designs.756. 2010.P. Visbal & Gaitonde 2006).S. is a partial holder and C. Fluid Mech. Sliding discharge approaches offer the potential for further significant improvement. Thomas et al. All these are opening the scope of application conditions for these flow-control devices.

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Transitional. and Control C. Sullivan and James C. I.S. Downloaded from www. Vukoslavˇ cevi´ c p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 157 Friction Drag Reduction of External Flows with Bubble and Gas Injection Steven L. 2010. Seminara p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 43 Shear Bands in Matter with Granularity Peter Schall and Martin van Hecke p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 67 Slip on Superhydrophobic Surfaces Jonathan P.42:505-529. Rev. vii . For personal use only. Wadia p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 275 Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics Volume 42. Rothstein p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 89 Turbulent Dispersed Multiphase Flow S. McWilliams p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 19 Fluvial Sedimentary Patterns G. S´ ebastien Poncet. and A. Tan. O’Malley Jr. Day. Balachandar and John K.annualreviews. and Eric Serre p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 229 Scale-Dependent Models for Atmospheric Flows Rupert Klein p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 249 Spike-Type Compressor Stall Inception.Contents ¨ Singular Perturbation Theory: A Viscous Flow out of Gottingen Robert E. Eaton p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 111 Turbidity Currents and Their Deposits Eckart Meiburg and Ben Kneller p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 135 Measurement of the Velocity Gradient Tensor in Turbulent Flows James M. and Turbulent Flows in Rotor-Stator Cavities Brian Launder. Detection. 2010 Annu.org by Brown University on 10/14/13. Wallace and Petar V. p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 1 Dynamics of Winds and Currents Coupled to Surface Waves Peter P. Morris. Ceccio p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 183 Wave–Vortex Interactions in Fluids and Superfluids Oliver Buhler ¨ p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 205 Laminar. Fluid Mech. S.

org/errata. Zhang p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 301 Small-Scale Properties of Turbulent Rayleigh-B´ enard Convection Detlef Lohse and Ke-Qing Xia p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 335 Fluid Dynamics of Urban Atmospheres in Complex Terrain H. Rev. For personal use only. Fernando p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 365 Turbulent Plumes in Nature Andrew W.J. Mason p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 413 Lattice-Boltzmann Method for Complex Flows Cyrus K. C. and Stephen P. Wereley and Carl D. Kleinstreuer and Z.Airflow and Particle Transport in the Human Respiratory System C. Lon Enloe. Volumes 1–42 p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 577 Cumulative Index of Chapter Titles. Downloaded from www.shtml viii Contents . Aidun and Jonathan R.org by Brown University on 10/14/13.annualreviews. Fluid Mechanics of Microrheology Todd M. Squires and Thomas G.S. Clausen p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 439 Wavelet Methods in Computational Fluid Dynamics Kai Schneider and Oleg V. Corke. Meinhart p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 557 Indexes Cumulative Index of Contributing Authors. 2010.annualreviews. Volumes 1–42 p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 585 Errata An online log of corrections to Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics articles may be found at http://fluid. Woods p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 391 Annu. Vasilyev p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 473 Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators for Flow Control Thomas C.42:505-529. Fluid Mech. Wilkinson p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 505 Applications of Holography in Fluid Mechanics and Particle Dynamics Joseph Katz and Jian Sheng p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 531 Recent Advances in Micro-Particle Image Velocimetry Steven T.