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Paper On:EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

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ABSTRACT
Taking care to make the construction earthquake proof, we cannot only avoid economic loss but also loss of precious lives. In this century, major earthquakes in the India have damaged or destroyed numerous buildings, bridges, and other structures. By monitoring how structures respond to earthquakes and applying the knowledge gained, scientists and engineers are improving the ability of structures to survive major earthquakes. Many lives and millions of rupees have already been saved by this ongoing research. Introduction: Though generally ngineers are aware of the need to design structure to resist loads induced by earthquakes. Causes! "# Tectonic $# %olcanic. !o" o# inertia! #orces to #oundation! hori&ontal inertia forces, most critical elements. Ho" Arc$itectura! #eatures a##ect %ui!din& durin& eart$'ua(e ! 'i&e of Buildings, (ori&ontal )ayout of Buildings Hori)onta! %ands necessar* in +asonr* %ui!din&s: ,esi&n o# -inte! Bands! bending and pulling actions. .ertica! rein#orce+ent re'uired in +asonr* %ui!din&! plinth band, lintel band and roof band. Ho" /ertica! rein#orce+ent $e!ps! by wall piers and anchoring, by *dequate cross+sectional area. Rein#orce+ent arran&e+ent in %ea+s: damage in beams, location and amount of longitudinal steel bars in beams. Ho" do co!u+ns in RCC %ui!din&s resist eart$'ua(e ,esi&n Strate&*: desi&n o# %ea+0 co!u+n 1 s!a%2 Rein#orcin& %ea+-co!u+n 3oint Anc$orin& %ea+ %ars ,ecords of building response to earthquakes, especially those from structures that failed or were damaged, have led to many revisions and improvements in building codes. arthquakes are low probability but high+risk events. 'o buildings

have to be designed and built anticipating, the force it has to withstand on the event of an earthquake.

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TAB-E O CONTENTS
SR2 NO2 TIT-E CERTI ICATE ACKNO4-E,GE5ENT TAB-E O CONTENTS ABSTRACT INTRO,UCTION ".$. -hat is earthquake. E ECTS O EARTHQUAKE $." /auses of arthquakes EARTHQUAKE 9ONES O IN,IA -O4 O INERTIA ORCES TO OUN,ATIONS: ARCHITECTURA- EATURES A ECT BUI-,INGS ,URING EARTHQUAKES 0." (ori&ontal )ayout of Buildings 0.$ (ori&ontal bands necessary in masonry buildings 0.1 2esign of )intel Bands 0.3 %ertical reinforcement required in masonry buildings 0.0 %ertical ,einforcement! 0.4 ,einforcement *rrangement in Beams! 0.5 /olumns in ,/ Buildings ,esist arthquakes! ,ESIGN STRATEG@ 4." ,einforcing the Beam+/olumn 6oint SU55AR@ CONC-USION BIB-IOGRAPH@ TIT-E PAGE NO2 i ii iii i/ / 6 " 7 7 8 : ; ; < < = = > ? 6A 66 67 68 6:

62 72 82 :2 ;2

<2 =2

62 INTRO,UCTION
In sports, the best offense is sometimes a good defense. *nd that7s how most engineers approach earthquake ha&ards, too. 8atural ha&ards like earthquake, cyclones and floods become natural disasters because unsafe building construction continue in the country in spite of national building code and Indian standards on ha&ards safety as these are neither mandatory nor are enforced strictly. 9isting town

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and country planning acts, master plan and area development rules and building regulations do not adequately incorporate safety requirements against natural ha&ards.

6272 4HAT IS EARTHQUAKEB The earthquake is the sudden release of some stored energies in the earth:s crust and upper mantle that causes sudden shaking in part of earth:s crust. ;ne of the most interesting aspects of monitoring the earthquake is a problem placed deep into earth:s crust itself. -hen the large rock masses are subjected to mechanical pressures acting over long periods of time stresses go on accumulating in them until finally a stage is reached when rocks are strained to the breaking point. 2ue to there is rupturing of rock masses and give rise to fault. The scrapping together of two rough surfaces during this enforced moment of rock masses against each other sets up vibrations, which is called as earthquake.

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72 E

ECTS O EARTHQUAKE:

6C The dams across the rivers are damaged causing lot of destruction on the downstream side. 7C <nderground water level is also affected such as lakes and swamps are created at many places. 8C arthquake+induced ground failure has been observed in the form of ground rupture along the fault &one, landslides, settlement and soil liquefaction.

726 CAUSES O EARTHQUAKES 62 arthquakes is divided into two categories !"# Tectonic $# %olcanic process. 82 %olcanic earthquakes are those associated with volcanic eruptions. :2 The major portion of observed seismic activity is tectonic in origin. ;2 The point of fracture within the earth:s interior where the initial slip occurs, triggering a large+scale slippage sometimes e9tending over hundreds of miles, is called the earthquake focus or hypocenter. The point on the surface vertically above the focus is called the epicenter. arthquakes may originate anywhere from bear the surface of the earth to a depth of 5== km or more

72 Tectonic earthquakes are those associated with faulting and other structural

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82 EARTHQUAKE 9ONES O IN,IA: T*pe 9one >one " >one $ >one 1 >one 3 >one 0 o# Intensit* ,a+a&es 4.= 5.= @.= C.= above C.= Minor damages States co/ered2 M.?, ,ajasthan, <.?, -.B,

;rissa, Maharashtra. Medium damages T.M, ,ajasthan, *.? ,isk of collapse and Aujarat, <.?, Berala, *.?. heavy damages -idespread collapse and (.?, Bihar, destruction (eavy collapse and *.?, Aoa, Aujarat, Bashmir. destruction

:2 -O4 O INERTIA ORCES TO OUN,ATIONS:


62 <nder hori&ontal shaking of the ground, hori&ontal inertia forces are generated at level of the mass of the structure Dusually situated at the floor levels#. These lateral inertia forces are transferred by the floor slab to the walls or columns, to the foundations, and finally to the soil system underneath 72 'o, each of these structural elements Dfloor slabs, walls, columns, and foundations# and the connections between them must be designed to safely transfer these inertia forces through them. 82 -alls or columns are the most critical elements in transferring the inertia forces. :2 But, in traditional construction, floor slabs and beams receive more care and attention during design and construction, than walls and columns. ;2 -alls are relatively thin and often made of brittle material like masonry. They are poor in carrying hori&ontal earthquake inertia forces along the direction of their thickness. Eailures of masonry walls have been observed in many earthquakes in the past.

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;2 ARCHITECTURA- EATURES A

ECT BUI-,INGS

,URING EARTHQUAKES:
62 In tall buildings with large height+to+base si&e ratio DEigure "a#, the hori&ontal movement of the floors during ground shaking is large. 72 In short but very long buildings DEigure "b#, the damaging effects during earthquake shaking are many. 82 In buildings with large plan area like warehouses DEigure "c#, the hori&ontal seismic forces can be e9cessive to be carried by columns and walls.

;26 HORI9ONTA- -A@OUT O BUI-,INGS ". In general, buildings with simple geometry in plan DEigure $a# have performed well during strong earthquakes. $. Buildings with re+entrant corners, like those <, %, ( and F shaped in plan DEigure $b#, have sustained significant damage. 1. The bad effects of these interior corners in the plan of buildings are avoided by making the buildings in two parts. Eor e9ample, an )+shaped plan can be broken up into two rectangular plan shapes using a separation joint at the junction DEigure $c#. 3. The plan is simple, but the columnsGwalls are not equally distributed in plan. Buildings with such features tend to twist during earthquake shaking2

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;27 HORI9ONTA- BAN,S NECESSAR@ IN 5ASONR@ BUI-,INGS: ,ole of (ori&ontal Bands There are four types of bands in a typical masonry building, namely a) gable b)roof c)lintel d)plinth

D i&ure ;26C0 na+ed a#ter t$eir !ocation in t$e %ui!din&2

;28 ,ESIGN O -INTE- BAN,S: 62 2uring earthquake shaking, the lintel band undergoes bending and pulling actions DEigure 1#. 72 Bands can be made of wood Dincluding bamboo splits# or of reinforced concrete D,/# DEigure 3#H the ,/ bands are the best. 82 The straight lengths of the band must be properly connected at the wall corners. This will allow the band to support walls loaded in their weak direction by walls loaded in their strong direction. :2 'mall lengths of wood spacers Din wooden bands# or steel links Din ,/ bands# are used to make the straight lengths of wood runners or steel bars act together. In wooden bands, proper nailing of straight lengths with spacers is 9iii

important. )ikewise, in ,/ bands, adequate anchoring of steel links with steel bars is necessary.

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;2: .ERTICA- REIN ORCE5ENT REQUIRE, IN 5ASONR@ BUI-,INGS: 62 (ori&ontal bands are provided in masonry buildings to improve their earthquake performance. These bands include plinth band, lintel band and roof band. ven if hori&ontal bands are provided, masonry buildings are weakened by the openings in their walls. 72 2uring earthquake shaking, the masonry walls get grouped into three sub+ units, namely spandrel masonry, wall pier masonry and sill masonry. 82 In un+reinforced masonry buildings DEigure 1#, the cross+ section area of the masonry wall reduces at the opening. 2uring strong earthquake shaking, the building may slide just under the roof, below the lintel band or at the sill level. 'ometimes, the building may also slide at the plinth level

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;2; .ERTICA- REIN ORCE5ENT: 62 mbedding vertical reinforcement bars in the edges of the wall piers and anchoring them in the foundation at the bottom and in the roof band at the top DEigure 3#. 72 Eorces the slender masonry piers to undergo bending instead of rocking. In wider wall piers, the vertical bars enhance their capability to resist hori&ontal earthquake forces and delay the I+cracking. 82 *dequate cross+sectional area of these vertical bars prevents the bar from yielding in tension. Eurther, the vertical bars also help protect the wall from sliding as well as from collapsing in the weak direction.

;2< REIN ORCE5ENT ARRANGE5ENT IN BEA5S:

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;2= CO-U5NS IN RC BUI-,INGS RESIST EARTHQUAKES: Possi%!e Eart$'ua(e ,a+a&e 62 Columns, the vertical members in ,/ buildings, contain two types of steel reinforcement, namely! Da# long straight bars Dcalled longitudinal bars# placed vertically along the length, and Db# closed loops of smaller diameter steel bars Dcalled transverse ties# placed hori&ontally at regular intervals along its full length. 72 /olumns can sustain two types of damage, namely axial-flexural (or combined compression-bending) failure and shear failure. 'hear damage is brittle and must be avoided in columns by providing transverse ties at close spacing.

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<2 ,ESIGN STRATEG@:


62 The Indian 2uctile 2etailing /ode I'! "1C$=+"CC1 requires as follows. aC /olumns to be at least 1==mm wide. %C * column width of up to $==mm is allowed if unsupported length is less than 4m and beam length is less than 5m. cC /olumns that are required to resist earthquake forces must be designed to prevent shear failure by a skillful selection of reinforcement. 72 /losely spaced hori&ontal closed ties help in three ways, namely DiC They carry the hori&ontal shear forces induced by earthquakes, and thereby resist diagonal shear cracks. DiiC The Indian 'tandard I'"1C$=+"CC1 prescribes following details for earthquake+resistant columns! DiiiC /losely spaced ties must be provided at the two ends of the column over a length not less than larger dimension of the column, one+si9th the column height or 30=mm. Di/C ;ver the distance specified in item Da# above and below a beam+ column junction, the vertical spacing of ties in columns should not e9ceed 2G3 for where 2 is the smallest dimension of the column De.g., in a rectangular column, 2 is the length of the small side#. This spacing need not be less than 50mm nor more than "==mm. *t other locations, ties are spaced as per calculations but not more than 2G$. D/C The length of tie beyond the "10J bends must be at least "= times diameter of steel bar used to make the closed tieH this e9tension beyond the bend should not be less than 50mm. D/iC /onstruction drawings with clear details of closed ties are helpful in the effective implementation at construction site. In columns where the spacing between the corner bars e9ceeds 1==mm, the Indian 'tandard prescribes additional links with "@= J hook ends for ties to be effective in holding the concrete in its place and to prevent the buckling of vertical bars. These links need to go around both vertical 99

bars and hori&ontal closed ties DEigure 1#H special care is required to implement this properly at site.

<26 REIN ORCING THE BEA5-CO-U5N EOINT:

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=2 SU55AR@:
62 2ifferent elements of the whole structure and superstructure should be tied together so that they can work as a single unit. 72 The superstructure and the non+structural components should be light and should not have unnecessary masses. 82 'tructures with simple, symmetric, and regular configuration both in plan and elevations with direct load transfer systems avoiding under stress concentration and discontinuities perform much better during earthquake. :2 The structure preferable not have large heightGwidth ratio. ;2 The structure should preferably not be large in length nor should they have large plan area. <2 The superstructure should preferably have relatively shorter spans than non+ seismic resistant structure and should not have long cantilevers. =2 The structures should preferably have balanced lateral resistance. >2 The structures should preferably have uniforms floor heights. ?2 The structures should preferably have uniform section and elevation. 6A2 It is necessary to know the natural period of vibration, damping, the earthquake &one, soil properties on which the structure is to be found and the properties of the materials of construction of the structure to design an earthquake resistant structure as per the requirements of I.'.! "@C1. 662 The non+structural element should either be welled separated, so that they will not interact with the rest of the structure or they should be totally integrated with the structure. 672 *ll columns and walls be continuous and without offset roof to foundation. 682 /olumns are coa9ial and preferably square in plan. 6:2 The structure should have enough ductility. 6;2 Ee 0== should not be used in earthquake resistant structures. (igh strength concrete is less ductility therefore it should be used only with care. 6<2 Two different grades of steel not are used in the same columns as longitudinal reinforcement to resist a9ial and bending forces. 99ii

CONC-USION:
The majority of deaths and injuries from earthquakes are caused by the damage or collapse of buildings and other structures. These losses can be reduced through documenting and understanding how structures respond to earthquakes. Aaining such knowledge requires a long+term commitment because large devastating earthquakes occur at irregular and often long intervals. There is general misconception amongst the builders, architects, engineers and the society in general, that earthquake resistant constructions are too e9pensive and are unnecessary. The society needs to be educated on the advantages of the earthquake resistant construction. There is a need to disseminate earthquake engineering information in local languages in the manner that sustains the interests of common man. This will facilitate the better appreciation of earthquake safety. To ensure aseismic construction, earthquake engineering knowledge needs to be spread to a broad spectrum of professional engineers within the country, rather than confirming it to a few organi&ation or individuals. arthquake resistant construction requires seismic consideration at all staged from architectural planning through structural design to actual construction and quality programmed. In this way, earth scientists and engineers help reduce loss of life and property in future earthquakes. THUS IT IS A-4A@S SAI, THAT

FPRECAUTION IS BETTER THAN CUREG2

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BIB-IOGRAPH@

"# 6ain '.B. and 'ammer '.<. K LIntroduction to ngineering 'eismology L $# * manual of earthquake resistant 8on+ ngineered construction D?ublished by Indian 'ociety of arthquake Technology#. 1# Indian concrete journal.

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