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576482(76) :TRAVEL & TOURISM (New)

COURSE CONTENTS UNIT - 1


Tourism Concept & perspective: Tourism - Meaning and Definition, Changing facets of Tourism, Different perspectives on the study of Tourism Importance of Managerial and Economic Perspective, Definitions: Visitor, Tourist Excursionist, Incoming Tourist ,Outgoing Tourist

Tourism concepts and principles


Travel Travel comprises all journeys from one place to another. It includes all journeys made by people who enter a country for leisure, to work, reside, study or who just pass through a country without stopping. Tourism (a) Tourism means the temporary short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work, as well as their activities during their stay at these destinations. (All tourism should have some travel, but not all travel is tourism.) (b) Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for less than a year and whose main purpose of travel is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. The term "usual environment" is intended to exclude trips within the area of usual residence and frequent and regular trips between the domicile and the workplace and other community trips of a routine character. Purposes of visit: Business Leisure / holiday Study Sports Cultural Religion Health Others

Definitions of "Traveler", "Tourist"


Travellers - Any person who is taking a trip within or outside his/her own country of residence irrespective of the purpose of travel, means of transport used, even though he/she may be travelling on foot. Tourist - A tourist is a person who travels to destinations outside his/her residence and working place, and stays for at least 24 hours, for the purpose of leisure or business. Same-day visitor or Excursionist - An excursionist is a person who temporarily visits a destination and stays for less than 24 hours, for the purpose of leisure or business, but not for transit.
Examples: 1. A Canadian resident takes a short trip to the USA without staying overnight. 2. A Malaysian resident takes a short trip to Singapore without staying overnight.

World Tourism Organization's (UNWTO) Definitions of "Tourist"


The International Conference on Travel and Tourism Statistics convened by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) in Ottawa, Canada in 1991 reviewed, updated, and expanded on the work of earlier international groups. The Ottawa Conference made some fundamental recommendations on definitions of tourism, travellers, and tourists. The United Nations Statistical Commission adopted UNWTO's recommendations on tourism statistics on March 1993. a) Tourists: Visitors who spend at least one night in the country visited

b) Crew members: Foreign air or ship crews docked or in lay over and who used the accommodation establishments of the country visited c) Excursionists: Visitors who do not spend at least one night in the country visited although they might visit the country during one day or more and return to their ship or train to sleep. d) Cruise passengers: Normally included in excursionists. Separate classification of these visitors is nevertheless preferable. e) Day visitors: Visitors who come and leave the same day. f) Crews: Crews who are not residents of the country visited and who stay in the country for the day. g) Members of armed forces: When they travel from their country of origin to the duty station and vice versa. h) Transit passengers: Who do not leave the transit area of the airport or the port in certain countries, transit may involve a stay of one day or more. In this case they should be included in the visitor statistics.

In India we see the origin of the concept of Tourism in Sanskrit Literature. It has given us three terms derived from the root word Atana which means going out and accordingly we have the terms: I. II. III. Tirthatana It means going out and visiting places of religious merit. Paryatana - It means going out for pleasure and knowledge. Deshatana - It means going out of the country primarily for economic gains.

In simple terms Tourism is the act of travel for the purposes of leisure, pleasure or business, and the provision of services for this act. There are two important components that make up tourism: 1. The practice of travelling for pleasure. 2. The business of providing tours and services for persons travelling. Here we are discussing the features of the=-above two components The following are required, to make travel possible: (Component 1) I. Discretionary income, i.e. money to spend on non-essentials II. Time in which to do so. III. Infrastructure in the form of accommodation facilities and means of transport. Individually, sufficient health is also a condition, and of course the inclination to travel. Furthermore, in some countries there are legal restrictions on travelling, especially abroad. Communist states restrict foreign travel only to "trustworthy" citizens. The United States prohibits its citizens from travelling to some countries, for example, Cuba. There are four basic services to be provided for Tourists: (Component 2) I. Travel Arrangements II. Board and Lodging III. Food IV. Entertainment
In the above paragraphs we have discussed the basic meaning of tourism and the features of the components of Tourism. Now we will talk about the definitions of the term tourism. There have been a number of attempts to define tourism since the beginning of the twentieth century.

Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. The term usual environment is intended to exclude trips within the place of residence, trip to the usual place of work or education and daily shopping and other local day-to-day activities The threshold of twelve months is intended to exclude long-term migration. For the distance travelled there is no consensus. It varies from at least 40 kms to at least 160kms away from home one way for any purpose other than commuting to work. Five main characteristics of tourism may be identified from the definition I. Tourism arises from a movement of people to, and their stay in, various destinations. II. There are two elements in all tourism: the journey to the destination and the stay including activities at the destination. III. The journey and the stay take place outside the usual place of residence and work, so that tourism gives rise to activities, which are distinct from those of the resident and the working population of the places, through which the tourist travels and in which they stay. IV. The movement to destinations is of temporary, short-term character, with the intention of returning to the usual environment within a few days, weeks or months. V. Destinations are visited for purposes other than taking up permanent residence or employment remunerated from within the places visited. As per WTO definition, Tourism can be classified into the following forms I. II. III. IV. V. Inbound tourism: Visits to a country by non-resident of that country - for example, when A American citizen, Mr. Sam comes to India to see the Taj Mahal, he is an inbound tourist for India. Outbound tourism: Visits by the residents of a country to another country - ,for example when an Indian citizen, Mr. Ram goes to America to see Hollywood , he is an outbound tourist for India. Domestic tourism: It involves travelling by the residents of the given country within their own country -, for example, when Mr. Anil a resident of Delhi goes to see the Taj Mahal in Agra he is a domestic Indian Tourist. Internal tourism: It comprises of domestic tourism and inbound tourism. International tourism: It comprises of inbound tourism and outbound tourism

CHANGING FACETS OF TOURISM:


From the very inception of life, travel has fascinated man. Travel and tourism have been important social activities of human beings from time immemorial. The urge to explore new places within ones own country or outside and seek a change of environment & experience has been experienced from ancient times . Tourism is one of the worlds most rapidly growing industries. Much of its growth is due to higher dispos able incomes, increased leisure time and falling costs of travel. As airports become more enjoyable places to pass through, as travel agency services become increasingly automated, and as tourists find it easier to get information on places they want to visit, tourism grows. The Internet has fuelled the growth of the travel industry by providing on line booking facilities. It has also provided people with the power to explore destinations and cultures from their home personal computers and make informed choices before

finalizing travel plans. With its immense information resources, the Internet allows tourists to scrutinize hotels, check weather forecasts, read up on local food and even talk to other tourists around the world about their travel experiences for a chosen destination. This new trend has made the tourism job very challenging. The holiday makers want a good rate of return on their investment. They are to be lured with value additions and improved customer service. This also put emphasis on the regular flow of manpower with specific skills at the appropriate levels to match and cater to global standards. The success of the hospitality industry comes from provision of quality rooms, food, service and ambience. There is no doubt that fitness has increasingly become a larger part of everyones life. And business and leisure travelers alike look to maintain their fitness goals while away from home. Awareness should be created about the environment and education. A collective effort and co-operation with powerful networking are the need of the hour. People should be acting as the watchdogs of the society as far as environmental issues are concerned. Eco-tourists are a growing community and tourism promotions have to adopt such eco-practices which could fit this growing community. Another growing trend in the tourism scene is the Incentive Market and the scope of the destination to attract conferences and convention traffic. Here the prospects are better for those destinations where state of the art infrastructure has been developed along with a safe and clean image. Tourism today is much more than just developing products. It is more about quality, insightful thinking and ability to have global information about technology, partners, contacts and responding quickly to global and regional trends. The fundamental task before tourism promotion is to facilitate integration of the various components in the tourism trade as active participants in the nations social and cultural life. There is a long road ahead. All must work towards a society where people can work and participate as equal partners. Tourism should be a vehicle for international cooperation and understanding of the various civilizations and a harbinger of peace. From the foregoing we can see how fast the face of tourism is changing and how challenging the job of travel agencies is now. There is therefore a need for proper training of the personnel working in the industry through thorough and a detailed study of the subject A unified approach to the subject is also needed since at present people from different fields have been studying tourism from different perspectives DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES ON THE STUDY OF TOURISM: 1. Geographical Perspective - from a geographers perspective the main concern of tourism is to look int o aspects like the geographical location of a place, the climate, the landscape, the environment, the physical planning and the changes in these emerging from provisioning of tourism facilities and amenities. A geographer feels that it is the climate, landscape or physical attributes which draw the tourist to a destination, for example; if a person from Delhi goes to Shimla in the summer he does so because of the cooler climate which he cannot get in Delhi 2. Sociological Perspective - From a sociologists perspective Tourism is a social activity; it is about interaction between different communitieshosts and guestsand encounter between different cultures. This approach studies social classes, habits and customs of both hosts and guests in terms of tourism behaviour of individuals or groups of people and the impact of tourism on society. 3. Historical Perspective - from an historians perspective tourism is a study of the factors instrumental in the initiation of

tourism to a particular destination, the order of happenings leading to tourism development, the reasons for happening of the occurrences in that order, beneficiaries of the tourist activity and an untimely and premature identification of negative effects. For example we all know that a lot of tourists visit Taj Mahal in Agra but a historian would be interested in studying the factors that bring the tourist there, e.g. the architecture, the story behind the monument, or something else that draws them there. 4. Managerial Perspective - from the management perspective tourism is an industry, and therefore needs managerial skills in order to be properly managed. As the industry grows we see continuous changes in various organisations and services linked with the industry, the tourism products and so on so this approach concentrates on management activities such as planning, research, pricing, marketing, control etc. as vital to the operation of a tourist establishment. 5. Economic Perspective From an economists perspective tourism is a major source of foreign exchange earnings, a generator of personal and corporate incomes, a creator of employment and a contributor to government earnings. It is a dominant global activity surpassing even trade in oil and manufactured goods. Economists study the effects of tourism industry on the economy. This is a two way process. THE IMPORTANCE OF MANAGERIAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES TO THE STUDY OF TOURISM: Now due to higher disposable incomes, increased leisure time and falling cost of travel, the Tourism industry has shown a very high growth and since tourism is a service industry it comprises of a number of tangible and intangible components. The tangible elements include transport systems - air, rail, road, water and now, space; hospitality services accommodation, food and beverage, tours, souvenirs; and related services such as banking, insurance and safety and security. The intangible elements include: rest and relaxation, culture, escape, adventure, new and different experiences. As there are number of bodies involved the need arises for a management of services related to this industry and so the study of Tourism acquires a great practical necessity and usefulness. Tourism industry is very fast growing and this industry involves activities and interests of Transport Undertakings, Owners of Tourist Sites and Attractions, Various tourist Service Providers at the tourist destinations and Central and Local Government, etc. Each of these serves both the resident population and the tourists and their management must reconcile the needs of tourists with the needs of the resident population. So it becomes important to study tourism from the perspective of Management, since the management of various bodies in this industry is invaded.

Economic Impacts of Tourism


Businesses and public organizations are increasingly interested in the economic impacts of tourism at national, state, and local levels. One regularly hears claims that tourism supports X jobs in an area or that a festival or special event generated Y million dollars in sales or income in a community. Multiplier effects are often cited to capture secondary effects of tourism spending and show the wide range of sectors in a community that may benefit from tourism. Tourism activity also involves economic costs, including the direct costs incurred by tourism businesses, government costs for infrastructure to better serve tourists, as well as congestion and related costs borne by individuals in the community. Community decisions over tourism often involve debates between industry proponents touting tourisms economic impacts (benefits) and detractors emphasizing tourisms costs. Sound decisions rest on a balanced and objective assessment of both benefits and costs and an understanding of who benefits from tourism and who pays for it. Tourisms economic impacts are therefore an important consideration in state, regional and community planning and economic

development. Economic impacts are also important factors in marketing and management decisions. Communities therefore need to understand the relative importance of tourism to their region, including tourisms contribution to economic activity in the area A variety of methods, ranging from pure guesswork to complex mathematical models, are used to estimate tourisms economic impacts. Studies vary extensively in quality and accuracy, as well as which aspects of tourism are included. Technical reports often are filled with economic terms and methods that non-economists do not understand.

TYPES OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS


Economic impact analysis -- What is the contribution of tourism activity to the economy of the region? An economic impact analysis traces the flows of spending associated with tourism activity in a region to identify changes in sales, tax revenues, income, and jobs due to tourism activity. The principal methods here are visitor spending surveys, analysis of secondary data from government economic statistics, economic base models, inputoutput models and multipliers. (Frechtling 1994a) Fiscal impact analysis Will government revenues from tourism activity from taxes, direct fees, and other sources cover the added costs for infrastructure and government services? Fiscal impact analysis identifies changes in demands for government utilities and services resulting from some action and estimates the revenues and costs to local government to provide these services (Burchell and Listokin1978). Financial analysis Can we make a profit from this activity? A financial analysis determines whether a business will generate sufficient revenues to cover its costs and make a reasonable profit. It generally includes a short-term analysis of the availability and costs of start-up capital as well as a longer-range analysis of debt service, operating costs and revenues. A financial analysis for a private business is analogous to a fiscal impact analysis for a local government unit. Demand analysis How will the number or types of tourists to the area change due to changes in prices, promotion, competition, quality and quantity of facilities, or other demand shifters? A demand analysis estimates or predicts the number and/or types of visitors to an area via a use estimation, forecasting or demand model. The number of visitors or sales is generally predicted based on judgement (Delphi method), historic trends (time series methods), or using a model that captures how visits or spending varies with key demand determinants (structural models) such as population size, distance to markets, income levels, and measures of quality & competition (Walsh 1986, Johnson and Thomas 1992). Benefit Cost analysis (B/C) Which alternative policy will generate the highest net benefit to society over time? A B/C analysis estimates the relative economic efficiency of alternative policies by comparing benefits and costs over time. B/C analysis identifies the most efficient policies from the perspective of societal welfare, generally including both monetary and non-monetary values. B/C analysis makes use of a wide range of methods for estimating values of non-market goods and services, such as the travel cost method and contingent valuation method.