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LTE-Advanced: Overcoming Design Challenges for 4G PHY Architectures

Daren McClearnon Product Marketing Manager Electronic System-Level EDA

Wu Huan System Engineer, Beijing Wireless R&D Center

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Copyright 2011 Agilent Technologies

2011

Greater insight. Greater confidence.

June 2, 2011

Copyright 2011 Agilent Technologies

Agenda
Standards Overview LTE-Advanced - New Features LTE-Advanced - Channel Model Introduction to Agilent SystemVue Design Challenges Working algorithmic reference Flexible early verification & project NRE Carrier Aggregation & RF stress MIMO & Channel considerations Verification increasing Conclusion and Q&A

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LTE-Advanced Requirement
Performance indicators LTE Release 8
300 Mb/s 75 Mb/s 15 [bps/Hz] 3.75 [bps/Hz] < 100 ms < 5 ms Up to 20 MHz 200 Active users per cell in 5 MHz 2x2 4x2 4x4 1x2 2x4 2x2 4x2 4x4 1x2 2x4 1.69 1.87 2.67 0.735 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.024 -

IMT-Advanced

LTEAdvanced Release 10
1 Gb/s 500 Mb/s 30 [bps/Hz] 15 [bps/Hz] < 50 ms < Rel 8 LTE Up to 100 MHz 3 times higher than that in LTE 2.4 2.6 3.7 1.2 2.0 0.07 0.09 0.12 0.04 0.07

Peak data rate Peak spectrum efficiency [bps/Hz] Control plane latency User plane latency Scalable bandwidth support VoIP capacity Cell spectrum efficiency (bps/Hz) DL

DL UL DL UL

1Gb/s 15 [bps/Hz] 6.75 [bps/Hz] 100 ms 10 ms Up to 40 MHz Up to 200 UEs per cell in 5 MHz 2.6

UL Cell edge spectrum efficiency (bps/Hz) DL

0.075

UL

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Release 10 Activity (LTE-Advanced)


LTE-Advanced Enhancements (relative to Release 8/9, LTE)
Carrier aggregation (CA) - Contiguous and non-contiguous - Control channel design for UL/DL Enhanced multiple access scheme - Clustered SC-FDMA - Simultaneous Control and Data Enhanced MIMO transmission - Downlink 8 antennas, 8 streams - Uplink 4 antennas, 4 streams

Emerging Technologies (Release 10 & beyond)


Relaying (multi-hop transmission) Coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmission and reception Support for heterogeneous networks LTE self-optimizing networks (SON) HeNB and HeNB mobility enhancements CPE RF requirements

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LTE Key Parameters (review) LTE-A builds on top of LTE Parameters and Frame Structure
UL adopts single carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA ) allows for commonality with the downlink OFDMA scheme
Access scheme Bandwidth Minimum TTI Subcarrier spacing Cyclic prefix length Modulation Spatial multiplexing Short Long DL UL OFDMA SC-FDMA 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz 1 ms 15 kHz 4.7 us 16.7 us QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM Single layer for UL per UE Up to 4 layers for DL per UE MU-MIMO supported for UL and DL

REV-090003r1 IMT-Advanced Evaluation Workshop 17 18 December, 2009, Beijing

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LTE Frame Structure (review)


Supports both FDD and TDD frame structures
One radio frame 10ms
One slot one subframe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

UL

FDD

fUL fDL

DL

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

special subframe

special subframe

UL

14

15

16

17

18

19

TDD

fDL/UL
DL
0 1 2 8 9 10 11 12

DWPTS

GP

UpPTS

Stefan Parkvall et al The Evolution of LTE towards IMT-Advanced, Journal of Communications, Vol. 4, No. 3, April 2009

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LTE-A Enhancement #1: Carrier Aggregation


Wider bandwidth transmission using carrier aggregation (CA)
support higher data rate system bandwidths up to 100 MHz (5 component carriers (CCs))

Backward compatible with Rel-8 LTE when overlaid in IMT carrier bands. Supports both contiguous(figure a) and non-contiguous(figure b) carrier aggregation.
LTE terminal 20 MHz LTE terminal 20 MHz

LTE-Advanced terminal, 100MHz


(a) Contiguous carrier aggregation

LTE-Advanced terminal, 100MHz


(b) Non-contiguous carrier aggregation

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Downlink Multiple Access Scheme with CA


Downlink OFDMA with component carrier (CC) based structure
One transport block is mapped within one CC Parallel-type transmission for multi-CC transmission (in good alignment with Release 8 specifications) Cross-carrier scheduling is possible
DL control channels (such as PDCCH, PCFICH, and PHICH) are updated to support cross-carrier scheduling. Add a Carrier Indicator Field (CIF) to DCI. Transport block 1 Transport block 2 Transport block 3 Transport block 4

Channel coding

Channel coding

Channel coding

Channel coding

HARQ

HARQ

HARQ

HARQ

Modulation

Modulation

Modulation

Modulation

Mapping

Mapping

Mapping

Mapping

20MHz CC1

20MHz CC2 One eNB

20MHz CC3

20MHz CC4

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LTE-A Enhancement #2: Uplink Multiple Access Scheme


DFT Subcarrier Mapping IFFT CP insertion
from DFT 0 To IFFT

Uplink adopts Clustered DFT-S-OFDM allows non-contiguous (clustered) groups of subcarriers as well as contiguous subcarriers to be allocated for transmission by a single UE. support dynamic switching between Rel.8 single cluster transmission and Rel.10 clustered transmission
from DFT

(a) Contiguous subcarriers allocation

To IFFT

Simultaneous PUCCH and PUSCH transmission

PUCCH
0

PUSCH
CC

PUSCH
CC

(b) non-contiguous subcarriers allocation

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Uplink Multiple Access Scheme with CA


Transport block 1 Transport block 2 Transport block 3 Transport block 4

Achieve wider bandwidth by adopting parallel multi-CC transmission to satisfy requirements for peak data rate while maintaining backward compatibility. Each transport block is mapped to a single component carrier. A UE may be scheduled over multiple component carriers simultaneously

Channel coding

Channel coding

Channel coding

Channel coding

HARQ

HARQ

HARQ

HARQ

Modulation

Modulation

Modulation

Modulation

DFT

DFT

DFT

DFT

RB mapping

RB mapping

RB mapping

RB mapping

CC1 20MHz

CC2 20MHz

CC3 20MHz

CC4 20MHz

One UE

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Uplink PUSCH Processing in LTE-Advanced


Transport block CRC attachment Code block segmentation Code block CRC attachment

Figure (a) shows the same channel coding procedure as LTE. Data arrives to the coding unit in the form of a maximum of two transport blocks every transmission time interval (TTI) per UL cell. Figure (b) shows the uplink physical channel processing including MIMO processing. Up to two codewords can be supported.

Channel coding

Rate matching

CQI

RI

ACK/ NACK Channel coding

Code block attachment

Channel coding

Channel coding

Data and control multiplexing

Channel Interleaver

(a) Transport channel processing for UL-SCH

(b) Overview of uplink physical channel processing

codewords
Scrambling Modulation mapper Layer

layers
Transform precoder Precoding Mapper Scrambling Modulation mapper Transform precoder Resource element mapper Resource element mapper

antenna ports
OFDM signal generation

OFDM signal generation

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LTE-A Enhancement #3: multiple antenna transmission


From 4 antennas/streams to 8 antennas/streams New for LTE-A Baseline being 4x4 with 4 UE Receive Antennas Peak data rate reached with 8x8 SU-MIMO 1, 2 or 4 From 1 antenna/stream to 4 antennas/streams transmitters and 2, 4 or 8 Baseline being 2x2 with 2 UE Transmit Antennae receivers Peak data rate reached with 4x4 SU-MIMO UE Focus is initially on downlink beamsteering up to 4x2 antennas SM is less attractive 2, 4 or 8 Challenges of higher order antenna transmission transmitters Creates need for tower-mounted remote radio and 2, 4 or 8 receivers heads Increased power consumption eNodeB Increased product costs Physical space for the antennae at both eNB and UE

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Enhanced Downlink MIMO Transmission Scheme


LTE DL MIMO uses antenna ports with cell-specific reference signals (CRS) LTE-Advanced DL MIMO uses antenna ports with UE-specific reference signals (DM-RS)
CRS0 Resource element mapper Resource element mapper CRSN-1

(a) CRS-based MIMO

Layer Mapper

DM-RS0

Precoding

CSI-RS0 Resource element mapper Resource element mapper

(b) DM-RS-based MIMO

Layer Mapper

DM-RSM-1

Precoding

CSI-RSN-1

CSI reference signals (CSI-RS)

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LTE-Advanced MIMO Channel Model


Geometry-based stochastic model Similar to WINNER II MIMO channel model S x U, N Clusters (multipath)
Array 2
(U Rx elements)

Array 1
(S Tx elements)

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LTE-Advanced MIMO Channel Model


The impulse response matrix of the U x S MIMO channel
H (t ; ) = H n (t ; )
n =1
T ( ) d d H n (t ; ) = Frx ( )h n (t ; , , )Ftx

Array 1 (S Tx elements)

Array 2 (U Rx elements)

Where:
Ftx and Frx are antenna array response matrices for the transmitter (Tx) and the receiver (Rx). hn is the dual-polarized propagation channel response matrix for cluster n.

The channel from Tx antenna element s to Rx element u for cluster n is expressed as M ( ) T ( ) F F

rx ,u ,V n ,m n ,m ,VV n , m ,VH tx , s ,V n ,m H u ,s ,n (t ; ) = n ,m ) m =1 Frx ,u , H ( n ,m , HV an ,m , HH Ftx ,s , H (n ,m ) 1 1 n ,m rrx ,u ) exp j 2 n ,m rtx ,s ) exp j 2 0 ( 0 ( exp( j 2 n ,m t ) ( n ,m )

) (

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LTE-Advanced MIMO Channel Model (contd)


Stage 1 of 3 consists of two steps.
1. 2. First, the propagation scenario is selected. Then, the network layout and the antenna configuration are determined.

In Stage 2 of 3, large-scale and small-scale parameters are defined.


User defined parameters Propagation parameter generation
Large scale parameters
-DS, AS, K -XPR -shadowing -path loss

ChIR generation

Network Layout

Multi-path parameters
-power, delay, AoA, AoD, etc.

Scenario selection
-urban macro -urban micro -indoor -out2in -etc.

-BS & MS locations -velocities

Channel coefficient generation

ChIR

Antennas
150

120

2 1 gain pattern Antenna 60 Antenna 2 gain pattern 1.5

90

1 0.5

30

-# elements -orientations -field patterns

180

Antenna pattern
210 330 240 270 300

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LTE-Advanced MIMO Channel Model (contd)


In Stage 3, channel impulse responses (ChIRs) are calculated.
Please note antenna pattern should be input to ChIR generation to calculate correlation matrix.

Channel coefficient generation procedure


General parameters:
Set scenario, network layout and antenna parameters Assign propagation condition (NLOS/ LOS) Generate correlated large scale paramters (DS, AS, SF, K)

Calculate path loss

Small scale parameter:

Perform random coupling of rays

Generate arrival & departure angles

Generate cluster powers

Generate delays

Coefficient generation:

Draw random initial phases

Generate channel coefficient

Apply path loss & shadowing

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Agenda
Standards Overview LTE-Advanced - New Features LTE-Advanced - Channel Model Introduction to Agilent SystemVue Design Challenges Working algorithmic reference Flexible early verification & project NRE Carrier Aggregation & RF stress MIMO & Channel considerations Verification increasing Conclusion and Q&A

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Unified architecture, verification tools for Layer 1 Comms Augments general purpose environments, or, stands on its own

Agilent SystemVue
Cross-domain PHY modeling framework, for Model-Based Design Baseband Algorithms
Dataflow Simulation

PHY IP

RF Sys Architecture
RF Simulators

Baseband Hardware Flows


DSP/ASSP GPP/ARM Software FPGA/ASIC/SoC Software Hardware

RF Hardware Flows TEST


RFIC / MMIC Hardware SiP / Board Hardware

PHY system integration and verification


Complete a working PHY using combinations of Software, RF/BB Hardware, Simulation, and Measurements

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SystemVue Environment A Comms PHY Cockpit

W1918 LTE-Advnaced 170 parts 14 reference designs 26 examples/TBs

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Integrated, top-down Comms ESL flow Cross-domain model-based design: RF, Comms, and C++/HDL
MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS System design RF Architecture Baseband design PHY Reference

Algorithms C++, .m

Dataflow Simulation
FlexDCA software VSA software

Handwritten HDL Custom IP

.m/C++ ALGORITHM

HDL Simulator(s) Target-neutral HDL Generation


Infiniium Scope MXA / PXA

FPGA Synthesis

.bit Files

SIMULATED H/W

FPGA Target

Logic Analyzer

MXG / ESG

Wideband arbs REAL HARDWARE

RF sensor

DIGITAL BITS, or MODULATED CARRIERS

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Agenda
Standards Overview LTE-Advanced - New Features LTE-Advanced - Channel Model Introduction to Agilent SystemVue Design Challenges Working algorithmic reference Flexible early verification & project NRE Carrier Aggregation & RF stress MIMO & Channel considerations Verification increasing Conclusion and Q&A

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Design Challenge #1 Working Algorithmic Reference

As a design progresses : System Architecture Algorithm RTL finished hardware


How many different IP references get written, used, thrown away? (NRE) Are they compatible? Flexible? Updated? Are they from a trusted source? Can you re-use tests and scripting?

Are the BB and RF teams working from the same IP references? Everyone needs some level of algorithm reference. Now able to deliver this IP throughout the design flow

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SystemVue W1918 LTE-Advanced baseband library What is included?


W1918 LTE-Advance BVL includes: Release 8 LTE 104 parts Optional, add-on 10 ref designs 16 examples Yes Yes Yes, integrated Yes Release 10 LTE-Advanced 66 parts not yet available 4 ref designs 10 (to date) Yes Yes Yes, integrated Yes, extended for LTE-A

Compiled dataflow simulation blocks C++ exploration source code Packaged MIMO Sources/Receivers, w/GUI Testbenches / Reference Examples Works with existing instrument H/W Works with Agilent 89600B VSA and SignalStudio software personalities Works with Agilent W1716 DPD Works with Agilent W1715 MIMO Channel for simulation-based fading

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W1918 LTE-Advanced baseband verification library An open, Golden Reference for model-based design
Algorithmic Development Environment

User IP
.m math code C++ RTL Test Vectors & scripts
SYSTEMVUE INPUT VECTOR

FPGA Development Environment HDL test bench

SYSTEMVUE OUTPUT VECTOR

HDL VECTOR

FPGA Hardware Test

Code-generation
Win32 DLL C++ (special option*)
SYSTEMVUE INPUT VECTOR

SYSTEMVUE OUTPUT VECTOR

FPGA VECTOR

*LTE source code exploration library (W1912) is a special option

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Algorithmic lifecycle, for Model-Based Design

ALGORITHMIC MODELING THAT STAYS IN TOUCH WITH RF & SYSTEM-LEVEL PERFORMANCE

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SystemVue LTE-Advanced Library


Downlink Enhancement Higher order DL MIMO: Up to 8 Tx 8 Rx Antennas Support transmission to both R10 UEs and R8 UEs in a single source Use DMRS to demodulate PDSCH Precoding Codebook can be customized Virtual Antenna Mapping: mapping matrix can be customized Uplink Enhancement Support Enhanced Uplink Multiple Access (clustered DFT-S-OFDM) Support Uplink MIMO: up to 4 Tx and 4 Rx antennas Carrier Aggregation Support both inter and intra-band Carrier Aggregation for both downlink and uplink

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Design Challenge #2 Flexible early verification & NRE

How do you verify a standard that keeps Evolving? (the E in LTE-A) Configuring standard-compliant test benches (such as TS 36.101-104) requires Scripting, Non-Recurring Engineering (NRE) project costs, and Reference IP Many tests also require a completed, operational system, with closed feedback loop (e.g. for Throughput testing). SystemVue libraries typically provide
5-15 of pre-configured testbenches, per wireless standard Complete working reference PHY to start with. Parameterized, fully-coded, modifiable Sources, Receivers, etc Specialized measurements for Throughput, EVM, ACLR, etc

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Dynamic Dataflow (simulation technology enhancement )


Enables dynamic MAC-like changes during simulation, while preserving timed RF
Receiver requests dynamic Source changes Link converges to highest Throughput

CODED MIMO SOURCE

HARQ
8x8 MIMO Channel
antennas fading doppler interference

CODED MIMO RCVR

RF TX
nonlinearity, phase noise

RF RX
nonlinearity, noise

Updated throughput status during simulation, as the LTE/LTE-A link adapts to an optimal PHY configuration

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LTE-Advanced DL Throughput Throughput measurements, up to 8x8, w/active HARQ


ACK/NACK

Up to 8x8 MIMO Fading, RF impairments Fully coded/decoded Closed loop, with Active HARQ

LTEAdvanced Downlink MIMO source

LTEAdvanced Channel Model

LTEAdvanced Downlink MIMO Receiver

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Hybrid Simulation/Test Manually closing a loop LTE FDD UL Throughput Test (TS 36.141), or BER/BLER
Signal Generator

STEP 1
SystemVue Generates signal, then closes the loop

Customer Hardware eNodeB receiver

Filter

X ~

Filter ~ X

A/D

3 4

RU Filter

DU
DPD Gain
DU

C P R I

A/D

STEP 2
SystemVue LTE decode VSA 89600 waveform recording Signal Analyzer

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Leverage Simulation for R&D measurement applications that fall between

OFDM, MIMO LTE-Advanced WNW, Defense

NON-STD WAVEFORMS

FADING, IMPAIRMENTS

Jamming, Interfere Clutter, Targets RF, Phase Noise Cognitive environments

Throughput Coded BER DPD

MULTI-BOX COORDINATION

FILL HOLES

Digital vs. RF interfaces Missing test coverage Missing user hardware

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Pre-configured LTE-Advanced MIMO Sources & Receivers 3 Levels of User Interaction are supported High level GUI
Simplified, tabbed GUI

or
Scriptable schematic

Detailed pieces
Open, parameterized, reference design

MIMO DL Source subnetwork

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Inside the SystemVue LTE-Advanced Downlink Source

Up to 2 codewords in input Up to 8 layers (antenna ports)

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Tabbed GUI of the SystemVue LTE-Advanced DL Source

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SystemVue LTE-Advanced Downlink TX Mixed allocation of Rel10 and Rel8 RBs


RB 0-4 allocated for R10 UE RB 5-14 allocated for R8 UE RB 15-24 not allocated to any UE

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Enhanced Uplink Multiple Access Design and test challenges


Clustered SC-FDMA increases PAR by a few dB adding to transmitter linearity challenges Simultaneous PUCCH and PUSCH also increases PAR Both feature create multi-carrier signals within the channel bandwidth High power narrow PUCCH plus single or clustered SC-FDMA creates large opportunity for in-channel and adjacent channel spur generation May require 3 to 4 dB power amp backoff for Rel-8 PA Some scenarios may require 10 dB backoff.

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Inside the SystemVue LTE-Advanced Uplink Source

Up to 2 codewords in input Up to 4 layers (antenna ports) Clustered DFT-S-OFDM

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Tabbed UI of the SystemVue LTE-Advanced Uplink Source

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SystemVue LTE-Advanced Uplink TX, w/2-layer MIMO Clustered SC-FDMA

Cluster 1 PUSCH

PUCCH

Cluster 2 PUSCH

CCDF ~ 8dB At 0.001%

The use of clustered SC-FDMA increases the PAPR above non-clustered SC-FDMA, but not as much as full OFDM which can exceed the PAPR of Gaussian noise

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Enhanced Uplink Multiple Access Design and test challenges


+30 +20 +10 0 -10 Mag (dBm) -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -3 -2 Spectrum RBW = 100 kHz

Wanted signal: 2 RBs wide @ 1 channel edge LO Feedthrough Unwanted Image

Spurs
-1 0

Spurs
1 2 3

This is a typical spectrum of a single carrier signal


Derived from R4-100427 ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/tsg_ran/WG4_Radio/TSGR4_54/Documents/R4-100427.zip

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Enhanced Uplink Multiple Access Design and test challenges


+30 +20 +10 0 -10 Mag (dBm) -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -3 -2 Spectrum RBW = 100 kHz

Wanted signal: 1 RB @ 2 channel edges

Spurs
-1 0

Spurs
1 2 3

The presence of two in-channel carriers creates 25 to 50 dB worse spurs


Derived from R4-100427 ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/tsg_ran/WG4_Radio/TSGR4_54/Documents/R4-100427.zip

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Design Challenge #3 Carrier Aggregation stressing RF

Increased bandwidth of Carrier Aggregation drives PAPR to extreme levels Crest-Factor Reduction strategies are essential to offset this increase Increased RF bandwidth also exposes frequency-dependence and other analog degradations, which crosses multiple CCs Combinations of several factors: Non-contiguous Carrier Aggregation, the multitude of possible RF Bands, and number of MIMO layers make these RF designs a true challenge. How do you translate real RF limitations back up to system-level performance? Can you correlate PHY simulations with measurements?

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Using SystemVue to make LTE-Advanced CA signals


Scenario number 1 2 Deployment scenario Transmission BWs of LTE-A carriers # of LTE-A component carriers Bands for LTE-A carriers Duplex modes

Single-band contiguous spec. UL: 40 MHz alloc. @ 3.5GHz band for FDD DL: 80 MHz Single-band contiguous spec. 100 MHz alloc. @ Band 40 for TDD Single-band, non-contiguous spec. alloc. @ 3.5GHz band for FDD UL: 40 MHz DL: 80 MHz

UL: Contiguous 2x20 MHz CCs DL: Contiguous 4x20 MHz CCs Contiguous 5x20 MHz CCs UL: Non-contiguous 1x20 + 1x20 MHz CCs DL: Non-contiguous 2x20 + 2x20 MHz CCs

3.5 GHz band Band 40 (2.3 GHz) 3.5 GHz band

FDD TDD

FDD

20 MHz CCs

80 MHz total

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FDD and TDD LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation (DL)


Scenario 1 FDD DL Scenario 4 FDD DL Scenario 4 FDD UL

Scenario 2 TDD DL
Scenario Link Configuration PAPR of single CC, before aggregation 8.45 dB 9.17 dB 8.38 dB 5.79 dB PAPR with CCs, after aggregation 9.98 dB 11.71 dB 9.58 dB 6.86 dB

Scenario 1 Scenario 2

FDD DL TDD DL FDD DL

4x20 MHz CCs 5x20 MHz CCs 2x20+2x20MHz 20 + 20MHz

Scenario 4 FDD UL

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Validating early Standards proposals (such as CA)


Leverage a system/algorithm tool for early architecture reality check
How far away is my existing design? Can I fix it cheaply in software?

Software-defined instruments help with emerging standards support

Early Algorithm validation Early RF architecture validation Trusted 3rd party IP reference

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Digital Pre-Distortion (DPD)


Models/corrects for PA nonlinearities and memory effects Works with test equipment, and RF circuit co-simulation Achieves 15-20dB for 20MHz LTE; now being evaluated for LTE-A Quickly assesses the correctability of a PA Can model the dirty PA for inclusion in Layer 1 link-level architecture studies
6C-GSM Memory Effects

LTE

LTE-A

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Digital Pre-Distortion (DPD)

Additional DPD considerations


Wizard-based or manual UI Built-in signal generation LTE/LTE-A Crest-Factor Reduction Iterative model extraction, convergence Built-in links to calibrated test equip, AWGs, up/down converters, digitizers Memory Effect PA model based on measurements

Additional capabilities for the DPD Modeler


Modeling & Code Generation Develop & deploy your own algorithms Scriptable, with external API links Encapsulate a methodology, create a custom UI

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DPD of LTE-Advanced, using M9330A/M9392A


2x20MHz + 2x20MHz non-contiguous CCs, (100MHz signal BW)
For BW 140-250 MHz, Agilent M9392A is available - 12bits ADC - up to 250MHz bandwidth - over 2.5GHz - may require wideband AWG For BW < 140 MHz: Agilent PXA is recommended - 14bits ADC - can reach down to -100dBm - greater DPD improvements

Sampling rate=245.76MHz

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Simulation vs. Measurement DPD Extraction Approaches


SIMULATION-BASED DPD ADS (predictive)
GG CO-SIM, MODELS

ADS & GoldenGate Circuits as simulated RF DUTs - Complex loading, memory FX, dynamic behaviors NVNA X-parameter measurement model, - Great for smaller solid-state devices

CO-SIM, MODELS

X-parameters

MODEL

N5241,2 PNA-X

RF DUT

MEASUREMENT-BASED DPD
89600 VSA
External Trigger

M9392A PXI VSA (>140MHz) or N9030A PXA (<140 MHz)

I,Q

RF
Attenuator

M9330A AWG if > 100 MHz

N5182 MXG or E8257D PSG as external modulator

RF DUT

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Design Challenge #4 MIMO and Channel considerations


MIMO multiplicity is adding to the verification effort; Do 8x4 and 8x8 provide the performance for an ROI? Virtual techniques (Agilent MIMO OTA approach, and simulation links from bottom-up EDA flows) can bridge gaps A surprising level of accuracy is attainable at the algorithm/architecture stage of a design Comparable algorithms can be used in both simulation and at-speed hardware faders; this symmetry can ease the transition to verification

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W1715 MIMO Channel Model (for LTE-Advanced) Predictive, simulation-based fading, for up to 8x8 MIMO

User Define Parameters

Scenario Selection/ Network Layout/ Antennas

Large Scale & Small Scale Parameters Generation

Fading Coefficient Generation

Transmitting Signals

Input Ports

Fading Engine

Output Ports

Faded Signals

WINNER II Channel Emulator Module

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LTE-Advanced Channel Modelling in SystemVue Predictive, simulation-based fading, from 3DEM analyses
PHYSICAL ANTENNA PATTERNS from Agilent EMPro simulations FILES W1715 MIMO CHANNEL MODEL

antenna pattern file 1

antenna pattern file 2

from Anechoic measurements


...

antenna pattern file N

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LTE-Advanced Channel Modelling in SystemVue


Antenna Patterns, loaded by human Throughput % vs. array rotation angle (with/without human)

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SystemVue 2x2 MIMO Downlink Throughput Experimental & Simulated results vs. Angle-of-Arrival
1.02 1 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.92 0.9 0.88 0.86 0.84 Experiment Results Simulation Results 0 50 100 150 200 AoA in degree 250 300 350

2x2 LTE-A Throughput %

It is possible to get early, realistic systemlevel results for MIMO Incorporate preliminary designs for - Baseband PHY, and user IP - Industrial design & Antenna placement - RF transceivers (pre-tapeout) - Interference, and signaling environment Challenge: Simulation speed, and amount of actual coverage testing

Throughput Factor

Transition from Simulations to Test DUT

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Design Challenge #5 Verification increasing dramatically


Verification dimensionality expanding vs.
BB PHY operating modes of LTE-Advanced, LTE, 3G, WLAN, MIMO RF Spectral allocations/bands, and analog control settings Semiconductor processes, battery, and environmental conditions

Scripting, regressions, IP exchange, and testbenches across domains


RF models have been simplistic in Baseband in order to be fast Baseband Algorithms are dumbed down to static modes for CW RF no frequency response, no memory effects, noise, or dynamic phenomena

The next generation of tools are addressing these challenges

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Duplex spacing

LTE Frequency bands FDD bands based on 36.101 va.2.0 Table 5.5-1
Band 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15* 16* 17 18 19 20 21 24 Uplink MHz 1920 1850 1710 1710 824 830 2500 880 1749.9 1710 1427.9 698 777 788 1900 2010 704 815 830 832 1447.9 1626.5 1980 1910 1785 1755 849 840 2570 915 1784.9 1770 1447.9 716 787 798 1920 2025 716 830 845 862 1462.9 1660.5 Downlink MHz 2110 1930 1805 2110 869 865 2620 925 1844.9 2110 1475.9 728 746 758 2600 2585 734 860 875 791 1495.9 1525 2170 1990 1880 2155 894 8752690 960 1879.9 2170 1495.9 746 756 768 2620 2600 746 875 890 821 1510.9 1559 Width Duplex
60 60 75 45 25 10 70 35 35 60 20 18 10 10 20 15 12 15 15 30 15 34 190 80 95 400 45 35 120 45 95 400 48 30 -31 -30 700 575 30 45 45 -41 48 -101.5

Width Uplink Band Gap

Width Downlink Band

Gap
130 20 20 355 20 25 50 10 60 340 28 12 41 40 680 560 18 30 30 71 33 135.5

Points of note There is a lot of overlap between band definitions for regional reasons The Duplex spacing varies from 30 MHz to 799 MHz The gap between downlink and uplink varies from 10 MHz to 680 MHz Narrow duplex spacing and gaps make it hard to design filters to prevent the transmitter spectral regrowth leaking into the receiver (self-blocking) Bands 13, 14, 20 and 24 are reversed from normal by having the uplink higher in frequency than the downlink Bands 15 and 16 are defined by ETSI (not 3GPP) for Europe only these bands combine two nominally TDD bands to create one FDD band

Frequency

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LTE Frequency bands TDD bands based on 36.101 va.2.0 Table 5.5-1
Band 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Uplink MHz 1900 2010 1850 1930 1910 2570 1880 2300 2496 3400 3600 1920 2025 1910 1990 1930 2620 1920 2400 2690 3600 3800 Downlink MHz 1900 2010 1850 1930 1910 2570 1880 2300 2496 3400 3600 1920 2025 1910 1990 1930 2620 1920 2400 2690 3600 3800 Width 20 15 60 60 20 50 40 100 194 200 200

Width Transceive Band

Frequency Points of note For TDD there is no concept of duplex spacing or gap since the downlink and uplink frequencies are the same As such, the challenge of separating transmit from receive does not require a duplex filter for the frequency domain but a switch for the time domain

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Future LTE/UTRA Frequency bands


The work on defining new frequency bands shows no sign of slowing up. These are the bands currently being considered by 3GPP:
Band 22 Band 23 Band 25 Band 26 Band 27 3410/3490 + 3510/3590 UMTS/LTE 3500 MHz 2000/2020 + 2180/2200 - S band additional terrestrial component (ATC) of the mobile satellite systems (MSS) 1850/1915 + 1930/1995 - Extended 1900 band has issues with GPS co-existence 814/849 MHz + 859/894 Extended 850 upper band 806/824 + 851/869 Extended 850 lower band

Other possibilities identified by the ITU:


3.6-4.2 GHz 450470 MHz 698862 MHz 790862 MHz band (European digital dividend) 4.4-4.99 GHz band

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Fast Circuit Envelope (FCE) Verification Modeling FCE behavioral model is exported from RFIC circuit tools Runs native at the system-level in seconds, without needing EDA licenses Accounts for
Power-dependence Frequency-dependence Nonlinear memory effects Frequency translation ZeroIF/DC and RF carriers Multiple I/O ports Internal nodes
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1000s of analog transistors

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Fast Circuit Envelope (FCE) Verification Modeling Example: FCE model used in an LTE Uplink test
Coded LTE UL

5 MHz source SystemVue W1910/W1918 library


TUNE MODE

RFIC CMOS PA
SCRIPTABLE ENVIRONMENT SCRIPTABLE PARAMETERS

89600 VSA

FastCircuitEnvelope model LTE demod Exported from GoldenGate

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Reliable system-level performance in seconds.


Nominal LTE result (0.4% EVM) LTE result Compressing PA (20% EVM)

Pout = +10.6dBm, ACLR=37dBc CPU time = 3 sec (150k points)

Pout = +19.3dBm, ACLR=23dBc CPU time = 3 sec (150k points)

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Deepest Insights: Direct circuit envelope co-simulation

CLOSED-LOOP LTE UL Throughput

Dynamic RF behavior Standards-compliant High accuracy Directly uses the I,Q design databases (not an indirect model)

RFIC environmt (remote Linux)


Upconvert/TX RFIC

RFIC environmt (remote Linux)


LowNoise Amp RFIC

RF

RF

RF

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Other approaches: Native RF System modeling Bringing RF System Architectures up to the PHY-level
From X-parameters

Dedicated simulator for RF system architecture Local RF analog effects (e.g. - X-parameters) Drag &drop the whole RF chain into Dataflow Able to do MIMO and ZeroIF architectures
To RF System Architectures To PHY system performance

Drag & Drop

To PHY-level Systems

Dataflow modeling on the fly

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Agenda
Standards Overview LTE-Advanced - New Features LTE-Advanced - Channel Model Introduction to Agilent SystemVue Design Challenges Working algorithmic reference Flexible early verification & project NRE Carrier Aggregation & RF stress MIMO & Channel considerations Verification increasing Conclusion and Q&A

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System-level tools and LTE-Advanced algorithmic library Flexible PHY algorithm reference from Concept to R&D Test
Accelerate your Physical Layer (PHY) design process Save time with a trusted, open, independent IP reference Validate BB & RF integration early Streamline verification and NRE Fill strategic gaps using simulation Interoperate with test equipment, even while the Standard evolves Re-use the same Agilent assets throughout process

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Conclusion
LTE-Advanced PHY presents significant new BB and RF design challenges The EDA tools are also providing significant new capabilities to address these challenges. What was shown today is already available. Seen today:
instrument grade Standards IP reference, usable throughout the design process Modular top-down ESL design approach across both Baseband and RF domains High-performance measurement and modeling techniques Open SW/HW platform, with single-vendor worldwide apps & support

Visit us at regional Agilent seminar tours and industry trade shows, or on the web at http://www.agilent.com/find/eesof-systemvue-lte-advanced

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Questions?

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You are invited July 7

Paul Colestock RF-MS Product Manager

You can find more webcasts www.agilent.com/find/eesof-innovations-in-eda www.agilent.com/find/eesof-webcasts-recorded

George Estep RF-MS Application Development Engineer

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App Notes and Videos Referenced in this presentation


Slide 4 14 15,55 24 25 25 27 31 46 48 48 48 61 61 Agilent Literature Title/Description number Introduction to LTE-Advanced 5990-6706EN Webcast EEtimes 5990-6535EN 5990-8135EN 5990-3357EN YouTube video 5990-7146EN 5990-6202EN 5990-7757EN 5990-6534EN Webcast 5990-6742EN 5990-7818EN YouTube video July 2011 webcast Theories, Techniques, and Validation of Over-The-Air (OTA) Test Methods for Evaluating the Performance of MIMO Handsets (September, 2010) MIMO Channel modeling with SystemVue SystemVue LTE-Advanced Library LTE Reference Vector (whitepaper on model-based design methodology) Model Configurations for Easy Control of Model Polymorphism http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LEEibGvIDvc Using SystemVue LTE-Advanced Signal Generation and Measurement SystemVue for LTE Throughput SystemVue for Design-Validate-Test (tutorial) Using SystemVue for Digital Pre-Distortion 4G For Everyone: Extended RF Performance with Digital Pre-Distortion Making Digital Pre-Distortion Fast and Practical for all Engineers Fast Circuit Envelope Models for RFIC verification http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7k8TS2Due70 A Model-based approach to System-Level RFIC Verification http://www.agilent.com/find/innovations-in-EDA

For Agilent literature on the web, replace the digits in http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/xxxx-xxxxxx.pdf with the literature number

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