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(ICS 29.1 60.40)

Installation, Operation, Maintenance,
Performance And Constructional
Requirements Of Mains Failure
Standby Generating Systems
Copyright Reserved
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board
1 Science Park Drive
Singapore 118221
(S.E. ASI.3.! PTE. LTD.
51 AFiCJC!?< 2CAD $12-51
:,INGA?Ot?E 078904
TEL: iX17588
ISBN 9971 -67-538-2
This Singapore Standard having been approved by the Electrical Industry Practice Committee was
endorsed by the Standards Council on 28 March 1996.
First published. 1985.
First revision, 1996.
The Electrical Industry Practice Committee appointed by the Standards Council consists of the following
members :
Name Organisation
Chairman : Mr Soh Siew Cheong
Secretary : Mr Dennis Chew
Members : Dr David Chia Cheng Song
Mr Foo Kong Deen
Mr Goh Kok Chan
Mr Ho Fui Chan
Er N P Karthigayan
Mr Koh Chai Kee
Dr Lock Kai Sang
Mr Samuel Ong Bor Hwee
Mr Tan Sing Ong
Mr Tay Tien Seng
Assoc Prof Teo Cheng Yu
Mr Wan Fook Sing
Mr Yeo Yek Seng
Standards Council
Singapore Institute of Standards and Industrial
Association of Consulting Engineers, Singapore
Singapore Electrical Trades Association
Port of Singapore Authority
Housing and Development Board
Institution of Engineers, Singapore
Singapore Telecommunications Pte Ltd
National University of Singapore
Singapore Electrical Contractors Association
Jurong Town Corporation
Singapore Mass Rapid Transit
Nanyang Technological University
Singapore Contractors Association Limited
Public Utilities Board
The Technical Committee appointed by the Electrical Industry Practice Committee and responsible for
the preparation of this standard consists of representatives from the following organisations:
Name Organisation
Chairman : Dr David Chia Cheng Song
Chairman : Mr Shum Siew Keong
Secretary : Ms Jenny Yeo Ee Kian
Members : Dr Foo Yung Kuan
Dr Li Erping
Mr P Thomas Mathen
Mr Sim Wee Meng
Mr Tan Keng Swee
Mr Teo Seow Kok
Mr Yong Yit Lee
Association of Consulting Engineers, Singapore
Public Utilities Board
Singapore Institute of Standards and lndustrial
Institution of Engineers, Singapore
Singapore lnstitute of Standards and lndustrial
Singapore Electrical Trade Association
Land Transport Authority
Jurong Town Corporation
Housing and Development Board
Fire Safety Bureau
Scope -
Exchange of information
Generator room
Engine -
Control panel -
Generator control and protection
Load characteristics and applications -
Commissioning -
Instruction manuals -
Maintenance schedule for standby generator set
Safety -
A. Label for earth terminals
B. Rating for diesel powered generating sets
C. Standby generator set testlmaintenance report -
1. Illustration of continuous power -
2. Illustration of prime power
3. lllustration of limited-time run -
This Code of Practice was prepared by the Technical Committee on the Installation, Operation,
Maintenance, Performance and Constructional Requirements of Mains Failure Standby Generating
Systems under the direction of the Electrical Industry Practice Committee. It is a revision of
CP 31 : 1985. In this revision, the power rating definitions in Appendix B is based on that given in
IS0 8528 -"Reciprocating internal combustion engine driven alternating current generating sets."
This Code covers the design, construction, installation, operation, testing, inspection and
maintenance of standby mains failure generating sets for buildings. It however does not apply to
installations for marine or off-shore or base-load use.
The purpose of the Code is to establish uniformity in electrical engineering practice for the
operation of standby mains failure generating sets in Singapore.
1. Singapore Standards are subject to periodical review to keep abreast of technological changes
and new technical develooments. The revisions of Sinaaoore Standards are announced through
- .
the issue of either amendment slips or revised editions.
2. Compliance with a Singapore Standard does not exempt users from legal obligations.
This Code shall apply to the performance and constructional requirements, installation,
operation, testing, inspection and maintenance of standby mains failure generating sets for buildings and
where applicable to mobile generating sets. It shall not apply to installations for marine or off-shore or
base load,use. installations shall be designed to conform with the requirements of the relevant
authorities in Singapore.
The purpose of this Code is to establish uniformity in electrical engineering practice for standby
mains failure generating sets in Singapore. The recommendations of the Code are framed in such a
manner to ensure safety of life and limb. Installation and maintenance of standby mains failure
generating sets necessarily call for co-ordination among the users, the architects, the consulting
engineers, the manufacturers and the installers. This Code gives the essential information that should
be exchanged between parties from the stage of planning to installation, including subsequent
3.1 Generating Set. A generating set is an internal combustion engine driving a rotating a.c.
electrical generator together with its associated control panel, switchgear and ancillary equipment,
whether integrally mounted or otherwise.
3.2 Automatic Mains Failure Generating Set. A generating set with a control system designed
to run the set and take up the load in the event of a complete mains failure or deviation of the mains
supply outside acceptable limits.
3.3 Load Sharing (Of Generating Sets). The means whereby the total active and reactive load
components of generating sets operating in parallel are shared.
3.4 Mains. The electricity supply from the Supply Authority.
3.5 Mutual Standby To Mains Supply. An automatic mains failure installation in which more than
one generating sets are installed.
3.6 Neutral Conductor. A neutral conductor is defined as :
The neutral conductor of a 3-phase, 4-wire system;
The conductor of a single phase installation which is earthed at the source of the
3.7 Parallel Operation. A system comprising two or more generating sets arranged to share the
load when the outputs of the a.c. generators are connected to a common bus-bar.
3.8 Start
3.8.1 Automatic start. Starting the engine utilising a starting system or sequence controlled by a
signal independently derived.
3.8.2 Local start. Starting the engine by a starting system or sequence operated by a switch or
push-button on or adjacent to the generating set.
3.8.3 Remote start. Starting the engine by a starting system or sequence operated by switch or
push-button located other than on or adjacent to the generating set.
3.9 Stop
3.9.1 Automatic stop. Stopping the engine utilising a stopping system or sequence controlled by
a signal independently derived.
3.9.2 Electric stop. Stopping the engine by controlling the stop lever or solenoid valve by means
of a solenoid.
3.9.3 Hand stop. Stopping the engine by operating the stop lever or device mounted on the engine
by hand.
3.10 System
3.10.1 Closed loop system. A control system which compares a status signal with a reference and
generates a correcting signal resulting in stable operation.
3.10.2 Starting system. Means whereby the engine can be rotated from an independent secondary
source of stored energy (usually a battery or compressed air) at a speed high enough to enable it to
4.1 Preliminary Discussion. A meeting of interested parties, namely client, architect, consulting
engineer and/or generating set manufacturer should be held during the preliminary planning of the
building to discuss the various aspects of the generating set installation. This enables the manufacturer
to furnish the architect and/or consulting engineer with a proposed layout giving particulars, such as
dimensions, foundation requirements and loading imposed on the building.
4.2 Information To Be Provided By The Architect Or The Engineer. Information to be provided
by the architect or the engineer shall include but not be limited to:
Size, position and location of the generator room;
(b) Particulars of floor loading;
Arrangement of generating set within the room as regard exhaust opening and fresh air
and exhaust air openings;
Whether parallel operation is required;
Capacity, frequency, voltage, voltage tolerances and speed of generating set;
Type and rating of equipment to be sewed by the generator;
Whether remote cooling is required;
Position and location of control panel;
Position and location of automatic change over or transfer switch;
Whether bulk storage facility for fuel is required;
Provision of fuel for testing;
Whether witness test and site test are necessary;
The list of tools and spares required.
4.3 lnformation To Be Provided By A Generating Set Manufacturer. lnformation to be provided
by a generating set manufacturer shall include but not be limited to:
Working drawing showing the layout of generating set details;
Engine room requirements in respect of combustion air, ventilation and exhaust
Location and details of supports for the generating set including any casting-in of
Structural loading and/or any other special requirement;
Hoisting points and loading imposed for hoisting pre-assembled parts, whereapplicable;
(f )
Electrical circuit diagram including details of control circuit;
Any opening required for cables or pipes, etc;
Performance data including acoustic information, noise level and fuel consumption;
Symmetrical fault level of the generator;
(j )
List of tools and spares required.
4.4 Commencement And Completion Dates. The architect/engineer should inform the
contractor/generating set manufacturer of the dates when the installation of the generating set is to
commence and when to be completed. Sufficient time must be allowed for the manufacture, installation
and commissioning of the generating set.
4.5 Builders' And Associated Works
4.5.1 Access. Sufficient access in the building and a clear passage for the assembled equipment
or its sections to the seating position and supports shall be arranged. Any floor over which the
assembled equipment or its sections have to pass shall be of sufficient strength or suitably strutted to
suppott the loads.
4.5.2 Lifting points. Suitable lifting points, if required, shall be provided to enable the assembled
equipment or its sections to be lifted and manoeuvred into the installed position.
5.1 General. The generating sets shall be housed in an easily accessible room with the approval
of the relevant Authority.
5.2 Floor Construction. Floors shall be of concrete or of other fire-resisting material of equivalent
fire-rating as the floors. Where the generating set is to be supported solely by the generator room floor
slab, the floor slab shall be designed to carry any load which may be imposed by the equipment dead
load or by reaction from such equipment during normal operation.
5.3 Foundations. Most generating sets are mounted on a fabricated steel bed, but this shouid not
be taken for granted particularly with larger sets where extensive foundation work, such as the
construction of an inertia block, vibration isolation and noise insulation can often be involved.
5.4 Floor Area. The generator room shall have a minimum distance of 900 mm from the sides of
the walls to the sides of the generating set and other equipment so as to permit free access to all parts
of the generating set and equipment for the purpose of inspection, maintenance and dismantling for
repair. There shall also be a similar clearance between the generating set and other equipment in the
room. However, the fuel tank, ducted radiator, front access control panel, etc. could have one of the
sides against a wall.
5.5 Headroom. There shall be sufficient height in every generator room to enable any portion of
the generating set or equipment to be raised clear for dismantling and in no case shall the headroom.
measured from the finished floor level to the underside of the lowest obstruction, be less than 2600 mm.
5.6 Protection Against Weather. Every generator room shall be so constructed as to afford
permanent protection against all weather, including protection against lightning, if appropriate.
5.7 Lighting. Artificial lighting (recommended 300 lux) shall be provided in the generator room.
5.8 Ventilation. Every generator room shall have permanent means of ventilation. Consideration
shall be given to the provision of sufficient free or filtered air for both ventilation and combustion. Means
for the emission of cooling and exhaust air shall also be provided. The ventilation installation shall be
designed to conform with the requirements of the relevant Authorities in Singapore.
5.9 Limitations To The Use Of Generator Room. The generator room shall not be used for
purposes other than those connected with the generator or the installation of other related permanent
5.10 Doors To Generator Room. The entrance door to the generator room shall be provided with
a lock that can be opened from the outside only by the use of a key but shall not require a key to open
it from within.
5.1 1 Electric Shock Treatment Chart. A chart explaining treatment for electric shock and artificial
respiration shouid be displayed adjacent to the generating set.
5.12 Fire-protection. All openings in floors or walls for the passage of pipework and cables shall
be protected against the passage of flame, smoke or gases in the event of fire. In addition, as a
protection against vibration, pipework shall first be surrounded by a layer of non-combustible and
compressible material such as fibreglass before finishing off with the same material as the wall or floor.
A fuel containing bund can also be considered.
5.13 Maintenance. In laying out an engine room due consideration must be given to access for
maintenance purposes and quick evacuation in case of danger. It is normally expected that all
necessary maintenance would be effected in situ. In the case of larger units some form of lifting
arrangements to facilitate top overhauls is also advantageous and can often be built into the building
5.14 Electrical Diagram. An electrical diagram shall be framed and displayed prominently in the
generator room (preferably with emergency telephone numbers).
5.15 Warning And Danger Signs. Warning and danger signs shall be displayed conspicuously in
the four official languages.
5.16 Fire Extinguisher And Rubber Mat. A fire extinguisher shall be provided in a generator room
and in installations with free standing switchboards, rubber mats with minimum 5 mm shall also be
5.17 No Smoking Sign. A no smoking sign shall be displayed conspicuously in the four official
5.18 In cases when approval is given for generator sets in pre-mounted enclosures to be used in the
buildings, it should also generally comply with this Code.
6.1 General. The diesel engine is the predominant prime mover selected for generating set use
and this Code is compiled with this in mind. It is however equally applicable in general terms to petrol
or gas turbine powered sets. The standard specification for the manufacture and performance of diesel
engines is IS0 3046.
6.2 Location Of Control And Adjustment Device
All operational controls are to be arranged such that they are grouped together in a
readily accessible and logical position.
Setting up devices may be separately located to prevent unauthorised adjustment.
6.3 Engine Status Indication. It is recommended that provision for fitting the following engine
status indication be provided as a minimum:
Oil pressure;
Engine temperature;
- Service hours;
- Speed:
Dynamo status indication.
6.4 Engine Protection
Engine failure can occur as a result of lack of oil pressure, high coolant temperature.
lack of coolant or overspeed.
It is recommended that provision for fitting the engine protection be provided as a
minimum and protection devices and control be provided when specified to effect
warning or shutdown in the event of:
Low oil pressure;
- High engine temperature;
Low coolant level (water cooled engines only);
6.5 Governor. A governor is normally fitted to the prime mover and can be mechanical, hydraulic,
electronic or a combination of the above and is designed to control its running speed within pre-
determined limits.
6.6 Speed Adjustment
The speed is normally preset to ensure rated frequency at full load;
Means may be provided to adjust the nominal speed of the engine;
For certain purposes (e.g. parallel operation) a means of speed adjustment is necessary
and can be provided in the form of a mechanical or electrical speed controller, servo
motor or potentiometer dependent upon the type of governor fitted.
7.1 General. This clause covers the design and installation of generating sets intended for
supplying power at constant voltage. Generators used in these sets are therefore constant voltage
machines and include some means for automatically holding the voltage at the prescribed level under
varying load conditions.
7.2 Construction. Generators shall be designed and constructed to meet the appropriate sections
of IEC 34. Temperature rises of continuously rated machines above the ambient temperature must not
exceed the permitted values for the particular class of insulations and if actual cooling conditions are
more arduous the machine rating must be correspondingly reduced. Thus, under stated ambient
conditions (40C at 1000 m altitude) the generator will usually have a continuous rating of the prime
7.3 Overload. Most engines can deliver overload power for limited periods and generators to
which they are coupled must also be capable of giving this additional output, when required, without
detriment to their satisfactory operation. To meet this requirement, some generators are assigned a
shon-time rating which is higher than the IEC 34 continuous rating and which may result in winding
temperature rises higher than normally permitted. Although this is acceptable for emergency standby
or short overload conditions, frequent or extended operation of generators at their standby ratings may
cause deterioration of insulation and some reduction in sewice life expectancy.
Generating sets supplying industrial type loads frequently have to supply heavy overload
currents of short duration which, although well within the thermal capabilities of the generator may result
in significant voltage dip at the machine terminals and such cases need to be evaluated to ensure that
the generator together with the engine selected has the capacity to limit the voltage dip to prescribed
limits and is capable of recovering to normal voltage within a short period of time. The appropriate
clauses of IEC 34-1 define the main parameters and normal standards of performance. In some cases,
this transient overload requirement may result in the selection of a larger frame size than would be
required from thermal rating considerations.
7.4 Mechanical Stresses. Generators used in engine driven sets must also be designed to
withstand the particular mechanical stresses imposed by torsional and linear vibrations during use and
shock loads which may occur during transportation over rough terrain. To meet this requirement,
generators should comply with BS 5000 : Part 3, which gives maximum values for torsional vibratory
torque and linear vibration levels. The compatibility of engine crankshaft, coupling and generator rotor
together with the mounting arrangements of the enginelalternator combination must be checked to
ensure that these values are not exceeded under any normal operating condition.
7.5 Field Excitation. Alternators for use with most generating sets are rated in kW or kVA at an
assumed power factor of 0.8 lagging and assuming a nominal output voltage and frequency. For the
smaller sets (typically up to about 20kW) rotating armature machines may be used with the field
energised from a static excitation system designed to maintain substantially constant output voltage by
compensating for load and power factor changes. For larger outputs, brushless alternators are now
used almost exclusively, these being rotating field machines excited from an a.c exciter and rotating
rectifier until with the exciter controlled by some form of solid state automatic voltage regulator (AVR),
maintaining close control of output voltage. Generator construction and performance are covered in
general terms by IEC 34.
7.6 Mechanical Protection. Mechanical protection of the generator against overspeed effects will
be provided by the normal engine overspeed protection devices and in all cases generators for use on
engine driven sets must be capable of withstanding an overspeed of 20% above nominal value. Certain
types of generator may be susceptible to damage as a result of operation below nominal speed for
extended periods and in such cases, means shall be provided to protect them.
8.1 General. The control panel shail generally conform to SS 293 : Part 1. It shail be constructed
of materials capable of withstanding the mechanical, electrical and thermal stresses, as well as the
effects of humidity, which are likely to be encountered in normal service.
Protection against corrosion shall be ensured by use of suitable materials or by the application
of protective coatings to exposed surfaces, taking into account the intended conditions of use.
All enclosures shall be of a mechanical strength sufficient to withstand the stresses to which
they may be subjected in normal service and transport to site. The equipment in the control panel shall
be so arranged as to facilitate its operation and maintenance and at the same time ensure the necessary
degree of safety.
8.2 Terminals For External Cables. The terminals shall be such that the external conductors may
be conducted by means which ensure the necessary contact pressure corresponding to the current
rating. The available wiring space shall permit proper connection of external conductors. Cable entries
shali be designed for convenience of access, protection and support of incoming cables.
For outdoor operation/installation supplementary weather protection may be necessary.
Protection against electric shock in normal service shall be ensured either by appropriate constructional
methods or by additional measures.
8.3 Electrical Instrumentation. Electrical instruments used shali be suitably scaled and of
acceptable accuracy to enable the relevant electrical quantity to be observed.
8.4 Rating Of Current Carrying Components. Conductors and components shall be adequately
rated for the duty and conditions intended. It shall be possible physically to identify individual electrical
component in accordance with the relevant diagram supplied. Switch positions shall be clearly
8.5 Electrical Protection. Protective devices shall be provided to give protection against the
consequences of overcurrent short circuits and earth leakage in the control circuitry.
Whether or not electrical apparatus is attached to lids or doors, steps shall be taken to ensure
that these are effectively earthed by an earth continuity conductor of the appropriate size.
Conductors and phases shall be identified by numbers, colours or symbols, and shall be in
agreement with the indications on the wiring diagrams. The earthing conductor shall be readily
Earthing terminals shall be clearly identifiable either by symbol or colours (green and yellow).
Wiring to apparatus and measuring instruments in covers or doors shall be installed such that
no mechanical damage can occur as a result of movement of the door or cover.
8.6 Protection From Vibration. Integrally mounted control panels shall be protected from the
effects of vibration.
9.1 Voltage Regulation And Adjustment
Voltage regulation - A voltage regulation system is normally fitted to the alternator and
is designed to maintain the steady state voltage of the alternator within pre-determined
Voltage adjustment - A means of adjusting the output voltage of the alternator is
provided to facilitate adjustment of the machine output voltage at any level within its
design parameters.
9.2 Automatic Mains Failure Control Systems. Automatic mains failure control systems are
designed to start the generating set in the event of a complete mains failure or a deviation outside
acceptable limits. The system is similarly designed to stop the set and restore the mains supply to the
load upon restoration of a healthy mains supply.
In order to achieve this, the following standard facilities shall be incorporated as a minimum:
- Mains failure detection system;
- Engine start/stop circuit control;
- Protection hold-off timer;
- Contactor closing signal.
Many of the following additional facilities or options are frequently incorporated depending on
system requirements:
- Mains supewisory devices;
- Start delay timer;
- Engine warm up timer;
- Contactor closure delay timer;
- Mains restoration timer;
- Engine run on timer.
9.3 Parallel Operation Of Generators. If it is desirable to supply a single load utilising more than
one generating set, then the generating sets shall be operated in parallel.
In order to operate in parallel it is necessary for the generating sets to be synchronised and this
can be effected either manually or automatically. The process of synchronising involves adiusting the
frequency and voltage of the incoming machine to match the existing system.-
The following control and instrumentation is essential for automatic synchronising and parallel
Automatic synchroniser;
Automatic load sharer for each set;
Output circuit breaker, contactor or switch with short circuit protection;
Reverse power relay;
Kilowatt load indication of each set.
The following control and instrumentation is also recommended:
- Voltage adjusting device;
- Frequency adjusting device;
Current indication of each phase;
Voltmeter indication of incoming and bus supplies;
Frequency indication of incoming and bus supplies;
Synchronising lamps or synchroscope to indicate phase and frequency difference.
9.4 Electrical Instrumentation. It is recommended that all generating sets be fitted with a
voltmeter, ammeter and phase indicating lamps as standard; additional instrumentation is recommended
in Subclause 9.3 for parallel operation and is readily available for any set if required. Additional
instrumentation or facilities should be installed if they improve the reliability and safe operation of the
generating set.
9.5 Electrical Protection
9.5.1 Overload protection
Protection of the generator from failure due to heavy overload or fault currents
(e.g short circuits) can be provided by a conventional type of magnetically operated
circuit breaker. This arrangement is recommended.
Thermally operated overcurrent protection devices interrupt the circuit after a certain
delay period which varies inversely with the magnitude of the current. Thus, whilst high
overload currents will be interrupted quickly and positively, the device may be
unresponsive to marginal overloads, the tripping characteristics being poorly defined
and greatly dependent on the effectiveness of ambient temperature compensation
provided. Details of any external overcurrent (overload) relay, if used, are to be
Some protection against abuse of the overload capability of the generator can be
provided by the use of temperature detectors such as thermistors built into the
generator windings and arranged to trip the circuit when the temperature setting is
exceeded. The effectiveness of the protection provided by this method depends on the
setting accuracy and reliability of the detector and on its proper positioning relative to
the winding conductors.
Generating sets supplying large induction motors (particularly squirrel cage motors)
may be required to handle starting currents which, although infrequent and of short
duration, represent a considerable current overload relative to the rated load current of
the generator. Such systems may require special consideration when magnetic or static
overload devices are fined and some form of delay in the tripping characteristics may
be necessary.
9.5.2 Load protection. Operation of a generating set can, under certain circumstances result in
output characteristics of voltage and/or frequency being unacceptable to certain items of equipment
comprising the electrical load. The onus is on the design engineer to identify such limits as may be
acceptable and specify the necessary over/under voltage and/or over/under frequency protection.
9.5.3 Control circuit protection. All control and instrumentation circuits should be adequately
9.6 Rating Of Current-carrying Components. All components incorporated in the generating set
built should be adequately rated for use in the specified environmental conditions.
9.6.1 Load switching devices
Current rating of all load switching devices should be selected for the desired operation
and rating of the generator;
Contactor manufacturer'sAC.1 duty classification (IEC 947-4-1) is considered adequate
for generating set applications;
Where one of a pair of interlocked contactors is in the mains supply circuit, the
standard arrangement is that both contactors will be of the same rating as the
generating set unless othennrise specified.
9.6.2 Fault current ratings. Switchgear should have a fault rating capable of handling the
prospective fault current level in the circuit in which it is located.
9.6.3 Cable and interconnections
The temperature rise of cables incorporated in control panels should not exceed the
maximum temperature limit of its insulation material and should not be in close
proximity to any item of equipment subject to damage as a result.
The voltage drop in interconnecting cables should meet the requirements of CP 5.
The rating of equipment connected to the conductor should be related to the maximum
temperature which the conductor achieves on full load.
Cables complying with the relevant Singapore Standards or bus-bars must be
adequately supported in accordance with BS 159, BS 7354 and IEC 298.
9.6.4 Neutral conductors. Neutral conductors should be sized adequately and identified by location,
marking or colour and neutral earthing provision should be incorporated in the control gear design.
There are a number of types of loads which require special consideration when selecting
generating sets and it is essential that the full information is given to the generating set manufacturer
at the time of enquiry. Special consideration should be given to the following :
Motor starting and types of equipment;
(b) Non-linear load,if any;
Other equipment connected to the generating set when the motors are started;
Taking account of all factors, including effect on other connected loads, the maximum
permissible transient voltage dip during application of the highest motor starting current;
Maximum kW load on the plant in the worst case, ie, during motor starting (particularly
slip ring) with other loads connected and operating at rated current and whether the
generating set engine has sufficient capacity to provide the maximum load.
11.1 General. An appreciation of the size of the generating set to be installed would be most useful.
Typically a medium speed 250kVA set weighs approximately 5000 kg and is 3500 rnm long. 1100 mm
wide and 1500 mm high.
The aspects which should be considered in planning an installation include:
- Coupling arrangements;
Anti-vibration mountings;
Cooling and ventilation;
Exhaust systems;
Fuel systems;
- Starting systems;
- Vibration;
11.2 Foundations
A load bearing reinforced concrete floor, is the most satisfactory foundation for an
underbed mounted set. It is recommended that anti-vibration mountings be
incorporated between the generating set and the floor or bed. Flexible section or
bellows unit in the exhaust and other sewices to prevent transmission of vibration to the
building structure are also recommended.
Unless the engine and alternator are close coupled a check on coupling, and where
possible crankshaft alignment, is essential after installation and prior to motoring over.
11.3 Coupling Arrangements. There are two types of coupling arrangements - open coupling and
close coupling.
The open coupled set utilises a flexible coupling with the generator set mounted on a
machined baseplate.
The close coupled type of set incorporates a generator with an adaptor flange spigot
located on the engine bell housing, the two units being securely bolted together. This
arrangement makes it possible to use a two bearing or single bearing generator.
The close coupled set utilises a steel disc type coupling which in addition to
transmitting the driving torque also serves to locate the generator shaft.
11.4 Anti-vibration Mountings. With open coupled sets, anti-vibration mountings when offered are
mounted below the baseplate, whilst with close coupled sets, it is sometimes the practice to
mount the anti-vibration units between the englne/alternator assembly and the baseplate.
11.5 Cooling And Ventilation
The most common method of cooling the diesel engine is by an engine or motor driven
radiator. The cooling air requirements can be relatively high necessitating the provision
of sizeable inlet and outlet louvres to minimise resistance. Balanced or solenoid
operated louvres are preferred such that some protection against inclement weather can
be effected.
In the event of it not being possible to locate the radiator adjacent to an outside wall,
ducting can usually be provided, but available wall area is essential for both inlet and
outlet air. An air flow across the set to dissipate radiated heat is normally designed in.
bearing in mind that in excess of 10% of the nominal set rating can be emitted in the
form of radiated heat.
Alternative cooling systems such as heat exchange/cooling tower can be provided for
larger installations and such applications are often more economical both with regard
to cost and power absorbed. There is however a need for a water make up supply
whilst running.
As an example a typical 250 kVA set would have a cooling air flow of around 25 500
c.m.h to dissipate some 150 kW from the cooling system, and would require
approximately 1.5 m2 of outlet louvred area. Engine radiator fans normally have a slight
back pressure allowance to deal with reasonable ducting resistance but any undue
restriction would necessitate the inclusion of a pressurising or exhaust fan or higher
duty radiator fan.
Air cooled engines must be given special attention with respect to cooling requirements,
ducting systems and room ventilation.
11.6 Exhaust System
When an engine is put to work against an excessive exhaust back pressure the net
output at the flywheel is reduced. The air/fuel ratio is reduced because of incomplete
scavenging of the cylinders, with the resultant Increase in exhaust temperatures and
specific fuel consumption. It is therefore essential that the exhaust system should be
designed to offer the least possible restriction to gas flow.
The aim is to ascertain the most direct practical route for the exhaust system keeping
the length and number of bends to a minimum.
The exhaust pipe is subject to expansion when hot, (typically 600" Cat manifold), and
the inclusion of bellows or flexible pipe to take up expansion and vibration from fixed
anchor points is essential.
A flanged sleeved convoluted bellow unit of stainless steel or other suitable material is
The silencer should always be mounted as close as possible to the engine and a
terminal silencer can also be included on longer exhaust runs to advantage.
The standard industrial silencer gives 15-20 dB attenuation and a residential silencer of
the order of 20 to 30 dB. If a tandem system is employed a tailpipe of at least 10 pipe
diameters after the terminal silencer will ensure optimum performance.
Various types of lagging are available and their use helps to reduce radiated heat and
noise within the engine room and also affords some personnel protection.
11.7 Fuel Systems
A daily service tank up to 700 L capacity and a manual and/or automatic fuel transfer
system to give at least 6 h of full load emergency back-up shall be provided.
Each fuel tank shall be provided with a fuel level gauge, which is of the type where
damage or fracture of the gauge must not result in fuel spillage.
Installation of fuel tanks shall conform to the requirements of the relevant authorities.
Where fuel is stored in the generator room, the amount should not exceed 700 L.
Excess fuel storage shall be housed in a separate compartment complying with the
requirements of the relevant authorities.
The engine shall operate satisfactorily on light diesel fuel oil to BS EN 590 and
BS 2869 : Part 2 (Class A2). However, many Class D oils are also suitable and certain
engines will operate on Class B oils with minor modification. If the fuel oil to be used
is other than to BS EN 590 and BS 2869 : Part 2 (Class A2) an analysis should be
submitted to the generating set manufacturer for approval before proceeding.
11.8 Starting Systems
Most engines shall be electrically started from a 12 or 24 V battery or batteries which
shall be either of the high rate nickel cadmium type or the stationary lead acid type
suitable for high discharge applications. Automotive batteries shall not be used for
starting standby generators. The breakaway and cranking currents shall be stated for
every engine.
The battery shall be sized for six starting attempts, separated by not more than 30s rest
periods. Each starting attempt is assumed to begin with 1 s at locked rotor current.
followed by 5 s at cranking current.
The battery shall be sized so that during periods of locked rotor current, the voltage
does not fall below 1 V per cell in the case of lead acid, and 0.65 V per cell in the case
of nickel cadmium, and during periods of cranking current, the corresponding figures
are 1.4 V and 0.85 V.
A current limiting constant voltage charger with boost charging facilities shall be
provided and connected to the essential mains supply of the building. The voltage
regulation shall be within * 1 % of the voltage output.
11.9 Noise
The diesel engine is inherently a noisy piece of machinery and noise levels of 105 dBA
at 1 rn is a reasonable figure to expect.
Acoustic treatment is relatively expensive and should not be over or unnecessarily
specified. The noise level acceptable at the place that matters, i.e. at site boundary or
inside rooms where noise would present a problem, shall be specified using NR curves
as given in IS0 1996-1. IS0 1996-2. IS0 1996-3 and IS0 4872.
Noise emission from the generating set is predominantly combustion induced and this
can be reduced at the engine design stage to a degree by controlling fuel injection
characteristics but the extent is limited by its effects on engine performance. The aim
is to reduce the rate of pressure build up within the cylinders.
Generator and cooling equipment noise levels are typically 15-20 dBA below engine
radiated noise levels.
Engine NR 100 - 105
Alternator and Radiator 80 - 85
The relevant authorities shall be consulted on acceptable noise levels for specific sites.
11.10 Vibration
There are two aspects to consider :
Preservation of comfortable and safe working conditions;
Minirnise possibility of building damage.
The manufacturer/installer shall provide suitable spring or rubber type anti-vibration
mountings and supply flexible exhaust, fuel and coolant pipework, flexible cables and
exhaust isolators.
(c) The generating set shall be tested on site to assess noise and/or vibration
Acoustic canopies to enclose the generating set can be supplied when necessary to
overcome local objections but are relatively expensive. Such an enclosure normally
incorporates air intake and outlet silencer assemblies and would be of double skinned
construction with removable access doors for maintenance purposes. The set itself is
normally supported on anti-vibration mounts to minimise transmission of vibration and
a tandem exhaust system is usually incorporated.
Resultant noise levels of below 70 dBA can be achieved and are normally acceptable.
It is however often more economical to incorporate sound deadening measures into the
building construction, particularly if a new building is envisaged, and this is more
11.1 1 Interconnection
All the phases and neutral conductors of the standby generator must be paralleled with
the main supply. Changeover contactors or circuit breakers shall incorporate electrical
and mechanical interlock to prevent parallel operation.
The generator system earth terminal shall be connected to a separate earth and
installed as near as possible to the generator. The neutral of the generator shall be
solidly connected to this earth terminal. All other metal and machine frame work shall
be bonded to the earth terminal with appropriate conductors.
Load cables should be selected based on the rating information given in CP 5 making
due allowance for grouping and enclosure. It is often desirable to utilize flexible cables
for connection onto the generator itself to eliminate the possibility of transmission of
vibration by the cables, and tails to a link box can be used to reduce cable costs if the
run length to the control panel is any distance.
12.1 Upon completion of installation, or following a long period out of service, a generating set
requires preparing for operation in accordance with the parameters set out in the instruction manual.
12.2 The prime mover lubricating oil and coolant systems should be checked to ensure that they
have been filled with the correct fluids and to the correct level. In the case of long shut down periods
(6 months or more) fluids shall be tested to ensure that they are still suitable for use and if not suitable,
shall be replaced.
12.3 Batteries should be prepared and charged in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
12.4 Control linkage should be cleaned and checked for freedom of movement and adjustment.
12.5 All inhibitors and transit protection should be removed and all air intakes cleared.
12.6 The fuel system should be bled through to the injection pump to eliminate any possible air
inclusion and the system checked for leaks.
12.7 All electrical terminals should be checked for tightness, and all interconnections checked for
Insulation and continuity checks on wiring should be effected in accordance with the instructions
in the instruction manual.
12.9 Generating set and system proving tests will vary depending on the type of plant and should
be effected in accordance with the procedure detailed in the Instruction manual.
Such tests should embrace all ancillaries provided with the generating set
12.10 The user's staff should be instructed in the safe and proper operation of the equipment on
completion and a signed commissioning report summarizing the proceedings and test results should
be compiled and a copy given to the user's representative.
13.1 Format
13.1.1 One copy of an English language instruction manual should be supplied with each generating
set as a minimum.
13.1.2 The instruction manual may be a single composite publication or a grouping of various
publications but should include all necessary operating instructions, warnings and advice with regards
Engine, including fuels and lubricants;
- Generator;
- Control system;
- Ancillary equipment.
13.1.3 The format of the instruction manual will vary with the supplier and type of equipment but should
generally cover the following aspects:
- Data sheets;
- Warnings;
- Description;
- Installation;
- Commissioning;
- Operating instruction;
- Maintenance instruction;
- Fault finding guidance;
- Spares ordering information;
Circuit diagrams;
General arrangement drawings.
13.2 Data Sheets
13.2.1 The data sheet section of the manual should include basic technical data pertaining to the
engine, generator, battery, etc, typically :
Generating set rating in kW, kVA and nominal power factor;
Lubricating oil, consumption, type and capacity inclusive of cooler;
Coolant capacity inclusive of cooler;
Fuel specification, consumption and other details;
Generator output characteristics, voltage, ampere, number of wires, frequency and speed;
Battery voltage, capacity and type;
List of working clearances and tolerances for maintenance purposes.
13.2.2 The maker's reference number, type and year of manufacture should be quoted in the data sheet
13.3 Warnings
13.3.1 The warning section of the manual should draw to the attention of the user the responsibilities
of vendor, purchaser and user with respect to the relevant Acts on Health and Safety at Work.
, 13.3.2 The section should also incorporate a safety guide in the form of a general warning of hazard
to be encountered in operating a generating set. e.g, high output voltages, high surface temperatures,
rotating parts, high pressure fuel spray, crankcase explosion, etc.
13.3.3 A warning with respect to potential causes of damage to the generating set should also be
included and cover such aspects as idle speed running, insulation resistance, etc.
13.3.4 Details of treatment for electric shock, and artificial respiration should be included in the manual.
13.3.5 A statement of any toxic or irritant emissions from the set should be included.
13.4 Description
13.4.1 A section should be included in the manual to give a brief description of the equipment supplied
inclusive of control gear and any ancillary equipment such as installation equipment, canopy enclosure,
acoustic housing, etc.
13.4.2 A general arrangement drawing should be included and should allow identification of all controls,
instrumentation and mating connections. It should also clearly indicate lifting arrangements.
13.4.3 The size and weight of the generating set and control panel should be stated or illustrated on
the drawing.
13.4.4 A full description of the operation of control circuitry should be included in this section of the
13.5 Installation
13.5.1 The installation section of the manual should state the basic principles to be obsewed when
installing the plant.
13.5.2 Reference should be made to the required load bearing qualities of the site sub-soil and the
foundation requirements.
13.5.3 Details of cooling air flow requirements should be indicated and should cover cooling, aspiration
and ventilation requirements.
13.5.4 Guidance with respect to the design of the exhaust system together with its effect on the output
rating should be included in the installation section.
The inclusion, where necessary, of expansion bellows or flexible pipes to take up expansion and
vibration should be the subject of guidance as should recommendations for exhaust system lagging for
safety purposes and thermal insulation.
13.5.5 Instruction with respect to the fuel system installation should be included with particular
reference to the location of the tank, cleanliness, filtration, control switches and gauges and any fuel
transfer pumping and overflow arrangements.
Galvanised piping or fittings should never be used on fuel systems,
13.5.6 Recommendations with respect to the type and rating of control and load cables should be
included in the installation section.
13.5.7 Where the contract includes for it, full installation drawings should be provided.
13.5.8 The installation should conform to the relevant authorities in respect to fire rating and fire risks.
13.6.1 A summary of actions to be taken in preparing a generating set for operation following delivery
or long periods out of service should be made in the commissioning section of the manual, and should
include battery preparation, cleaning of control linkages and fuel system, removal of inhibitors where
necessary, checks for leaks, terminal tightness, etc.
13.6.2 Advice with respect to effecting insulation and continuity tests should be given in this section
of the manual.
13.6.3 A summary of plant proving tests (acceptance tests) should be detailed and will vary depending
on the type of plant to be commissioned.
13.7 Operating Instructions
13.7.1 Detailed operating instructions should be included in the handbook and as a minimum should
cover starting, stopping, protection circuits, automatic controls and battery charging.
13.7.2 Method of adjustment of speed, output voltage, control timers, etc, should be detailed in the
13.7.3 Performance parameters of the plant should be detailed for the operators guidance and as a
minimum should cover nominal values and acceptable limits of output voltage, frequency, load,
temperature and pressure.
13.7.4 Circuit drawings should be included for reference purposes.
13.8 Maintenance Instructions
13.8.1 A section should be included in the manual to outline maintenance procedures for all the plant
13.8.2 Schedules for maintenance to be effected on a daily, weekly, monthly or on an hours-run basis
should be included.
13.8.3 This section should include guidance with respect to selection of fuel oil, lubricating oil and use
of water treatment additives.
13.8.4 The availability of contract maintenance services should be detailed in the manual.
13.9 Fault Finding
13.9.1 A fault finding procedure should be provided to enable the speedy diagnosis of any defect
considered likely to occur in sewice.
13.9.2 Reference outputs and conditions should be quoted where possible to facilitate diagnosis.
13.10 Spares
13.10.1 Adequate information to allow identification of spares should be incorporated in the spares
section of the manual.
13.10.2 Information concerning sourcing of spares should be included in the manual.
14.1 General. It is the responsibility ofthe owner to ensurethat the standby generating set installed
in his building is maintained and tested in accordance with the recommendations specified in this Code
and with any additional test or service procedure which may be required by the relevant Authority or the
supplier of the standby generating set. The results of any inspection or sewice carried out shall be
recorded in the log book as prescribed in Appendix C.
14.2 Weekly Tests. The following tests and checks shall be made every week:
Check the levels of fuel, oil and coolant and replenish where necessary
Examine fuel, oil and coolant systems for leaks.
Check starter battery condition and top up electrolyte where necessary. Record
battery voltage and charging current.
Start the engine and bring unit up to normal operating temperature and allow to run
for half an hour. Record gauge and meter readings in log book when engine has been
shut down. This weekly running up shall take on the building load at least once in two
Ensure that the controls are set for automatic operation
14.3 Quarterly Tests. The following tests and check shall be made quarterly:
Before starting engine the following tests and checks shall be made on the engine
Check radiator water level, leaks in the cooling water pipes and radiator, if any. Ensure
that the correct level of coolant is maintained by topping up and making good any
leakage on the cooling water pipes and radiator.
Check the engine lubricating oil level in the sump by means of a dip-stick and ensure
that the correct level of oil is maintained by topping up where necessary. Also check
for leaks in the lubricating oil tubes; and leakage must be made good.
Check conditions of air cleaners, fuel oil filter elements and lubricating oil filter
elements, and change if necessary.
Check fuel oil levels and leaks in the fuel tank and fuel oil pipes. Refill fuel tank with
fuel and drain away any sludge which has collected. Any leakage on the fuel oil pipes
must be made good.
Check starter battery condition, record the specific gravity of electrolyte, and maintain
the correct water level by topping up where necessary. Clean and grease battery
terminals. Check the battery charger and record the battery voltage and charging
Check condition of vee belts and replace if worn or damaged
Check the following gauges and meters, where installed, for damage and replace if
(i) Lubricating oil pressure gauge;
(ii) Cooling water temperature gauge;
(iii) Tachometer;
(iv) Ammeter;
(v) Exhaust gas thermometer.
14.3.2 The following tests and checks shall be made on the alternator before starting the engine:
Remove all covers and clean the alternator using vacuum cleaners
Clean the rotor, rectifier assembly, brushholder, etc
Check all electrical connections and leads for sign of overheating and deterioration.
Any defect found is to be rectified.
Check all electrical components for insulation breakdown or deterioration. Repair or
renew, if necessary.
Check and tighten all electrical connections and terminals. Missing screws and nuts
must be replaced.
Insulation test: Disconnect rectifier assembly electrically. Using a 500V insulation
tester, check the insulation on all rotor and starter circuitry. Recommended minimum
acceptable reading is 5 Mu. Reconnect the rectifier assembly on completion of the
For brush-type generators, check the slip rings for burning or scorching; also check
the alternator brushes, if applicable; replace where necessary.
14.3.3 The following tests and checks shall be made on the generator set control board before
starting the engine:
Remove the covers and panels, clean off the dust using a soft brush and vacuum
Check all accessible fixed and moving contacts for wear, clean or replace if necessary.
Check and tighten all connections of the input, output and power leads. Remove any
corrosion present.
Check all cables for damages or deterioration and change, if necessary.
Check the condition and operation of all the control gears/switches, clean the
gears/switches and ensure that all connections are tight. Renew any gearlswitch
found defective.
Check that all fuses are of the correct value and are screwed down tight. Check all
indicating lamps and holders. Defective items are to be replaced.
Test the insulation resistance using a 500V insulation tester. Minimum acceptable
readings are:
(i) Bus-bar 5Mn
(ii) Interconnecting cables 5Mn
(iii) Power cables for all sewices 5Mn
(iv) Instruments and low voltage 1 Mn
14.3.4 The following test shall be made after setting all lifts to the first storey to avoid interrupting lifts
in operation:
Simulate power failure and check automatic startup of generator and change-over to supply
the building load.
14.3.5 The following tests and checks shall be made after the engine has been running on building
load for 15 minutes:
Check and record the following items in the log book:
(i) Oil pressure;
(ii) Fuel pressure;
(iii) Water temperature;
(iv) Generator output (voltage);
(v) Battery charge ammeter;
(vi) Hours counter.
Check, record and adjust engine rpm (frequency).
Check AVR and adjust voltage sensitivity (if required).
Check for any leakage or unusual performance (such as noise)
Check colour of exhaust smoke.
Check that all meters especially the following meters and gauges are working:
(i) Cooling water temperature gauge;
(ii) Lubricating oil pressure gauge;
(iii) Tachometer;
(iv) Ammeter;
(v) Voltmeter.
Check that all indicating lights are functioning, and replace blown out bulbs. This test
must be performed on no-load running.
Check the following protective settings :
(i) High water temperature trip;
Low lubricating oil pressure trip;
(iii) Overspeed trip.
14.3.6 The following tests and checks shall be made after stopping the engine:
Check and ensure that all switches, relays and safety contractors are in correct
positions for automatic starting.
Check fuel ievei in tank and refill, if necessary,
Check and record battery voltage and charging current.
Check the following pipes and joints for signs of leakage and make good, if necessary:
(i) Cooling water pipes;
(ii) Lubricating oil cooling pipes;
(iii) Fuel oil pipes.
14.4 Half-yearly Tests. In addition to the quarterly tests specified above, the following inspection
and testing procedures shall be carried out every six months:
Grease fan bearing and water pump bearing
Drain out radiator water and change (add additives after changing).
Check air cleaners and fuel oil filter.
Check governor linkage for smooth operation.
14.5 Annual Tests. The annual test shall consist of all the inspection and testing procedures
specified for the quarterly test, half-yearly test and any other servicing or testing procedure as
recommended by the supplier of the generating set.
In addition the following inspection and testing procedure shall be carried out annually:
Check the condition of lubricating oil. Drain out and fill up with fresh lubricating oil, if
Replace the lubricating oil filters whenever there is a change of lubricating oil.
Notwithstanding the above, the lubricating oil and its filters must be changed at least once in
three years.
15.1 Mechanical Hazards
15.1.1 Moving parts. Moving parts (except manually operated controls) are to be totally enclosed
or guarded.
15.1.2 Hot surfaces. Surfaces sufficiently hot to cause injury are to be adequately guarded
15.1.3 Fire hazards
Plant mounted fuel tanks are not to be located directly above exhaust systems or
positioned such that leakage could percolate into the air intake system.
Fuel and oil system pipework is not to be run closer than 50 mm from surfaces whose
temperature exceeds 220" C.
Flexible fuel pipes shall be selected from materials suitable for use in temperatures up
to 220" C.
Materials used in construction of enclosures shall not support combustion (refer to
BS 476 : Part 7, Class 1 rating for surface spread of flame).
Cable insulation shall be selected bearing in mind surface temperatures to which the
cables are in close proximity. Fire retardant cables shall be considered.
Rating of power conductors, contacts and terminations shall be adequate so as not to
constitute a fire risk.
15.1.4 Overspeed. Overspeeding of rotating equipment is a potential hazard and protection should
be incorporated to prevent the speed of the generating set rising to a dangerous level.
15.2 Electrical Hazard
15.2.1 Earthing and bonding
All major items of equipment are to be bonded by adequately rated conductors to the
generator system earth terminal of adequate rating and suitable for use as an earth
terminal by the installer (refer to SS CP 16).
The terminal shall be suitably labelled and indicate the responsibility of the installer or
user to provide a suitable earth (see Appendix A).
15.2.2 Earth fault protection. Earth fault-protection shall be incorporated in the generating set design
to provide protection in a zone from the generator to sub-circuit protection circuits or, if not defined, the
equipment outgoing load terminals.
It may be necessary to discuss the particular circumstances of the installation with the
manufacturer, consultant or other competent authority to decide the best method of protection. It is
possible that such protection may not, for technical reasons, give a sufficient level of protection to
completely safeguard a person against accidental contact and should be considered in this respect as
a back-up of restricted earth fault systems elsewhere, these providing prime protection.
15.2.3 Restriction of access to live parts
Live parts within a lockable enclosure need not be separately covered provided internal
access is not required to effect day to day adjustment of controls.
All potentially live parts must be provided with an adequate protective cover
15.2.4 Location of controls and adjustment devices. Adjustment devices not required on a regular
or daily basis shall be located to permit safe operation.
15.3 Health Hazards
15.3.1 Noise and vibration. Noise and vibration are recognised health hazards of growing
importance, which should be considered by all concerned bearing in mind any particular legislation
applicable. Ear protectors are recommended.
15.3.2 Lubricating oil. Handling of lubricating oil can constitute a health hazard and the procedures
as recommended by leading manufacturers should be strictly adhered to.
15.3.3 Fuel oil. Handling of fuel oil can constitute a health hazard and the procedures as outlined
by leading manufacturers should be strictly adhered to.
15.3.4 Exhaust fumes. Exhaust fumes can be toxic and all necessary measures must be taken to
ensure that they do not escape or re-circulate into the plant room or any building used by personnel.
15.3.5 Batteries. Handling of battery electrolyte and charging of batteries can constitute a health
hazard and the procedure outlined by leading manufacturers should be adhered to.
15.3.6 Lifting and handling. Adequate information and lifting points to enable safe lifting of the
equipment shall be provided by the manufacturer.
Lifting devices designed for component handling must not be used to lift a complete generating
15.3.7 Asbestos. Asbestos is a health hazard and shall not be used. Alternative materials are
available and these should be used for exhaust lagging or heat shields.
15.4 User Health And Safety Policy. It is incumbent on the end user to ensure that adequate
reference is made with respect to hazards introduced by installation of generating equipment, in his
Health and Safety Policy Document, such that his staff are fully aware of the hazards and measures to
be taken to ensure safe working.
The engine, generator and control gear are rated at standard conditions in accordance with
IS0 3046-1, IEC 34-1 and IEC 439.1 and IEC 439-2 respectively.
The site conditions and environment under which the generating set is required to operate may
affect the characteristics and performance of the set. Hence, the site conditions and its environment
must be clearly defined.
The site conditions in Singapore are generally as follows:
Ground altitude : Not more than 300 m above sea level;
Temperature variation : 23% to 40C
Max Av daily temperature : 35OC
Mean R H : 84%
8.2.1 General. The power of the generating set is the power output available at the generating set
terminals excluding the electrical power absorbed by the essential independent auxiliaries (see also
IS0 8528-2 : 1993, Clause 5.1 and IS0 8528-3 : 1993, Clause 5).
8.2.2 Power Ratings. Power ratings of generating sets shall be expressed in kilowatts at rated
frequency and a power factor (cos a) of 0.8 lagging unless othewise stated.
The power rating classifications are necessary for the generating set manufacturer's declaration
concerning the power which the generating set will deliver under the stated operating conditions.
8.2.3 Kinds Of Power Output. The generating set manufacturer shall be responsible for
determining the power output according to 6.2.4 to 8.2.6 (see Figures 1 to 3) in accordance with the
service and maintenance schedule specified by the engine, a.c generator and controlgear and
switchgear manufacturers.
For all kinds of power output defined in 8.2.4 to 8.2.6, it is necessary to provide additional
engine power for governing purpose only (e.g. transient load conditions and suddenly applied load).
This additional engine power is usually 10% of the rated power of the generating set and shall not be
used for the supply of electrical consumers.
This additional engine power is not identical to the overload power for Reciprocating Internal
Combustion (RIC) engines as defined in IS0 3046-1.
The power limit of a generating set (see Figures 1 to 3) depends on the power limit of the RIC
engine, e.g fuel stop power, taking into account the efficiency of the a.c. generator.
8.2.4 Continuous Power (COP). Continuous power is that which a generating set is capable of
delivering continuously for an unlimited number of hours per year between the stated maintenance
intervals and under stated ambient conditions, the maintenance being carried out as prescribed by the
manufacturers (see Figure 1).
Power limit
power A r
~ o n t i n u o u s power urn *i
1 Time
Figure 1. Illustration of continuous power
6.2.5 Prime Power (PRP). Prime power is the maximum power available during a variable power
sequence, which may be run for an unlimited number of hours per year, between stated maintenance
intervals and under the stated ambient conditions, the maintenance being carried out as prescribed by
the manufacturers.
The permissible average power output (P, , ) (see Figure 2) during .a 24 h period shall not
exceed some percentage of the prime power to be stated by the RIC engine manufacturer. When
determining the actual average power output P, , , powers of less than 30% of the prime power shall be
taken as 30% and time at standstill shall not be counted.
The actual average power, P, , , is calculated as follows:
P, tl + P,t2 + Pat, +... + P"t"
p,. =
tl + t2 +... + t,,
C P i ti
i c l
5 ti
1 - 1
where P,, P, ... Pi is the power at time t,, t, ... ti
NOTE 1. The customer should be made aware that if any of these conditions are not fulfilled the RIG engine life will be
NOTE 2. Time periods at standstill do not enter into the formula.
NOTE 3. The period of running at prime power is expected to be long enough to enable the generator to reach thermally
stable conditions.
Power limit Additional power far
governing purposes
Prime power IlM) %I
Permissible average power
during 24 h period P,
Actual average pawer
during 24 h period P,
24 h period
Figure 2. lllustration of prime power (not to scale)
8.2.6 Limited-time Running Power (LTP). The limited-time running power is the maximum power
which a generating set is capable of delivering for up to 500 h per year of which a maximum of 300 h
is continuous running, between stated maintenance i nt e~al s and under the stated ambient conditions,
the maintenance being carried out as prescribed by the RiC engine manufacturers. It is accepted that
operation at this rating will affect the life of the set (see Figure 3).
NOTE 1. The period of running at limited-time running power is expected to be long enough to enable the generator to reach
thermally stable conditions.
NOTE 2. The customer should be made aware that if any of these conditions are not fulfilled the RIG engine life will be
Limited-timerunning power (1W 961
. - . - . -.
Additional power for
governing purposes
Figure 3. Illustration of limited-time running power
Location of installation
Date of inspection and time :
Weekly tests
Check fuel, lubricating oil and
Replenish if necessary.
(b) Examine fuel, lubricating oil
and coolant systems for leaks.
(c) Check battery condition and
top up electrolyte.
(d) Engine running.
Set all controls for automatic
Job done Remarks
Oil pressure
Fuel pressure
Water temperature
Gen voltage
Engine speed
Full load current
gravity of
Fuel pressure gauge
Oil pressure gauge
Water temperature gauge
Quarterly tests
Checks on the engine before starting
(a) Check radiator, cooling water
pipes for correct level and
(b) Check for correct lubricating
oil level and leaks in oil tubes.
(c) Check conditions of air
cleaners, fuel oil filter and
lubricating oil filter elements.
Check fuel oil levels and leaks
in fuel tank and fuel pipes.
Remove sludge in fuel tank.
(e) Check starter battery condition,
record voltage and specific
gravity of electrolyte and top
up where necessary. Clean
and grease battery terminals.
Check condition of vee belts,
replace if worn or damaged.
(g) Check all indicating gauges
and meters. Replace if
Job done
Insulation readings
Quarterly tests
Checks on the alternator before
Remove all covers and clean
the alternator.
(b) Clean the rotor, rectifier,
assembly, etc.
(c) Check all electrical
connections and leads for
overheating, deterioration and
rectify, if necessary.
(d) Check all electrical
components for insulation
breakdown. Rectify if
(e) Check and tighten all
electrical connections and
(f) Disconnect rectifier assembly
electrically and check
insulation on all rotor and
stator circuits and record
readings (minimum 5 Mn).
Reconnect rectifier after
(g) Check slip rings and
alternator brushes.
Job done
Quatterly tests
Checks on generator set control
board before starting engine
(a) Remove covers and panels
and clean completely the
Check all accessible fixed and
moving contacts for wear and
clean or replace if required.
Check and tighten all cable
Check cables for damages or
deterioration and rectify if
(e) Check condition and
operation of all control
gears/switches, clean the
gearslswitches and ensure
connections are tight.
(9 Check that all indicating
lamps, meters and fuses are
in order. Replace if
(g) Test insulation resistance
using 500V insulation tester
and record readings
(i) Bus-bar - 5Mn min
(ii) Interconnecting cables -
5Mn min
(iii) Power cables, all
services - 5M17 min
(iv) Instruments and low
voltage - 1 Mn min
Job done Remarks
Insulation readings
(i) Bus bar
(ii) Interconnecting
(iii) Power
(iv) Instruments
Quarterly tests
Checks on generator set start up
and changeover
(a) Simulate power failure and
check the generator set start
up and changeover
Checks after engine has run for 15
(a) Check and record oil and fuel
pressure, water, temperature
and generator output voltage.
(b) Check, record and adjust
engine rpm.
(c) Check AVR and adjust
voltage sensitivity if
Check for leakage or unusual
performance (such as noise).
(e) Check colour of exhaust
Check that all the meters and
gauges are working properly.
Check that all indicating lights
are functioning.
(h) On no load condition
Check and test the protective
trip settings: High
temperature trip, low
lubricating oil pressure trip.
overspeed trip.
Job done Remarks
Oil pressure
Fuel pressure
Water temperature
Gen voltage
Engine speed
Quarterly tests
Checks after engine has been
Check that all switches, relays
and safety contactors are in
correct positions for
automatic starting.
Check fuel level in tank and
refill if necessary.
(c) Check and record battery
voltage and charging current.
Check the following pipes and
joints for signs of leakage and
make good all defects :
(i) Cooling water pipes
(ii) Lubricating oil cooling
(iii) Fuel oil pipes
Job Done
Remarks Half-yearly tests
In addition to quarterly tests
Grease fan bearing and water
pump bearing.
Drain out radiator water and
change, adding additives.
(c) Check condition of air
cleaners and fuel oil filter.
(d) Check governor linkage for
smooth operation.
Job done
I hereby certify that the above maintenance
tests have been carried out.
Name and designation of sewice-man-in-charge
Remarks Annual tests
In addition to quarterly, half-yearly
tests and manufacturer's
recommended tests
Check the lubricating oil and
change if necessary.
(b) Change lubricating oil filter.
Signature and date
Job done
Name of owner's witness
Signature and date
Standards referred to:
BS 159 : 1992 Specification for high-voltage busbars and busbar connections
BS 476 : Fire tests on building materials and structures
Part 7: 1987 Method for the classification of the surface spread of flame
tests for materials
BS 2869 : Fuel oils for non-marine use
Part 2 : 1988 Specification for fuel oils for agricultural and industrial
engines and burners (classes A2, C1, C2, D, E, F, G and H)
Rotating electrical machines on particular types or for particular types or for
particular applications
Part 3 : 1980 (1985) Generators to be driven by reciprocating internal
combustion engines
BS 7354 : 1990 Code of practice for design of high-voltage open-terminal stations
BS EN 590 : 1995 Specification for automotive diesel fuel
IEC34: Rotating electrical machines
Part 1 : 1994 Rating and performance
IEC 298 : 1990 A.C rnetal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV
and up to and including 52 kV
IEC 439 : Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies
Part 1 : 1992 Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies
Part 2 : 1987 Particular requirements for busbar trunking systems
IEC 947: Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear
Part 4 : 1990 Contactors and motor-starters.
Section 1 : Electromechanical contactors and motor-starters
Acoustics-Description and measurement of environmental noise
Part 1 : 1982 Basic quantities and procedures
Part 2 : 1987 Acquisition of data pertinent to land use
Part 3 : 1987 Application to noise limits
IS0 3046 : Reciprocating internal combustion engines - Performance
Part 1 : 1995 Standard reference conditions, declarations of power, fuel
and lubricating oil consumptions, and test methods
IS0 4872 : 1978
Acoustics - Measurement of airborne noise emitted by construction equipment
intended for outdoor use - Method for determining compliance with noise limits
IS0 8528 :
Reciprocating internal combustion engine driven alternating current generating
Part 1 : 1993 Application, ratings and performance
Part 2 : 1993 Engines
Part 3 : 1993 Alternating current generators for generating sets
SS CP 5 : 1988
Code of practice for wiring of electrical equipment of buildings
SS CP 16 : 1991 Code of practice for earthing
SS 293 : Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies
Part 1 : 1984 General requirements
The Singapore Productivity and Standards Board (PSB) is a statutory board established in April 1996,
with the integration of the functions of the National Productivity Board (NPB) and the Singapore Institute of
Standards and Industrial Research (SISIR) and the takeover of the small and medium-sized enterprise (SME)
development function from the Economic Development Board (EDB). It is governed by a board of directors
comprising representatives from government, employers, trade unions and academia.
While NPB's activities focused on training, productivity consulfancy and promotion, SISIR's work
centered on technology, quality, standards and industrial research. With the formation of PSB, synergy is
derived by putting the "soft" and "hard" aspects of productivity with the same organisation so that PSB is
greater than the sum of NPB and SISIR.
PSB's mission is to raise the productivity and enhance Singapore's competitiveness and economic
growth. The Board's vision is to be a leading player with a global perspective in matters related to productivity
and standards.
One of the functions of PSB is the establishment of a national standardisation Drooramme to suooort - .. ~. ~ ~.~
ind~strialisation in S~ngapore. The Board is vesteo wth the a~thorhy to eppont a standard; Council to advise
on the ore~aration. oublca11on and ~romulqat~on of Singapore Standards, and promot'on of their adgption.
~tanda;ds'are in the l or n of speclftcatlons [or rnater als and products, codes of pract ce, methods of testlng,
nornenclat~re, etc The standards are orawn up by the var ous Technlcal Cornmlttees appotnted by the
Product Standards Commlttees (for oroduct standards), the Practlce Commlttees (for codes of practice) or the
Standards Committee (for both broduct standards and codes of practice), the final approval body being the
Standards Council.
To ensure adequate representation of all viewpoints in the preparation of standards, all Committees
appointed consist of representatives from various interest groups which include Government agencies,
professional bodies, tertiary institutions and consumer, trade and manufacturing organisations.
PSB operates a number of national certification schemes.
The Board is the owner of the Certification Mark shown in Figure 1. This Mark can be used only by
manufacturers licensed under the SlSlR (Sinoaoore Qualitv Mark) Certification Scheme ooerated bv PSB in
accordance w th the Singapore Qua.ity ark ckriifcation ~6~ul at i 6ns. The presence of th~s'lulark on a product the tnscriotion "Certfied to Slnqapore Standard" IS an assLrance that the product has Deen prod~ced to
comply with requirements of the relevant Singapore Standard under a system of supervision, control and
testing operated during manufacture and including regular inspection at the manufacturer's premises.
PSB also operates the SlSlR IS0 9000 Certification Scheme which is a third party quality system
certification of manufacturing processes and services to the relevant part of the SS I S0 9000 series of
standards on quality systems. The scheme confers recognition to companies which have properly designed
and implemented quality systems. It enables companies to gain greater international recognition thereby
facilitating access to overseas markets. It also helps companies to reduce reject costs and improve quality and
productivity. Certified companies are entitled to use the SlSlR IS0 9000 symbol as shown in Figure 2 in their
marketing programme including letterheads, advertisements and other promotional materials.
In addition, PSB also operates the Good Manufacturing Practice Scheme (symbol as shown in
Figure 3) which is a third party quality system certification of manufacturing processes to the PSB Quality
Management System Requirements.
For laboratories which have shown capabilities in specific areas of tests, the Laboratory Accreditation
Scheme confers the laboratories the right to use the SINGLAS symbol as shown in Figure 4 in their test
reports, letterheads, advertisements and other promotional materials.
Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.
For further information on PSB services and activities, please write to PSB, PSB Building, 2 Bukit Merah
Central, Singapore 159835.