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CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL METHODS TO ENHANCE OIL RECOVERY

Mohammed M. Amro King Saud University, Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Dept. Riyadh !" , P. #. $o%& '((, Kingdom o) Saudi Ara*ia mamro+,su.edu.sa

ABSTRACT
#il and natural gas are the dominant )uels -orld-ide and sin.e, the .urrent oil produ.tion e%.eeds ne- additions to ,no-n reserves, a verity o) enhan.ed oil re.overy methods and advan.ed te.hnologies espe.ially in upstream .an *e applied to mature the mostly depleted reservoir to add more oil to the ,no-n reserves. /he 0usti)i.ation o) the in.reasing demand )or petroleum is the main .hallenge )or the petroleum engineers. /his paper presents the main E#R methods, -hi.h *e.ome no-adays more attra.tive )or the oil industry to in.rease the re.overy. 1o-ever, the sele.tion o) a .ertain E#R2pro.ess )or in.reasing oil re.overy must *e made a)ter analy3ing the detailed in)ormation o) the oil reservoir. 4n addition, there are advan.ed te.hnologies su.h as intelligent -ell te.hnology -hi.h deals -ith the installation o) advan.ed .ompletion tools, sensors, .ontrol devi.es, and do-nhole monitoring systems. /he primary o*0e.tives o) adopting su.h te.hnologies are to enhan.e produ.tion per)orman.e o) e%isting and ne- -ells, redu.e the .osts and improve the pro)ita*ility. 4n this paper the te.hni5ues, s.reening .riteria and re.overy estimation o) the E#R methods -ill *e dis.ussed. Moreover, re.ent advan.ed te.hnologies employed to improve produ.tion and enhan.e re.overy -ill *e also presented.

KEY WORDS
Enhan.ed #il Re.overy, 4nter)a.ial tension, 6apillary pressure, Smart .ompletion.

Proceedings of the 7th Saudi Engineering Conference (SEC77

INTRODUCTION
$e.ause the -orld oil resour.es are limited and the e%ploitation o) oil )ields to a higher degree is desira*le, ne- methods are re5uired to improve the re.overy rates o) oil )ields and to re.over oil )ound in pores *et-een ro., parti.les. 1o-ever, to e%tend the reserve8produ.tion ratio, t-o possi*le s.enarios are availa*le. /he )irst s.enario is to lo-er the oil .onsumption -orld-ide. 9hereas, the se.ond one is to )ind out a*out nete.hni5ues a*le to minimi3e the remaining oil in the su*sur)a.e. /he )irst s.enario -ill )o.us on gathering o) engineers )rom di))erent )ields. /he main target -ill *e on minimi3ing the oil .onsumption and on the other hand the use o) rene-a*le energy sour.es. /he se.ond s.enario -ill .on.ern petroleum engineers. /hose e%perts -ill )a.e a .hallenge in per)orming e.onomi.al e%ploration and produ.tion. Moreover, )o.us on a..urate preliminary and post dis.overy e%ploration, *e.ome an important and use)ul stage to ta,e into .onsideration. /hus, great e))orts are made to ma%imi3e the produ.tion o) petroleum in pla.e. /he produ.tion history o) a petroleum reservoir may *e divided into di))erent produ.tion stages. /he )irst stage is the initial approa.h to produ.e oil and it in.ludes primary re.overy pro.ess, in -hi.h the reservoir pressure .auses the )luid to )lo- into produ.tion -ells and then to the sur)a.e. 4) the reservoir pressure is not signi)i.ant to maintain )luid )lo- to the sur)a.e due to pressure de.line or )lo- resistivety, do-nhole pumps or gas li)t are used to raise the oil to sur)a.e until the energy availa*le to drive the reservoir )luid through ro., pores is not ade5uate to maintain reservoir produ.tivity. /he average primary re.overy rate is around (2 :; o) the original oil in pla.e, depending on the oil and ro., properties as -ell as drive me.hanism. /he se.ond produ.tion stage ,no-n as se.ondary re.overy methods in.ludes )luid in0e.tion, su.h as gas rein0e.tion or -ater )looding, into the reservoir to improve oil re.overy. /he in0e.tion o) )luids is implemented to repla.e the produ.ed reservoir )luid, thus, the reservoir pressure .an *e maintained, or to displa.e the oil dire.tly into the produ.tion -ells and then to the sur)a.e. /he most .ommon method involves )looding the reservoir -ith -ater. /he ultimate re.overy )a.tor .an *e in.reased to around !(; *y employing the se.ondary re.overy method. /he main .auses o) the poor re.overy o) the )irst t-o produ.tion stages are the e%isten.e o) the inter)a.ial tension *et-een oil and -ater <.apillary )or.es7 and the heterogeneities in the reservoir ro.,. /here)ore, the oil le)t in the reservoir a)ter the primary and se.ondary methods is the potential target o) the third produ.tion stage, namely the enhan.ed oil re.overy methods or tertiary methods <E#R2methods7. /he E#R methods may *e.ome more important in the )uture espe.ially i) the *ul, o) )uture oil pro0e.ts involve e%tra.ting oil )rom ,no-n resour.es rather than )rom e%ploration e))ort to )ind ne- a..umulations = , ">. /he E#R2methods involve te.hni5ues to over.ome or to minimi3e the e))e.ts o) physi.al and geologi.al reasons to improve the .rude?s )lo- )rom the reservoir ro.,. /he most .ommon tertiary re.overy methods are mis.i*le, thermal, .hemi.al )looding and other advan.ed te.hnology.

Proceedings of the 7th Saudi Engineering Conference (SEC77

STAGES OF OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES


/he oil re.overy pro.esses are .ategori3ed into three re.overy stages as mentioned, namely, primary, se.ondary and tertiary methods. 4n this .hapter all o) these methods -ill *e presented and dis.ussed.

Primary Reco ery Me!"o#$


Primary methods des.ri*e the natural drive me.hanisms )or the re.overy o) reservoir )luid. /he drive me.hanism is re)erred to the sour.e o) energy inherent in the reservoir. /he reservoir energy is the driving )or.e to push the reservoir )luid to the sur)a.e depending on reservoir pressure and the natural drive me.hanism. /here are di))erent sour.es o) energy )or the primary re.overy that assist the )luid produ.tion, su.h as gas .ap drive, solution gas drive, -ater drive, gravity drainage or .om*ination o) these e))e.ts. /he gas .ap drive maintains the oil re.overy *y e%pansion o) the gas e%isting a*ove the oil. /his -ill push the layer o) oil do-n-ard and out o) the -ell. /he gas .ap drive .an *e supported *y in0e.tion o) hydro.ar*on gas over .onsidera*le period o) time until reservoir pressure is restored and produ.tion resumed =", @>. 4n this type o) drive me.hanism the pressure drops slo-ly, -hile the gas2oil ratio <G#R7 in.reases .ontinuously. A reservoir -ith gas .ap drive may have long produ.tion li)e depending on the si3e o) the gas .ap and oil properties. /he solution gas drive or depletion drive maintains the oil re.overy *y the e%pansion o) dissolved gas that is trapped in the oil as a response to the pressure drop -hile produ.tion. 1o-ever, a*ove the *u**le point pressure, only li5uid e%pansion o..urs, -hile *elo- the *u**le point pressure, *oth li5uid and gas e%pansion provide the energy to drive the hydro.ar*on to the sur)a.e. /he solution gas drive is .hara.teri3ed *y rapidly pressure drop and the G#R remains lo- until reservoir pressure is e5ual to the *u**le point pressure and then in.reases to ma%imum and de.lines again. /he produ.tion li)e in this s.enario de.lines rapidly and installation o) do-nhole pumps is re5uired to maintain produ.tivity. /he -ater drive provides the energy to maintain reservoir produ.tion in su.h that the -ater layer is pushing against the oil layer due to -ater e%pansion. 4n -ater drive me.hanism, the pressure remains almost .onstant and the G#R remains also lo-, -hile the -ater .ut *e.omes in later produ.tion li)e e%.essive. 1o-ever, the primary re.overy is highest -ith -aterdrive approa.h. /he gravity drainage is also one o) primary re.overy methods and it o..urs in reservoir -ith )ormation dipping .ontri*uting to improve primary re.overy. 1o-ever, primary re.overy .an also improved *y installation o) gas li)t, do-nhole pumps and in)ill drilling, -hi.h involves drilling more -ells in the same reservoir

Seco%#ary Reco ery Me!"o#$


/he se.ondary methods are applied to enhan.e oil re.overy *y rein0e.tion either asso.iated gas or -ater to maintain reservoir pressure or to displa.e the oil remaining in the reservoir

Proceedings of the 7th Saudi Engineering Conference (SEC77

to-ard the produ.ing -ell *y -ater )looding, -hi.h is e.onomi.ally attra.tive. 4n this pro.edure, additional -ells are drilled as in0e.tors into the reservoir. /he se.ondary re.overy te.hni5ues .an .ontri*ute to a higher re.overy )a.tor i) these te.hni5ues are used simultaneously to the primary re.overy. 1o-ever, -ater)looding as se.ondary re.overy method is the -idely used method, in -hi.h -ater is pumped through in0e.tion -ells to displa.e the part o) remaining oil to produ.tion -ells. /his pro.ess is e.onomi.ally attra.tive and very e))e.tive in light to medium .rude oils. /he estimated .ost o) -ater)looding per additional re.overed *arrel o) oil is in the range o) "2' A8**l =">.

Ter!iary Reco ery Me!"o#$


Nearly t-o thirds o) the original oil2in2pla.e remains in su*sur)a.e reservoirs a)ter primary <e.g. -ater, gas .ap or solution gas drives7 and se.ondary <e.g. pressure maintenan.e and -ater)looding7 re.overy pro.esses. Physi.al and geologi.al reasons are *ehind this lore.overy. /he main physi.al reason is the e%isten.e o) inter)a.ial tension )or.es and the di))eren.e *et-een rheologi.al properties o) oil and -ater, resulting in the entrapment o) immo*ile residual oil saturation in the )ormation. /he geologi.al )a.tor is the heterogeneity in the reservoir, -hi.h leads to a )aster s-eep o) oil )rom 3ones -ith highest permea*ility, leaving *ehind oil in lo- permea*ility 3ones. /hus, the potential target o) enhan.ed oil re.overy methods <E#R7 is a higher re.overy than that produ.ed *y .onventional methods. Enhan.ed oil re.overy methods )all into three main .ategories& thermal, .hemi.al and mis.i*le displa.ement methods. All o) these methods involve the in0e.tion o) )luids into the )ormation in order to generate properties or inter)a.ial .onditions that are more )avora*le )or oil displa.ement. /he reserves, -hi.h de)ined as the part o) re.overa*le resour.es that has *een lo.ated, *ut not yet used, de.line sin.e B'(, *e.ause the dis.overy is lo-er than produ.tion. /he ratio o) dis.overy rate to .onsuming rate is one to )our *arrel o) .onventional oil, thus, the gap *et-een dis.overy and .onsumption is *ig and may gro- =!,:>. Cigure sho-s the gro-ing gap *et-een dis.overy and .onsumption. /he yello- .urve sho-s e%ploration drilling. Even -ith in.reased num*er o) -ild.ats -ells in B'(, the de)i.it .ould not *e .overed =D>. /here)ore, enhan.ed oil re.overy methods <E#R7 and other advan.ed methods *e.ome more important to e%tra.t oil )rom ,no-n resour.es rather than )rom e%ploration e))ort to )ind ne- oil a..umulation. /hus, the remained oil a)ter primary and se.ondary methods, -hi.h is a*out D(; o) the total oil in a reservoir, is hard to re.over *y the .onventional methods due to physi.al phenomena su.h as -etta*ility, .apillary pressure and oil vis.osity or geologi.al reason su.h as heterogeneity. 4n order to re.over some o) the oil le)t in the reservoir, E#R2methods have to *e applied to over.ome the physi.al and geologi.al e))e.ts. /he main goal o) the E#R methods is one or more o) the )ollo-ing te.hni5ues =",E,'>& 2 Redu.e the inter)a.ial tensions *et-een oil and -ater and there)ore a redu.tion o) .apillary pressure.

Proceedings of the 7th Saudi Engineering Conference (SEC77

De.rease the mo*ility ratio *et-een oil and -ater *y de.reasing oil vis.osity or in.reasing -ater vis.osity. 2 4n0e.tion o) .hemi.al solvents. /here)ore, the amount o) trapped oil depends mainly on the .apillary num*er, -hi.h des.ri*es the ratio *et-een vis.ous to .apillary )or.es and .an *e given as& NC =

< 7

-here, the is the velo.ity, is the vis.osity and is the inter)a.ial tension *et-een oil and -ater. Applying E#R methods in.reases the .apillary num*er in e5uation *y in.reasing the vis.osity o) the displa.ing )luid <-ater7 or de.reasing the vis.osity o) displa.ed )luid <oil7 and8or lo-ering the inter)a.ial tension *et-een oil and -ater.

C"emica& F&oo#i%'
6hemi.als, su.h as polymer, sur)a.tants and al,ali, are mi%ed -ith -ater and in0e.ted into the reservoir to in.rease the oil re.overy. Po&ymer F&oo#i%' /he main )un.tion o) polymer )looding is to improve the mo*ility ratio *et-een -ater and oil *y in.reasing the -ater vis.osity, -hi.h is given in the )ollo-ing e5uation. M = kw o k o w <"7

-here ,-,o is the e))e.tive permea*ility o) -ater and oil phase, respe.tively, and -,o is the vis.osity o) -ater and oil phase, respe.tively. /he vis.osity is very important )a.tor that holds oil *a., in the reservoir. /he vis.osity o) .rude oil is higher than that o) -ater. /hus, the -ater has the tenden.y to move )aster and to *ypass oil2)illed 3ones. /he mo*ility ratio *et-een -ater and oil is usually higher than (, depending on the oil vis.osity and e))e.tive permea*ility as given in e5uation ". 4n order to re.over more oil )rom the reservoir, the vis.osity o) oil must *e redu.ed or the vis.osity o) the displa.ing -ater must *e in.reased. Adding polymer to the -ater -ill lead to in.rease the -ater vis.osity and -ill improve the volumetri. s-eep e))i.ien.y. Moreover, polymer )looding .an *e used to improve the verti.al s-eep e))i.ien.y *y redu.ing the reservoir heterogeneity. 4n su.h reservoirs, the -ater entry into the more permea*le 3ones and the oil -ill remain in the lo- permea*le layers, -hi.h are not )looded -ith -ater. Polymer )looding -ill )irst )ollo- the paths o) -ater and *e.ause o) its high vis.osity and adsorption on the ro., sur)a.e, )lo- resistan.e in this portion o) reservoir -ill *e *uilt up and the su*se5uently in0e.ted -ater -ill *e diverted to uns-ept areas =",B>.

Proceedings of the 7th Saudi Engineering Conference (SEC77

S(r)ac!a%! F&oo#i%' /he inter)a.ial tension *et-een oil and -ater is also one o) the important )a.tors *ehind the poor re.overy in primary and se.ondary methods. #il8-ater inter)a.ial tension is usually a*out ": dynes8.m and adding sur)a.tant to -ater -ould redu.e the oil8-ater inter)a.ial tension to less than (2! dynes8.m, -hi.h leads to huge redu.tion o) .apillary pressure in the reservoir. /he .apillary pressure is de)ined as the di))eren.e *et-een the pressure o) non-etting )luid <Pn-7, -hi.h is oil and the pressure o) -etting )luid <P-7, -hi.h is -ater =E, (>. Pc = Pnw Pw = " .os r <@7

-here F inter)a.ial tension, = .onta.t angle, rF pore radius. /here)ore, the .apillary pressure .an *e positive or negativeG i) -ater -ets the system the P. -ill *e negative i) oil -ets the system the P. -ill *e positive. 4) the .onta.t angle is 3ero <strongly -et o) one o) the li5uids7, the P. -ill *e dependent on the inter)a.ial tension only. 1o-ever, the .apillary pressure is usually positive and -ould prevent additional oil re.overy, *e.ause the pressure gradient in the reservoir, -hi.h is re5uired to displa.e the oil, is o)ten smaller than the .apillary pressure gradient. /his means that the amount o) oil that may *e re.overed is proportional to the pressure drop applied in the porous medium and inverse proportional to .apillary pressure. Raising the pressure drop in the oil reservoir is limited and must *e less than the )ra.ture pressureG there)ore the redu.tion o) the inter)a.ial tension -ill lead to enhan.e the oil re.overy. /his .an *e a.hieved *y Sur)a.tant )looding. /here)ore, the lo-ering o) inter)a.ial tension *et-een oil and -ater is very important to redu.e the .apillary )or.es and to in.rease the oil re.overy. /his .an *e a.hieved *y adding sur)a.tant <sur)a.e2a.tive agents7 to -ater to redu.e the inter)a.ial tension *et-een -ater and oil. Cigure " sho-s the sur)a.tant2polymer )looding using linear )looding <in0e.tor and produ.er -ells7.

T"erma& Me!"o#$
/hermal methods in.lude hot -ater, steam in0e.tion and in2situ .om*ustion and .an *e applied mainly in .ase o) heavy oil reservoir, sin.e the appli.ation o) primary and se.ondary methods in su.h reservoir sho-s very poor re.overy )a.tor due to high mo*ility ratio *et-een -ater and oil. Even that steam )looding has *een su..ess)ully tested in light oil reservoirs = , ">. /he main purpose o) the thermal methods is to heat the reservoir and there)ore to redu.e the oil vis.osity to ena*le it to )lo- to the produ.tion -ell. /hermal methods are the most -idely employed tertiary re.overy method -orld-ide =B, ">. 1o-ever, steam in0e.tion .an *e applied only in shallo- depth <less than ":(( )t7 to avoid steam .ondensation and the )ormation thi.,ness should *e greater than ": )t to redu.e heat losses to other layers.

Proceedings of the 7th Saudi Engineering Conference (SEC77

/he thermal methods in general .an also *e implemented using Hhu)) and pu))I method, in -hi.h the produ.er -ell -ill *e .onverted into in0e.tor and the sele.ted thermal method -ill *e .ondu.ted, then the -ell is shut in )or a period o) time, a)ter -hi.h the reservoir )luid .an *e produ.ed. /he main advantage o) Hhu)) and pu))I method is the relatively lo.ost. /he disadvantage is that only the part o) near the -ell*ore is stimulated. Moreover, this method is only appli.a*le )or .ertain E#R pro.esses su.h as thermal, and mis.i*le )looding, *ut it has some limitation )or the .hemi.al )looding, in -hi.h linear )looding is re5uired.

Mi$ci*&e F&oo#i%'
Mis.i*le )looding .an enhan.e the oil re.overy *y in0e.tion o) solvents into the reservoir to a.hieve mis.i*ility *et-een the solvent and the oil. Mis.i*le )looding in.ludes the in0e.tion o) li5uid hydro.ar*on gas <JPG7, Nitrogen, lean gas or 6#" or other solvents su.h as al.ohol. JPG mis.i*le )looding is most attra.tive method )or light and medium .rude oil. 4n this method natural gas, su.h as ethane, propane and *utane as li5uid are in0e.ted to a.hieve mis.i*ility -ith the residual oil resulting in redu.tion o) the oil vis.osity and sur)a.e tension <the e.onomi. o) this method should *e evaluated7. 6ar*on dio%ide is also used as mis.i*le )looding spe.ially )or tertiary re.overy o) light oil and in shallo-er -ells, *e.ause 6#" has lo- minimum mis.i*ility pressure <MMP7, -hi.h is a*out "((( psi = @, !>, . /here)ore, 6#" -ill mi% -ith oil and -ill .ause oil s-elling -ith redu.tion o) vis.osity and it -ill simultaneously e%tra.t the lighter hydro.ar*on .omponents, -hi.h allo-s it to *e more easily displa.ed *y )ollo-ing -ater in0e.tion <-ater2alternating2gas 9AG7. 6#" immis.i*le gas .an *e used also to in.rease the re.overy in heavy and medium oil espe.ially in reservoirs -ith lo- pressure, *y .ausing the oil to s-ell and there)ore improving the oil mo*ility. 6#" )looding pro0e.ts are e%pe.ted to gro- in ne%t years due environmental and e.onomi.al reasons. /hus, 6#" .aptured )rom )lue gas or gas2 pro.essing plants .an *e used in E#R )ields. 9ith the in.reased oil pri.e, the E#R2methods have *e.ome e.onomi.al )or re.overing additional oil )rom e%isting )ields -here primary and se.ondary te.hni5ues are no longer e))e.tive. /he ma0or .hallenge )or implementing any o) the E#R pro.esses is the .apital and operating .osts, -hi.h .an *e .overed *y higher oil pri.e or te.hnologi.al improvements. /a*le sho-s s.reening .riteria )or di))erent E#R2methods. 4t sho-s that -ith an oil pri.e in e%.ess o) @(A8**l, the most E#R pro.esses are attra.tive. 1o-ever, the pu*lished survey .ondu.ted every t-o years *y #il K Gas Lournal sho-ed the most .ommon E#R pro0e.ts )or the year "((! -orld-ide are = , ", @>& 2 /hermal pro0e.ts, mainly steam in heavy oil at shallo- depths and in2situ .om*ustion, 2 6#" )looding in lighter oil )ields, 2 1ydro.ar*on mis.i*le gas in lighter oil )ields and 2 6hemi.al and polymer )looding in lighter oil )ields.

Proceedings of the 7th Saudi Engineering Conference (SEC77

Cor su..ess)ul implantation o) the E#R methods, la*oratory studies in porous media and modeling should *e per)ormed prior to )ield appli.ation and under .onditions similar to that in the sele.ted )ield. /hus, there are other )a.tors .an prevent the E#R te.hni5ue )rom *eing su..ess)ul, su.h as salinity, temperature, type o) minerals in the ro., su.h as .lay, -hi.h has the tenden.y to adsor* the in0e.ted .hemi.als. Cigure @ sho-s all re.overy methods in.luding primary, se.ondary, tertiary and some advan.ed methods.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO INCREASE OIL RECOVERY


9ith the in.reased oil pri.e, many re.overy methods and te.hnologies *e.ome e.onomi.al )or re.overing additional oil )rom e%isting )ields. 1o-ever, ne- te.hnologies are developed to redu.e *oth the environmental e))e.ts and the e.onomi. .osts o) e%ploration )or oil and gas. #ne o) these te.hnologies is the hori3ontal drilling, -hi.h has high impa.t on the improved oil re.overy in the re.ent years. More than "(,((( hori3ontal -ells have *een drilled -orld-ide, -hi.h .ontri*ute to a signi)i.ant in.remental in oil reserves ='>. 1ori3ontal drilling is used )or in)ill drilling and it e%tends the -ell*ore into larger portion o) the oil2*earing )ormation to .onta.t more reservoirs. #ther advantage o) this pro.ess is the environmental impa.ts, -hi.h is redu.ed *e.ause only )e-er -ell sites are needed. /his te.hnology has *een employed sin.e B'(. Although hori3ontal -ells .ost @ to ! times mu.h as verti.al -ells, they produ.e at ( to : times the rate o) the last type. Curthermore, hori3ontal -ells are e.onomi.ally as -ell as te.hni.ally .apa*le )or many types o) reservoirs and ne- hori3ontal drilling te.hni5ues ma,e it possi*le to drill multilateral -ells to penetrate di))erent pay 3ones )rom single -ell and to e%posure to the resevori *y ma%imum reservoir .onta.t <MR67. 1o-ever, advan.es in drilling, M9D, J9D te.hnologies ma,e targeting spe.i)i. reservoir lo.ations possi*le. /he main advantage o) su.h te.hnologies is to improve -ell pla.ement -hile drilling. Moreover, it is -orth mentioning that one o) the advan.ed su..ess)ul a.hievements in the petroleum industry to in.rease the reservoir re.overy is the smart .ompletion. 4n)lo.ontrol devi.es are installed do-nhole to ad0ust the produ.tion and to minimi3e the -ater .oning. /he .ontrol devi.es are operated )rom the sur)a.e. /he main advantages o) the smart .ompletion are to per)orm real2time reservoir monitoring and .ontrol, redu.e -or,over .ost, to dete.t -ater migration or gas *rea,through, and to in.rease re.overa*le reserves. 1ydrauli. Cra.turing is also one o) the te.hni5ues, -hi.h .an improve oil re.overy espe.ially )rom tight reservoirs <lo- permea*le )ormations7. #ther methods, su.h as @D and !D seismi., .ontri*ute to in.rease the oil re.overy and reserves *y monitoring the )lo- through the reservoir, optimi3e -ater)looding )ronts, redu.ing *ypassed oil 3ones and determining the lo.ations o) re)le.tors, stru.tures, )aults, )ra.tures and reservoir *oundaries. Great advan.es in seismi. te.hnology ma,e it possi*le to see the smallest oil trap, parti.ularly stru.tural traps and sometimes even the stratigraphi. trap. 1o-ever, other methods, su.h as, the implementation o) smart -ells, advan.ed reservoir .hara.teri3ation, visuali3ation te.hnology, reservoir surveillan.e, .ontinuous monitoring o) do-nhole pressure and temperature, reservoir modeling, deep-ater drilling

Proceedings of the 7th Saudi Engineering Conference (SEC77

and advan.ed drilling te.hnologies, su.h as under*alan.ed drilling and .asing -hile drilling -ill help in.rease the oil re.overy and reserves.

CONCLUSIONS
6omprehensive literature study -as .arried out a*out the stages o) oil )ield development, in -hi.h the advantages and disadvantages as -ell as s.reening .riteria o) di))erent oil re.overy methods -ere presented. Moreover, the operational .osts o) the enhan.ed oil re.overy methods -ere also provided. 1o-ever, it .an *e .on.luded that& 2 #il re.overy prin.iples are divided in primary, se.ondary and tertiary methods. A .om*ination o) these methods leads to higher oil re.overy. 2 Applying E#R methods to e%tra.t oil )rom depleted reservoir o) ,no-n resour.es is more e.onomi.ally than )rom e%ploration e))ort to )ind ne- oil reserves. /here)ore, E#R te.hnology .annot .reate ne- resour.es *ut it -ill .onvert resour.es into reserves. 2 /he appli.ation o) E#R methods depends on oil pri.e and te.hnologi.al improvements. 2 /hermal and mis.i*le 6#" )looding are the most methods e%pe.ted to .ontinue to in.rease in the )uture. 2 /he use o) advan.ed te.hnology su.h as @2D seismi., !2D seismi., do-nhole monitoring and advan.ed drilling te.hnology .an ma,e the oil produ.tion more e))i.ient.

REFERENCES
= > Moritis, G., "((!, HE#R .ontinuous to unlo., oil resour.es,I #il K Gas Lournal, Mol. (", 4ssue !, April ", "((!. ="> Ja,e, J.9., S.hmidt, R.J., and Menuto, P.$., Re.overy in the BB(s,I #il)ield Revie-, Lanuary. BB" HA Ni.he )or Enhan.ed #il

=@> 6hieri.i, G.J., BB! HPrin.iples o) Petroleum Reservoir Engineering,I /ranslated )rom 4talian *y 9esta-ay, P.L., Springer2Merlag,. =!> Jaherrere, L., "(( HEstimates o) #il Reserves,I paper presented at the EMC84EA84E9 meeting, 44ASA, Ju%em*urg, Austria, Lune B,. =:> $entley, R.9., "((" HGlo*al oil K gas depletion& an overvie-,I Energy poli.e @(, Elsevier, pp. 'B2"(:. =D> 6amp*ell, 6.L., "(((, HPea, #il,I presented at the /e.hni.al University o) 6lausthal, Germany, De.. "(((. =E> Jittmann, 9ol)gang, BBE HAppli.ation o) Sur)a.e2A.tive Agents in Petroleum Produ.tion,I 1and*oo, o) Sur)a.e and 6olloid 6hemistry, 6R6 Press JJ6, pp. D'B2DB!.

Proceedings of the 7th Saudi Engineering Conference (SEC77

='> 9illiams, $., "((@ HProgress in 4#R te.hnology, e.onomi.s deemed .riti.al to staving o)) -orldNs oil produ.tion pea,,I #ilKGas Lournal, Mol. ( , 4ssue @(, August !. =B> Enhan.ed #il Re.overy S.ooping Study, /R2 6A, USA, #.to*er BBB. @'@D, Cinal Report, EPR4, Palo Alto,

= (> Cel*er, $.L., "((! HSele.ted U.S. Department o) Energy E#R /e.hnology Appli.ations,I paper SPE 'B!:", presented at the "((! SPE8D#E )ourteenth Symposium on 4mproved #il Re.overy, /ulsa, #,lahoma, USA, E2" April. = > Ramlal, M., "((! HEnhan.ed #il Re.overy *y Steam)looding in a Re.ent Steam)lood Pro0e.t, 6urse OEN Cield, /rinidad,I paper SPE 'B! presented at the "((! SPE8D#E )ourteenth Symposium on 4mproved #il Re.overy, /ulsa, #,lahoma, USA, E2" April. = "> /a*er, L.L., and Martin, C.D., B'@ H/e.hni.al S.reening Guides )or the Enhan.ed Re.overy o) #il,I paper SPE "(DB, presented at the :'th SPE Annual /e.hni.al 6on)eren.e and E%hi*ition, San Cran.is.o, 6ali)ornia, USA, #.t. :2'. = @> Criedman, $.M., et.al., "((! HMarious re.overy pro.esses supply 6#" )or E#R pro0e.ts,I #il K Gas Lournal, Mol. (", 4ssue @", "@ Aug. = !> Phang, P.Q., et. al., "((! HE))e.t o) 6#" 4mpurities on Gas24n0e.tion E#R Pro.esses,I paper SPE 'B!EE, presented at the "((! SPE8D#E )ourteenth Symposium on 4mproved #il Re.overy, /ulsa, #,lahoma, USA, E2" April. = :> Qeten, K., et. al., "((! HDe.ision Analysis Under Un.ertainty )or Smart 9ell Deployment,R Lournal o) Petroleum and S.ien.e Engineering, !@, pp. '@2 BB.

Proceedings of the 7th Saudi Engineering Conference (SEC77

Fi'(re +, /he gro-ing gap *et-een dis.overy and .onsumption and the yello- .urve sho-s e%ploration drilling =D>.

Fi'(re -, Sur)a.tant2polymer )looding to in.rease oil re.overy using in0e.tor and produ.er =">.

Proceedings of the 7th Saudi Engineering Conference (SEC77

Oil Recovery Mechansims

Primary

Natural flow

Secondary

Artifacial lift

Waterflooding Tertiary

Pressure maintenance

Chemical

Thermal

Miscible

Microbial electrical mechanical !vibrating hori"ontal drilling#

Surfactant

Polymer

Caustic

%nert gas

CO'

Miscible solvent

Steam simulation or cyclic steam in$ection

Steam or hot water

%n&situ combustion

(oam dis)lacement

Fi'(re ., Cield development stages in.luding primary, se.ondary, tertiary and other advan.ed oil re.overy methods.

Proceedings of the 7th Saudi Engineering Conference (SEC77

Ta*&e +, S.reening .riteria )or di))erent enhan.ed oil re.overy methods in.luding estimated .umulative re.overy and .osts.
Screening )arameters Oil viscosity c) Oil Reservoir @ravity =e)th ft AP% /0... /0... /4... 6T 6T 6T NR ,-1.. -1 & '2 / 4. / 4. / '' / '' , 41 , '. , 4. (ormation Reservoi *stimated *stimated )ermeability r Tem)> recovery9 Cost md ?( ;OO%P <5bbl not critical not critical not critical / '. / '. / '. / '.. / 4.. && && , -21 , -21 , -'. , -21 && && '. & 3. N5A '1 & 11 4. & 71 -1 & 31 -1 & 3. -1 & 3. -1 & 3. / 4. -- & 4. -- & 4. '2 & 1-' & '. -' & 4. -. & '1

*OR methods +ydrocarbon miscible , -. Nitrogen and flue gas , -. , -. CO' miscible Surfactant , '. Polymer , -.. Al8aline , -.. %n&situ combustion 1 & -... Steamflooding -.. & 4...

9 it indicates the total recovery including )rimary and secondery methods 6T: limited by tem)erature NR: No restriction

Proceedings of the 7th Saudi Engineering Conference (SEC77