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. the law Our sexual system is the outcome of a long continuous series of changes beginning with the very dawn of human history. therefore. H. of a variation in the established order. July y 1921. S. being away in learned treatises and ponderous works. Yet here. Most of the material about the sex people is life of primitive hidden scientific inaccessible to the ordinary reader. glad have found in Fehlinger's book a short comprehensive outline of the subject. which may serve as a convenient to introduction. To understand to the modern its origin sex problem rightly it is essential know and gradual development. as in all things. F. MANCHESTER. The translators are. H.PREFACE lay people the established order of sex relationships and marriage seems something so self- To most evident and stable that possibility they cannot conceive the of evolution applies.




Primitive people do not cover their bodies out of " " is unknown the sinfulness of nakedness modesty . Karl von den Steinen (pp. 191) says .OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE LIFE i SEXUAL MODESTY AMONG PRIMITIVE PEOPLE IN cold and temperate climates. In hot clothe the parts of the world. it is necessary to body as a protection against cold. In Australia. in . in tropical South America. in those regions primitive people go It is only when they come under the influence of foreign civilisation that they put on cloth- It is erroneous to assume that clothing came into ing. to them. in the Indonesian and Melanesian islands. use because of an inborn sexual modesty. It is true that many of them cover their sex organs but the contrivances Africa. though to our mind they seem to do so. " and therefore about naked. 190. the need for protection against the effects of the weather by means of clothing disappears. and used for this purpose are not in reality intended to hide the sex region. there are still many peoples that go about naked.

Some pristine guilelessness of them celebrate the advent of puberty in members of both sexes by noisy private parts come in for a good deal of general attention. It is. men and women. the This proves that they_still possess of Adam and Eve in Eden. they gravely denote the the organs from which life springs. nor did it give the laughter was . If he asked about a word which to our minds might give cause for shame." The absence of sexual modesty in our sense also struck von Steinen when questions about words arose. when the ' ' woman fact a mother. would be foolish to call They .2 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE Xingu region " that the naked Indian tribes of the Brazil of know no these secret parts of the body. and in complete ignorance of its purpose. the reply was given without hesitation or any semblance of shame. conversations about sexual subjects gave the Indians. decided pleasure but their merry " neither impudent. are envious of our clothing. . so that indecent. ' take them and their manners in their own natural way. in by touching a most spontaneous and natural manner. Nevertheless. them as of some it precious finery rules of our they put it on and wear in our presence with a complete disregard of the simplest own society. or a festivals. They joke quite about parts in it words and pictures unabashed. therethat she is not possible to understand these people properly unless we put aside our conception of clothing/ and fore. If a man wishes to inform a stranger that he is a father.

such as is danced in places of ill repute in Brazilian towns. by games of forfeits. they are ashamed of any mutilation of their bodies.g. It had. show no modesty in sex matters. remark addressed to them can be construed as an shows invitation to sexual intercourse. the Australians. or when is coarse jokes clearly are in made about sexual subjects. According to Eylmann. Thus.. and by other harmless exchanged the in jokes intercourse although stances occasions between the sexes. . Yet one can " converse quietly with these Indians on all sexual subit is only obscenity jects so long as they are natural that shocks them. a slightly erotic tone.. at least the men. The very indecent movements of the dancer caused the women and girls to retire shyly. His European companion wanted to perform a kind of stomach dance before some savage Indians of the Upper Rio Negro. however." Naked savages It are. but the old e. Young men do not cover their sex organs. and resembled the laughter aroused by the jokes in our own spinningrooms. though they are by no means devoid of it in other respects. and accompanying circum- must be so very different among truly primitive people. 307).MODESTY AMONG PRIMITIVE PEOPLE 3 impression of hiding an inward embarrassment. p. This shown an account by Koch-Griinberg (I. however. tain " The European in his attempt to enterthe company failed completely. B 2 . not devoid of sexual itself immediately when any modesty.

whilst the go naked to and from the bath. relatively much more so. the former. influenced by the Mohammedan Malays. instance. When Nieuwenhuis' expedition stayed some time among the Kenyas. for Thus Nieuwenhuis (I. but Kenyas The Kenya women bring water and to bathe Bahau men never do this. The women also rarely make use of an apron. In Indonesia the feeling of modesty among those tribes that are in constant contact with Europeans is essentially different influence. pp. Whilst getting the boats through the the rapids Kenya men take off their loin-cloths. bears signs of old age. of because they seem to be aware that this which they were once so proud. however. ones do part of the body. A woman is always very careful not to the external sex organs when she sits or lies expose down in the presence of men. yet they show clearly marked sexual modesty. The greatest decency is observed during the time of menstruation.4 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE so. Although members of both tribes bathe completely naked.. it the was noticed that the people got out of the habit of going about naked at times. also go naked to the spring to their children. from that of the tribes less under foreign 134) mentions. This was only because the Malays and Bahaus belonging to the expedition had told the Kenyas that the white people objected to the naked appearance of the natives (which was not . the Bahaus and Kenyas Of these the latter are only slightly of Central Borneo. yet the Bahaus dress immediately after the bath. 133.

tion of the darkening of the skin (which. p. and the aged look very repulsive in their decline but then again youth and strength show If it off to great advantage in nakedness. particularly in women. The Dyaks show shame when made embarrassed before other people . made use of this circumstance in the case of the Bahaus in order to make them keep (II. The Eskimos rule. their promises and do a to their duties 296). but never for the concealment of the body. is not due to sexual modesty. and does not anything objectionable in . is considered ugly) it is also used as an orna- ment and to scare enemies. thickly in the far north of ." acquired modesty plays in the evoluThe clothing of the present-day sun. that the sick . appear strange that so many naked savages cover their sexual organs either completely or partly. 5 Nieuwenhuis adds: role "It can thus be seen what a great tion of clothes. Whoever feel is lives for a time among naked savages it. becomes accustomed to their nakedness.ZEsthetically there this disadvantage.MODESTY AMONG PRIMITIVE PEOPLE correct). America are. Dyaks serves as a protection against the heat of the and in the mountains against cold. on such occasions Nieuwenhuis they blush right down to the breast. The contrivances used are sometimes . and as a preven. wearing a pubic apron or some similar the origin of clothing first would at arrangement. as clothed but it is quite usual for them go about naked in their snow huts without any thought of offending against decency..

by the Mafulus of primitive men which seem to have the purpose of protecting the penis. The lower end of the triangle runs" into a perineal strip of metres wide.g. and Tupi tribes in the Xingui region all wear a triangular piece of bark bast not more than 7 centimetres wide and 3 centimetres high. very common in . by the pressure exerted by the tightened strip of bast running from front to back. none of these binders serve as covers. and meet the narrow perineal strip coming from the lower end of the triangle. Micronesia and Melanesia. but they are intended to close up and to protect the mucous membrane. closed. Various contrivances are also to be met with among e. This also applies to the binders used by the various peoples living on the islands of the Pacific Ocean. is The binder used by the Trumai women cover. Two hard bark about 4 millinarrow cords coming from the two upper ends pass along the groins. pressing tightly on it. Polynesia. and which really achieve that many end. reach the introitus vaginae. Papua.. The penis is . In twisted into a cord. These uluri only just cover the beginning of the pubic The triangle does not cleft.6 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE Thus the women of the Karaib. however. so small that they can hardly have been intended as coverings. as. Among certain tribes of Brazil penis wraps from made other tribes use a palm straw are worn is which also T-shaped bandage. Aruak. serving still less as a fact. or at least kept inwards. which is. Similar binders are used by the Indian women of Central Brazil.

and other places." When sitting round the camp fire. with the help of the penis pin. is stuck into the hair near the comb. during which my men took off their put a new stuck the penis calabashes and emptied them then they layer of green leaves into the round opening. : and is often brought into use. the testicles remaining free. After every passage of a river reaching above the pubic region a halt had to be made. pushed it in until it had completely disappeared and the calabash lay close to the abdomen. New hanging penis. which is the shape of a wooden use knitting needle. 155) says about its " The penis pin. the testicles Hebrides. the seen drawing the pins from their hair and The covering of the penis is making their toilet.MODESTY AMONG PRIMITIVE PEOPLE pulled 7 up by means of the T-bandage. In the New Caledonia. the is tightly bandaged. Georg Friederici (p. . and at other times. Sometimes old men use a broad band. and is drawn up and fastened penis to the girdle by means of a cord or band. free. in. has the disadvantage easily becoming loose and filling quickly with water during swimming and wading. as a protection of the sensitive intended undoubtedly glans. and. men can be Thus in the Brazilian forest the penis becomes endangered by spines of leaves being brushed off the . of The calabash. which serves the purpose injury in the bush of and protecting the penis against attacks from insects. In Calabashes are also used to protect the Melanesia the penis pin goes with the calabash. under which they can also push the testicles.

Friederici remarks that it is just in those regions of tropical America where the protection of the penis is most prevalent that fish with sharp teeth (Pygocentrus species) are to be found which have a tendency towards attacking protruding unprotected parts of the body. and thus may easily bring about the death of the victim. which would make them appear ridiculous. There are a greater dangers in the wilderness. In the Northern Territory of Australia of many both still men and women wear a small fish (Cetopsis such tassels. candiru) into In Brazil there exists which has tendency towards boring orifices of itself any of the exposed the body.8 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE . branches and boring themselves deeply into the flesh tKe spines get torn when pulled out. to whom nothing remains but to attempt an impromptu operation by slitting open the urethra with his knife. and cause painful inflammations. Habit uation to nakedness ultimately lessens the stimulus to excite- . for sex Gerson that men matters do not appear ridiculous to primitive people. In fact. such contrivances cannot hide sexual excite- ment. There is no foundation for the assumption of Adolf invented the apron or resorted to binding up of the penis in order to hide its erection. thus often causing castration in men. Many peoples who use them do not even have the wish to keep their excitement secret. its fins It slips into the urethra. For warding off insects the women Indian tribes have tassels hanging in front of the sex organs. and is prevented by from getting out again.

modesty. when working in if there discard their wrappings without worrying in It is the same in the least if observed by the men. for at least among some the people connected with some ceremonial which . becoming the fields. etc. other places.MODESTY AMONG PRIMITIVE PEOPLE rnent. The following " : stated even the slightest sign of an erection in sleeping men. This can be well observed in those cases where loin-cloths which actually cover essentially up the pubic region are for raised without any consideration people present. it peoples the up penis In other without any covering under a hip band. but it is questionable whether this was always the origin of this custom. untouched by civilisation. nor have I ever heard or read that any one else has noticed such a thing among naked primitive peoples. central part of is any danger of their The Malay women in the Luzon (Philippines). places they tie up the foreskin with a thread. is During the many months in which worthy of notice I lived exclusively among the natives I never saw fact. As has been said before. In fact. living in the tropics clothes are ornamental they are worn for reasons of out of not vanity. 9 by Friederici. soiled or injured. To the people . By this is among some naked to fasten the custom for the men means protection is also given to the glans. Clothing has nothing to do with sexual feelings or modesty among primitive people. it is doubtful whether the need for protection was always the only reason it is for the wearing of of sheaths.. binders.

that sexual must be kept secret. * Sexual modesty with regard to the naked body cannot be considered innate in mankind. etc. as may be seen in the widespread custom of treating girls mediThe binder may have cally during menstruation. for it is unknown among many naked hand.. viz. became easily extended intercourse to the feeling that such intercourse was in itself wrong. impulse towards concealment during the sex act j^_BoJth male and female need to guard themEllis (p. The mystery surrounding sexual intercourse . an instinctive tendency On the other in man to hide and digestive from his fellows the effluvia of the sexual a good explanaorgans. may have played a that menstruation is considered an the fact illness. The stretching of the foreskin which results from the use of penis wraps. been intended to counteract the loss of blood." in the exercise of sexual . and it helps to explain how the male. role. implies its sexual significance. 40) gives t Thus H. is one important factor in the constitution of modesty. another factor . begotten from fear. cultivates modesty and shuns publicity SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE In the case of women. tion of the. there is peoples.. penis binders. may be looked upon as a precaution against phimosis. serving the same purpose as circumcision does among numerous peoples. not less than the female. as well as take advantage of their is highly probable that this from enemies who might It position to attack them. The idea. * selves during the exercise of their sexual activities from jealous rivals.

and Friederici writes of the Melanesians always avoid letting themselves be seen during In the central districts the people betake defsecation. and hence in privacy. they become sacred. but almost everywhere dangerous things are classed under this category. Even the lowest savage will seek out a very secluded spot for the fulfilment of these of functions. ' Thus Koch-Griinberg." that they are not at all ashamed to show the sexual parts. says : The Indian goes deep wood for a certain business. \ endowing with supernatural powers all processes that he cannot understand .MODESTY AMONG PRIMITIVE PEOPLE n has certainly been one of the factors leading to its conPrimitive man has a tendency towards cealment. different disgust vary among peoples according to the conditions of their lives . The Africans that have not yet become spoiled by contact with strangers . into the for instance. while those living near the sea go to the beach. comparing favourably in this respect with our own peasants. the discharges It organs. each person keeping as far away as possible from his neighbour. will themselves for this purpose early in the morning to some outlying place. have to be carried out The feeling of dis- gust may perhaps be an additional reason for the The objects arousing concealment of the sex act. but are extremely shy of exposing the anus. according to the notion of primitive people. to which belong. from the sexual and digestive thus comes about that primitive man is ashamed urinating and defsecating even before persons of his own sex.

who must be reckoned the most sensual of all existing peoples. Looseness and laxity do not exist anywhere. influence.12 also SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE seek remote places (Weule and Schweinfurth) negroes. Unbridled indulgence is nowhere to be found the public performance of the sex act takes place only exceptionally among some peoples. Europeans have rarely had the opportunity of observing the sex act. occasions. the couples disappear into the darkness. . on festival for ceremonial purposes. and then Even where. though the unwritten laws which regulate the behaviour of the sexes are different from ours. and then nearly exclusively among the So far as African negroes. can be judged from ethnological literature." {See the works of Leo Frobenius and Georg Schweinfurth. however.) . The field. who are under Mohammedan . marital intercourse takes place as a matter of course. approach in this respect the beasts of the The tales of licentiousness among primitive people that are to be found in old works of travel are mostly invented or grossly exaggerated.

this liberty entirely in abeyance. Freis quently in cases of pre-marital resorted to. have for a long time attributed to primitive people conceptions of sexual behaviour like our own. for she has given proof of her fertility. . a girl who has had a child gets married the more easily. which races. break off his connection with the pregnant girl. leads to material considerations in the matter of sex relationship that. as a rule. the child will be an additional worker in the house. It is now firmly established that the moral ideas of primitive people differ as widely from ours as does their sense of modesty.II PRE-MARITAL FREEDOM AND CONJUGAL FIDELITY TRAVELLERS and missionaries. But the real truth could not be hidden for long. and generally allow unmarried people full It is only where a more advanced civilisation liberty. They do not consider sexual intercourse per se as immoral. Besides. the lover may however. Among some tribes. is restricted or ^Should any consequences ensue free love. no such obligation exists . is pregnancy abortion very prevalent among primitive Among some people. seeing things merely from the standpoint of European civilisation. the lover is generally in from the practice of duty bound to marry the girl. on the contrary.

unchange- The idea able. and that only in a childless marriage may a woman take up with p. Oceania and Africa. and in Southern India . Among many peoples. another man.. though we shall hear of some excepIt is certainly not correct.14 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE fidelity Most peoples demand conjugal from their married women. but they restrict pre-marital relationship to persons of their own community. among the lower Hindu castes of Kashinfluence of Islam. as Buschan (1912. that the rules concerning sexual intercourse are stringent throughout for women. mir and of the Punjab mountains.g. as yet The full meaning of this unknown. forbid inter- course between members of the same exogamic group. however. we find that married men and women arrangement is are in certain cases allowed inter- course with other persons. as. the various lower castes of Agra-Oudh. it even exists among some uncivilised Hindu tribes. 237) says. tions. Most Dravidian races. Indeed. living so far apart as Asia. in the Central Provinces and Berar. . of sexual purity is not innate nor Ethnographical research has fully proved that purity in our sense of the term is unknown even to-day among many peoples. A greater or less degree of sexual liberty before marriage prevails among most of those peoples in Asia that are not under the Buddhism and Hinduism. Australia. e. and that there exist no restrictions upon sexual intercourse except for the preven- tion of cohabitation among blood relations.

Hudson (p. 78) says of the Manipur that they are conspicuous for their excep- tionally loose pre-marital relationship. girl is at pay damages. Among the Garps it is an unwritten law that the after certain great festivals young men and women may like sleep together. C. It is considered no disgrace for a girl if the trial marriage does not result in a permanent marriage. the Maduvars to intermarry. in which they commonly visit each other by night. are ignorant of the process of generation. in Thus T. previously referred to. the probable father If he is expected to marry her. takes place at times in spite of The Nagas Mongolian races generally show indifference in this respect. the members of which are not allowed The tribes of Baroda. which may be due to the fact that the Nagas. when both persons belong to the same exogamic group. Otherwise these Garos. of Madras. but in houses of their own. which she can do with- out any difficulty. and the Ghasyas of the United Provinces. like the Australian tribes.PRE-MARITAL FREEDOM though it 15 this. permit a probationary period of cohabitation. Among many native Indian tribes the grown-up children do not sleep in their parents' huts. especially Sometimes abortion is resorted to. . Pre-marital intercourse between persons to whom marriage is forbidden is not considered improper. liberty to marry some one else. Should a girl become pregnant. although they demand strict fidelity in marriage. and the has to he refuses. tribes and castes are strictly monogamous.

Gait states that in the Djamna mountains the women of the Thakkar. in the Punjab. 68). and not rarely a husband will recognise as his own a son who may have been born while the woman was away. Certain nomadic castes. and other low castes lead just life as unrestrained a after marriage as before. the husband is expected to allow a guest free entrance to the women's chambers. p. ill The any Djats of Baluchistan are in incite their repute because they if married women to unfaithfulness. It is only seldom that unfaithfulness on the part of married women is tolerated. Megh.16 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE it is Sexual promiscuity often occurs after feasts. In the eastern region of Djamba. and the love affairs of married women of the servant class meet with no opposition. member of the caste chosen by . grown- often married to quite young boys. Where marriage between up customary. In the western part of this province the Djats and Pathans will often take back married women who have eloped. During the immaturity of the husband the wife is allowed to have sexual relations with the father of her child husband or another near with any one relation. advantage can be obtained thereby for the men. and not restricted to the unmarried (Playfair. sometimes even her. such as the Mirasis. whatever. especially in those communities is where the descent girls are reckoned in the female cousins is line. But there are exceptions. of India married women enjoy a great deal InJ>outhern sexual freedom. prostitute their women.

A Korawa of Madras who has debts to The pay either pawns or simply sells his wife. but punish that of Pongalakapus unmarried S. low Hindu castes in North Kanara allow their extra-marital intercourse with a caste. Todas and other polyandrous communities of South India do not know jealousy (Rivers. and is Many much freedom with The Tootiyans go his found in other parts of the world.. who allow extra-marital intercourse of married women. p. a mountain tribe. not only among the Ladakhis. girls and widows (Gait) . 1906. if a unless the partner belongs to another caste . but also among other low Hindu castes. so far as to forbid a husband to enter house if he finds the door locked and a relation's shoe before it. accept unfaithfulness on the part of their wives quite lightly. p. 592 . an almost unbridled sexual promiscuity taking its place. The Maloyali. Iyer. woman lives for a time with a lover and has children during this time.L. is similar among the Kudans and Parivarams. I. /An exception to the rule that faithis fulness in marriage of more is strictly enforced than purity before marriage to be found among the Madras. South Indian castes allow their married women also to be the relatives of their husbands.PRE-MARITAL FREEDOM 17 This custom also exists in Kashmir. such as the higher Irulas and Kurumbas. formal marriage is completely unknown. 136). the husband will on her return The state of affairs recognise the children as his own. C . men of their Many women own or of Among some castes.

when their only seldom that completed G.i8 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE of Ceylon. who. enumerates the following East Indian communities detailed tattooing it is . There is no informa- The Dutchmen Hinlopen and Severijn state that in 1852 they found on the Poggi Islands. Amongst the . are physically and intellectually of the lasts human is type. but only very late. practise monogamy. offending rival. The marriage age of the men is about twenty. according to Paul and Fritz Sarasin. A. a state of complete promiscuity. which until the death of one of the partners. Hose and MacDougall mention that among the " nomadic hunting tribes of Inner Borneo the women are chaster after marriage than before. on the west coast of Sumatra. as a Only where foreign influence has become apparent is there a tendency to dissolve marriage before death (Paul and Fritz Sarasin). Marital unfaithof the fulness rare. The Veddahs lowest who. of the girls still earlier. tion about their marital fidelity. and leads to heavy punishment rule. A preg- nancy generally results in her marriage with the father of the expected child. fifty. Some of the men are said to get married. between the ages of forty and is . Wilken a young man takes a separate wife. is assassinated. but generally marries early. settled tribes of Borneo a young man seeks a love affair as soon as he he may have relations is attracted to the other sex with several girls one after another." neither sex practises Apparently girl's much restraint.

living in


the Lubus, the promiscuity Orang-Sakai of Malacca, the Olo-Ot, and other Bornean tribes the inhabitants of the island Peling. He



adduces no evidence, however; and his statement is certainly incorrect as far as the Sakai of Malacca are


the non-Christian tribes of the





pre-marital liberty the dormitory
also as the

of the


(the olag) serves

In pairing place of the marriageable young people. the villages young people, joking and laughing, can frequently be seen going about wrapped in one blanket

and with
the olag.


arms round each





secrecy about the wooing




on mainly

Marriage rarely takes place without previous intercourse, and seldom before the girl is pregnant.

exception to this rule only occurs when a rich man marries a girl against her will at the parents' wish.


Not infrequently a young man has affairs with two or three girls at one and the same time. The girls quite
openly and unmistakably invite the men to go with them into the olag. As soon as a girl becomes pregnant, she at once joyfully informs the father of the
child, for these



refuses to

people are very fond of children. If marry the girl, there is likely to be


but no one

much concerned about

the infidelity

because the

can find a husband later on in

having borne a child indeed, the more so, It is not as there can be no doubt of her fertility.
spite of her
c 2



A customary for married men to enter the olag. young man, however, can go there if his former love has remained single and welcomes him, because she still
has hopes of becoming his wife, for it separation, and if a man can afford

easy to get a he may have

two or three wives, though polygamy is rare. A man whose wife is pregnant does not visit the olag, for it

feared that this


bring about a premature birth
of the child.

and cause the death



apparently remain always faithful (A. E. Jenks, p. 66). Ferdinand Blumentritt makes a statement, based on

Spanish information, that the
Igorotes serve the


houses of the



ensuring pre-marital

This, however,


tribes of

(Peal, pp.






et seq.).

The pure Senoi and Semang tribes of the Malay Peninsula practise strict monogamy. Marriage takes
place at an early age, sometimes between boys of Even betrothals of fourteen and girls of thirteen.

seem to occur.




punished with death (Martin, 1905,

p. 864).


districts of Australia, indeed,

among the

majority of the natives of the Australian continent,

there exist


two forms of sexual union side by side. The one form consists in a girl's being given in mar-

riage to one


without regard to the difference in


also without

any consideration

for feelings

of personal



Indeed, such


hardly possible,

for the girls are given to the


at a very



The main cause

of these unions

ensures the


apparently economic. a housekeeper for himself who has

to gather the largest share of provisions, for the result of the man's hunting yields only a very small part of

A man absolutely essential food. according to his social position, one or



more such

housekeepers. In addition, each man and woman may form a union with one or more" ofthe other sex merely
for the "

purpose of sexual


Unlike the

marriages previously mentioned, these unions do not take place without any formality there is a They do not last special ceremony for the occasion.

at least

among some

of the tribes, but are

regulated from time to time.

This form of sexual


pirauru in ethnographical literature, after the designation in use among the tribes

generally called

of the Dieri,



kind of sex community was
of a pirauru


The men

consanguineous or collateral brothers,

group are either members of one

and the same subdivision

of the tribe

similarly, the


of a pirauru

lateral sisters.

group are consanguineous or colSexual intercourse with a pirauru wife


allowed during the absence of the husband who her usual mate, and also at special festivals. When

a man's housekeeper dies, her children are cared for by one of his pirauru wives until he gets another
"Without the institution of pirauru, the

It is therefore not the production of progeny which seems to be the purpose of a common house- hold between man and woman. as most of the young influential women It are in the possession of the older has been said that the old men are by the young men on this account (Spencer. Pre-marital sexual freedom of both sexes exists. e. Robert W. exogamic groups play a far more important individual marriage. all over the South Sea islands before the advent of European influence.22 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE men would them men. n).g. of younger Many are without housekeepers. role The than In the Fijian Islands every man has the right to sexual intercourse with his wife's On special ceremonial occasions intercourse sisters. or did exist. is who stand permitted between those groups of men and women in the relationship of possible conjugal partners (Thomson. be barred from sexual intercourse. . 185). Thus. p. Codrington of (p.\ The majority of the tribes that have the institution of pirauru are ignorant of the connection between often killed sexual intercourse and conception (see Chapter VI.). nor of the pirauru Institutions similar to the Australian pirauru also exist outside Australia. p.. 22) has estab- lished the fact that in the Solomon Islands and in other parts of Melanesia a is woman an exogamic group who not yet married to one particular man may legitimately have sexual intercourse with all men of another exogamic group who are her potential husbands.

PRE-MARITAL FREEDOM 23 Williamson (pp. In Africa sexual community is allowed at certain periods among the Hereros (Brinker. There exists a good deal of Even after marriage (which takes immorality. and among many tribes of South Africa it was customary for the girls who refused to be^giyen to men against their will. the people. not faithful to each other. Nowadays the deceived husband pig or is generally satisfied if he receives a^ some other article of value from the guilty rival. Among many mary. other Bantu tribes sexual particularly at too. young are allowed to choose male initiation the partners for a time. until the British authorities put an end to the practice. as a rule." with an elaborate place pretence of bride capture) husband and wife are. Schultze . The injured husband used to have the right of killing the guilty man. 172 176) writes of the Mafulus. But the custom of sore. that unmarried youths and maidens " are allowed to associate with each other without any precautions. as a rule. The statements about the Hottentots of South Africa vary. which is found among them. The girls. p. 88). The Colonial Government has now put a stop to this^ (Theal). which he did. But it is said that (though not of the men) unfaithfulness on the part of the women is considered a great offence. seems to point to the existence of an institution similar to the Australian pirauru. in the mountains of New Guinea. the marriage bond being very loose. communism of is custp.

or the lover received. as many living as ten. really means in many cases a secret agreement for intimate extra-marital relation- ship. pp. institution 77) says of the Nandi " : The unmarried warriors. who belong to the most warlike races of mankind. When the warriors go away for a time or the huts in order. This by no means an innovation. though is it is generally quite honourable. Either the guilty couple were beaten. boys and alone in special the little boys huts or together with the old women who serve the warriors sleep in their houses.24 (pp. C. with the consent of the parents. with them in free love. SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE 299. A. But Schultze mentions also that the institution of sore. to his mat (one of the subdivisions of each of the seven age classes) with his wife or one of his wives. permit pre-marital intercourse of both sexes. he beats . for the bigger go to war. 16. Real family life girls also live . intended ostensibly for the exchange of love gifts. The Hamitic tribes of East Africa. Hollis (1909. where the girls visit them and remain with them a few days. 319) thinks that illicit love was punished among the Hottentots before the extensive immigra- tion of the white people into South Africa led to the overthrow of their old customs. There is no if but publicly recognised punishment for adultery a husband discovers another man not belonging . in addition to his own. his sweetheart's share of punishment." Married women are not allowed to enter these huts. sleep in the huts called sigiroinet. their sweethearts keep " " is unknown.

the night in the warriors' hut.PRE-MARITAL FREEDOM 25 him severely. and spends his the night with him. The wife pours water over the hands of the guest. Should there be no member of mat in the place. Children born before marriage are killed by the Nandis. Sexual intercourse with a girl or woman A of the same age class is not considered wrong. . and. commissions his wife to fulfil his wishes. even when the woman does not belong to a mat comrade. apply to another member of and both men are married. he spends expect it. the traveller betakes himself to a member of the situation. he the nearest mat. A person who has relations with a woman belonging to the paternal age class must beg pardon of the older . Children born before marriage are considered a disgrace. warrior marries the girl he makes pregnant. and leaves the hut in order to sleep elsewhere. Adultery is also not considered wrong when it concerns a couple that have previously lived together in free love in the warriors' house. If there is one. he his must first of all mat in the place. puts his weapons into a place of safety. The Masai have when travelling the same customs as the Nandis. brings him a stool and food. after having explained is treated exactly as if both men Members of different belonged to the same mat. other hospitality or classes do not each offer age If the traveller is unmarried.only one group making an exception to this rule. the latter gives hospitality to the guest. When a Nandi travels and wishes to remain somewhere overnight.

he had the right to kill them both." has to be noticed that the social formation of classes was already greatly developed among the Baganda at the time described by Roscoe. 313)- Of the conditions existing among the Baganda in East Africa the missionary John Roscoe (p.26 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE give as reparation men and two oxen or a commen- surate quantity of honey wine. the guilty man had to If pay a fine. his kraal is pulled down. and he was induced to marry the girl. 312. which even the most dreadful punishIt ments for adultery could not prevent. An old man who has sexual intercourse with his daughter or with another girl of her age light : he is severely punished. The wealthy men were in a position to have as many wives as they could support. It is not remarkable. 10) gives us the following picture " : Neither the men nor the women controlled their sexual cravings unless insurin the mountable obstacles came way. Although married women were of liberty. that these tried to meet this fact by force and cunning. secluded. could only attain their aims by stratagem. so that there was a scarcity of women for the remaining men. and his is cattle are killed ad libitum (Hollis. pp. Nevertheless the married women kept in strict seclusion used to receive lovers. a husband discovered his wife with another man. therefore. an unmarried girl became pregnant. 1905. Women. single girls had a fair amount . howIf ever. 287. if the affair comes to beaten.

nor under normal circumstances any serious quarrels or ugly scenes. or a second wife was most probably never accepted into the family . Karl von den Steinen (p. now nearly husband and wife remained faithful to each the of life. A The young husband during the day he lives only spends the night there The in the men's house when he is not hunting. their purity marriage married couple are rarely unfaithful to each other. and who were visited by him." Koch-Griinberg has never noticed even the semblance picion. About the Indians berg relates : of North-west Brazil Koch-Griingirls "Whilst young itself is enjoy the greatest liberty. The same or similar conditions prevail nearly all over South America where European influence is not yet predominant. . no hindrance was put in the way of separation and remarriage. however. grandyoung couple .PRE-MARITAL FREEDOM Among extinct. . 27 South Africa. marriage is concluded without any formality and without the consent of the parents. the for hearth have a themselves. The young wife remains with her children in her parents' house. thanks to the civilising arts of the Brazilians. have greatly degenerated. second husband. A their passionate temperament was against it (Theal). Lourenco river. not being necessarily above susa generally on a higher plane of indecent behaviour between married people. 501) mentions one exception to this rule. The Bororos. Bushmen other for But if they became tired of each other. who live on the St.

his son does so. According to a statement of a native. No similar customs have become known anywhere else in South America. and a regular income of arrows and trinkets to the men's house. of a tribe have permanent possession . Thus it remains up to the death of the grandparents. is earned by hiring out the girls Unnatural intercourse is not unit known is in the men's house. in the where some only of the members of the women. This state of affairs the result of the overweening power wielded by the older men. The women are their possession. born were fathered on those men with whom is the girl had had relations. Furthermore. The grandmother suckles the child when the mother with young wife accompanies her husband on the hunt or fetches palm nuts from the woods she still has milk .28 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE the grandchildren sitting somewhat apart. Young unmarried men live together in special men's houses. They look out betimes for wives. There are two customs which deserve our interest. the man who puts the on a cuff penis boy becomes related to him and marries his sister or his aunt. A If girl's ear-lobes are bored by he himself does not marry her. But such information given by the natives must be accepted with great caution. but occurs only when there an exceptionally great scarcity of girls. the same conditions prevail remote villages. or were caught at night. her future husband. Girls were taken to the men's house quite openly by day. These girls were not married to one man any children . when her children marry.

with complete subordination of the women. there existed patriarchal conditions. The abduction is often only a pretence. she will defend herself until she down or the wooer renounces her. Intercourse with any one but their rightful husbands was taken in bad part. Formerly this form of marriage was on in vogue all over Greenland. Among many tribes. Nowadays the Indians of North America. have come under the influ- earlier ence of Christianity. H. The probable existence of an sex communism among the North American Indians has been described in full F. wear is which has customary the girl from her house or nojt_yet been for a man who reached by Christianity. Nansen reports that among the Christian Eskimos of the west coast of Greenland the girls do not consider pre-marital motherhood as a disgrace. a private affair of those immeShould the girl really not wish to have the quietens suitor. especially the nomadic hunting tribes. The young Greenland girls do not deem any concealment of their love affairs necessary. The relations look quietly.PRE-MARITAL FREEDOM 29 In North America the young people also had great liberty. with the exception of a small remnant living in the Canadian Tundra. by L. Divorce . but the married women dared not break their faith. it is wants a wife simply to abduct tent. for the couple have settled it all between themselves. Morgan. The green hair-band which the unmarried mothers have to put on by them long before it is necessary. In East Greenland. for it is all diately concerned.

he will take her without any hesitation. Temporary exchange of wives to the present time even among the Christians on the west coast. Among the Netchili Eskimos near the Magnetic North Pole. Most Eskimos offer their wives to any one. Among of the skilful hunters have two wives. . however. the stronger. especially when the people have to spend the summer hunting the reindeer in the interior of the country. If a man covets the wife of another. or he comes to her. though sometimes things do not turn out as the parents wish it. any tender feelings towards each The girl is just given to the man by the parents. As a rule. as a rule. not of the best. the wife only escapes being beaten when she is stronger than the man. couple have.30 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE any difficulties . Most of the girls are destined from birth for certain men. for in reality the wife is nothing more nor less than a domestic animal. married people live on exceptionally good terms with each other. particularly if it should be a boy. if he is most more. Exchange of women is quite common. according to Roald Amundsen. but never the non-Christian Eskimos The first__wife is generally looked upon as the occurs up superior. There is no wedding. also takes place without but generally the marriage is continued if there is a child. the man marrying her in order to have one more domestic drudge. Amundsen doubts whether the other. As a rule. conjugal harmony is. When the girl is fourteen years old she seeks out her bridegroom.

The host then gives up to him place in the sleeping room. Chukchee. The persons concerned bring sacrifices and anoint themselves with blood. which seems to be an institution similar to the Australian pirauru. and if possible leaves the house for the night. so as to exercise his rights in The sex communities are generally composed and friends. Bogoras 602) describes " " of up to ten men or women. consisting (p. and were only later extended to other people the ceremonies at the formation of a group seem to imply this. The admission into a group of persons who greatly diverge from each other in age is not welcomed. as a rule. for instance. and of group marriage among the Chukchee. going.PRE-MARITAL FREEDOM Among the 31 Kamchadales." of neighbours brothers. W. There are groups. Bogoras thinks that the communities were members of a group who were . Afterwards the host generally seeks an opportunity of returning the visit. right to is sexual intercourse with each other but this right of. that have the " . The offspring of brothers and sisters in the second and third generations are. comparatively rarely taken advantage man has for some reason to visit the his only when a camp of one of his group companions. and single men are also not willingly admitted. and there exists no marital fidelity. united in the same sex community. The inhabitants of one and the same camp . originally limited to related. to his flock. Jukagiers North Asia the girls have preTunguses marital liberty. first in the one and then in the other camp. but not turn.

or is kept hidden until the bridegroom works off at her parents' home the service which he owes to them. Should a family keep to themselves. though there are deviations from this rule. Chukchee. transgression against this law. Sometimes the girl lives with relatives in another place for a time. Children born before marriage are killed. for it is feared that the evil-doers must die in consequence of it. girls sleep in their " combinations/' which are fashioned in such a way as to exclude undesirable intercourse. . Incest is strictly avoided.32 are SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE seldom willing to form a sex community. Intercourse between engaged couples is also looked upon as sinful. day prohibitions existing at the present with regard to the marriage of certain consan. p. The children of members of a sex community are reckoned as near blood relations. It is quite different bours of the among the Koryaks. and may not marry the neigh- one another. After the advent of puberty the from the girls before marriage. Every individual family of the Chukchee belongs in practice to some sex community. for reciprocal relationship is intended as an exception rather than the rule. 733). The various guineous or adopted relations are only of recent date they were unknown formerly (Jochelson. They demand and there is abstinence rarely any Pregnancy before marriage is a disgrace. and unmarried mothers are forced to give birth in the wilderness. it would indicate that they had no friends and no protectors in time of need.

Very often these primitive customs have been greatly influenced or altogether exterminated by the example or the power of the European all. chosen at random. plainly show that the conceptions of sexual morality generally held by primitive people prevalent under European are different from those civilisation. 85) " Almost everywhere in our society pertinently says After : we shut our eyes to the fact that our young men do what is forbidden to them. Whether this was of benefit to the races cannot be discussed here. European morality is not so very superior " to that of the savages. We admit the State regulation of prostitution or.PRE-MARITAL FREEDOM 33 Perhaps the other existing sexual customs are also the result of missionary activities. and that do not stand in the way of colonisation. from reforms that are misplaced. to avoid greater scandal." As Georg Friederici (p. colonists. with refrain all its merely in the introduction of prostiWe should therefore corruption. Everywhere the ideals has resulted fight against the traditional moral tution. even street prostitution yet we set out in moral indignation to reform the customs of primitive peoples . proved their value and are consistent with their moral laws. D . and should not attack customs that cannot be replaced by better ones. S. but is permitted to the Melanesian and Polynesian girls. The above examples.L. Having nothing better to put which have we merely introduce among them what happens to be our own canker." in their place.

seem to imply the existence of true " marriage by capture. It this that formerly mother-rule actually existed among the Garos." but rather seems to indicate the fact that formerly brides were often given to men against their will and had to be forced to go with them.Ill COURTSHIP CUSTOMS VERY often we find among marriage is preceded by though the couple themselves and their relations have primitive people that a pretended bride capture. This gave occasion to the belief that the capture of women was formerly a widespread and original form of marriage. for the thrashing The fact that often the may its be a later embellishment of the game of abduction. 53) it is stated that it was . abducting bridegroom is in fun beaten by the brothers or other male relations of the girl does not exclude this conclusion. agreed to the union. p. however. It is purpose being to increase the pleasure of the guests satisfying their spectacular desire. The pretended capture does not.. In the report on the ethnographical survey of the Indian Central Provinces (V. by worthy of note that in there is Assam among the matriarchal Garos would be a mistake to conclude from a pretended capture of the bridegroom.

but this is anybody does all of his intentions. The If he father-in-law accepts his services also in silence. is pleased with the bridegroom. with commissions otherwise he lets him feel that he must leave the house. Child engagements rather than child marriages are prevalent among many peoples. Spencer. telling young man. goes to the girl's home and the work there which is seemly for a man. and to the son's particularly so if the parents do not agree without the choice. on the con- is becoming more prevalent among the animistic tribes.. Thus Jochelson writes about the Koryaks in the " If a Koryak falls in love extreme north-east of Asia with a girl. as. it . he entrusts him . check the evil custom of child marriage trary. It has been impossible so far in India to others.COURTSHIP CUSTOMS 35 formerly customary among the Kulams to capture men for those of their girls who would otherwise have remained unmarried. the Australians.g. e. Among the peoples whose and Marriage in these cases takes place without any or with very little ceremony (Jagor. Frequently father of the girl . This service cannot D 2 . But among most of these peoples free courtship exists. The bridegroom's service lasts from six months to three years. among the young age Dravidian Indians. as among the Asiatic Polar races and the Eskimos of North America. Howitt). girls are married at a very is no wooing customary. their near relations. he generally sends a match-maker to the : not always the case.

although she at . who. make all objections and invent manner of excuses. she will attempt to escape in but she is ultimately forced by her parents reality . is Often. Should a girl really not care for the man intended for her. she gives up this pretends to struggle against it as as the man soon succeeds in touching her pretence sex organs. if the wooer It rather is an older man. The service comes to an end whenever the father-in-law decides. for the Konaks could pay with reindeer off ' instead of working the price of the bride. only an empty formality. into marriage. the girl's inclination taken into consideration before she is given into marriage." Among the inland tribes of Borneo young people get married as soon as they have reached maturity. however. The young man sends a confidential friend to the parents of the girl desired. seems as if the main pur- pose of the service for it is to put the bridegroom to the test. is not the actual work done that of most import- ance. of reindeer.36 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE ' be conceived as wealthier of the payment for the bride. Besides. The man then leads his bride first home without any formality. matter taken at all seriously and a decision arrived . Only is after the second or third visit of the go-between the at. is the bride receives a dowry which worth much more than This service is is the service given by the son-in-law. as a matter of form. but the harsh treatment that he has to endure and the meagre and laborious life that he is forced to lead.

a hill tribe of New Guinea. Often the youth carries about with him a bag with small He rubs a piece of tobacco pieces of wood and stone. child engagements are frequent. war dress . The marriage is celebrated with festivities. Williamson writes (p. between two pieces and sends it to the girl of his choice by one of her female relatives. and there he will turn to seek a wife. he will sometimes . The wedding day is kept count of by both parties having strings with an equal number of knots. If know where a young Mafulu youth wishes to 'marry and does not to look for a bride. Among the Mafulu. but the courting of adults seems to predominate. they receive from the go-between presents sent by the bridegroom. light a fire outside the village he will wait to see in which direction the next gust of wind will blow the smoke. (Hose and McDougall.. W. R.COURTSHIP CUSTOMS If 37 the parents agree. and the girl sends is her lover strings of pearls. pp. The time of the new moon considered the best time for marriage. He believes that by this procedure the girl's heart will be turned towards him through some mysterious power. often obtain the necessary pieces of The young men wood or stone . the girl was reckoned to be his widow. 171 et seq. 170) that in one case known to him a girl of sixteen or seventeen years old was looked upon as married to the yet unborn son of a chief. from which one knot is cut off each day.}. When the boy died in early childhood. the bridegroom and guests appearing in there is great feasting and much ceremony II.

38 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE The offer of from a magician. marriage is also generally a woman. the girl worth and how much must be paid There- upon the suitor or a relative inquires of the girl's family whether they agree to the marriage. 56) says that the suitor has to pay a price for the bride. When two families have daughters and sons the girls are exchanged as wives without either of the families paying a price. . according to W. Of the Among Negritos of Zambales (Philippine Islands) W. . the purchase price is brought within a few days. and the girls very unwillingly obey their parents' will. Sometimes little girls are given to grown-up men. young man who has found a suitable girl informs . A. the pigmy races of Asia and Africa child marriage exists side by side with adult courtship. his family of the fact they decide how much for her. but the children remain with their parents until maturity. Reed (p. It is doubtful. so that the difference in ages is great. In many cases the girls are already in early youth promised to the boys chosen by the parents. payment for the however. It is said that slaves and stolen strange children are given as bride. made The consent of the parents is necessary the marriage takes place without any special ceremony. Reed. A. through a third person. The parents try to bargain for as much as possible. fulfilled The is and it is only when these demands have been that the daughter has any choice in the matter. and in case this proves satisfactory to the parents these give their consent. If they do.

303).. pp. Child engagements Thus among the Bantus it is even to-day often customary to assign children at an Weule (p. whose father receives After the ritual operation is the girl the young man goes to live performed upon in the house of his father-in-law. girl. A possesses a big herd of cattle can have many wives. the negroes adult people have the right to choose their mates. ' ' ' .COURTSHIP CUSTOMS whether this still 39 occurs. assigning girls far e. certain adult men. . When the time comes for taking the bride home. if shall your child proves to be a son (or a daughter ') they marry each other. In many the settlement of the price is parts of the country followed by feasting and dancing. bringing with him as gifts three cows and two oxen. are not uncommon. though choice is restricted through Among various traditional considerations. an additional present of three sheep is made. 302. Among of the Hamites of East Africa the custom exists still If. from mature as wives to a Masai wishes to marry. 1905. The girl puts on her bridal dress and follows the man without further ceremony. " It is a general custom says of the Jaos in East Africa for a woman who has just given birth to a child to say to I have a daughter (or a son ') a pregnant neighbour : ' ' r : . at which pretended capture of the bride plays a great rdle. he courts a very young presents repeatedly. some rich men having as many as ten or twenty man who wives (Hollis.g. 58) early age to each other for marriage.' The other generally agrees.

with the father of the chosen girl. parents a which makes the affair binding. and If is doubtful whether such existed a serf wants to marry. The young man had to do all the work at his uncle's house until the daughter grew up. the relatives. The latter then speaks father.' the time for the wedding is appointed. and the decision is then made. Among the more conservative classes the eldest brother of the girl's mother of also has a voice in the matter. instead of one. If she agrees. It to an agreement. he tells his previously. he waited for a cousin. Makuas the who again must Often get the consent of the mother's eldest brother. the affair is at an end. the daughter is brought in and asked for her opinion. consult together. Among the Mokondes in the north of the Rowuma lets his river the young man looking out for marriage they come bride's parents negotiate with the girl's parents. must be consulted. If the answer Yes. into whose family he afterwards married. If she is not willing to marry the suitor. with the master at the head. Among the suitor himself goes to the girl's father. the bridegroom gives the present. If the father agrees. If there were no girls in the family. all the brothers. . For adults there exist no special rules in the choice of mates it nowadays. getting a share the bridegroom's presents.40 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE this and arrangement is adhered to later. who informs the master. suitor goes the next is ' The day for his answer. his circumcision In olden times a Makonde boy lived after with one of his maternal uncles.

If she disregards the shoe. This can happen in two ways either openly by the parents' consent being asked. The couple then commence court- during which time they are not allowed to speak a word with each other or to reach each other any- thing. but it sometimes happens that young girls are married by men much 297) writes older than themselves. each holding at one end. in pretence When than real earnest. and advice given to the bridal pair. and then they throw the broken pieces at each other's chest. the couple are more or less of the same age. presents. and longer. When an agreement . An purpose. the is rejected . the parents negotiate with each other for some time. As a rule. If the two who have come to an agreement. ing. : "A man wishes to get a confession of love from the girl of his choice gives her a little piece of wood. proposal for an early union in the contrary case she gives the shoe the wedding is to come off. or secretly by means of a symbolic action which : expresses the girl's agreement to complete surrender. before the affair ripens. which has hardened into a It can rigid custom. they break it. but more back.COURTSHIP CUSTOMS at 41 is which well-meant speeches are made." Of the Hottentots Schultze (p. continue thus for months or for a year. intermediary acts between them for this Transgressions have to be expiated by It is all an amorous game of hide-and-seek. The young man draws off one of his skin shoes and throws it to the girl in private.

and him over his daughter as wife. wherewith gives the marriage is consummated. feasting." celebrated with Among the Indians marriage is entered into by free courtship. choose the husband for the daughter. pp. or the father alone. 182) says of the Siusis that the choice of partners is not always the affair of those directly concerned.42 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE the marriage is has been reached. but marriage before maturity seems non-existent. and a big dance and banquet is At the end held. Often the parents. which. he consents. The wedding is celebrated by dancing. The trousseau generally small. the father . girls marry sometimes at a very early age. to her husband's as is house. whereupon the couple go off. in which many guests take part. 181. though girls in particular. a young the Among the Kobeua man wishing father of his Indians of the Upper Rio Negro to marry asks the permission of If bride-elect. as also serves the home her parents-in-law.. At the end of the festivities the latter makes a long speech to his son-in-law. the bridegroom remains for five days in the house of his parents-in-law. of the feast the father gives over his daughter to his son-in-law. are greatly dependent upon the will of their parents. The Koch-Grunberg (I. of The young wife goes a rule. just as with us. The parents have no such strong influence on the son's choice. which goes on for several days at the house of the bride's father.

frequently is of as marriage by purchase. is so small as relatively small. celebrations. and that older men in particular have the privilege of possessing young wives (compare Chapter difficulty. Divorce can be got without the man is unwilling. and the bride. a ceremonial lament.. It is The bridegroom hangs up his as a present. the bride's father The If they come receives some hammock above settled. The price very value very unequal. even when the Paressis the marriage is arranged by the parents on both sides. pp. and its Among the animistic tribes of British India. prevalent is among many spoken races all over the world.COURTSHIP CUSTOMS breaking out into 43 Amongst some races capture of women is said to be still customary. pp. 144. is led by her parents without Among any formality to her bridegroom's hammock (von den Steinen. and everything is only where the tribe has fallen into decay that great differences in the ages of the married people occur. II. In any case the wife has to be from another tribe. who. that of the girl. 434). an agreement. The custom of paying a price for the bride. but as a rule it is varied. as a . in Evidence of woman capture is still to be found the tradition of the tribe (Koch-Griinberg. after having received a few presents. 331. II.). and not infrequently it to have no economic value for the parents-in-law. 145). The Bakairis have no wedding marriage to trifles is discussed by the parents.


pay a
price for the bride, the

sum may

be as


as 200 rupees.
for a



Generally more is paid for a virgin than but there are some Indian castes of manual

among whom the woman takes a share in the industrial work, and among whom the reverse is the case.

sometimes happens that the price is adjusted accordOften brides are exchanged ing to the age of the bride.

between two

families, so that the

dispensed with.



of a price


Marriage by

sists in

various places, especially in Asia. Here the future son-in-law, instead of paying a price for the

bride, has to

work a



of years for the

father of the bride.

Among most primitive people the
occupy themDomestic Hahn).


represents labour power in the house, as the

either wholly or to a large extent,

with social concerns


prosperity depends wholly on the women's work. Thus it can easily be seen how the custom came about

demanding some


from the

man who wanted

a wife.

Real purchase of a wife occurs only excepIt is never the rule, tionally among primitive people. nor is the woman a real object of barter. If actual
only an exception. Such cases are only frequent where the influence of Islam is most pronounced.
sale of


occurs in some cases,

it is

The bride price is wholly or partly paid back should the wife run away, or even if she meets with an early death. If there are sisters, the forsaken husband or

may sometimes







the price paid and accept one of the sisters as his

In India a price for the bridegroom is paid, not only among the upper castes of the civilised races, but also


the lower castes and



primitive natives.



far the greatest


numberjof primitive peoples are few cases is there Only
in relatively

Polygyny often occurs among persons
it is






economically or nowhere the form of marriage of the

majority of the population.

The polygyny reported


certain tribes generally refers only to chiefs,

or some other special persons who magic have more than one wife. Sexual group communism or polyandry has been found in various places, but it is wrong to speak of it as " group marriage/' This is evident from the previously
at the side of


quoted examples of the pirauru in Australia, the sex communities among the Chukchee, the Nandi, Masai,



It is possible, of course,



which now co-exists with certain cases

of sex

munism may have been a
not proven.
It is

later addition,

but this


likely that the pairing instinct

(not identical with the instinct of procreation) is In fact, characteristic of our sub-human ancestors.

even in the animal world there are numerous examples


(P. Deegener).

has been established that in Africa, Indonesia,

. We must not look upon this child communism solely as a curiosity. R. Most likely there is some connection between child communism and the interchange of children which is customary. the small children remain with their parents. in the Torres Straits (Australia) According to W. among the Dravidian races of India (" Ethnographical Survey the Central India Agency ") and on the Murray Islands. H. Nor do other social and religious institutions offer any indication as to the it origin of this custom. the of . while the bigger children are lodged together in special boys' and it girls' houses. 318). The is relationship not notably parents them and other persons of closer than that between of the children to their own the same age class. has been preserved from " children were largely a social organisation in which common to the women of the group so far as nurture Rivers surmises that was concerned. for example. but as the relic of a very ancient primitive institution.MARRIAGE 47 Melanesia." will help civilised At any rate. and are. and elsewhere. Rivers (1907. interchange of children between families is very frequent here without the peoples being able to give any explanation of it. this adoption en masse man to understand that less civilised peoples have ideas about parenthood different from those that exist among us. p. as were. and also that group mother- hood The existence of group motherhood communities whose members were among primitive much more dependent on each other in the struggle for is not absurd. brought up communally.

the present-day classificatory system arising ultimately from them. and certainly among other " Rivers says The in form one or is another classificatory system spread so widely over the world as to make it probable that branches of the human race. for which it was originally intended. man in a . . and why the children of all the persons of these groups call each other brothers and that sisters. etc. Among the peoples where Rivers could examine this system there were indications of a development in the direction of using it rather for the distinction of real blood and marriage relationship than for the distinction of social position. and that " the women of equal ages are called mother. but also among : the North American Indians. low state of civilisation The assumption is justified knew only group relationship later further distinctions were derived only from these relationships." Hence the classificatory It tionship ceases to be puzzling. A the connection classificatory between marriage regulation and among the system Dravidian of relationships exists not only races.48 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE members of much more advanced of considerable existence than are the societies must often have been advan- it is group motherhood children use the same mode tage to these communities. " " the assumption of easily explainable that of address for their On own sisters and brothers all as for all the other children of the group. system of becomes clear rela- why under this system whole groups of persons designate each other as husbands and wives.

was not preserved. may be objected against this latter assumption that permanent (not occasional) sex communism does not necessarily need to be connected with children. characterised by a form of marriage in which definite groups of men ' are the husbands of definite groups of women. mental changes did not take place also. monogamy and among the Murray Islanders. but underwent different There is no ground for the assumption that. But owing to the continual adaptation to changing environmental conditions. while environmental changes brought about bodily modifications. changes. being organisation is the same for human due to the common descent of mankind. as. but a permanent group marriage. we must rather assume that together with anthropological variations S. For the assumption of a parallel development races have It is true all of all races is untenable. it therewith leading at the same time to differences in social culture. B .g. e.MARRIAGE it 49 had its origin in some universal stage of social develop" and further he says :/"JThe kind of society ment which most readily accounts for its chief features is one .. and if the existence of child communism would prove of this. But even if group marriage did really exist in some places." like It Rivers does not mean thereby institutions the piraum. On the contrary. It is communism of quite possible that exist side child communism may by side.L. it still cannot be asserted that it is a phase development through which all human passed. the basic psychic beings.

Certain elements of the original primitive civilisation have been preserved in developments. and may produce analogous phenomena in different Since deviations from monogamy are civilisations. nor were the differentiations that did Certain fundamental take place all of the same degree. the assumption is justified that monogamy^ is one of the funda- mental factors of human practically universal civilisation." the the children are the young ups . H. first expressed by L. which are generally translated by father. Morgan." " " " little ones. ""child.50 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE the races there also arose variations in social among development.wide transmission of a cultural element that ? has arisen later been proved up to the present. that the classificatory relationship system is evidence of the existence of group marriage (not merely in the form of pirauru existing at the side of monogamy) . but not everywhere the same elements. nor has a world." grandfather. the different civilisations resulting from differentiated mental dispositions and deviating more and more from each the various later other." grownbig ones. extremely rare among primitive peoples. The opinion. These collective names show nowhere an allusion to : mother are the ." "brother." etc. but only to age differences " " " the the elder. is contradicted by the etymological meaning of the terms used by primi" tive people. How could its occurrence be explained other- wise There can be no question of convergence. father and procreation." "sister. conceptions may remain unchanged for long periods." " "mother.

254) looks upon the pre-marital sexual freedom of girls (most probably relic of among many primitive peoples among the majority of them) as a communal marriage from earlier times. He E 2 . This could not be so if the appellation had originated relationship. he must add the word man " or " " " " " woman (or the adjective male or female ")." the big ones. happens that grandparents and grandchildren use the same form of address." We often find that among the Australian negroes and the is South Sea islanders no distinction father made between and mother. These marriages are rather adventitious growths. the same form of address used for persons standing in piraunt relationship to the speaker as for members of the same age class who have no such relationship." If a native wishes to indicate more clearly the sex of a person of " an older class. conclusion. which in no way refers It often to descent (Cunow). p. 51 " brothers and sisters are the comrades." so-called group Buschan (1912. from common " : sexual Cunow rightly Sexual communities can be proved to exist here and there among primitive peoples. All persons of an older generation of a horde or a totem (or of a phratry respectively) " " are simply the elder. playing only a secondary role in the history of the family. but the concludes nomenclature of the classificatory relationships has not grown out of such group relationships.MARRIAGE ones " . Other facts point to the same exists Where the pirauru is in Australia.

be disputed that after some time the relationship between two people tends to lose its attraction. here before us merely a case of property Even cially if constancy in marriage primitive people. at least not in the sense that the majority of men are inclined to have relationship with several women at the same time. This. yet is not the rule. often causing a breaking of the marriage vow. It cannot. rule. and only does a rarely person have relationship with several The conditions are essenpersons at the same time. except that amongst " a love affair going as far as intercourse is savages not considered immoral. same time (Frazer. But it seems much more likely that we have rights. however. couples tially As a " the same as in Europe. a man has the right to marry the sisters of his wife.52 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE girls assumes that the had promiscuous is relationships with the other sex. 144). The assumption is of many authors that man is polygynous far from being proved. meet together for a time. According to another custom. espestill regard the permanent living together of one man and one woman as a state that has always prevailed amongst among we must . not the case. Both these customs have been explained as being relics of a form of marriage in which brothers married several sisters or sisters married brothers at the II. p. however. There is a custom among many peoples that a man's widow falls to his younger brother (or cousin) the levirate..

below the the adherents of idealism rose in indignation against a theory that places primitive man far level of the higher animals. victory of truth. about the apparently sight intricate paths in the development of marriage. it anthropologists altogether at any price (for Some others drew conclusions from that are utterly unjustified. even if the pirauru could be used as a proof of it previous sexual promiscuity. remain merely of (p.MARRIAGE human . 53 beings (Westermarck) Many of the speculaat first so tions. at any cost. and that leaves the riddle unsolved how such and a a chaos could lead spiritualisation of to the idea of sexual purity In this battle for and against promiscuity even facts were unfortunately too often not respected. Josef Miiller) it . speculations which cannot stand the test modern ethnological research. attempts being made to disregard them the sexual impulse. Heinrich Schurtz 175) makes the pertinent remark that nothing naturalists excited the hostile and camps of the sociological idealists more than the dispute about promiscuity While the one party painted with in primitive times. learned. In this con- of opinions the institution of pirauru especially has fared particularly badly. But even if this were not so. claiming it as an established original stage in human development. zest the indiscriminate and irregular sex relationship of primitive races. wanted to do away with instance. but full should be taken into flict consideration. still does not follow . This cannot be good for the ultimate Facts should not be passed over.

the binding force of which is undoubtedly even stronger and closer. while at other places such a systematic development did not take place. a good deal of probability for the assumption of Schurtz that marriage regulations establishing the right of several men to one wife may first have arisen is There from mere friendly acts. Among many make this tribes complicated marriage restrictions difficult. which alone exclude unrestrained promiscuity. of the merriage It is easily to be under- stood that lower civilisations will show a looser standard bond than those where many interests of a rich cultural development require the strengthening of this bond. is well known to exist beside it. a " " legitimate marriage very and may easily lead to other sex relation- ships taking the place of marriage. Thus there exist in Australia.54 that of SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE was a general custom in man. it for the majority First of all. only one step from this state of affairs to the pirauru. tribes of wives There is among which the loan was customary owing to the scarcity of women. Sexual needs may also have brought about the origin of the pirauru institutions. or the original sexual licentiousness may have developed occasionally under specially favourable circumstances into the institution of pirauru. Furthermore. the peoples show no trace of it. individual marriage. It is a mistake to assume hastily that customs . it must be noticed that even the pirauru restrictions possesses various upon marriage with persons outside certain groups.

though here polyandry is not only practised occasionally. day must be Polyandry deserves our special consideration. If a man is poor. 55 primitive people that appear strange to us therefore be ancient and be relics of a primitive Every primitive race has a long history behind and it is not likely that it has remained static all the Primitive people are not stationary in developthere is much change among them in the course time. John Roscoe (1907. he can combine with one or several of his brothers and take a wife in common with them. generations. but is a wife. The older accounts of polyandry occurring in Australia are not confirmed by the new ethnographical literature. or if he is unable to support the rule. This applies also to customs and habits which seem absolutely stable. if he cannot get together the number of cows for the bride required price. The reports about polyandry among the American Indians are also incorrect. In exceptional cases polyandry occurs among the Eskimos and the Asiatic Polar races. on the borders of Northern India. foreign influences. As a recognised social institution it has so far been definitely established only among the Indian peoples and castes. it. Not everything. pp.MARRIAGE among must state.) has proved its existence among the Bahima and Baziba tribes of Central Africa. therefore. 99 et seq. as well as in Tibet. It is easy to . that peculiar to uncivilised races of the present look upon as primitive. ment of . tions External condior result in is may produce new developments.

other still a younger brother also marries. the fraternal form. therefore. when the oldest of several brothers takes a wife. where a woman has several husbands. This system is said to be due to the poverty The Himalayan peoples. The surplus women become nuns. but not the duty to have sexual other brothers living in the same with the relationship she has the right household. the younger brothers have the choice in which If household they wish to live. the increase of the populaon intent being preventing . Here. namely. At the present time it is restricted to a number of comparaTwo forms of polyandry tively small tribes and castes. This institution was certainly never very general nor of great importance in the life of the people of India. not necessarily related to each other. while exchange of wives also occurs.56 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE women for this purpose. In India polyandry of the is prevalent among the peoples Himalayan mountains and among some Southern Indian tribes. among be claimed by a guest. In Northern India polyandry is general among the Tibetans and Bhotias of the Himalayan border districts. and the matriarchal form. Some cases of this curious form of marriage are already mentioned in the ancient Indian It may be assumed. more prevalent formerly than at present. where several brothers or cousins have one wife in common. can be distinguished among them. that it was literature. get the these tribes the housewife may Furthermore. of the country.

by this man to satisfy his The children of polyandrous marriages it But belong.MARRIAGE tion 57 and a further reduction of the consign many women to celibacy means of existence. an active export trade is carried on with the surplus women. the Rajputs and other castes of that neighbourhood are also influenced by polyandry. as among all the Hindu castes in the . woman and group In Tibet. and childlessness. as also among the polyandrous Southern Indians. according to age. mostly one room. The surplus women in the Punjab become objects of commerce. for the socially privileged sexual needs. legally to the oldest brother. Sometimes the mother has the right to name the father children. In the native State of Bashar. however. of each of her Fraternal polyandry also exists in Cashmir and among certain Sudra castes of the Punjab mountains. his has a child assigned to him regardless of whether the brother concerned was on the spot at the time of the child's conception. however. they have. The ceremonies which take place at marriage in the Punjab bear traces dwellings consist of for the of " marriage by capture/' for the The one of the polyandrous castes of this district two rooms. possible. Among the Dyats in the Punjab. it Yet at the same time they make system. one of brothers. for instance. for whom sums up to 500 rupees are given. also occurs that each brother in turn. as a rule. In the Punjab. the Gudyars in the United Provinces.

too. the wife common to several brothers may bring with her her communism among a sister into the marriage as co-partner. Nowadays this custom has almost In Southern India polyandry is a recognised institution among the Toda and Kurumba of the Nilgiri mountains. Indian migratory labourers it seems to have been formerly the rule that the brother remaining at home served as a conjugal substitute for the husband Among temporarily absent. occasionally co-exist side by . among a number of of the lower especially on the coast Malabar. In Ambala not only were considered to be husbands of the oldest brother's wife.58 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE districts of it is mountain lately .138. disappeared. Here polyandry and polygyny side. and in other places of Cashmir. In Ladakh. in East India the Santal caste (2. but Ambala. Bihar and Orissa) similar is the only exists. brothers. Further. In the Punjab the fraternal husbands may also marry a second and third wife. but the husband Among also wife. may have sexual relations with the This state of affairs may younger sisters of his perhaps be looked upon small as group. polyandry existed until said not to do so there any longer. but also first cousins. as also castes.000 persons in Bengal. community among which a custom the Santals not only have the younger brothers access to the wife of the older brother.

in one household.MARRIAGE in detail 59 The polyandry among the Toda has been described by W. it ceremony at every pregnancy first two or three that the frequently children belong to one and the same man. are The split up into a number of exogamous sub-groups. they live. The husbands may take turns results. that are here decisive often one of the fathers more influential and more respected than his brothers. Rivers. When the husbands are brothers. R. . If the husbands are not real brothers. the other husbands acquiring formal father-right only at the later births. but the That children are allotted to single definite fathers. exclusively external circumstances . The whole tribe is divided into two endogamous groups. husbands shared in common by a woman are in most cases brothers they are rarely other members of the same exogamous group and of the same age class. there never ensue wife. If the husbands separate and give up . Yet it often It occurs that a is Toda only calls one man is his father. practice of this (which is also customary in fraternal in the . and naturally the sons prefer to speak of him as their father. in the child who man is considered the father of a seventh month of the mother's pregnancy has gone with her through the ceremony of the presentation of bow and arrow polyandry). again. like these. the offspring always describe him as their father. H. therefore. which. If only one of the fathers is alive. any quarrels about access to the are reckoned All the brothers as fathers of a child.

and it is certain. polyandry has fallen into decay among the Toda. As everywhere else in India. the Toda themselves deny some extent. and also among some not other Southern Indian communities. still occurs among the Munduvars of the Travancore plateaus. says Rivers. without exception girl infanticide .60 the SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE common household. relics of the former existence of matri- archal polyandry have been established. in contradistinction to polyandry. It is most probable that this custom was carried into Southern India by the Tibetan conquerors in ancient times. in common several wives. although It must be noted that child marriage exists among the Toda. It is difficult to trace any connection between the polyandry in the north and that in the south of India. fraternal Matriarchal polyandry. It may happen that several men have wife. that is still practised to this. but among all. each one takes with him the children belonging to him by right of the bow-and- arrow ceremony. The secular authorities. the Nayars in some parts of Travancore and Cochin. . the Western Kalian. goes with descent through the mother. Among numerous other races having mother descent. or that of a group of brothers each has his own But polyandry has remained up to the present time the prevalent form of marriage among these hillThe surplus girls used formerly to be killed folk. are trying hard to exterminate this form of marriage. and no less the European missions. Many Southern Indian polyandrous races. which.

G. does in no way justify the assumption that it was a general stage it of civilisation of all mankind. and they bury the north. however. " Frazer shows in his book Totemism and Exogamy. though the marriage of the couple concerned has been in the agreed to by both families beforehand. The demon masks carved thereon show almost the same faces as the Tibetan masks.MARRIAGE like the 61 Toda and the Nayar. as Sir J. it and that is once existed even in those places where not found to-day." This. F. etc. it was the Scotsman J. and which has the effect of preventing near relations from sexual intercourse. are distinguished from their real Dravidian neighbours by their more powerful Furtherbuild. Among the Kalian the tradition of northern descent has been preserved up to the present time. the architecture of the Malabar temples bears traces of Tibetan influence. McLennan . McLennan who first discovered the existence of exogamy. higher noses. lighter colouring. and is very prevalent. It is found very frequently among primitive people. colonists and scientists had long been in contact with coloured races. more. Although European travellers. He was led to this discovery by the study of that peculiar marriage custom which consists pretence of forcible bride capture. their dead with their faces turned towards Exogamy is the custom which forbids the choice of partners for marriage within a certain group.

The cause of this assumed scarcity forced of women was considered to be the infanticide of newfor born females. which was carried on systematically. must once have been practised in reality to a large extent. In searching for facts confirmatory of this assumption. he was struck by the fact that among savage and barbarous people the men married group. savage people foresaw that in the struggle for existence it would be a hindrance to have a great number of women. He assumed exogamy arose from a scarcity of women. who could take no share in the battle with enemies." by which marriage partners are tinction to restricted in their choice to their own group. women not of their own. which men to obtain wives by capture from other thus gradually led to a general preference and groups for strange women. In a tribe or other social group both sexual arrangements may exist side by side. tried to find and came to the conclusion that capture of women. which only took place in pretence. Cunow also traces back the origin of exogamy . but of another. in such a manner that the tribe is closely endogamous and is divided into several exo- gamous groups. H. tribal He described this as " exogamy/' in contradis"endogamy.62 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE an explanation for this custom. and who presumably would contribute less to the food supply than the men. The theory put forward by McLennan as an explanation of the origin of exogamy is very simple and on superficial that examination very convincing.

be only about ten women.' contribute towards the ' This multiple conjugal partnership is customary among most of the Australian tribes even to-day. women had they had already been disThere was posed nothing left for the young man but to capture a woman from a strange horde as soon already found a spouse as possible. general. the few existing . own tribe." To this it must be added that the man needs to show much less consideration for a captured strange woman than if for one of his treated. (In reality there . Among these a young man entering the middle class would often not find a single woman that he could take for his wife. for. In the middle class there would. who would run away badly Nor can the young man remain single. members of a horde youngest class would contain.MARRIAGE to the scarcity of 63 women and wife capture. or to try to persuade a comrade of the same age class to let him share in his marriage relationship on the understanding that his hunting bag would household of the three. the number class ing. one assumes that the sixty. and the oldest class about fifteen persons. after pairing marriage had become of. therefore. the middle twenty. which would hinder him in the hunt and expose him to the ridicule of his companions. He starts from the assumption that among the Australian and other uncivilised races the " number If is of persons in a horde is very of limited. for he himself would then have to drag his property about. according to present-day reckonabout twenty-five persons.

Had it been the rule anywhere. women could not alter this disparity. according to Cunow.) The search for wives led ultimately. the continuous fighting would have led to the extermination of the tribes in question. for it is unlikely that some tribes permitted the capture of their women without retaliation. is at present a rare exception among primitive people. to wife capture and exogamy. therefore. It even happens that the old men who claim the women . Almost all explorers praise their great love for children. in the minority among uncivilised natives the excess of men but where they have been counted is small. many men will prefer to remain single rather than expose : themselves to the danger of death by trying to capture women from their neighbours/* This is what really happened among many tribes of the Australian natives who lived on a friendly footing with each other. Frazer is right " If when he says women are scarce in a group. Infanticide. where infanticide does occur. The female sex is. The assumption that scarcity of women is brought about by girl infanticide is not correct. and even Even children are not always killed. Mutual capture of only . Besides. men careful are people Capture of women is. even among primitive in risking their lives. indeed. the sex of the child is certainly not the factor that decides whether it is to be malformed killed or not. nowhere the rule. but is everywhere the exception. which McLennan assumes.64 are SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE many unmarried men even in Australia.

ment towards the establishment of sexual monogamy. as mentioned. Morgan. particularly between brothers was previously customary. But that a warlike tribe has not sufficient women admitting of results not in men and therefore captures them from is still their neighbours. Frazer thinks that the origin of exogamy has been rightly explained by the American ethnologist L. as . on the the few women obtainable without force will contrary. which arrangement. by several men's sharing one previously wife. women is most likely overcome. This struck promiscuity at the root it removed its worst peculiarity. Among peaceable tribes. scarcity of avoids arousing the hostility of neighbours.MARRIAGE 65 expressly forbid the young men to steal women from other tribes. . and have no desire for be all the more in demand. for the deliberate purpose of preventing cohabitation relations. and resulted at the same time in a powerful move- between blood and sisters. This will certainly not be the result ever. them whatsothey are. unlike the capture of women. and that exogamy was instituted contact with exogamy. but in polyandry. and thus came into direct Morgan assumed that sexual at was a very early period in the general promiscuity history of mankind. few . because that will lead to bloodshed. H. a numerical preponderance exogamy. therefore. Further. it unexplainable why avoid sexual relationship with their as the men should altogether own women. who for many years lived among the exogamic Indians as one of them.

it is not going too far to assert that " no other human institution bears the stamp of deliberate purpose more clearly than the exogamous classes of the Australians. but In the latter case it may be assumed that not always. logical thoroughness. Every tribe consists of two main groups (called in ethnographical literature phratries or moieties). who. while the division of the . carry out the principle of exogamy with a practical astuteness. according to " him. in supporting Morgan's theory. though extremely primitive savages." Frazer finds class that the effects of the Australian marriage harmony with the deeply rooted convictions and feelings of the natives as regards sexual intercourse. Some- times the phratries and classes have special names. the names have been lost. To assume that they serve only accidentally the purpose that they actually fulfil. four. or eight classes.66 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE Frazer. relies exclusively on the Australian natives. According to him. would be to test our credulity nearly as much as if we were told that the complicated mechanism of a watch has originated without human design. and precision such as no other race shows in its marriage system." Nearly all Australian tribes have the system of division into marriage classes. and each of these groups is again divided into two. and which is approved by them unreservedly. and concludes system are in complete that the successive tribal subdivisions have been brought about deliberately in order to avoid marriage of blood relations.

Only members of two given tribes classes may marry. and their children are again assigned to given classes. of the father.MARRIAGE tribes into 67 marriage groups remains.e. that of the the railway line running from tribe Warrai. Adshumbitch *Aldshambitch Apungerti *Alpungerti Apularan *Alpularan Auinmitch *Alinmitch classes The female marriage asterisk.. Phratry I. Among some of the there exists paternal descent. Phratry II. prevails in Australia Other rights of the female sex connected with mother descent are unknown. are marked with an class F 2 Each member of a certain male marriage may . In no case are the members of the main group of the tribe (phratry) or of the same class allowed to marry each other. this tribe indirect i. Among some tribes property is inherited in the female line. Which of the two modes of descent can hardly be determined. the the children belong to the main group (phratry) but to other marriage classes. paternal descent Among custom. among others maternal descent. who live on is Port Darwin to the south. These groups are strictly exogamous. namely. An example of the Australian marriage classes is given here.

It is also . instance. and the girls born of this marriage belong to the Alpularan class. for instance. One objection is. marriage group of theirs. man marries an Alpungerti man an Aldshambitch woman. being further limited to a great extent by the marriage of girls in childhood. Further com- plications arise in consequence of the totem system. ship. the choice mates restricted to quite a small number of per- sons. of the process of generation . the boys born from the union of an Adshumbitch man with an Apungerti woman belong to the Apularan class. But it still remains a mystery how it was found out that marriages of blood relations were harmful. they do not even know that pregnancy is the result of cohabitation.68 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE member of a marriage class of the other in only marry a phratry. an Apungerti The children always belong etc. to the phratry of the but to another men. but exogamy exists there. which exists among most of the Australian tribes. that some of the Australians are ignorant other. On the members of certain local groups not being allowed to marry each east of the continent also The now extinct tribes in the southhad no marriage class system. the local groups of a tribe consist of of As are numerically weak and members is of all marriage classes. But even when adults marry. Thus. for an Adshumbitch woman. placed opposite the table. Thus. they can rarely decide according to their own will. but are dependent on the circumstances of relationthe northern coast of Australia the marriage class system does not exist.

or not "In democratic societies like those of the Australaw sanctions only thoughts that have lian natives. do away altogether with will and purpose from the history of human institutions. is universal among them. deliberate Frazer himself assumes that the Australians had an aversion to cohabitation between brothers and sisters was definitely fixed by binding rules. the . if classes were instituted further. for the Australians And appear incapable of progressive development. four. Sexual aversion between parents and children. We of must take into consideration the intellectual stage development of mankind at the time when exogamy and when the watch was invented. arose. If this were so. exogamous purposely in order to prevent cohabitation between blood rela- that other people also are excluded tions. as Frazer says. There is no need to doubt that the Australian system of exogamy became more and more complicated through the action of man.. Even if we do not admit that exogamy was instituted with a conscious purpose.MARRIAGE doubtful whether the Australian natives 69 can in any still case be considered as typical representatives of primitive man. whether there be in even before it incest vogue the two-. from sexual intercourse who are not blood relations ? is it how Frazer's comparison with a watch is also badly chosen. i. whether between parents and children is expressly forbidden . according to him. this does not by any means.or eight-classes system.e. all mankind would be in a very low state of civilisation.

tem with the feelings Since of the people becomes~explainable. which has also been upheld of late by A. E. Hellwald. if not completely inhibited. which cannot be explained by the complicated system of the Australians. For the appearance of this aversion marks the real beginning of exogamy. In this respect brothers and sisters reach already at puberty that state towards each other to which people married for a long time approach . It is assumed that among brothers and sisters.70 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE ' ' already been long the mental possession of the majority of Hence the agreement of the marriage class syspeople . person of the other sex is brings about the sexual excitement union. we have to Jind some explanation for it. It is possible that is the sexual aversion towards blood relations teristic trait of already a characits the human race before truly human development. the classificatory system being merely the formal expression of it. pairing instinct generally remains in abeyance. because the conditions are wanting that are among boys and likely to awaken this instinct. Courting the favour of a the process that gradually The people who necessary for possibility of sexual excitation between have lived together from childhood is decidedly lessened through habituation. Crawley. the aversion to sexual intercourse within certain classes was already in existence before the formation of marriage classes. as girls who have lived together from the childhood. This is the opinion of F. and that it may have to be looked upon as an instinct.

it is strange that cothem should have to be specially - prohibited and enforced primitive peoples. assist Nature. and too often paralyses originality. is often a deadly foe to the abnormal and eccentric. have some justification. as is were. a long separation. to affirm what it normal and later to confirm by the categorical imperative of custom and law. This state of . many departments it of primi- we find a naive desire to. up together is habitation between a natural thing. generally the result of the same circumstances that are necessary to arouse it under normal conditions. and. in some small measure.MARRIAGE gradually. as the worship of the normal. standpoint it would be most practical if each tribe were divided into two groups. tive life simple. according to In " Crawley. As the absence of sexual attraction between brother and sister who have grown e. and their existence may be due. to the fact that abnormality increases pan passu with culture. Laws thus made. is by strict measures among The explanation. through the constant living together 71 and it the exhaustion of youthful passion. the men of each group marrying wives from the other group.g. This tendency still flourishes in our civilised communities.." All the facts tend to show that the most primitive people procured From this their wives by friendly arrangements. and with this object. But it is a grave error to ascribe a prevalence of incest to the period preceding the law against it. sister If brother and is sometimes show passion for each other.

division must therefore be explainable in another way.72 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE be found affairs is actually to among many uncivilised peoples that are divided into two exogamous groups or phratries. and therefore most probably older.). reciprocally supplying each other with wives. It has still to be discovered how this bipartition arose. in contradistinction to the names of the totem groups. The names of the phratries are generally unintelligible. they descend from families (in the narrower The sense of the word). should be pointed out that among communities in the lowest stage of civilisation women are not easily procurable. of which a phratry consists. and the force of external circumstances just would favour the unions pp. Without basing it on the that assumption primitive people have a knowledge of . If it should be asked why the members it of two phratries should constantly inter- marry. the tribe has ever been divided in such a manner . mentioned (Crawley. A biological explanation of the origin of exogamy is given by Herbert Risley. which have arisen through wives being taken from other groups whose children again received the name of their mothers. are to be considered as younger branches of the original double family. The totem groups. phratries are large families (in the broad sense of the word). 54 et seq. It is unthinkable that a division two groups was intentionally brought about by the members of the groups for the purpose of preventing into No marriages between blood relations of a certain grade.

" cessation E. . harmf ulness " : tion know that among individuals or groups of individuals there exists a tendency to vary in their instincts. In this way the strengthened exogamous groups would in time fall to the strongest exterminate the endogamous neighbours. and sexual selection would be added in the course of time. He thinks that " among the . and la. We of incest. . we cannot explain varied in the aforesaid direction how it The fact that came about that the people is not fatal to this in the hypothesis. Exogamy would spread partly through imitation. The original instinct would then be strengthened by inheritance. tend to be preserved and transmitted by Let us assume now that in a primitive in the direction community the men varied towards choosing wives from another community.MARRIAGE the 73 he gives the following exposiExogamy can be brought under the law of natural selection without extending it too far. partly through the extermination of endogamous groups. or at least take away their best marriageable maidens. and most warlike men. Westermarck holds a similar theory about the of incest. and that this infusion of fresh blood was advantageous. We do not doubt natural selection case of animals because we cannot give the exact cause of a favourable variation. the competition for women the best would . For an exogamous group would have a greater choice of women than an endogamous one. and that useful variations (such as are suitable to the conditions of life) inheritance.

to prevent injurious unions." It may be surmised that the impulse towards the appearance of the exogamous tendency arose through economic progress. as a rule. would gradually decay and Thus an instinct would be deve- loped which would be powerful enough. a time when blood relationship was no bar to sexual intercourse. so that fittest. would naturally present themselves and those of our ancestors who avoided in-and-in breeding would survive. as among other animals. know.74 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE ancestors of man. which led to an increase of the means of existence. Of course it would display itself to union with others with as a matter of fact. must necessarily have arisen at a strong. simply as an aversion on the part of individuals whom they lived but these. where. But variations here. no doubt. we do not stage when ties became comparatively and children remained with their parents until the age of puberty or even longer. the result would be the survival of the Whether man inherited the whom he sprang. in other words said to have led to the avoidance . would be blood relations. and this in its turn produced a more friendly relationship between neighbouring groups that previously had quarrelled about food. there was. . as else. The men thus came into contact with strange women. and this awakened a heightened sexual the instinct which is feeling. while the others ultimately perish. family It from the predecessors from or whether it was developed after feeling the evolution of distinctly human qualities.

a fact that may be held nomic level to confirm this idea. . while it is certain that strange members of the opposite sex could exert a stronger attraction.g. and thus render the sexual impulse permanent. Primitive people could in any case not understand the harmfulness of incest.. which previously was periodical. as among the animals. the Pigmies) no laws for the prevention of incest are to be found. 75 eco- Thus among the peoples on a very low (e.MARRIAGE of incest.

Such cases that are not only inefficacious. incredible as may seem to us. physiological process. particularly primitive people child- birth extremely easy. Sometimes means are used for furthering the birth are. very rare exceptions. is chiefly due to the want of life proper midwifery. Though childbirth is a natural it does not always pass off without no under less natural conditions quite danger. which is also to be noticed wherever the conditions of settlers THE and have not been influenced by European missionaries. is the hardest far time in a woman's but not all have progressed enough in the knowledge of physiology to be able to render efficient assistance to the woman it in labour. than among highly civilised peoples. But more extended knowledge has shown how dangerous childbirth is for the is primitive mother also.BIRTH AND FETICIDE slow increase in the population of primitive peoples. Some people leave her. . either through indifference to life or through a superstitious fear of the mystery of life. but actually injurious. Primitive people know full well that the hour of childbirth life. that less to the frequent practice The opinion is often met among with. however. and no of abortion. without any assistance. in older writings.

given. particularly when the father of the expected child jilts the mother. We add here some examples from the later literature. The abortives resorted to are generally inefficacious. We only need to think of the fact that among all primitive peoples the chief work in the fields falls to the women. : inability to support a large number of children or aversion to the worries of child-rearing. and operations are more rare. and injures them The reasons are the same as with us accordingly. Felkin's report about the operation of Caesarian section among Ploss the negroes in Uganda seems to be unique. 18) says quite rightly.BIRTH AND FETICIDE Often. W. Internal manipulation still is resorted to. Kulz (p. Feticide occurs most likely among all primitive peoples to a larger or lesser degree. however. of informa- and Bartels have compiled a great deal tion about childbirth among primitive people. delivery assistance is 77 actually furthered by the seldom R. though some native peoples have discovered really effective remedies. and that it is just heavy labour that has the tendency . Unmarried girls procure abortion usually because the child might be a hindrance to a future marriage. Such external causes are not very remote from the mechanically and medically produced abortions. Still pre-marital births are not always considered a disgrace among primitive people. "It is to be assumed that woman everywhere. even in a low state of civilisation. has her attention directed to the occurrence of involuntary premature birth by often recurring effective causes.

. or others that he used at the same time for poisoning fish. with all its attendant biological disadvantages. however. . due partly to the desire for hiding the results of sexual intercourse with strangers. or the papaia kernels. but often results Where they are very in the death of the mother. as an abortive. again. . . in a among way served him could happen the more readily as abortive remedies in use there were many that This as food and condiment. . so he also found out the specific use of some of these for effects. feticide.78 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE It to interrupt pregnancy.. or others. like the aperient Cajanus indicus. partly to the incitement to loose living which the acquaintance with European culture sometimes brings about.. In the production of abortions by poisons can easily be derived from a rational application of chance remedies producing corresponding involuntary the same way Just as primitive man discovered many medicinal plants by repeatedly partaking of them. which in moderate doses acts medicinally. in large doses. such as nutmeg. prevalent they contribute greatly to the scarcity of women." The use of poisons and mechanical feticide not only brings about limitation of offspring. The contact of primitive people with Europeans This is generally increases the frequency of abortions. required only some little thought to discover this frequently observed coincidence and to learn from the involuntary interruption of pregnancy how to produce it voluntarily.

41) : have no special mid wives. 230). This also the case among in other many races of Southern ' and Eastern and is Asia. able to go on with her After the birth certain superstitious ceremonies. and the second etc. Isolation even before the confine- ment sometimes occurs. Miiller. Among the woman works Igorots Bontoc (Philippines) the in the field almost to the hour of her .BIRTH AND FETICIDE How defective 79 the state of midwifery is among primitive people is shown by many accounts in newer works of ethnology. perform the duties of out payment. the savage tribes of Formosa the birth of a child passes off so lightly that the lying-in woman is Among work on the following day. are performed. devil. the child is therefore killed. The Katshari do not perform this with one cut. according to old customs. The navel cord is generally cut off with a bamboo knife. such as driving away Among many tribes twins are held to be a misfortune. but the woman make five cuts in the case of a is boy and seven is for a girl. and she does it withno information about the during parturition. There treatment of is Every old woman may a midwife. She_only avoids heavy labour in the field for a month. p. This also occurs frequently of in other places (W. and parts of the world. Thus the missionary Endle " The native tribes of Assam and Burma writes (p. The mother considered unclean for several weeks after her confinement. due to the j belief that women in this state are unclean.

. but will become the common partner of several men. but no one else. but the people present massage the abdomen of the labouring woman. if as well as is by for some reason the child not wanted. if The father of the child. There is no special diet. is buried alive near the house immediately Abortion is practised by married women single girls. is he is the husband of the woman. If twins are believed to be due to an evil spirit who has born. a disgrace (Jenks). The mother warns her unmarried daughter against abortion. The foetus is driven off in the second month is of pregnancy by hot baths and massage. holding of the house. Medicines and baths are not resorted to for hastening the labour pains. telling her that a girl who produces abortion will not get a faithful husband. but the mother refrains from field it is work for two or three months. About ten days after the birth her body is washed with warm water. had connection with the woman whilst she was asleep. or she takes up an animal. as is also the woman's mother. so that hands and feet are on the ground. The parturient woman firmly on to the beam bends her body strongly forward. but the quieter of the children (and when both children are quiet. attached to the mother. Abortion not considered Among the Kayan of Borneo there are everywhere One of them is older women who serve as midwives. the is No blame longer one) after birth. ceremonies connected with the position. present.8o SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE There are no festivities or confinement.

the news child.BIRTH AND FETICIDE 81 called in good time to the pregnant woman. woman follows her usual occupation until the labour pains commence. and presumably also to hasten cord the delivery of the after-birth. who gets hold tightly of a cloth hung over or in front of her. born with a caul. but he is prevented by a screen from seeing the parturient woman. and used in later years as medicine for the If the child is the labour pains are exceptionally severe or long-lasting. magical hangs living and applies various remedies externally. two of them up the is patient. tions are not resorted to. pounded into powder. that has no result.L. She examines her abdomen from time to time. as G . and pretends She remedies about the some room. Everybody is overcome by fear. If travels rapidly. and two of them press firmly on the womb on either side. remain in the room. The more than two or three hours. the women bind a cloth tightly round the abdomen of the parturient woman. rarely lasting In order to prevent the rising of the child. or if an accident happens. If the after-birth does not follow soon. pains are generally of short duration. the lift women become and if anxious . the navel fastened to an axe in order to prevent it from re-entering the body. the caul is dried. The pregnant to be able to give the child the right position. S. Internal manipulaThe after-birth is buried. Then the midwife and other old The husband may also relatives or friends assist her. After the delivery of the child the navel cord is cut with a bamboo knife.

The Papua women are said to give birth easily. who thus keep their families small. drowned. the child partakes of it.. custom is Williamson thinks that the purpose of this to enable the mother to choose whether she wishes to keep the child alive or not. Wilful abortion also occurs very often. as a rule. II. and they resume it immediately after the confinement. 185). for the mother to throw the after-birth into the river or the sea after confinement (Williamson. If death actually ensues. most time. but also in married women. To assist delivery the body is tightly bound above the womb. and the corpse women who in hiding for some buried quickly by old men and are least afraid of death. It also happen that a childless woman accompanies may the mother to the river and there adopts the child. of the men remain is The pregnant women of the Punan of Borneo continue with their usual work until the arrival of labour pains. The men and the boys take flight. p.82 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE the death of a parturient woman is particularly dreaded. pp. not only in single girls. Seligmann. 178 . Nothing further is known about special help (Hose and McDougall. but difficult deliveries and fatal cases do occur The custom exists in various places exceptionally. 154. 85). . it is considered a good omen otherwise the child is believed not to be viable and is If . Of the Mafulu Williamson says that when the after-birth is thrown into the river the mother gives the new-born child some water to drink. p.

62). How widespread feticide is in Melanesia can be seen from a statement of Parkinson. In Polynesia abortion is generally produced by women This is brought about by the use of professionally. though miscarriages sometimes occur through the rough treat- this ment of pregnant women by men (Friederici. according to * whom in New Mecklenburg quite young girls make no secret of having produced abortion three or four times. Abortives do not seem to be known.BIRTH AND FETICIDE Among the Barriai in 83 New Pomerania the woman is confined whilst sitting on a log of wood. On the eastern islands of the Straits (Australia) the women chew of as a prevention of pregor of nancy the leaves called Callicarpa.. by the application of mechanical means. etc. but these remedies are Medicines and mechanical methods are used for aborG 2 . 89) . of fish until the child has begun Disregard prohibition is believed to bring about the death of the child. also the leaves of a large shrub inefficacious. certain foods or drinks. The not allowed to be present. being massaged from above downwards by an older woman. p. bok . p. The parents abstain also during this time from sexual intercourse. The navel cord is cut The parents may not eat off with an obsidian knife. The birth generally passes off quite easily. I. Among the Jabim (Finschhafen) the mothers present their daughters with abortives ' when they Torres get married (Buschan. husband is pork and certain kinds of to walk. a Eugenia species called sobe.

pp. it against her of the abdomen. is abdomen and two men grasp a wand and press foetus. Maca- ranga tanarius. Sometimes the woman leans with her back against a tree. rhythmical. or recently in a sitting position. strong and kneading movement the birth vertically is from above downwards. then a knot is made a few centimetres from the navel. embracing her abdomen. so as to bring about the delivery This often results in the death of the mother. When out . Walter Knoche writes "' (1912. but recently only one of them has survived. Nowadays older women act as midwives. The thumbs are spread out. while the remainder of the hand is turned diagonally downwards. the stands woman standing with legs spread out. beaten with large stones. and touch each other in a horizontal position somewhat above the navel. In this way massage is applied by a slow. Terminala catappa. the child is drawn the assistant bites off the navel cord (among some Brazilian Indian tribes the husband does this. The accoucheur behind the parturient woman. the Easter Island. sufficiently advanced. Hibiscus If these do not help. Eugenia. 659 et seq.) : The birth takes place either in the open or in the house.84 tion. . SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE Among the former are the leaves of the con- volvulus. Pouzolzia microphylla. the tiliaceus. but on the Easter Island he takes no part in the delivery) . or a heavy load is put on it. with a rope or twigs or a wand. of Clerodendron. On there were several men with a knowledge of midwifery. in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. and Callicarpa.

. resorted to generally in order to limit the number of children. must herewith of have reached its maximum number inhabitants. and that nowadays the use of contraceptives in the case of strangers who come and go quickly may simply be due to the circumstance that at the birth of a child there would be no it. man to support It is most probable that the use of preventives had Malthusian principles. believing this method to be a very safe one. and warm.BIRTH AND FETICIDE . flat. or its use was only intended to keep the tribe untainted by foreign blood. as seems likely. however. lying-in woman lies down upon a is After the event the mat in the house. fairly heavy stones are applied to the abdomen. The latter assumption is " contradicted by the fact that the Easter Island women whether have children from strangers living for some time on the Easter Island. 85 The after-birth is not specially dealt with it is buried. which buried or put under a rock. The little island." Knoche also heard that the women sometimes pass a piece of an alga into the vulva right up to the womb before intercourse with a stranger. whose population has been variously estimated by its origin in travellers of the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth century at a few thousand. The navel cord. The infant remains at the mother's breast for about a year. It could. not be ascertained whether this precaution was formerly. is placed in a calabash. unfortunately. Perhaps this is the reason why even women who have had difficult confinements still preserve a good figure.

On the other Oceanic Islands. the Moai. This employ- ment of contraceptives in Polynesia is unique. of stone houses and of large stone idols. speeches are hurled at men you have the woman from She rolls Such No mechanical help is given her. . committed by the mother as many as ten times in succession. upon The older children and the husband are not allowed to lies be present." Of the Jao " (p.86 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE which could of necessity not be exceeded. which have made this lonely little island so famous. either on account of economy or for reasons of convenience.' all sides. about in pain. three. who It is extra-marital takes special note of any evidence of intercourse given by the parturient woman. you have menif you do had. such as the existence of a may script. ' the chief business of the midwives to to submit the woman a very strict questionnaire: How many men ? have you had. infanticide. amongst whom there is always a near relative of the husband. for instance. as. Deaths and births had therefore to balance. or even more Your child will not come until tioned the right father. together with other facts. or four. and it be truly reckoned as a sign of a higher civilisation. served to limit the number of children. but a number of older women are there. not tell us how many Yes. you will die. Contraceptives are otherwise unknown East in Oceania. on the westward-situated Tahiti. 61) : in Africa Karl Weule relates During the delivery the parturient woman her back on a mat on the floor of the hut.

making The fundi goes into the wood. Abortion is in no In order to prevent considered reprehensible. and shrieks and cries until all is over. for to the Jao the curse of infertility abides in the egg. If. Sex intercourse can only be resumed again with when the months the permission of the village elder. however. as well as girls resort to abortion. But infanticide said to occur. A real lying-in is not kept up the mother gets up again the same or the following day. though sometimes mechanical means are resorted to. twins are no is joyfully received. married women Plant juices are generally used for this purpose.BIRTH AND FETICIDE 87 under great bodily and mental torture. Into the cord he rubs the yolk of an egg. be The after-birth and the navel cord are buried. is here frequent. The navel cord is cut off by an old woman. if possible without a witness. children are not wanted. seeks out two different barks. is The new-born child washed and then wrapped in a cloth . They are considered effective magical remedies. or a piece of bark fabric. are unknown among the Jao. child can sit up. and twists them together into a cord. the woman puts herself into communication way with a fundi. knots. Ancient instruments. conception. He knots who understands something of . The cutting of the navel cord seems performed clumsily. for umbilical rupture. which has become an ideal of beauty in many places to in Eastern Africa. or when old. such as are used by the East African Bantu tribes. It is it is only given less six or seven Children are welcome .

After the birth the navel cord cut. 189 Should an increase of labour pains appear necessary. A cloth put under her back by the helping women. lying-in woman remains at home three or four days. not with a knife. at the first sign of labour pains the woman down upon drawn her back on a mat in the house.' He then twists the final knot. Among the Masai an old If woman is always called in as midwife. undertaken (Merker. You tree are called thus and thus.88 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE into the cord three knots. you egg. Afterwards the cord is thrown away. no operations are superstitious or useless et seq. This cord is worn by the woman round her body. and then drink the water. Boots are also placed under her head at night to prevent conception. an ancient implement has survived for sacred purposes long after the period of its common use. ." Among the Makua.). pp. saying at the same time. on the Makonda plateau in East lies is is Africa. as in other phases in the life of man. and if this does not produce the desired result light massage is applied. If the woman wishes to become pregnant again. and you thus but ' . but with a splinter from a millet stalk. The navel cord is not The removed part is buried. Here. to put it into water. she needs only to untie the knots in the cord. But now I do not want anything living. the parturient woman is led round by the women for a few steps. The tied. which tightly and pulled up when the pains become is stronger. but dries off. you become a living animal. the birth goes on normally.

the perineum is the women attempt If to widen the that does not help. Schulze's inquiries 218). this is not The birth takes place in the side position. Medicaments are seldom hangs and her head touches used for hastening the delivery.BIRTH AND FETICIDE 89 Only when these remedies prove to be inefficacious an extreme step is taken the labouring woman is slowly : lifted up by her feet by several women until her body the perpendicularly ground. . The navel cord cut without delay . In the case of a narrow pelvis preventing mother and child perish. for the belief it exists that would hinder the passage of the next All manipulations are carried out beneath the skin rug under~ which the is woman lies. difficult births During very vulva of the parturient woman. attempt child. is deliberately torn up to the anus. No made to cure the perineal tear. no ^one troubles about the The woman resumes her occupation generally on the seventh or eighth day. birth. According to always the case. The confinement takes place on position . For the production of abortion a decoction of dried goat dung or of cor dia quarensis or some other remedy is used. whereupon the midwife massages the body in the direction of the navel. no help is available . Of the Hottentots that it has sometimes been reported easy births. the women have (p. all fours or in a sitting in the latter case the legs and the back are pressed against the posts of the hut. delivery of the after-birth. Internal manual or operative manipulations do not seem to be practised anywhere.

p. A hot decoction of badger urine. lattice railing. and herself bites off the navel cord after the delivery she goes to the nearest stream to wash herself and the child. . or even in the wood. is no real give birth in the common family house. common hammock The woman All the lies is in her part of the house. which securely closed by a women remain with her and help at the birth. but there couvade (the male lying-in custom). Brazil) the woman goes through the labour alone. Among which in her is taken with labour pains the Indians of the Aiary. 1913. to several families. and rejoins her tribe immediately (Walter Knoche. The navel cord on the spot. or in an outlying hut. for several days in succession. if necessary. drunk. when a woman is all the men leave their house. with the assistance of all married women. is considered an effective abortive The procedure itself is characteristically " called drinking and falling (Schulze. in the bush. P.397). and immediately buried.go SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE is Feticide not unusual among the Hottentots. of the The women Kobeua Indians who first The navel cord paint their faces red for the festive occasion. The husband remains in the house during the lying-in period. 320). Among the Uti-Krag Indians of the Rio Doce remedy. and after-birth are buried immediately After the birth the mother and the child remain strictly secluded for five days. She disappears . is cut off by the husband's mother is with a blade of scleria grass. " (Espirito Santo.

the witch doctor performs The parents keep up a five days' lying-in. Among the The women are prepare for are also it confinement. they are of different sexes. and Among ties it with a thread. The hammocks must not be soiled.BIRTH AND FETICIDE 91 Of twins the second together with the after.. II. that the pains were great. Bakairi of Brazil. 503). according to Karl von den Steinen (p. abortion is said to occur frequently. The women are delivered on the of afraid the floor in a kneeling position. p. 334). is and eight days held (Koch-Grunberg. But they soon get up and go to work. the the Bororo. They mechanical and measures by drinking tea. 146). as if belief that the child itself anything else might injure ate meat. according to the same author the woman is delivered in the wood. manioc cake crumbled into water. For two days the parents do not . 182 . the husband going through the famous couvade (the man's lying-in). resorted to. fish or fruit. is or the female if born killed. and lives completely on a thin pogu. of The couvade only ends when the remainder navel cord falls off. not touching his weapons and passing the greatest part of his time in his hammock. There exists the the child. L. and showed by pantomime. father cuts the navel cord with a bamboo splinter. Women who have had experience declared with emphasis.birth. keeping strict diet. He only leaves the house to satisfy his physical needs. after the birth a drinking feast p. After the birth. The (p. holding firmly to a post. exorcism.

whereupon keeps away. the mother wishes to stop suckling. and it fire. being held by her mother under her breast. they " dry the milk over the squeeze the breasts out. . which the chemist had prepared. The woman is not allowed to eat anything. as among the Bakairi. If the man were to eat he and the child would become ill. . she does it freAbortion by the help of internal means is quently. as generally after menstruation.92 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE and on the third day they may only some warm water. was swallowed by the parents. said to be frequent. The after-birth is buried in the wood. partake of but bathe until the reappearance of menstruation then. The couvade is also customary among them. especially among the Ranchao women. Among the Paressi the woman is confined in a kneeling position." Medicine for sick chilIf dren.

mentality of the different branches of mankind A good example of this is the fact that there are peoples who do not know the connection between cohabitation and conception. as we have reason to assume. gods in most religions. says von Reitzenstein." The belief in supernatural conception has been preserved. In fact. and he adduces examples which show that traces of such a state are to be found in the legends and customs of many peoples* And. did not possess this knowledge previously. that we know that both egg and " spermatozoon have to come together for fertilisation. but also in the myths of the Originally man could not conclude from the mere appearance of a pregnant woman that the cohabitation which had occurred . again. Ferdinand von Reitzenstein thinks that there was a time when the connection between cohabitation and pregnancy was unknown to all mankind. not only in the Christian Churches.VI IGNORANCE OF THE PROCESS OF GENERATION THE varies a great deal. who. There are other tribes. and only since Du Barry (1850) that we know that the spermatozoon must penetrate the egg. we need hardly be surprised at this ignorance of the generative process when we consider that who it is only since the days of Swammerdam. died in 1685.



months ago was the cause of her condition. Primitive people do not bring into causal connection phenomena
separated by wide intervals. Von Reitzenstein writes that primitive people, who generally marry their girls before the advent of puberty,

must have been turned aside from seeing the connection between cohabitation and pregnancy because these girls had no children at first in spite of having sexual intercourse.

But to this it may be objected that even the lowest races must have noticed that pregnancy only


.occurs after the advent of the first menstruation.


appearance and abeyance of menstruation must have formed a step towards the understanding of the generative process.
It is

otherwise with von Reitzenstein 's

objection that by far the largest number of cohabitations do not lead to pregnancy. Even among comraces this observation led to the paratively enlightened

assumption that some additional supernatural process
necessary for fertilisation.



the Australians, the

developed race of man, the necessity of cohabitafor


et seq. ;



Spencer and Frank
pp. 123



unknown. Baldwin have shown (1899,

1904, pp. 145, 606) that among the natives of Northern and Central Australia there exists

the general belief that the children penetrate into the woman as minute spirits. These spirits are said to

come from persons that have
are reborn in this manner.

lived once before




in rebirth,

together with the ignorance of the generative process,



very widespread in Australia, e.g., among many tribes in Queensland, in Southern Australia, in the

Northern Territory and in Western Australia. It is now too late to get reliable information in this matter from those parts of Australia where the natives are in regular
contact with whites.

Spencer takes


as certain that

the belief in asexual propagation was once general in

those tribes by whom this belief has been preserved up to the present the traditions concerning the tribal ancestors are quite definite. Among the



Arunta, for instance,


live in line

the district of the




Waters and the McDonnel mountains, and among whom ignorance of the process of generation was first
discovered, there exists the tradition that in bygone





ancestors of the tribe carried spirit children about with them, which they put down in certain places.





the spirits of the tribal

ancestors, themselves enter into the

women and


borne by them.
out of which

The Arunta

believe that at the death

of a person his spirit returns to a special tree or rock,
it came, and which is called nandcha. remains there until it thinks fit once more to enter

into a

woman, and thus go amongst the



these spirits are called iruntarinia. But before the first rebirth of an iruntarinia there arose another

from the nandcha, which


the double of the






This arum-

buringa never becomes embodied, but remains always a spirit, which accompanies its human representative


inclined, and, as a rule, remains invisible.

Only specially gifted people, particularly witch doctors, can see ammburinga; they can even speak with them.


other Australian tribes which believe in rebirth,

belief in spirits like the

(compare B.

armnburinga has been traced Ankermann, "Totenkult und Seelen-

Afrikanischen Volkern," Zeitschrift fur
50, pp.




et seq.).

however, general agreement in the belief that the ancestral parents brought into the world the


spirit children,


are continually reborn.



tribes, as the Dieri

and the Warramunga,


believed that the sex changes at every rebirth, so that the ancestral spirit once takes the form of a male and

the next time that of a female.

The conditions

are such

among the Australians that their ignorance of the connection between sexual intercourse and propagation is not at all surprising. Spencer points out that


the Australians there are no


virgins," for as

girl is sexually ripe she is given to a particular whom she has sexual intercourse right through with man,

soon as a

In this respect there


no difference among the

yet the people see that some women and others none, and also that the have children





with children have them at unequal intervals have no connection with sexual intercourse.

the 97 when that they are pregnant only they feel the quickening. majority of cases of cohabitation. which practised by them. Though the natives of Northern Queensland know that the animals propagate sexually. in dispute this as regards contradistinction human to the animals. and which would not perform an operation by which the semen fails to fulfil its function in the desire progeny. It is becoming H . Lang thinks that with regard to the genesis of mankind the psychology of these primitive people has obscured their knowledge of physiology. S. they beings. which is in accordance with the very primitive mode of thought of these unproIn this connection it may be mengressive people. white man's of their wives. a soul. which could not be begotten by a material process. proof of this ignorance of the fertilisation process "* A among the Australians is the splitting of the penis Otherwise these tribes.L. has a living spirit. the idea that there is no connection between cohabitation and generation cannot be considered as primary in man. Therefore they attempt to explain the origin of children in some other manner. have a scarcity of women and children.IGNORANCE OF GENERATION Besides. and treat them as such. because man. tioned that the Australian mothers attribute the birth of half-castes to their having eaten too much of the Therefore old Australians accept without question as their own the half-caste children flour. According to him. and that is often at a women know time when they have had nothing to do with a man. A.

assume that pregnancy only lasts four or five months. Many and economically far above the Australian natives. with young product the fruits of a plant. sometimes occurs and sometimes not. Codrington reports the same conditions among tribes of Central Borneo. R. . and is least of all intended as a deliberate birth preventative (von Reitzenstein) Evidences of the ignorance of generation are also to be found elsewhere in cases where the above-mentioned . In Melanesia the connection between cohabitation and conception seems to have been unknown until lately. namely. Thurnwald says that among the tribes on the Bismarck and Solomon Islands visited by him this connection is well objection of known nowadays. inexact calculation of time. and also that mode etc. but the causal relationship is not so clearly conceived as by our psychologically trained As a natural phenomenon conception physicians. being mentally the Banks Islanders. Lang does not apply. which is therefore given a mysterious interpretation. To this must be added the weirdness of the whole process. all men towards women. who are make it appear logically probable conception can take place without cohabitation.98 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE certain more and more that this splitting of the penis serves exclusively the purpose of lust. Intentional and - real forgetting. of thought which connects the with the place where it is found. and with the young ones of a bird. and held that the strangeness of as inferiors.

at least of the Baganda. were placed on the mat for the Mexican bridal pair after the marriage ceremony. The of rattle club fertility. and body of the woman shortly before the sign of pregnancy. Conceptional totemism also exists among the Indian tribes of North-western America (Frazer. according to von Reitzenstein. points to a similar belief. and 611. These tribes of Borneo also do not know that the testicles are necessary for propagation (Nieuwenhuis. 506. that they believe in the possibility of conception without cohabitation. 507. II. 144). while the germ of the new being Noteworthy comes from the tribes of father.IGNORANCE OF GENERATION as long as it is 99 that the child enters the recognised externally in the woman. In Africa it has been established. p. pp. the assumption of impregnation by the animals venerated as totems. which exists among the Bakalai in the Congo region. perhaps also considered as the bearer In India various trees play a role in is fertilisation ideas.. is the belief found in various places that of the child is supplied by the nourishment the only mother before birth. the belief that the children come from a supernal habitation. to enter into the mother. fcetal Various objects were thought to carry the For this reason these germs. especially shuttlecocks and green jewels. Among the ancient Mexicans there existed. Conceptional totemism. Vol. 612). the flower land. This is South-east Australia the opinion of certain described by Howitt H 2 .

as otherwise his cure would be endangered and the child harmed. as it would be the same as if the child itself ate them and there is no reason to doubt that this is The medicine-man of the real belief of the natives.ioo SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE belief and the same tribes exists among South American Karl von this who have the well-known couvade. But not only the Xingu. and he child. and which she hatches during pregnancy. to put clearly and concisely. cannot know that the mother harbours elements For the native the it corresponding to the bird's egg. looks after the child. or fruit. and he is called in in all cases when the mother or child falls ill. which. doctor One might consider him as the professional who also fasts like the student medicine-man. The father . by the hunting life. meat." This idea of the couvade . is the patient in so far as he feels himself one with the Nor is it difficult to understand how this comes about. The father cuts oft the navel cord of the new-born goes to bed. longer). and fasts strictly until the rest of the navel cord falls off (or even child. " : den Steinen writes regarding One might be is tempted to explain this curious custom. it is not evident why the men should have submitted to it. he lays into the mother. man is the bearer of the egg. but many other tribes. say that the father must not eat fish. which very advantageous to the women. the village is always at disposal. The native cannot very well know anything about the egg cell and the Graafian follicle. But even if the custom suits the women.

IGNORANCE OF GENERATION is : 101 confirmed by linguistic peculiarities there are the same or similar words for "father. and he is thus brought into a decline. particularly as all illnesses are due to the fault of others ? What we it call pars pro " toto prevails in all folk belief in connection with witch or healing magic. as long as the child is at its weakest. It is or whether food eaten which is harmful to the child detached from one's digest it." "egg." Besides South America and Australia. and father must keep diet. at least not own body. because it could not during the time when the detachthe couvade ment takes is place. unintelligent creature. only that in this case the whole stands for the ' part. doubt that he is to blame. 1 ' and and therefore. he must were a child to whom no harm must come. with such views as he has. Hugo Kunike . how could the father." " child. representing a behave as if he Should the child happen to die in the first days. The couvade proceeds according to the same logic." "testicle. seeing that he has eaten indigestible things. the helpless." though cannot be assumed that the magic worker ' ' has a clear conception of the part with which he works. The child is considered " for the sake of the reproduction of the father. also frequent in Asia and Africa. Previously it existed also in South-western Europe.' hair is comes to the same whether the enemy's poisoned. the and must avoid anything that the other could not digest. The child is considered part of the father. miniature copy of himself.

102 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE a survey of the prevalence and literature of couvade. so that he There resulted an external an condition which led to analogy with the lying-in There can. according to Kunike. be no quesperiod. for with the South American Indians and other primitive tion of an imitation of the peoples among whom the couvade of the women occurs. The prohibitions condemned the man to inactivity for some time after the birth. woman's lying-in. took to his hammock. thinks that this custom arose from who gives the prohibitions which the man was subject to in matriarchal families. is found no lying-in .

on some of the Indonesian Islands. either by some kind of tampon or by styptic powders. e. In addition to the familiar circular abscission of the foreskin. Africa. however. . They occur much more rarely for the purpose of sex stimulaas. the abscission of the is Circumcision of boys widethe of spread in Asia. the operation often merely consists in the the East African tribes.VII MUTILATION OF SEX ORGANS MUTILATIONS of the sex organs are performed by ' many tion. which is is split downwards in its full length.. The most frequent mutilation foreskin of the penis. In girls. for instance. as. Bleeding stopped generally by very simple means. labia among the artificial lengthening of the small the Hottentots and the negro women and the slitting of the penis among the is Australians. Among Mohammedan with a razor. Asia it and the negroes is Northern and Middle Africa mostly performed In Indonesia a sharp bamboo splinter in other places serves as the instrument for operation . Among .g. tribes of and Australia. parts of the abscission of a small piece of the preputium clitoridis. sharp stone splinters are used. primitive peoples for religious reasons. numerous primitive peoples practise incision of the foreskin.

tion. In the province of Sindo the circumcision of girls is fairly prevalent. while among others the labia are slashed. especially the clitoris is among the Pathan and Baluchi tribes. p. but it practised is also customary among many peoples that are quite free from Islamitic influence. ostensibly in order to lessen the sensuality of the girls. and it is said to make the confinement easier. Among many tribes in the North- western border province the girls are also circumcised at the age of marriage. Circumcision of girls is practised by various Islamitic peoples of Western Asia and India. or sometimes by a suture. In Baluchistan among some peoples the tip of the clitoris is pinched off . . who uses a razor. 271). In Baroda and Bombay cut away. It is performed shortly before marriage by the barber's wife or a female servant. The operation is performed by old women. and here. besides the clitoris. Among the natives of Southern Asia living under is the influence of Islam circumcision of boys universally.104 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE veneris mons the large labia are removed. is After the recovery from confinement partial occlusion again resorted to (Bartels. and completely in case of confinement. After the removal of the generally with a dirty razor. which serves the purpose of closing up the vagina. A little tube is inserted to allow for micturi- The united parts are again partly severed for marriage. the small labia are also sometimes cut away. labia the two wounds are made to coalesce by letting of and the girl lie in a suitable position.

No other reason is now known to them for this operation. on Buru. Circumcision is practised by the Mohammedans of the Southern Philippine Islands. on the Ceram Laut and Goram Circumcision is . bamboo knife or the edge of a battle They say this is necessary in order to prevent the skin from growing longer and longer.g. the WatuBela Islands. so that bleeding In sure to take cohabitation. the Philippine Islands circumcision is frequently practised by the non-Christian natives.. partly also in the remaining North and Central Celebes. Ceram. e. also on Ambon and Halmaheira.MUTILATION OF SEX ORGANS so that scars are formed. in the partly in childhood. in place of circum- cision or in addition to the hymen is torn on the bridal night (should it still exist). customary on the Aru and Kei Islands. in the Minahassa. Sind the castes which prostitute their women are said to practise partial It is infibulation for contracting the vagina. thus. 105 The operation is performed . Incision of the foreskin is customary on the Indonesian Islands. partly on the bridal night latter case it assures the requisite flow of blood at the first coition. but not everywhere. and the vaginal is entrance place at is wounded. reported from the Punjab that formerly men leaving their home for a time used to close up the sex passage of the wives they left behind. tribes. The Igorots of Luzon incise the foreskin of On boys from four to seven years old at the upper side of the glans with a axe. Among some it.

performed at a very early age. etc. but the adults are ashamed before the women. the operator a wise man. various places on the north coast of New Pomerania. for instance. between is New Guinea and also in New Pomerania. As many people as possible are circumcised. but not the priest pushes an oblong piece . the result of the liking for numbers shown by primitive people. In wide districts of New Guinea. on the south-east coast. in order to have the opportunity for a great festival.io6 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE group. On the island Umboi. the person is laid on his This is back and held down by relatives. the result similar to that of circum- Frequently. Ambon. For the operation. Incision is Pacific the Jabim and on the Astrolabe Bay. only completely mature in such cases the cut young men are circumcised . on New Guinea. and take an areca nut. The boys scream and wince at the moment of cutting. the inhabitants are among not circumcised. however. It is questionable whether this intensifies the women's excitement. cision. Among the East Barriari on the north coast of New Pomerania. into which they bite. some islands of the etc. foreskin hangs down as an ugly brown flap. It is doubtful whether circumcision here is due to the influence of Islam. practised on various islands in the Western Ocean. according to Friederici (p. however. which is to be met with everywhere. on the Witu Islands. in certain parts of Central Celebes. 45). If incision is is Admiralty group. incision customary.

palang. and also in Fiji. : Nieuwenhuis describes first this operation as follows "At the glans is made bloodless by pressing it between the two arms of a bent strip of bamboo. New Caledonia (with the exception of the Loyalty Islands). nor an incision of the foreskin. The bamboo clamp is removed. and are replaced on journeys or at work by feather quills. likely intended to intensify It consists in a perforation of the glans or the body of the male organ. Among some tribes several little sticks are stuck through the penis.MUTILATION OF SEX ORGANS of 107 wood under the preputium of the patient. sometimes a double one crosswise. and cuts it from the top downward with an obsidian splinter. At each of these arms there are openings at the required position opposite each other. into which a These little sticks are called little stick is inserted. ampallang. A. was not a circumcision. Roesike of found It expedithe fore- skin cut among a number men. sometimes a single one. Among some the lust of the tribes of is Indonesia a mutilation is customary. but a deep cut into the glans about i to ij centimetres long. through which a sharp pointed copper pin is pressed after the glans has become less sensitive. for this Formerly a pointed bamboo chip was used purpose. fastened by a cord. and is the pin. utang or kampion. The custom of incision is widespread in the New Hebrides. which most women. While with the Empress Augusta tion in River New Guinea. kept in the opening until .

Only during hard work or at exhausting enterprises is the metal pin replaced by Exceptionally brave men have the privilege.io8 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE the canal has healed up. Later on the copper pin is another one. Vol. . Among urethra Buschan.. It with blunt points. Formerly it was believed that this custom was intended to prevent conception. of boring a second canal. cut from the scales of the pangolin. Many rasty. but that the pin is introduced for the heightening of sexual excitement. but Where this operation on customary. Meyer. generally of tin. Vol. (utang) replaced by which a is worn constantly. which is wear a ring round the penis. and studded in addition. cut often going through the perineum. The operation generally performed in even adult the urethra the men undergo is it." men may. the hymen of the girls is cut. p. 878 Hose and McDougall. 78 . p. into the glans. 240). among p. may hence be concluded that the perforation of the penis is not intended as an endurance test for the young men. II. But as the Australians who are not under European influence are ignorant generation. . 170 the Australians the slitting of the male is frequently practised. natives assert that the insertion of a pin in the perforated penis has the purpose of preventing pede- which is very frequent I. 1912. boyhood or early youth.. p. p. Distinguished wooden one. 301 . the (compare Nieuwenhuis. Kleiweg Malays de Zwaan. crossing the first. this is of the process of cannot be its meaning. Many . together with the chief.

Younger boys are only circumcised if they are rich orphans. and has further to go through a instructed by old men man. for instance.MUTILATION OF SEX ORGANS 109 tribes Among the practise simple circumcision. and Since celebrated the occasion with great festivals. circumcision 1905 place usual age for circumcision is from the fifteenth to the nineteenth year. The group is hidden from the view of the bark. the boys are given over by their fathers or guardians . Other tribes of the Australian North Territory have similar customs. and the sixth performs the operation the foreskin forward and cutting it off with by drawing a sharp splinter of stone. He remains for number of ceremonies. and he is informed about from women. These people used to circumcise boys every seven and a half years. or if their fathers are The ceremony begins at the time of the first quarter of the moon. Three days before the operation old men. After a previous elaborate ceremonial the boy who is to be circumcised is laid on the backs of three men lying on another man sits on his chest. The takes at shorter intervals. Australian tribe Worgait. certain relatives decide about the circumcision of the boys. women by as a a screen is made of pieces of Afterwards the youth how he must behave the matters kept secret another two months under the supervision of two sons of his maternal uncle. is As an example we may take the pastoral tribe of the Nandi. Circumcision among the Hamites of East Africa particularly elaborate. one holds the ground . his legs apart.

the boys' clothes and ornaments. is of beat the boys in the face and on the sex organs the hornets they set on their backs. A fire is kept burning . behave cowardly or bravely at the After this examination the boys receive necklaces from their girl friends. Warriors are present. Then young girls visit the boys and give them a part of their clothing and ornaments. where they build a hut. as many two of these men. his early life . after which the warriors aside to discover from their expressions will draw the boys whether they circumcision. Later on all undress. After the boys have put these on they inform their relations of the forthcoming circumcision. and a prorate themselves. around which old men are seated. is There dancing on the next day. where warriors are stationed at the entrance and exit with nettles and hornets. formed with a moterenic at the head and rear Four times they have to crawl through a small cage. the He is questioned about old men think that he has told . and take away all after the circumcision. called moterenic. and tease the boys. The moterenic and six boys betake themselves to a neighbouring wood. in the middle of the room. Each boy has and if to step before them and beg for permission to be circumcised. in which they spend the their months their heads Arsidia sp. The boys have shaved and are given a strong aperient of Warriors visit the hut. with which they decoAfter sunset they must listen to the sharpening of the operating SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE into the charge of old as ten boys going to men. With the former they cession it.

collected and placed in an ox horn. The boy to be circumcised is supported by the senior moterenic. There the warriors and elders assemble the next morning. The wounds are only washed with cold water. the price of the circumcision has to be arranged. and at dawn the circumcision begins.MUTILATION OF SEX ORGANS an untruth or nettles. while the second part of the operation begins. The brave boys receive bundles of ficus from the women. some weeks During the first four days they are not allowed . If is in hiding something. The surrounding men watch the boy's face in order to see . The operator kneels before the boy. Many boys become unconscious during this part of the operation. whether he winces or shows any sign of pain. present. he is not allowed to be present at later circumcisions nor at the children's dances. tives The foreskins are Friends and rela- make merry and also together. and receives the dishonourable nickname of kilpit . and with a quick cut performs the first the foreskin is drawn forward part of the operation and cut off at the tip of the glans penis. where they spend quietly. and the boys are led back to their huts. At this only sterile girls lost several may be women who have brothers and sisters at short intervals. whereupon the boys are led back to their huts. he is called a coward. he is put among the old men are satisfied with his words. If this is the case. who welcome them with cries of joy when they return the necklaces which they have previously received from their girl friends. the others sitting close by and looking on.

but they Only now may the boys still have to wear women's clothes (as hitherto) and a special head-dress that hides They must not enter a cattle kraal nor come near the cattle. they have to go through a new ceremony. his father has to kill move about their faces. This period of semiseclusion lasts about eight weeks. nobody may come near for four days.H2 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE to touch food with their hands . them apart from their moterenic. They get what they like. a goat.washing ceremony is performed the foreskins are taken out the ox horn. Afterwards the hand. and again a feast. and take their clubs. during which they have to dive repeatedly into the If one of them should meet with an accident. when the boys are quite food. Its conclusion is by a feast. Still more ceremonies follow. freely. sacrificed to their god. well again. loin bells. and then buried . which they receive from their lovers. also milk and meat. etc. have to put on men's clothes. But. after which the boys finally enter the status of manhood. Now still the boys may see eat with their hands again. They are shaved. After three days' ceremonial the . but no one may them except the young children who bring them Three months later. they must eat either out of a half-calabash or with the help of some leaves. celebrated Girls are circumcised when some of them in the settlement have reached marriage age. of in cowdung at the foot of a croton tree. river. nor are they allowed to be outdoors when the hyena howls. given aperients.

only admitted and sisters in when they have lost several brothers succession. the completion of various other formalities they fit are for marriage (Hollis. at which the mothers and some old women are present men are . they long put and have to go through a period of seclusion. After the circumcision boys and girls are considered grown up. pp. The former have to be circumcised as soon as they are strong was introduced by the command God a enough to take part in war expedition. of Eastern Africa. otherwise they are thrown away. Only the cut out.). For the meat banquet which the newly circumcised hold every one present has to supply an ox. Poor boys must first acquire it by place last of working and S. Similar customs are observed by other Hamites cision p. The circumcision of sons whose parents have no property and of poor orphans takes all. the doctor witch in certain years. is is a public affair. arranged by for it. Among 60). must not touch food with their hands for four days afterwards are into dresses with a kind of head mask. The circumcision . The girls.MUTILATION OF SEX ORGANS 113 circumcision is performed in the morning. the Masai there exists the belief that circumof (Merker.L. too. If a girl behaves bravely. she may return the clothes and other things of her lover. After . The mothers run about clitoris is crying and shouting during the operation. 1909. No satisfactory explanation has so far been forthof the purpose of these elaborate circumcision coming customs. 52 et seq.

adorned with many ornaments. is After the opera. is washed in milk. where they are regaled with meat and honey beer by the parents of the newly circumcised boys. and fix a day for the circumcision of the first batch of boys. Several weeks before the circumcision the boys. dance and sing in their own and neighbouring kraals.H4 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE The old men consult in all the districts. All the boys circumcised during a certain number of years form an age class with a particular name (as among the Nandi). so as to become less sensitive. tion the wounded member of the washed with milk is no remedy all for stopping the bleeding applied. sometimes even earlier. in order to the day before the circumcision On the appointed day express their joy at their approaching admission into the warrior class. the Somals in North-east Africa the boys . The girls are circumcised as soon as signs of puberty become evident. The wound. in As soon as the man to whom the girl is promised as the bride hears of her recovery he pays her father remaining part of the bride-price. itself the boys and the warriors who are present at the operation assemble before dawn at the place chosen by the operators. stands in the and nothing more Among way of the marriage. The girl remains in her mother's hut until the wound is healed. The operation consists the men a complete abscission of the clitoris. as with the boys. The boys pour cold water over each other. On the boys' heads are shaved. Later on neighbourhood assemble in the kraal.

and therefore the elongated labia were called the Hottentot apron. marriage. bast. postpone the circumcision the But it women would refuse with uncircumcised men (Buschan.. Bushmen. Makonde. and many Bantu tribes of Middle and South Africa. which. the girls at the ages I " 2 . In Western Africa most peoples practise the circum- The age at which this takes place varies greatly. several days with their legs tied together. 24). the Bakwiri cision of boys. in most cases only severed completely before the confinement (Paulitschke. and the are infibulated at three or four years of age. It was first observed among the Hottentot women. as always takes place before to have relationship " Sitten." III." Among the Jao. as late as the twelfth to fourteenth year. p. The infibula- tion is preceded by the shortening of the clitoris and the clipping of the external labia. This consists in the artificial elongation of the small labia. and other East African Bantu tribes.MUTILATION OF SEX ORGANS are circumcised 115 girls when six years old. p. Before girls is marriage the above-mentioned women or the themselves undo the stitching. however. is A peculiar disfigurement of the sex organs cus- tomary among the Hottentots. or cotton thread. The operation is also sew up who women. 40). and the to Dahomey twentieth even year. performed by experienced the inner labia (except for a small aperture) with horseThe girls have to rest for hair. The Duala in Cameron have the boys circumcised when four or five years old.

It is time at last to give up this erroneous idea. centimetres According to the assertion of numerous male natives. only a tiny piece of the under-part of the preputium The boy must show courage at the opera- Screams. Le Vaillant established this independently almost 100 years before Weule but the error dragged on from decade to decade. or nine years are instructed by old women about sex intercourse and their behaviour towards grown-up people. At the same time they are encouraged to systematically alter the natural shape of the genital organs by continually pulling at the labia minora and thus unnaturally lengthening them. troubled or had the good fortune to study the puberty rites as Weule did. the elongated labia assume such dimensions that they hang half-way down to the knee. if they occur. tion. Among in a the Jaos the operation of the boys consists combination of incision with circumcision so that remains. Karl Weule has seen such disfigured organs from 7 to 8 long. Karl Weule is right when he definitely maintains that his proof of the artificial elongation of the labia among the East Africans establishes it as an indubitable fact that the famous Hottentot apron is also an artificial product. it is said to excite the men. are drowned by the i . The assump- tion that the labia minora are naturally exceptionally large among the Hottentots is certainly wrong. chiefly because nobody . eight.n6 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE of seven. The main purpose of this disfiguration seems to be erotic .

less sensitive than that of the uncircumcised. 1048). Kissenberth. As usual. 29. In North America the few Indians still living in a state of nature do not practise mutilation of the sex organs. Many authors are of the opinion that the abscission or . The boys have down for about twenty days or more. 35).55). until healing has taken place. for the bare glans covered one. that the black boys congregating on the stations and plantations frequently discuss these matters amongst themselves they know that the glans of the circumcised is much . p. also among of the the tribes on the Ucayali and the tributaries Apure (W.MUTILATION OF SEX ORGANS laughter of the bystanders. especially the Mohammedan Sudanese. Castration still takes place for this reason among other negro races. Schmidt. In South America circumcision exists among the linguistically isolated tribes and the neighbouring Aruake and Karaib tribes of the north-west. 117 Bleeding to lie is stilled by bark powder. and the penis cuff is fastened on to the rolled-up foreskin (W. pp. Friederici says is less probably to prolong sensitive than the 89) (p. circumcision is combined with instruction about sex behaviour. The Kayapo Indians on the Araguay river cut the frenulum of the penis with a taquara splinter. P. The purpose of circumcision is the sex act. In former times the Jaos are said to have imposed men for misbehaviour castration as a punishment on with the chief's wife (Weule.

40) found that among the youthful plantation workers in quarter were afflicted a degree that normal sex functioning was quite imBut such a condition does not seem to possible. How could the into time of entry festival ? manhood remain without ceremonious all This seems into the more necessary because the growth unnoticeable. (without accompanying circumcision). of what use would mutilations be that had nothing to do with tightness of the circumcision. and forms a firm nucleus round which other memories cluster which otherwise would be lost in the humdrum of ordinary life. it would pass without making any impression. festivals and elaborate ceremonials which are so often connected with the circumcision of or with their admission to the state of manhood and womanhood memory. further. and often to such New among most of the primitive peoples practising And.n8 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE incision of the foreskin in boys has the purpose of making cohabitation easier in later years. are intended to preserve the event in the The long ceremony is deeply impressed upon the mind. PP. and if manhood is gradual and almost there were no ceremony. but above all to the admission into the league of youth (Schurtz. as this is often made difficult by phimosis (tightness of the fore- skin). Kiilz (p. 96). . It is therefore the intention not only to give expression to the beginning virility.95. foreskin ? The prolonged boys and of girls. prevail Mecklenburg nearly a with phimosis.

however.VIII MATURITY AND DECLINE AMONG later all human races the signs of maturity appear and less distinctly in the male than in the female. which. and bodily growth ceases shortly after. and in the female between the fourteenth and the The end of the puberty period may. of maturity Sexual maturity. " Martin (1915) remarks Races living in the tropics : . In Europeans the period of puberty coincides with the second period of increased bodily growth. which ceases in the male between the sixteenth and the eighteenth year. be postponed for some The exact time of the advent of sex maturity. on account of their menstruation. but racially. takes place much earlier in Europeans than in some of the primitive Among other primitive peoples. as well as the cessation of bodily growth. years. occurs maturity comparatively late. some of the peoples living in the tropics. The opinion still prevails that climate has a considerRudolf able influence on the advent of maturity. varies not only The same applies to the individually. in individual cases. difference in time between the advent and the cessation of bodily growth. To the latter belong certainly peoples. however. sixteenth year. can be fixed much more readily in girls than in boys.

Melanesia). with the exception of those seventeen years old. however. the Japanese girls. Baelz had already in 1891 disputed the statement that they mature early. Very important material has been collected by O. Development in height is finished on the whole in girls at the beginning of the seventeenth year. as regards boys the advent of puberty. He found that the rhythm of growth of the Melanesians corresponds on the whole to that of the Europeans. with the assistance of the Catholic mission of the place. E. still sex He maturity in the female does not occur earlier." As regards the Japanese. Reche 's researches led to the surprising result that all Matupi girls. found. that the growth of both sexes ceases in Japan earlier than in Europe. reach maturity later than European girls take a medium position. Reche in Matupi (New Pomerania. This undoubtedly due to the earlier advent of puberty. According to the concordant statements of female teachers of various girls' schools. and half-caste Since then reliable data about the advent of maturity among non-European races have seldom been given. girls. had not yet men- . in fact. except that the growth ceases altogether a few years earlier.120 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE earlier is grow more quickly and mature living in than the races temperate zones. But. but those to hand show that most probably even among coloured primitive people puberty generally occurs late. and in in the eighteenth year.

namely. girls. the that. It is with in this different the quite Europeans respect almost seems as : beginning of puberty period of falls with them in the second growth (in boys the twelfth to the sixteenth. for puberty occurs among these inhabitants of the tropics not only not earlier. as with the majority of animals also puberty begins before the cessation of Europeans are the primitive growth. Puberty commences when growth if the advent of maturity absorbs all the strength and hinders further growth. because in order to prevent early marriages they only consent to the marriage of a girl after the first menstruation has taken place. later than with the Europeans living in temperate climates. but. Reche reports further puberty. and therefore long before growth ceases altogether. It would seem that the conditions existing among state. why the boys and especially as they appear remarkably young even . This the chief reason are small. Reche 's experience is in strong contradiction to the belief formerly taken for granted. It end of the development ceases. corresponding to the late secondary late sexual in characteristics also appear exceptionally is Matupi children. on the contrary. with the in height. 121 Reche remarks that is this strikingly late appear- ance of menstruation also known to the missionaries. Of importance is the fact that in the Matupi natives puberty coincides with the highest point of the curve of growth. in girls the eleventh to the fourteenth year).MATURITY AND DECLINE struated.

generally between fourteen and sixteen years. A. the development of the breast seems to coincide with the first menstruation. though it is generally copious in adults.. It must be added that the sexual late is differentiation also of secondary characteristics noticeable among pines other coloured races. with one exception . the first fifteenth to sixteenth year. and it was scanty in those seven- teen years old. menstruation generally appears in the Young males look very sixteenth year. result undeveloped up to the thought feeding. though it is well developed in the older men. this Neuhaus of late it maturity was the bad does not appear from his other descriptions that the economic conditions of the Papuans though are especially unfavourable. less it actually is. Among the Papuans of New Guinea occurs also sex maturity As Richard Neuhaus wrote. as.g. races. There was also no trace of a beard in seventeen-yearold boys. e. The . Jenks reports of the Igorots on Luzon that boys as well as girls attain puberty at a late age. and why their age seems much The first beginning of the change from the areola mamma to the budding breast shows itself among the Matupi girls not before the sixteenth year . among the Philip- and other Indonesian late. E. according to information given by missionaries who have lived for a long time among the natives on Tami and among the Jabim.122 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE than shortly before maturity. Axillary hair did not appear in sixteen-year-old Matupi girls.

Another Bastard woman. between the ages of thirteen and fifteen. trivial. Portman and Molesworth write that puberty appears in boys and Bodily growth girls round about the fifteenth year. three of her daughters at thirteen. One Bastard woman had first menstruated at the age of seventeen. the fourth. A girl with distinct anaemia stated that she had had her first period at sixteen Fischer years. Schultze reports that with the Hottentots the menstruation appears. " who was anaemic. no information to be had . who herself had her first menstruation at had two daughters from a white man who had reached puberty at sixteen and fifteen. and thirteen years. unfortunately. one at the age of sixteen. a pigmy race. There is.MATURITY AND DECLINE civilised 123 people settled among the Igorots definitely declare that the girls do not menstruate before they have reached the sixteenth or seventeenth Ilkano year. at seventeen. fourteen." knows of three girls that became mature L. her sister even as late as eighteen. who have lived a long time under European influence. first at sixteen. A considerable error as regards their age seems to be excluded with these people. and is in any case after maturity very makes the following statements about the Bastards in German South-west Africa Eugen Fischer : In one family five out of six daughters menstruated for the first time at the age of fifteen. seventeen years of age. is finished at eighteen years. as a rule. Of the Andamanese.

In the age class of thirteen to fourteen years four-fifths of the Apache and nine-tenths of the Pima girls older girls only one had already menstruated. 125 129) tried to determine the age of puberty among Indian girls of the south-west of the United States by their height. while of forty-six had not yet attained puberty. The puberty rites practised by them give no clue to the real age at the advent of puberty. In comparison it may be noted that. it This method is not without objection. even in summer. But was only between fifteen and seventeen that the girls . The climate is moderate in the country of the Apache and Pima Indians the days are . until then they acquired the typical womanly form " as Hrdlicka a male somewhat have. but the nights are generally cold in these regions." says. as definite state- ments of age are not to be had. appearance.124 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE about the negroes with regard to this subject. according to . Hrdlicka found that of those examined in the twelfth as or thirteenth year one-third of the Apache girls and many as three-quarters of the Pima girls had already menstruated. The first signs of breast development were noticed by Hrdlicka in clothed Indian maidens whose ages he it estimated to be from eleven to twelve years. decidedly hot in the low-lying regions. for is certain that individuals who have attained puberty are decidedly taller than persons of the same age who have not reached maturity. Ales Hrdlicka (pp. In youths the beard begins to grow at the fifteenth or sixteenth year.

though over 40 per cent. P. of 575 girls examined had not yet menstruated at the completed fifteenth year. Reche says." It is remarkable that. in America mature between the thirteenth and seventeenth year. Unfavourable conditions produce a retardation of puberty favourable conditions accelerate . sexual intercourse is begun at a very youthful age.MATURITY AND DECLINE H. the Indians become mature very early. It is possible is that on account of this the age of puberty girls lowered. and the same applies most likely to the Australians. Puberty is reached relatively most often between the ages of fourteen and fifteen. in contradistinction to the Melanesians. In India. late "It is conceivable that the characteristically maturity of a tropical race (like that of the Melanesians) may gradually have been acquired by the unfavourable influence of too hot a climate or of continual under- feeding acting on many generations. among the girls often long before the first menstruation. This may be the chief cause why the beginning of puberty varies individually by several years. it. Within one and the same race the conditions of life seem to have a great influence on the age of puberty and bodily development. so that injured who mature greater late are more easily and perish in number than the girls maturing . Bowditch's investigations four-fifths of the white girls born in 125 nearly Boston. as in Australia. There exists so far no definite explanation of the racial differences in the age of puberty.

are generally beyond their is prime Their straight figure covered with a disgusting accumulation of elasticity of fat. . their rapid development. from all countries of this continent fifty Numerous birth show that birth in is women over not quite clear how among the coloured races. procreation generally ceases with women of an age between statistics forty-five and fifty years. period is comparatively In North-west Brazil the Indian girls marry their reproductive as soon as in their tenth to twelfth year.126 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE who same are less injured earlier. as Just physical maturity. In Middle and Northern Europe. It the case stands in this respect Hrdlicka reports of the North American Indian women that with them the climacterium occurs apparently at about the same age It must be taken into as with European women. in the by the premature sexual The male sex may have been influenced direction through heredity. so is the cessation of generative power and bodily decline more marked in women than in men. The Indian women at the age of twenty. on account of Early maturity and marriage may be one of the chief causes of their rapid decline. Other women become very thin after several confinements. frequently and the movement gives way to indolence. women it age are can easily been reported of coloured women generally that they age rapidly. has and that short. consideration that accurate statements of wanting. years old is very rare. intercourse. and that the age of Indian Otherwise be greatly overrated.

running eyes In India the women of the Dravidian as well as of Their generative the Mongolian races age rapidly. women one P. often comes across real hag-like creatures with half-blind. is the pigmies the time of procreation said to be equally short (Portman and Molesworth). ethnographical literature only rarely gives facts with regard to this subject. The Australian women apparently reach the age of fifty years or more only exceptionally. and among old (Koch-Griinberg. Among Spencer and Gillen say that with the Australian women a rapid bodily decline takes place as early as the twenty-fifth and at the latest in the thirtieth year. really old man.149). Unfortunately. 297) mentions two Hottentot women and who had given birth another who still had at the age of forty-seven. power rarely lasts longer than the beginning of the forties. Jochelson (pp. her period at fifty-five.. II. and among them there was only one Schultze (p. Jochelson 's thorough-going investigations showed that of 284 persons only thirteen could possibly have been over sixty-five years old.) writes that the Koryak women age very rapidly. 413 et seq. .MATURITY AND DECLINE their features 127 become sharp and bony. Other travellers have made statements about the great age that the Koryaks are said to attain. They cease to bear children at about the age of forty. which cannot be attributed to exceptional privations or harsh treatment. Among the negresses late births also occur.

Die korperlichen Eigenschaften der Japaner.IX BIBLIOGRAPHY AMUNDSEN. Oxford. Das Sexuelle in der Volkerkunde. Sitten und Gebrauche Mitt. BUSCHAN. Leiden and New York. Leipzig. R. 211. Journal Anthropol. P. 1891. FERD. Die Sitten der Volker. E. H. The Growth of Children. Boston. 1882. 167 169. III. The Circumcision Ceremony among the Naivasha Masai. 1877. BAELZ. H. Leipzig. Das Wachstum der f. pp. Eighth Annual Report of the State Board of Health. E. BAELZ. Sem. Verhandl. GEORG. BUSCHAN. The Melanesians. BOWDITCH. speziell der Bantu Deutsch-Sudwestafrikas. Anthropologie. W. BAGGE. E. 1904 1909 (Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural BLUMENTRITT. 19141915. Die Nordwestpassage. 1912. 2. State of Massachusetts. CRAWLEY. BARTELS. Sprachen. Charakter. BRINCKER. d. 3. 1901. History). f. Vol. Philippinen. Inst. S. Geschlechter. 1908. GEORG. A. Bd. Stuttgart. M. Orient. Versuch einer Ethnographic der Gotha. S. Handbuch der Sexualwissenschaften. Miinchen. H. Exogamy and the Mating of Cousins. BOGORAS. 1893- Die Medizin der Naturvolker. R. Berliner Ges. . P. The Chukchee. d. CODRINGTON. 34.

Zur Urgeschichte der Ehe und Familie. HODSON. 1913. Landof en Volkenkunde. Part i. Leipzig. Erganzungsheft 5. II. ELLIS. Jena. The Evolution The Kacharis. ADOLF. d. FISCHER. HOLLIS. W. lien. H. London. Vol. The Naga Tribes Manipur. 1909. F. Stuttgart. and McDouGALL. T. Die Scham. FRAZER. Beitrage zur Volker- London. EYLMANN. 1913. Berlin. C. LEO. Oxford. A. DEEGENER. 1905. E. Und Afrika sprach den unstraflichen Athiopen. Census of India. i. S.L. A. The Pagan Tribes K of London. Vol. HOLLIS... Von der Hacke zum Pflug. B. S. The Masai. 1914. C. Charlottenburg. Poggieilanden in 1852. und Sprachen- kunde von Deutsch-Neuguinea. Phila- ENDLE. EUGEN. A. Borneo. ! : GAIT. 1918. Leipzig. Taal-. FRIEDERICI. London. CUNOW. C. 1908. C.BIBLIOGRAPHY Anthropological Essays presented to E. 1907. 1912. GERSON. Mitt. Oxford. Die Eingeborenen der Kolonie SiidaustraDie Berlin. ED. Leipzig. GEORG. 129 Oxford. 1911. HOSE. E. The Nandi. HAHN. 1888. Die Formen der Vergesellschaftung im of Modesty.. . Calcutta. 2nd ed. p. 1912. SEVERIJN. Tierreich. 3 Unter FROBENIUS. Verslag van een onderzoek der Tijdschrift vor Ind. delphia. 327. J. Totemism and Exogamy. Bonn. 1911. Rehobother Bastards. Deutschen Schutzgeb. 1913. a. Tylor. 1912. HINLOPEN u. H. Die menschliche Familie. P. G. 1919. HELLWALD.

1909. W. A. In : Maass. KtiLZ. 1912. 1912. Tropenhygiene). JENKS. Bd. KISSENBERTH. Vol. Lehrbuch der Anthropologie. HOWITT. THEODOR. W. KNOCHE. Zeit- schrift fur Ethnologic. 1913. RUDOLF. Manila. Leipzig. Zeitschrift fur Eth- KLEIWEG DE ZWAAN. 1914. Madras. Leiden and New York. KOCH-GRUNBERG. 1914. W. RUDOLF. 1911. 1912. 1919 (Beiheft zum Archiv fur Schiffs. Berlin. . Beobachtungen iiber Geschlechtsleben und Niederkunft auf der Osterinsel. i. Durch Zentralsumatra. LANG. Halbinsel. Jena. Einige Bemerkungen iiber die Uti-Krag. J. JAGORS NACHLAB. E. The Bontoc Igorot. Araguayareise. Australian Problems. The Koryak. Essays presented to Oxford. Ebenda. JOCHELSON. Washington. C. Das sogenannte Manner kindbett. ALES. KUNIKE. HUGO. 1910. Zwei Jahre unter den bei Biologie und Pathologic des Nachwuchses den Naturvolkern der deutschen Schutzgebiete.u. bauer. E. Physiological and Medical Observa- tions among A. Die Inlandstamme der malayischen Jena. Berlin. W. 1905. Cochin and Castes. A. A. Tribes IYER. 1905. Indianern. 1904. 1908. Tylor. 1907. 1908 (Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History). Berlin. Heilkunde der Minangka2. MARTIN. P. Zeitschrift fur Ethnologic. the Indians. KNOCHE.130 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE tralia. The Native Tribes of South-east AusLondon. HRDLICKA. L. B. nologie. MARTIN. K.

Leipzig. RECHE. PEAL. 1903. B. Jahrg. J. 131 London. MEYER. Record of the AndaMS.. R. W. Manila. M. MULLER. RIVERS.BIBLIOGRAPHY McLENNAN. W. F. NEUHAUSS. The Negrito of Zambales. PLAYFAIR. L. 41. der Anthrop. Beitrage zur Ethnographic und Anthropologie der Somal usw. 1908. D. Journal of the Anthropological Institute. R. Zeitschrift fur Ethnologic. PHILIPP. 1891. 1905. MULLER. London. Studies in Ancient History. FERDINAND VON. 1911. bei den 7. Anthropol. H. und B ARTELS. Zeitschrift fur Ethnologic. Die Urgesellschaft. OTTO. 1878. 644 683. S. 1886. d. On the Morong. REITZENSTEIN. NIEUWENHUIS. Eskimoleben. 1906. in British Museum. MORGAN. . Leipzig. Berlin. S. Die Wildenstamme der Insel Formosa. MERKER. 1909. 7. 22. 9. 1904. Mitt. A. M. Der Kausalzusammenhang zwischen Geschlechtsverkehr und Empfangnis in Glaube und Brauch der Natur. Vol. 41. Aufl. PAULITSCHKE. London. NANSEN. i. 1909.. manese. The Garos. 1893 1898. PLOB. Quer durch Borneo. Leiden. Jahrg.und Kulturvolker. Die Masai. 1886. The Toda. Das sexuelle Leben der Naturvolker. Bd. E. REED. F. Gesellschaft Wien. Untersuchungen fiber das Wachstum und Korredie Geschlechtsreife bei melanesischen Kindern. Nr. Leipzig. Stuttgart. W. H. Ges. JOSEF. 1910. Das Weib in der Natur- und Volkerkunde. Uber die Perforation des Penis Malayen. Berlin.. 1906. spondenzbl. W. Bd. H. Berlin. Deutsch-Neuguinea. f. 1904. PORTMAN and MOLESWORTH. A. A.

London. and GILLEN. logical Institute. BALDWIN. ROSCOE. London. L. & Augusta-Flu -Expedition. WILHELM. 1914. und Mannerbiinde. 1908. 1911. London. C. 1904. the Origin of the Classificatory Essays presented to E. SPENCER. SCHWEINFURTH. THOMSON. Tylor. On System of Relationship. SARASIN. of SELIGMANN. The Native Tribes of Central Australia. HEINRICH. Vol. Ethno-psychologische Studien. 1913. London. Berlin. ROSCOE. 3rd ed. Ethnographische Ergebnisse der Kaiserin. 1907. Journal of the AnthropoFRITZ. 1899. Leipzig.132 SEXUAL LIFE OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE W. 3. in Sudamerika. R. ROESIKE. KARL v. London. Unter den Naturvolkern Zentralbrasiliens. THEAL. BASIL H. 1908. JOHN. 1910. 1907. R. A. Altersklassen Jena. F. RIVERS. Guinea. and GILLEN. D. SCHULTZE. schaftlicher Forschungsreisen auf Ceylon. 1902. 37. 1892 The Baganda. G. B. SCHURTZ. The Bahima. SPENCER. Aus Namaland und Kalahari. 1894. F. Leip- . Territory of Australia. GEORG. BALDWIN. M. The Yellow and Dark-skinned People of Africa South of the Zambesi. H. 1910. The Northern Tribes of Central Australia. The Melanesians British New Cambridge. Zeitschrift fur Ethnologic. JOHN. zig. G. Native Tribes of the Northern London. BALDWIN. Kulturkreise und Kulturschichten Zeitschrift fur Ethnologic. 1914. Im Herzen von Afrika. The Fijians. Wies- SCHMIDT. THURNWALD. Ergebnisse naturwissenBd. STEINEN. Oxford. baden. PAUL und 1893. Berlin. SPENCER.

G. Forschungsreise Berlin. THE WHITEFRIARS PRESS LTD. ROBERT W. ethnogr. -Indie. WEULE. History of Human 1891. Erg. E. London. D. KARL. . Ergebnisse meiner den Siidosten Deutsch-Osta. d. The Mafulu. London. Leiden. WILKEN. afrikas..- Heft i. A. WILLIAMSON. 133 Marriage. 1893. 1912. 1908. Wissenschaftliche in Mitt. Schutzgeb. Handleiding voor de vergelijkende Volkenkunde van Nederl.. LONDON AND TONBRIDGE.BIBLIOGRAPHY WESTERMARCK.


Price 7s. LONDON. 13/4). 6d. best that we have seen.. "We have only praise for the result of Dr. " Dr. M. 6d." HAVELOCK ELLIS in Eugenics Review.D. non-technical language expounds the main facts of sex.. "Contains not a single dry page far and away the most compact and complete account of evolution in all its aspects.R. but at the same time scientific and comprehensive. net (by post. ". containing 55 Illustrations. THE FIRST PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTION Second Edition. and it deserves to be widely read. Large Crown 8vo. net (by post. i . 8/1). who is A. 6d." The Prescriber. especially with regard to biology and physiology. 13/6). 5 & 6 SOHO SQUARE. L. Large Crown 8vo. their working and significance. By SEX LORE. the book is a successful attempt to deal with a difficult subject. AN ENQUIRY INTO MODERN TENDENCIES Price 12s. Dr. Marriage. S. He treats with knowledge all the urgent sexual questions and sexual phenomena." The Times. and Parenthood. which should prove invaluable for educative purposes..C." Globe. 6d. Herbert is IN SEXUAL ETHICS net (by post.R. He has certainly produced the confidence in the hands of any educated person. Price (by post. BLACK. Revised. & C.S.. 7s. HERBERT.." " It is therefore a real satisfaction to find a sex manual which may be placed with . FUNDAMENTALS Large Crown 8vo. PUBLISHED BY 4.. net (by post. HERBERT. a thoughtful and enlightened writer. survey of our present knowledge concerning the laws of heredity. fully informed with regard to the modern literature and modern research on sexual matters. normal and abnormal. 8/1)." Eugenics Review. 8/1). net PHYSIOLOGY & PSYCHOLOGY OF SEX Large Crown 8vo.P." in a tactful in simple. of the principal phenomena of generation. a simple statement. containing 75 Price Illustrations. containing 90 trations. Large Crown 8vo. Primer on Courtship. Herbert's book is the Cambridge Review.C. and she treats this delicate subject "The author Medical Times. and attempts to construct a sexual ethic on biological and physiological facts. LTD. Cloth. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE 7s. with 49 Illustrations in the Text. ." Aberdeen Daily Journal. M. may be attaining to left manhood with confidence in the hands of any educated person or womanhood. ". "For . best little manual which we yet possess in this field. expressed in language as far as possible free from technicalities. A special feature of the book is the large number of illustrations. 6d. THE FIRST PRINCIPLES OF HEREDITY Second Edition. A Mrs.' but parents and teachers would be well advised to peruse the book. The volume is intended for the ' younger generation. W. Herbert's attempt to provide us with a simple and brief.By S. manner. Illus- Price 12s..


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