You are on page 1of 4

http://www.scribd.

com/doc/20525942/Buku-Standar-Asuhan-Keperawatan
11 questions to help you make sense of descriptive/cross-sectional studies How to use this appraisal tool Three broad issues need to be considered when appraisin! the report o" a descripti#e/ cross-sectiona$ stud% &e.!.' a stud% that co$$ects data on indi#idua$s at one time point usin! a sur#e% or re#iew o" medica$ charts(: Are the results of the study valid? What are the results? Will the results help locally? The )) *uestions on the "o$$owin! pa!es are desi!ned to he$p %ou think about these issues s%stematica$$%. The "irst two *uestions are screenin! *uestions and can be answered *uick$%. +" the answer to both is ,%es-' it is worth proceedin! with the remainin! *uestions. .ou are asked to record a ,%es-' ,no- or ,can/t te$$- to most o" the *uestions. A number o" ita$ici0ed prompts are !i#en a"ter each *uestion. These are desi!ned to remind %ou wh% the *uestion is important. 1ecord %our reasons "or %our answers in the spaces pro#ided. These *uestions are adapted "rom 2u%att 23' Sackett 45' and 6ook 47' 8sers/ !uides to the medica$ $iterature. ++. 3ow to use an artic$e about therap% or pre#ention. JAMA )999: 2;0 &2)(: 259<-2=0) and JAMA )994: 2;)&)(: 59-=9 > ?i$ton Ke%nes @rimar% 6are Trust 2002. A$$ ri!hts reser#ed. Screening uestions .es 6an/t te$$
Ao

1! "id the study address a clearly focused issue? HINT: A question can be focused in terms of: the population(s) studied the health measure(s) studied (e. .! ris" factor! pre#enti#e beha#ior! outcome) #! "id the authors use an appropriate method to answer their question? HINT: $onsider - Is a descripti#e%cross&sectional stud' an appropriate (a' of ans(erin the question) - *id it address the stud' question)

.es

6an/t te$$

Ao

"etailed

uestions .es 6an/t te$$


Ao

$! Were the su%&ects recruited in an accepta%le way? HINT: +e are loo"in for selection bias (hich mi ht compromise the enerali,abilit' of the findin s: & +as the sample representati#e of a defined population) & +as e#er'bod' included (ho should ha#e been included) '! Were the measures accurately measured to reduce %ias? HINT: +e are loo"in for measurement or classification bias: & *id the' use sub-ecti#e or ob-ecti#e measurements) & *o the measures trul' reflect (hat 'ou (ant them to (ha#e the' been #alidated)) (! Were the data collected in a way that addressed the research issue? $onsider: if the settin for data collection (as -ustified if it is clear ho( data (ere collected (e. .! inter#ie(! questionnaire! chart re#ie() if the researcher has -ustified the methods chosen if the researcher has made the methods e.plicit (e. . for inter#ie( method! is there an indication of ho( inter#ie(s (ere conducted))

.es

6an/t te$$

Ao

.es

6an/t te$$

Ao

)! "id the study have enough participants to .es minimi*e the play of chance? $onsider: if the result is precise enou h to ma"e a decision if there is a po(er calculation. This (ill estimate ho( man' sub-ects are needed to produce a reliable estimate of the measure(s) of interest.

6an/t te$$

Ao

+! How are the results presented and what is .es the main result? $onsider: if! for e.ample! the results are presented as a proportion of people e.periencin an outcome! such as ris"s! or as a measurement! such as mean or median differences! or as sur#i#al cur#es and ha,ards ho( lar e this si,e of result is and ho( meanin ful it is ho( 'ou (ould sum up the bottom&line result of the trial in one sentence ,! Was the data analysis sufficiently rigorous? .es $onsider: if there is an in&depth description of the anal'sis process if sufficient data are presented to support the findin s -! .s there a clear statement of findings? .es $onsider: if the findin s are e.plicit if there is adequate discussion of the e#idence both for and a ainst the researchers/ ar uments if the researcher ha#e discussed the credibilit' of their findin s if the findin s are discussed in relation to the ori inal research questions 1/! 0an the results %e applied to the local population? HINT: $onsider (hether - The sub-ects co#ered in the stud' could be sufficientl' different from 'our population to cause concern. - 0our local settin is li"el' to differ much from that of the stud' .es

6an/t te$$

Ao

6an/t te$$

Ao

6an/t te$$

Ao

6an/t te$$

Ao

11! How valua%le is the research? $onsider: if the researcher discusses the contribution the stud' ma"es to e.istin "no(led e (e. . do the' consider the findin s in relation to current practice or polic'! or rele#ant research&based literature)) if the researchers ha#e discussed (hether or ho( the findin s can be transferred to other populations

write comments here