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FLUID MECHANICS - HOMEWORK DUE DATE: FLUID PROPERTIES Problem XX In an example we calculated the force developed by the steam

on the piston in Robert Fultons Clermont, F = 5730 lbf. Oliver Evans built a steamboat called the Aetna for use between Philadelphia and Wilmington, Delaware. He used a higher steam pressure so that he could make his engine smaller and lighter. If the Aetnas engine used steam at 150 psi, what size piston would have been required to produce the same force as that obtained in the low pressure steam engine of the Clermont? [Note: One of the boilers in the Aetna burst in 1824, killing several passengers.]

Problem XX The density of gold is 19.28 g/cm3. What is the volume of a gold crown that weighs 10,000 N when the crown is fully submersed in water at STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure).

Problem XX An air bubble in glycerin has a diameter of 2000 m. What is the pressure difference across the surface of this bubble due to surface tension? Problem XX The dynamic viscosity of water at 20C is 1.00 X 10- 3 N-s/m2, and the viscosity at 40C is 6.53 X 10 -4 Ns/m2. Using Eq. = Ceb/T, estimate the viscosity at 30C. Problem XX Air enters a duct, of diameter D = 25 mm, through a well-rounded inlet with uniform speed, U1 = 0:870 m/s . At a downstream section where L = 2:25 m, the fully developed velocity profile is ( ) The pressure drop between these sections is p1 - p2 = 1:92 N/m2. Find the total force of friction exerted by the tube on the air.

Problem XX Suppose that glycerin is flowing (T = 20C) and that the pressure gradient dpldx is - 1.6 kN/m3. What are the velocity and shear stress at a distance of 12 mm from the wall if the space B between the walls is 5.0 cm? What are the shear stress and velocity at the wall? The velocity distribution for viscous flow between stationary plates is

Problem XX.

A block of weight W slides down an inclined plane while lubricated by a thin _lm of oil, as shown in _gure. The _lm contact area is A and its thickness is h. Assuming a linear velocity distribution in the _lm, derive an expression for the terminal (zero-acceleration) velocity V of the block.

Problem XX This problem involves a cylinder falling inside a pipe that is filled with oil, as depicted in the figure. The small space between the cylinder and the pipe is lubricated with an oil film that has viscosity . Derive a formula for the steady rate of descent of a cylinder with weight w; diameter d, and length l sliding inside a vertical smooth pipe that has inside diameter D. Assume that the cylinder is concentric with the pipe as it falls. Use the general formula to find the rate of descent of a cylinder 100 mm in diameter that slides inside a 100.5 mm pipe. The cylinder is 200 mm long and weighs 15 N. The lubricant is SA.E 20W oil at 10C.

HYDROSTATICS Problem XX Consider the fluid flow shown in Figure. At what angle are the magnitudes of the components of the gravitational body force acting in the flow direction and normal to the flow direction equal? At what angle is the magnitude of the component of the gravitational body force acting in the flow direction three times as great as that of the component of the body force acting normal to the flow direction?

Problem XX The Crosby gage tester shown in the figures is used to calibrate or to test pressure gages. When the weights and the piston together weigh 140 N, the gage being testes indicates 200 kPa. If the piston diameter is 30 mm, what percentage of error exists in the gage?

Problem XX An engineer is designing a hydraulic lift with a capacity of 10 tons. The moving parts of this lift weigh 1000 lbf. The lift should raise the load to a height of 6 ft in 20 seconds. This will be accomplished with a hydraulic pump that delivers fluid to a cylinder. Hydraulic cylinders with stroke of 72 inches are available with bore sizes from 2 to 8 inches. Hydraulic piston pumps with operating pressure range from 200 to 300 psig are available with pumping capacities of 5, 10, and 15 gallons per minute. Select a hydraulic pump size and hydraulic cylinder size that can be used for this application.

Problem XX Determine (a) the difference in pressure and (b) the difference in piezometric head between points A and B. The elevation ZA and ZB are 10 m and 11 m, respectively, l1 = 1 m, and the manometer deflection l2 is 50 cm.


Problem 1. A jet of water directed against a vane, which could be a blade in a turbine or in any other piece of hydraulic machinery. The water leaves the stationary 40 mm nozzle with a speed of 25 m/s and enters the vane tangent to the surface at A. The inside surface of the vane at B makes angle = 150o with the x direction. Compute the force that must be applied to maintain the vane speed constant at U = 5 m/s.

Problem 2. The simplified lawn sprinkler shown rotates in the horizontal plane. At the center pivot, Q = 4.5 gpm of water enters vertically. Water discharges in the horizontal plane from each jet. If the pivot is frictionless, calculate the torque needed to keep the sprinkler from rotating. Neglecting the inertia of the sprinkler itself, calculate the angular acceleration that results when the torque is removed.

Problem 3. A rotating dishwasher arm delivers at 60C to six nozzles, as in Fig. P3.124. The total flow rate is 3.0 gal/min. Each nozzle has a diameter of 3 /16 in. If the nozzle flows are equal and friction is neglected, estimate the steady rotation rate of the arm, in r/min.

Problem 4.

A simple turbomachine is constructed from a disk with two internal ducts which exit tangentially through square holes, as in Figure. Water at 20C enters normal to the disk at the center, as shown. The disk must drive, at 250 r/min, a small device whose retarding torque is 1.5 N m. What is the proper mass flow of water, in kg/s?

Problem 5.. A pump running at 1450 rpm with impeller diameter of 20 cm is geometrically similar to a pump with 30 cm impeller diameter running at 950 rpm. The discharge of the larger pump at the maximum efficiency was 200 litres/s at a total head of 25m. Determine the discharge and head of the smaller pump at the maximum efficiency conditions. Also determine the ratio of power required. Problem 6. A turbine model of 1/5 scale uses 2 m3/s of water. The prototype turbine has to work with a flow rate of 15 m3/s. Determine the speed ratio and power ratio. Problem 7. A centrifugal fan in operation when tested gave the following data. Volume delivered : 2.75 m3/s. Total pressure 63.5 mm of water column. Power absorbed: 1.75 kW. A geometrically similar fan of 1/4 size is to be used running at twice the speed of the operating fan. Assuming same conditions for the air determine the volume delivered, total pressure and power absorbed.