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IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION THROUGH ICT ADOPTION: A CASE OF PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MBARARA DISTRICT

BY

ODHIAMBO ANITA AKINYI MUBS/07/02/7102

A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE AND RESEARCH CENTRE IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ENTREPRENUERSHIP AND SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT OF MAKERERE UNIVERSITY

JANUARY 2012

DECLARATION

I, Odhiambo Anita Akinyi declare that this report is a result of independent research and has not been submitted to any other University or institution for the award of any academic qualification.

Signature

!ate O!"#$%&' A(#)$ A*#(+# MUBS/07/02/7102

APPROVAL

"his research report has been submitted for e#amination with my approval as a University supervisor.

S#,($)-./ 00000000000

D$)/0000000000000

MR1 MOYA MUSA SUPERVISOR

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DEDICATION "his work is dedicated to my family.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to e#tend special thanks to my supervisor $r. $oya $usa for his undivided support, patience and professional guidance which he provided to me throughout the entire report writing. I would also like to thank all my lecturers and classmates at the University who endeavored to provide me with knowledge and guidance during the entire academic programme.

I would like to specifically mention my family and friends who endured the challenging times and always encouraged me greatly. I would also like to deeply thank the participating respondents from the different school in $barara district who spared time from their busy schedules to read and respond to the questionnaires.

I am greatly indebted to all the people whose support made this study a success. "hough I am not able to mention all of them by name, their various contributions will always be remembered and held dear.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS !%&'A(A"IO).................................................................................................................................i A**(O+A'.......................................................................................................................................ii !%!I&A"IO)...................................................................................................................................iii A&,)O-'%!.%$%)".................................................................................................................iv "A/'% O0 &O)"%)"S....................................................................................................................v 'IS" O0 "A/'%S...........................................................................................................................viii A/S"(A&".......................................................................................................................................#i &1A*"%( O)%.................................................................................................................................2 I)"(O!U&"IO)..............................................................................................................................2 2.2 /ackground to the Study...............................................................................................................2 2.3 Statement of the *roblem..............................................................................................................4 2.4 *urpose of the Study ....................................................................................................................4 2.5 Ob6ectives of the Study.................................................................................................................4 2.7 (esearch 8uestions....................................................................................................................5 2.9 Scope of the Study........................................................................................................................5 2.: Significance of the Study..............................................................................................................5 2.; Organi<ation of the (esearch (eport ...........................................................................................7 &1A*"%( "-O................................................................................................................................9 'I"%(A"U(% (%+I%-...................................................................................................................9 3.2 Introduction...................................................................................................................................9 3.3 Overview of I&" Adoption...........................................................................................................9 3.3.3 "heories of I&" Adoption..........................................................................................................; 3.4 "he )eed for I&" Adoption..........................................................................................................= 3.5 &hallenges of I&" adoption in Secondary Schools....................................................................2> 3.7 Strategies to Improve Secondary Schools *erformance through I&" Adoption........................23 &1A*"%( "1(%%..........................................................................................................................29 (%S%A(&1 $%"1O!O'O.?......................................................................................................29 4.2 Introduction.................................................................................................................................29 4.3 (esearch design .....................................................................................................................29 4.4 Study *opulation ........................................................................................................................29 4.5 Sample Si<e and Sampling "echnique........................................................................................29 "able 4.2@ Sample Si<e.....................................................................................................................2: Simple random sampling was used to select the respondents according to their respective groups and purposive random sampling was used to select the respondents from the groups.....................2: 4.7 !ata sources ...........................................................................................................................2: 4.9 !ata &ollection Instruments......................................................................................................2; *rimary data was collected using a structured questionnaire that was self administered. "he questionnaires were delivered physically to the respondents participating in the study so as to ensure an acceptable response rate for the study. "he questionnaire were administered at the workplace setting to diminish the effect of bias among the respondents. .......................................2; 4.: $easurement of +ariables.........................................................................................................2; ScalesAitems from previous studies were adapted and used to measure the study variables. I&" adoption was measured using scales adapted from Bhao C 0rank D3>>4E, whereas, performance was measured using scales adapted from -ima C 'awler D3>>:E. (esponses to the questions were

anchored on a 7 point 'ikert scale ranging fromF 7G strongly agree, 5G agree, 4 H not sure, 3 H disagree and 2G strongly disagree. ....................................................................................................2; 4.; +alidity and (eliability of research instrument........................................................................2; "able 4.3@ (eliability &oefficients....................................................................................................2= 4.= !ata Analysis and *resentation ..............................................................................................2= 4.2> 'imitations of the study .......................................................................................................2= 4.22 %thical considerations...............................................................................................................3> &1A*"%( 0OU(.............................................................................................................................32 *(%S%)"A"IO) A)! I)"%(*(%"A"IO) O0 0I)!I).S......................................................32 5.2 Introduction.................................................................................................................................32 5.3 Sample &haracteristics................................................................................................................32 5.3.2 .ender distribution of the (espondents...................................................................................32 "able 5.2@ .ender..............................................................................................................................33 Out of the 2:= responses collected according to table 5.2 above, 75.3I of the respondents were male whereas, 57.;I were female. 0rom the results itJs clear that there was a si<eable distribution of responses from the different gender categories............................................................................33 5.3.3 Age of respondent....................................................................................................................33 "able 5.3@ Age group........................................................................................................................33 5.3.4 %mployment "enure distribution ............................................................................................34 "able 5.4@ !uration working with School.........................................................................................34 "he results on employment tenure presented in table 5.4 above, shows that the ma6ority of the respondents D5>.3IE had been employed by schools for 5G7 years whereas, 4>.:I had been employed for a period of 3G4 years, 23.;I had been employed for less than 2 year, =.7I had been employed for over 2> years and lastly 9.:I had been employed for 9G2> years. 0rom the results, more than :>I of the respondents had been employed for a period of 3G7 years which is indication that the ma6ority of the respondents were still in the e#perience acquisition process.....34 5.3.5 *osition distribution of the (espondents.................................................................................34 "able 5.5@ *osition held....................................................................................................................35 According to the results presented in table 5.5 above, 2>.:I of the respondents were head teachers, the heads of departments accounted for 2=.:I, the *"A members who were the ma6ority accounted for 4;.;I, the other categories of staff accounted for 3;.:I whereas, 3.3I was accounted for by prefects. 0rom the results it is clears that from the respondents selected to comprise the sample, there was a fair distribution of the respondentsJ across the different levels of the hierarchy......................................................................................................................................35 5.3.5 1ighest 'evel of %ducation distribution .................................................................................35 "able 5.7@ 1ighest level of %ducation...............................................................................................35 0rom the findings in table 5.7 above, more that 4:.5I of the respondents possessed degree level of education, 25.7I were masters degree holders, 45.2I held other qualifications, ;.5I were diploma holders and 7.9I possessed *h! level of education. "his is indication that the provided responses were acquired for the respondents who were knowledgeable to provide the required information for the study..................................................................................................................37 5.3.5 School (espondent distribution ..............................................................................................37 "able 5.9@ School..............................................................................................................................37 5.4 Ob6ective One@ 'evel of I&" adoption in public secondary schools..........................................39 "able 5.:@ level of I&" adoption in public secondary Schools.........................................................3: 5.5 &hallenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools...........................................................3;

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"able 5.;@ &hallenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools..............................................3= 5.7 Strategies to improve I&" adoption in public secondary schools...............................................4> "able 5.=@ &hallenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools..............................................42 &1A*"%( 0I+%..............................................................................................................................44 !IS&USSIO), &O)&'USIO) A)! (%&O$$%)!A"IO)S....................................................44 44 7.2 Introduction.................................................................................................................................44 7.3 !iscussion of 0indings................................................................................................................44 7.3.2 'evel of I&" adoption in public secondary schools................................................................44 7.3.3 &hallenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools........................................................45 7.3.4 Strategies to improve I&" adoption in public secondary schools............................................45 7.4 &onclusion..................................................................................................................................49 7.5 (ecommendations.......................................................................................................................4: (%0%(%)&%S.................................................................................................................................4= A**%)!IK I....................................................................................................................................54 D,ey@ 5Grelevant D(E, 4Gquite relevant D8(E, 3Gsomewhat relevant DS(E, 2Gnot relevant D)(EE.......57 D,ey@ 5Grelevant D(E, 4Gquite relevant D8(E, 3Gsomewhat relevant DS(E, 2Gnot relevant D)(EE.......57 D,ey@ 5Grelevant D(E, 4Gquite relevant D8(E, 3Gsomewhat relevant DS(E, 2Gnot relevant D)(EE.......59 A**%)!IK II...................................................................................................................................5:

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LIST OF TABLES !%&'A(A"IO).................................................................................................................................i A**(O+A'.......................................................................................................................................ii !%!I&A"IO)...................................................................................................................................iii A&,)O-'%!.%$%)".................................................................................................................iv "A/'% O0 &O)"%)"S....................................................................................................................v 'IS" O0 "A/'%S...........................................................................................................................viii A/S"(A&".......................................................................................................................................#i &1A*"%( O)%.................................................................................................................................2 I)"(O!U&"IO)..............................................................................................................................2 2.2 /ackground to the Study...............................................................................................................2 2.3 Statement of the *roblem..............................................................................................................4 2.4 *urpose of the Study ....................................................................................................................4 2.5 Ob6ectives of the Study.................................................................................................................4 2.7 (esearch 8uestions....................................................................................................................5 2.9 Scope of the Study........................................................................................................................5 2.: Significance of the Study..............................................................................................................5 2.; Organi<ation of the (esearch (eport ...........................................................................................7 &1A*"%( "-O................................................................................................................................9 'I"%(A"U(% (%+I%-...................................................................................................................9 3.2 Introduction...................................................................................................................................9 3.3 Overview of I&" Adoption...........................................................................................................9 3.3.3 "heories of I&" Adoption..........................................................................................................; 3.4 "he )eed for I&" Adoption..........................................................................................................= 3.5 &hallenges of I&" adoption in Secondary Schools....................................................................2> 3.7 Strategies to Improve Secondary Schools *erformance through I&" Adoption........................23 &1A*"%( "1(%%..........................................................................................................................29 (%S%A(&1 $%"1O!O'O.?......................................................................................................29 4.2 Introduction.................................................................................................................................29 4.3 (esearch design .....................................................................................................................29 4.4 Study *opulation ........................................................................................................................29 4.5 Sample Si<e and Sampling "echnique........................................................................................29 "able 4.2@ Sample Si<e.....................................................................................................................2: Simple random sampling was used to select the respondents according to their respective groups and purposive random sampling was used to select the respondents from the groups.....................2: 4.7 !ata sources ...........................................................................................................................2: 4.9 !ata &ollection Instruments......................................................................................................2; *rimary data was collected using a structured questionnaire that was self administered. "he questionnaires were delivered physically to the respondents participating in the study so as to ensure an acceptable response rate for the study. "he questionnaire were administered at the workplace setting to diminish the effect of bias among the respondents. .......................................2; 4.: $easurement of +ariables.........................................................................................................2; ScalesAitems from previous studies were adapted and used to measure the study variables. I&" adoption was measured using scales adapted from Bhao C 0rank D3>>4E, whereas, performance was measured using scales adapted from -ima C 'awler D3>>:E. (esponses to the questions were viii

anchored on a 7 point 'ikert scale ranging fromF 7G strongly agree, 5G agree, 4 H not sure, 3 H disagree and 2G strongly disagree. ....................................................................................................2; 4.; +alidity and (eliability of research instrument........................................................................2; "able 4.3@ (eliability &oefficients....................................................................................................2= 4.= !ata Analysis and *resentation ..............................................................................................2= 4.2> 'imitations of the study .......................................................................................................2= 4.22 %thical considerations...............................................................................................................3> &1A*"%( 0OU(.............................................................................................................................32 *(%S%)"A"IO) A)! I)"%(*(%"A"IO) O0 0I)!I).S......................................................32 5.2 Introduction.................................................................................................................................32 5.3 Sample &haracteristics................................................................................................................32 5.3.2 .ender distribution of the (espondents...................................................................................32 "able 5.2@ .ender..............................................................................................................................33 Out of the 2:= responses collected according to table 5.2 above, 75.3I of the respondents were male whereas, 57.;I were female. 0rom the results itJs clear that there was a si<eable distribution of responses from the different gender categories............................................................................33 5.3.3 Age of respondent....................................................................................................................33 "able 5.3@ Age group........................................................................................................................33 5.3.4 %mployment "enure distribution ............................................................................................34 "able 5.4@ !uration working with School.........................................................................................34 "he results on employment tenure presented in table 5.4 above, shows that the ma6ority of the respondents D5>.3IE had been employed by schools for 5G7 years whereas, 4>.:I had been employed for a period of 3G4 years, 23.;I had been employed for less than 2 year, =.7I had been employed for over 2> years and lastly 9.:I had been employed for 9G2> years. 0rom the results, more than :>I of the respondents had been employed for a period of 3G7 years which is indication that the ma6ority of the respondents were still in the e#perience acquisition process.....34 5.3.5 *osition distribution of the (espondents.................................................................................34 "able 5.5@ *osition held....................................................................................................................35 According to the results presented in table 5.5 above, 2>.:I of the respondents were head teachers, the heads of departments accounted for 2=.:I, the *"A members who were the ma6ority accounted for 4;.;I, the other categories of staff accounted for 3;.:I whereas, 3.3I was accounted for by prefects. 0rom the results it is clears that from the respondents selected to comprise the sample, there was a fair distribution of the respondentsJ across the different levels of the hierarchy......................................................................................................................................35 5.3.5 1ighest 'evel of %ducation distribution .................................................................................35 "able 5.7@ 1ighest level of %ducation...............................................................................................35 0rom the findings in table 5.7 above, more that 4:.5I of the respondents possessed degree level of education, 25.7I were masters degree holders, 45.2I held other qualifications, ;.5I were diploma holders and 7.9I possessed *h! level of education. "his is indication that the provided responses were acquired for the respondents who were knowledgeable to provide the required information for the study..................................................................................................................37 5.3.5 School (espondent distribution ..............................................................................................37 "able 5.9@ School..............................................................................................................................37 5.4 Ob6ective One@ 'evel of I&" adoption in public secondary schools..........................................39 "able 5.:@ level of I&" adoption in public secondary Schools.........................................................3: 5.5 &hallenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools...........................................................3;

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"able 5.;@ &hallenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools..............................................3= 5.7 Strategies to improve I&" adoption in public secondary schools...............................................4> "able 5.=@ &hallenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools..............................................42 &1A*"%( 0I+%..............................................................................................................................44 !IS&USSIO), &O)&'USIO) A)! (%&O$$%)!A"IO)S....................................................44 44 7.2 Introduction.................................................................................................................................44 7.3 !iscussion of 0indings................................................................................................................44 7.3.2 'evel of I&" adoption in public secondary schools................................................................44 7.3.3 &hallenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools........................................................45 7.3.4 Strategies to improve I&" adoption in public secondary schools............................................45 7.4 &onclusion..................................................................................................................................49 7.5 (ecommendations.......................................................................................................................4: (%0%(%)&%S.................................................................................................................................4= A**%)!IK I....................................................................................................................................54 D,ey@ 5Grelevant D(E, 4Gquite relevant D8(E, 3Gsomewhat relevant DS(E, 2Gnot relevant D)(EE.......57 D,ey@ 5Grelevant D(E, 4Gquite relevant D8(E, 3Gsomewhat relevant DS(E, 2Gnot relevant D)(EE.......57 D,ey@ 5Grelevant D(E, 4Gquite relevant D8(E, 3Gsomewhat relevant DS(E, 2Gnot relevant D)(EE.......59 A**%)!IK II...................................................................................................................................5:

ABSTRACT "he purpose of the study was to improve the performance of secondary school education through I&" adoption in public secondary schools in $barara district. "he study employed a cross sectional survey design and data was colleted by use of a self administered questionnaire. "he data was analy<ed using the Statistical *ackage for Social Sciences DS*SS +.29E. In general, the findings on the level of I&" adoption in public secondary schools revealed that the staff in public secondary schools to some level possessed the required competencies to operate I&"s, the management in schools identified the critical management and specialist competencies required to operate I&"s so as to meet the demands of the clients, the core competencies of I&"s were clearly defined, the schools used I&"s to develop documents for different activities, store documents, create databases for students and staff, for records management and develop teaching time tables. Among the challenges identified by during the study were the high cost of setting up and maintaining I&"s, inadequate funds, lack of e#pertiseDsE in I" to operate I&"s, insufficient financial support for I&"s, I&"s not being perceived as an advantage at all, lack of commitment and involvement by all employees and lack of I&"s technical staff. "his is confirmation that the schools had failed to understudy the entire process that should be followed during I&" adoption which left pertinent issues to be resolved not addressed and resulted into having ma6or constraints during I&" adoption. Among the strategies to mitigate the challenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools were to identify the sources of funds to cover the costs of setting up and maintaining I&"s, training of staff on how to operate and appreciate the I&"s, attitude change among staff as a means of embracing the I&"s, sourcing for the required e#pertiseDsE in I", stakeholder involvement at different stages of the implementation process and focus on set goals.

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

111 B$2*,.'-(! )' )"/ S)-!+ Information and communication technologies DI&"E are electronic technologies used for information storage and retrieval D?usuf, 3>>7E. !evelopment is partly determined by the ability to establish a synergistic interaction between technological innovation and human values D)wagwu, 3>>9E. According to /rakel C &hisenga D3>>4E, the field of education has been affected by I&"s, which have undoubtedly affected teaching, learning, and research. AlG Ansari D3>>9E asserts that I&"s have the potential to accelerate, enrich, and deepen skills, to motivate and engage students, to help relate school e#perience to work practices, create economic viability for tomorrowLs workers, as well as strengthening teaching and helping schools change. In a rapidly changing world, basic education is essential for an individual to be able to access and apply information. Unfortunately, many developing countries, especially in Africa, are still low in I&" application and use in the education sector DAduwaG Ogiegbean and Iyamu, 3>>7E.

"he use of I&" in education has the potential to enhance the quality of teaching and learning, the research productivity of teachers and students, and the management and effectiveness of institutions D,ashorda et al. 3>>:E. 1owever, opportunities for reali<ing the benefits of using I&" in education face a number of challenges in the developing countries. Access to I&" facilities is a ma6or challenge facing most African countries, with a ratio of one computer to 27> students against the ratio of 2@27 students in the developed countries. A review of 32= studies on the use of technology in education consistently found that students in technology 2

rich environments e#perienced positive effects on performance in all sub6ect areas D'ook, 3>>7E. In particular, /ecta D3>>4E pointed out that I&" provide fast and accurate feedback to students, and speed up computations and graphing, thus freeing students to focus on strategies and interpretation. As it adopts I&" in education, Uganda faces the same challenges as most developing economies such as poorly developed I&" infrastructure, high bandwidth costs, an unreliable supply of electricity, and a general lack of resources to meet a broad spectrum of needs. 1owever, with the rapid emergence of wireless network capacity and the ubiquitous growth of mobile phones, the conte#t of the infrastructure is changing. A national I&" policy is in place and an education sector I&" policy is before &abinet. "he $inistry of %ducation and Sports is taking steps to coGordinate I&" development and has allocated resources to support implementation of its I&" strategy. According to a report based on 3>>4 data, Uganda had only 2>9 of its 24,474 primary and 3,>:> secondary schools connected to the Internet. Uconnect and School)et Uganda, two ma6or ).Os involved in I&"s for schools, led these pro6ects. A recent study of selected schools in the country showed student@ computer ratios ranging from 3>G4>@2 in secondary schools D)didde et al., 3>>=E. "his is far from representative, however, because only a few schools, all located in or near the capital city, were used in the study. &onnectivity is much more prevalent in urban than rural schools, basically because access to I&" infrastructure for schools mirrors the national ruralGurban divide. "he more specific factors constraining connectivity in rural areas are the overall poor communications infrastructure, low electricity coverage, and high capital costs involved in setting up a

computer laboratory. Although many schools have computers as a result of initiatives with ).Os, religious organisations, and international donors, few are connected to the Internet DAginam, 3>>9E. "hose that are in place are typically used for teaching basic computer skills and administrative purposes. 1owever, availability of I&" had impacted on educators in a limited though notable way in the areas of lesson planning, in class teaching, evaluation methods, teacherAlearner communication and reflection on teaching DibidE. 112 S)$)/%/() '3 )"/ P.'&4/% "here are overarching policies of UgandaJs education, which strongly emphasi<e the importance of secondary education in national development. According to the student regional statistics, the ma6ority of senior secondary schools in $barara district still record high failure rates averaged at :>I. 0or e#ample in the Uganda Advanced &ertificate %ducation results for 3>>=, only 25.3I of the candidates in $barara district passed DUganda %ducation Sector Survey (eport, 3>>=E. According to the (ed *epper $arch, D3>2>E, as a result of poor performance in the UA&% e#ams, the students of )tare School went on strike. &onsidering the influence of I&" on students and its importance as a primary influencer on the aspirations of students, it could be argued that the academic achievement of the students may be enhanced or hindered depending on the school level of I&" use.

115 P-.6'7/ '3 )"/ S)-!+ "he study sought to improve the performance of secondary school education through I&" adoption in public secondary schools in $barara district.

118 O&9/2)#:/7 '3 )"/ S)-!+ iE "o e#amine the level of I&" adoption in public secondary schools in $barara district. 4

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"o e#amine the challenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools in $barara district.

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"o suggest strategies that can be used to improve public secondary schools performance through I&" adoption in $barara district.

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R/7/$.2" Q-/7)#'(7 iE iiE -hat is the level of I&" adoption in public secondary schools in $barara districtM -hat are the challenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools in $barara districtM iiiE -hat strategies that can be proposed to improve public secondary schools performance through I&" adoption in $barara districtM

11< S2'6/ '3 )"/ S)-!+ G/',.$6"#2$4 72'6/: "he study was carried out in $barara district among 24 AGlevel government aided secondary schools. C'()/() 72'6/: "he study sought to improve the performance of secondary school education through I&" adoption in public secondary schools in $barara district. "he study focused on level of I&" adoption, challenges faced during I&" adoption and the strategies to mitigate the challenges of I&" adoption in government aided school in $barara district. 117 S#,(#3#2$(2/ '3 )"/ S)-!+ iE It is hoped that the study will add to the e#isting pool of knowledge and debate on I&" adoption and studentsJ academic performance in public secondary schools, by

drawing empirical evidence from a government aided institution of higher learning which will be used as a future reference for other researchers. iiE It is hoped that the findings and recommendations will be useful to organi<ational policy makers in understanding the dynamics of the importance of I&" adoption in relation to studentsJ academic performance in public secondary schools. 11= O.,$(#>$)#'( '3 )"/ R/7/$.2" R/6'.) "he study was organi<ed in five chapters. &hapter one introduced and discussed the background to the study, the statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research ob6ectives and questions, the scope of the study, significance of the study and organi<ation of the research report. &hapter two comprised of the review of the literature that is relevant to the ob6ectives of the study. &hapter three, a description of the methodology was done. In this chapter the research design, study area and population, the sample si<e, sampling design, data sources and data collection methods as well as methods of presentation, interpretation and analysis of the findings will be discussed. In &hapter four, a presentation, interpretation and analysis of findings of the study in light of the research ob6ectives and questions was done. 0inally &hapter five gave the conclusion and recommendations that were derived from the discussions and interpretation of findings in the previous chapters.

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

211 I().'!-2)#'( Organi<ationsJ information systems are its nerves, without which its operating and maintenance systems would not function. $ost organi<ations have now set computers on to the task, for information technology has increased both the capacity and fle#ibility of information systems. &omputer networks stretch laterally as well as vertically through an organi<ation, so that staff can assess information in relation to other parts of the organi<ation independently from senior management.

212 O:/.:#/? '3 ICT A!'6)#'( Information and communication technologies DI&"E are electronic technologies used for information storage and retrieval. !evelopment is partly determined by the ability to establish a synergistic interaction between technological innovation and human values. "he rapid rate at which I&"s have evolved since the mid 3>th century, the convergence and pervasiveness of I&"s, give them a strong role in development and globali<ation D)wagwu, 3>>9E. I&"s have a significant impact on all areas of human activity D/rakel and &hisenga, 3>>4E. "he field of education has been affected by I&"s, which have undoubtedly affected teaching, learning, and research D?usuf, 3>>7E. A great deal of research has proven the benefits to the quality of education DAlGAnsari, 3>>9E. I&"s have the potential to accelerate, enrich, and deepen skills, to motivate and engage students, to help relate school e#perience to work practices, create economic viability for tomorrowLs workers, as well as strengthening

teaching and helping schools change D!avis and "earle, 2===F 'emke and &oughlin, 2==;F cited by ?usuf, 3>>7E. In a rapidly changing world, basic education is essential for an individual to be able to access and apply information. Such ability must find include I&"s in the global village. "he %conomic &ommission for Africa has indicated that the ability to access and use information is no longer a lu#ury, but a necessity for development. Unfortunately, many developing counties, especially in Africa, are still low in I&" application and use DAduwaGOgiegbean and Iyamu, 3>>7E. A review of 32= studies on the use of technology in education consistently found that students in technology rich environments e#perienced positive effects on performance in all sub6ect areas D'ook, 3>>7E. In particular, /ecta D3>>4E pointed out that I&" provide fast and accurate feedback to students, and speed up computations and graphing, thus freeing students to focus on strategies and interpretation. 0urther, use of interactive multimedia software, for e#ample, motivates students and leads to improved performance. In fact, studies showed that more students finished high school and many more consider attending college where they routinely learned and studied with technology D/ecta, 3>>4E. /arak D3>>5E pointed further revealed that the use of I&"s in education would promote deep learning, and allows schools to respond better to the varying needs of the students. !espite the apparent benefits of the use of I&" for educational purpose, studies showed that in many cases, the learning potential of I&" is deprived as many teachers are still not fully I&" literate and do not use it in their teaching. Studies on teachersJ readiness for I&" generally, suggest that there is still a long way to go before schools in the region will be able to take full advantage of the opportunities provided by 32st century technology D?aJacob et.

al., 3>>7F So C *aula, 3>>9E. /arak D3>>9E reveals that while teachers e#ploit I&" for their own learning, they are cautious about integrating advanced technologies in schools. "he study also suggests that while teachers recogni<e the potential of technology in stimulating studentsJ learning and making school studies relevant to realGlife conte#ts, they do not think that I&" is preferable for classGbased instruction for promoting cooperation and reflection in learning. 21212 T"/'.#/7 '3 ICT A!'6)#'( 0red !avis D2=;9E developed the "A$ foundation to e#plain how and when users decide to accept and use a technology. "he main elements of !avisJs "A$ model are Nperceived usefulnessO and Nperceived ease of use.O "he model suggests that when users are presented with a new software package, Nperceived usefulnessO and Nperceived ease of useO influence their decisions about how and when they will use the new software. "A$ is an adaptation of the "heory of (easoned Action D"(AE to the field of information systems. "A$ posits that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use determine an individualLs intention to use a system with intention to use serving as a mediator of actual system use. *erceived usefulness is also seen as being directly impacted by perceived ease of use D+enkatesh C !avis, 3>>>E. "he literature review shows that there are many attempts to evaluate, integrate, and e#tend different models and approaches for analy<ing the implications of the "A$ theory. !ifferent researchers have adopted different measures for technology in order to understand its usage. "he different measurement criteria for evaluating technology usage included looking at technology as an entertainment tool DonGline gamesE, a task oriented tool Dsoftware for increasing organi<ation productivityE, a learning tool Dsoftware for school purposesE, and an informationGseeking tool DInternetE D+enkatesh, $orris, !avis C !avis, 3>>4E. "herefore,

"(A and "A$, both of which have strong behavioural elements, assume that when someone forms an intention to act, that they will be free to act without limitation. In practice constraints such as limited ability, time, environmental or organisational limits, and unconscious habits will limit the freedom to act. 215 T"/ N//! 3'. ICT A!'6)#'( Improved secondary education is essential to the creation of effective human capital in any country D%voh, 3>>:E. "he need for I&" in secondary schools cannot be overemphasi<ed. In this technologyGdriven age, everyone requires I&" competence to survive. Organi<ations are finding it very necessary to train and reGtrain their employees to establish or increase their knowledge of computers and other I&" facilities DAdomi and Anie, 3>>9F "yler, 2==;E. "his calls for early acquisition of I&" skills by students. "he ability to use computers effectively has become an essential part of everyoneLs education. Skills such as bookkeeping, clerical and administrative work, stocktaking, and so forth, now constitute a set of computeri<ed practices that form the core I" skills package@ spreadsheets, word processors, and databases D(effell and -hitworth, 3>>3E.

"he demand for computerAI&" literacy is increasing, because employees reali<e that computers and other I&" facilities can enhance efficiency. On the other hand, employees have also reali<ed that computers can be a threat to their 6obs, and the only way to enhance 6ob security is to become computer literate. -ith the high demand for computer literacy, the teaching and learning these skills is a concern among professionals DOduroye, n.d.E. "his is also true of other I&" components. )ew instructional techniques that use I&"s provide a different modality of instruments. 0or the student, I&" use allows for increased

individuali<ation of learning. In schools where new technologies are used, students have access to tools that ad6ust to their attention span and provide valuable and immediate feedback for literacy enhancement, which is currently not fully implemented in the school system D%muku and %muku, 2=== C 3>>>E. I&" application and use will prove beneficial in improving the educational system and giving students a better education. A technologicallyG advanced workforce will lead to I&" growth, with the potential to improve military technology and telecommunications, media communications, and skilled I&" professionals who will be wellGequipped to solve I" problems in Uganda and other parts of the world D.oshit, 3>>9E. 218 C"$44/(,/7 '3 ICT $!'6)#'( #( S/2'(!$.+ S2"''47 "he low rate of I&" adoption and application in most third world secondary schools is attributable to several factors. 0irstly, is limitedApoor information infrastructure. (esearch confirms that I&" development and application are not well established in secondary schools because of poor information infrastructure DAdomi, 3>>9, Adomi, 3>>7E. It has been reported by Southwood D3>>5E that more than 5> percent of the population of Africa is in areas not covered by telecom services. Schools located in such areas will e#perience I&" connectivity problems. Secondly, lack ofAinadequate I&" facilities in schools. "his finding is corroborated by )diku D3>>4E who discovered that insufficient numbers of computers and peripheral devices inhibit deployment of I&" by teachers and by *lante C /eattie D3>>5E who observed that inadequate I&"s was a challenge to integration of technologies in &anadian schools. Similarly, Okwudishu D3>>7E discovered that unavailability of some I&" components in the schools

2>

hampered teachersL use of I&"s. "his problem may be due to under funding D%nakrire and Onyenenia, 3>>:E. "hirdly, is frequent electricity interruption. %lectricity failure has been a persistent problem militating against I&" application and use DAdomi, 3>>7aF Adomi, Omodeko, and Otole, 3>>5F Adomi, Okiy, and (uteyan, 3>>4E. "his makes the few schools with I&" facilities unable to use them regularly. 0ourthly, is poor I&" policyApro6ect implementation strategy. "he )igerian 0ederal .overnmentLs 2=;; policy introduced computer education to the high schools DOkebukola, 2==:E. "he only way this policy was implemented was the distribution of computers to federal government high schools, which were never used for computer education of the students. )o effort was made to distribute computer to state government or private schools. Although the government planned to integrate I&"s into the school system and provide schools with infrastructure, concerted efforts have not been made to provide facilities and trained personnel. "hus, most schools do not yet offer I&" training programmes D.oshit, 3>>9E. 0ifth, is the inadequate I&" manpower in the schools. "he main problem facing third world countries and its I&" programme is workforce training D.oshit, 3>>9E. "eaching as a profession is considered to be for poor people, therefore the few professional that are available prefer to work in companies and industries where they can earn better salaries. -ith this deplorable condition, teachers are not motivated to go the e#tra mile in assisting the students to acquire computer education D/ecker, 3>>>E.

22

1igh &ost of I&" 0acilities. &ost has been reported as one of the factors which influence provision and use of I&" services DAdomi, 3>>9E. "he cost of computers is too high for many to afford. $onthly Internet rates are e#orbitant and the charges for satellite television are unaffordable for most people in Africa D/rakel C &hiseuga, 3>>4E. "his has made it difficult for secondary schools to acquire and install I&" facilities for the use of teachers and students. 'ikewise, lack ofApoor perception of I&"s among teachers and administrators is another factor. "here is widespread ignorance and misconception about I&"s D.uha, 3>>>E. One of the ma6or inhibitors to Uganda fully embracing I&"s is the average general lack of e#posure to them. 0or most third world countries, information technology is still something unfamiliar, distant, and mysterious. (ather than being seen as a tool for personal and national development, information technology is seen as a hurdle D)itda, 3>>4E. Some many people living in third world countries are not aware of the e#istence and importance of the Internet DAdomi C (uteyan, 3>>4E. It has been reported that :7 percent of the teachers in the )%*A!Ls eGSchools *ro6ect have no or very limited e#perience and e#pertise regarding I&"s in education. 21; S).$)/,#/7 )' I%6.':/ S/2'(!$.+ S2"''47 P/.3'.%$(2/ )".'-," ICT A!'6)#'( Among the strategies to improve studentsJ academic performance is what is termed as bypass an obstacle. $any schools come to a standstill because an obstacle appears in the path towards achieving their goals D/eukesGAmiss C.&hiware, 3>>9E. -hen that happens, everything becomes significant and, when an obstacle arises, all work halts. Instead, team leaders and members must distinguish between what is and is not important. "his determination is best achieved by focusing on the ultimate ob6ective, and asking how a

23

particular situation will impact achievement of this final goal D&uckle, larke C Penkins, 3>>>E. Secondly, it is important to cause people to stretch rather than causing them to break. So many organi<ations set unrealistic deadlines that it is ama<ing none of them get done at all. "hese deadlines are not based on work to do, but by the whim of individuals having little knowledge about the effort required to meet the deadline. )aturally, there are many consequences D$cfarlane C Sakellariou, 3>>3E. "he psychological effects often manifest themselves as burnout, turnover, and conflict. Additionally, the team is set up to fail because constraints are not considered when setting the deadline. -hen making unrealistic demands, management and leadership must reali<e the impact of their decisions on individual and group performance D*reston, &o# C &o#, 3>>>E. *romulgating an unrealistic date or goal may provide a nice e#hibition of dominance and decisivenessF however, it can also cause dysfunctional behavior. It is imperative to take time to recogni<e the talents, knowledge, and skills of people performing the tasksF to identify the cost, schedule, and qualitative constraintsF and to apply sound estimating techniques to complete the pro6ect. 'ikewise, is important to focus on the goal. It is easy to overlook the purpose of an organisation when administering its details. "eam leaders and team members become so wrapped up in details that they lose sight of the entire purpose of their organisation. ,eeping focus on the goal offers several advantages D"ella, "ella, "oyobo, Adika C Adeyinka, 3>>:E. 0irst, it enables people to be proactive rather than reactive. Secondly, it helps in distinguishing between what is and is not significant. "hirdly, focusing on the goal provides an ob6ective standard of evaluation DBhao C 0rank, 3>>4E. "he significance of a particular effort is determined by the degree to which it helps to achieve a final goal. It is important, therefore, to perform three actions. "he first is to constantly query about progress, asking if 24

what people are doing is furthering goal achievement. "he second is to establish a consistent, standard NyardstickO for measuring progress, keeping in mind, of course, that the importance of the yardstick is to measure the right factors in order to determine the value of the current work. Organisations have probably failed effectiveness and efficiency due to poor communication than from any other factor. Ironically, while everyone recogni<es the contribution of good communications to success, it still remains in a dismal state. One reason is that people confuse the medium with communication DAginam, 3>>9E. A medium is the vehicle for communicating, acting as an enabler of communication, rather than a substitute for it. -ith the growing presence of email, videoconferencing, and -orld -ide -eb technologies, many people assume that they will be good communicators. All too often, the medium simply gives a poor communicator a louder voice. At least from a pro6ect management perspective, the medium is not the message. "he other reason for poor communications is the lack of team membersJ distinction between data and information D,aku, 3>>7E. -hile data is unprocessed, information is data that is converted into something meaningful. /y contrast, good communication is providing the right information at the right time in the right amount to the right person. In most organisations, team leaders perform considerable work in management and development. Unfortunately, the work often goes unrecorded, the knowledge and e#pertise is lost due to turnover and time constraints. "his is a tremendous loss to companies that could have saved this knowledge and e#pertise, applying it on future, similar pro6ects. If companies made an effort to record the knowledge and e#pertise of what went well on a pro6ect, they

25

would gain several benefits for future pro6ects D-ima C 'awler, 3>>:E. Such a history improves performance among team members, because people can focus on issues not dealt with previously, which may not be Nshowstoppers.O It also forces people to think about their actions, and determine where and when to spend their effort and time. In addition, a recorded history tells people what has worked in the past, enabling them to predict with reasonable accuracy the impact of their actions on the current pro6ect.

27

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

511 I().'!-2)#'( "his chapter deals with the practical procedures for carrying out this study. It gives details of the research design to be adopted, nature of sample, sampling procedure, data collection procedures and the final data analysis techniques that will be applied. It gives the framework within which data was collected and analy<ed.

512

R/7/$.2" !/7#,( "he study adopted a crossGsectional survey approach which was descriptive and analytical in nature. It used both qualitative and quantitative data.

515 S)-!+ P'6-4$)#'( "he population of the study was 374 comprising of 4= school administrators, 3 district education officers, 5 education standards agency officers, 4= school perfects, 24> heads of departments and 4= *"A members. 518 S$%64/ S#>/ $(! S$%64#(, T/2"(#@-/ A sample of 2== respondents was selected basing on a table for determining sample si<e developed by ,re6cie C $organ, D2=:>E. "he school administrators consisted of the head teachers, deputy head teachers and the directors of studies, whereas, the studentsJ representatives comprised of the school head boy, head girl and the prefect in charge of academic affaires. 0or the heads of departments comprised the sub6ect heads of the core

29

sub6ects, whereas, the *"A members consisted of chairperson, vice chairperson and secretary of the board. T$&4/ 511: S$%64/ S#>/ C$)/,'.+ School Administrators !istrict %ducation Officers %ducation Standards Agency Officers School *refects 1eads of !epartment *"A $embers T')$4 P'6-4$)#'( S$%64/ 4= 3 5 4= 24> 4= 2;5 43 3 5 43 =: 43 1AA

Simple random sampling was used to select the respondents according to their respective groups and purposive random sampling was used to select the respondents from the groups. 51; D$)$ 7'-.2/7 *rimary data@ *rimary data was the main source. !ata from the field was obtained through the use of selfGadministered questionnaires to the respondents following systematic and established academic procedures. 'ikert scale questions was usedF ranging from 2Q Strongly !isagree to 7Q Strongly Agree. Secondary data@ "o strengthen the primary data, secondary data was obtained from the $inistry of %ducation and Sports documents such as annual reports, strategic plans and financial reports available.

2:

51< D$)$ C'44/2)#'( I(7).-%/()7 *rimary data was collected using a structured questionnaire that was self administered. "he questionnaires were delivered physically to the respondents participating in the study so as to ensure an acceptable response rate for the study. "he questionnaire were administered at the workplace setting to diminish the effect of bias among the respondents. 517 M/$7-./%/() '3 V$.#$&4/7 ScalesAitems from previous studies were adapted and used to measure the study variables. I&" adoption was measured using scales adapted from Bhao C 0rank D3>>4E, whereas, performance was measured using scales adapted from -ima C 'awler D3>>:E. (esponses to the questions were anchored on a 7 point 'ikert scale ranging fromF 7G strongly agree, 5G agree, 4 H not sure, 3 H disagree and 2G strongly disagree. 51= V$4#!#)+ $(! R/4#$&#4#)+ '3 ./7/$.2" #(7).-%/() +alidity of the instrument was obtained by talking to e#perts both academicians and practitioners, consultants in the education sector. "hese were required to comment on the relevance of the questionsAitems in the instrument and &ontent +alidity Inde# were computed to ascertain this. "he reliability of the questionnaires was improved through preGtesting of pilot samples both from teachers and officers working in the education sector. "his enabled the reGphrasing of some questions. Additionally, reliability of the items was measured with the application of the &ronbach &oefficient Alpha for the computations so as to check for the internal consistency of the items. All alpha reliabilities DRE for all scales are e#pected to score above >.7 so as to meet the acceptance standards for research according to )unnally, D2=:;E.

2;

T$&4/ 512:

R/4#$&#4#)+ C'/33#2#/()7 A46"$ V$4-/ B C >.9=4 >.:;7 >.:==

V$.#$&4/ 'evel of I&" adoption &hallenges facing I&" adoption Strategies to improve I&" adoption

"he table above displays the reliability indicesAcoefficients for all constructs used in the study. All alpha reliabilities DRE for all scales were above >.7, ranging from >.9=4 to >.:== therefore meeting acceptance standards for research, D)unnally, 2=:;E.

51A

D$)$ A($4+7#7 $(! P./7/()$)#'( After collection of questionnaires, they were compiled, sorted, edited and coded to have the required quality, accuracy and completeness. !ata was then entered into the computer using the Statistical *ackage for Social Scientists DS*SS v 29.>E computer package for analysis. "he data was cleaned and analy<ed according to the research questions. 0requency tabulation was used to describe sample characteristics and item means were used to generate the results for the research ob6ectives.

5110

L#%#)$)#'(7 '3 )"/ 7)-!+ iE (espondents withheld information due to fear of being victimi<ed. 1owever, the researcher persuaded the respondents that the information would be kept confidential and used purely for academic purposes.

2=

iiE

Unwillingness of respondents to fill questionnaires. "he researcher ensured consistency in contacting the respondents and made sure reminders were sent to them to fill the questionnaires.

iiiE

'imited resources, both financial and time. "his was achieved through the assistance from friends and relatives and devoting some time for research.

ivE

(espondents having a view of not obtaining any direct benefit from the research results. "he researcher managed to convince the respondents to spare some little time to answer the questions. "he researcher also e#plained to the respondents that since the study would be beneficial to policy makers it would eventually benefit them.

5111

E)"#2$4 2'(7#!/.$)#'(7 -hen carrying out research the following ethical considerations were followedF iE *ermission of the people who were to be studied was sought to conduct research involving them. -ritten or verbal informed consent from all respondents was sought before interviews were conducted and the purpose and ob6ectives of the study were carefully e#plained to the respondents. iiE (espondents were informed that the study was not cause physical or emotional harm to them iiiE Ob6ectivity during the research was emphasi<ed so as to eliminate personal biases and opinions. ivE Anonymity of the respondents was taken care of during the study so as to avoid victimi<ation and this was informed to the respondents. vE *ermission was sought to collect data from the relevant organs.

3>

CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS

811 I().'!-2)#'( "his chapter presents the results of the study and interpretation of findings. "he chapter comprised of four sections. Section one presents the sample characteristics showing, gender, period employed, position held and level of education. 0rom the results only 2:= useable questionnaires were returned giving a response rate of close to ;;.7I. "o present the results, the researcher began with a description of the sample characteristics using frequency tabulation and used item means to present the results for the different ob6ectives of the study.

812 S$%64/ C"$.$2)/.#7)#27 0requency tabulations were used to present the results of the sample characteristics which included gender, period employed, position held and level of education. "he presentations were made basing on the responses collected from the field.

81211 G/(!/. !#7).#&-)#'( '3 )"/ R/76'(!/()7 "o present the gender distribution of the respondents, frequency tabulation was used by the researcher and the results are presented in table 5.2 below.

32

T$&4/ 811: G/(!/. $ale 0emale T')$4


Source: Primary data

F./@-/(2+ P/.2/() =: 75.3 ;3 57.; 17A 10010

Out of the 2:= responses collected according to table 5.2 above, 75.3I of the respondents were male whereas, 57.;I were female. 0rom the results itJs clear that there was a si<eable distribution of responses from the different gender categories.

81212 A,/ '3 ./76'(!/() 0requency tabulation was used to present the age of respondent distribution categories of the respondents. "able 5.3 below represents the results@ T$&4/ 812: A,/ ,.'-6 0requency 2: 9: 79 32 2> ; 2:= *ercent =.7 4:.5 42.4 22.: 7.9 5.7 2>>.>

3>G37 ?ears 39G4> ?ears 42G47 ?ears 49G5> ?ears 52G57 ?ears 59 ?ears C Above "otal
Source: primary data

0rom the results in table 5.3 above, the ma6ority of the respondents belonged to the 39G4> years age group D4:.5IE, 42.5I belonged to the 42G47 years age group, 22.:I belonged to the 49G5> years, =.7I belonged to the 3>G37 years age group, 7.9I belonged to the 52G57 years age group and 5.7I belonged to the 59 years above age group. "his implies that the ma6ority of the staff in the schools were youths. 33

81215 E%64'+%/() T/(-./ !#7).#&-)#'( 0requency tabulation was used by the researcher to present the employment tenure distribution of the responses collected. "able 5.4 below presents the results@ T$&4/ 815: D-.$)#'( ?'.*#(, ?#)" S2"''4 0requency 34 77 :3 23 2: 2:= *ercent 23.; 4>.: 5>.3 9.: =.7 2>>.>

'ess than 2 ?ear 3G4 ?ears 5G7 ?ears 9G2> ?ears Above 2> ?ears "otal
Source: Primary data

"he results on employment tenure presented in table 5.4 above, shows that the ma6ority of the respondents D5>.3IE had been employed by schools for 5G7 years whereas, 4>.:I had been employed for a period of 3G4 years, 23.;I had been employed for less than 2 year, =.7I had been employed for over 2> years and lastly 9.:I had been employed for 9G2> years. 0rom the results, more than :>I of the respondents had been employed for a period of 3G7 years which is indication that the ma6ority of the respondents were still in the e#perience acquisition process. 81218 P'7#)#'( !#7).#&-)#'( '3 )"/ R/76'(!/()7 "he researcher used frequency tabulation to present the position distribution of the respondents. "he results are presented in table 5.5 below.

34

T$&4/ 818: P'7#)#'( "/4! 0requency 2= 47 9= 5 72 2:; *ercent 2>.: 2=.: 4;.; 3.3 3;.: 2>>.>

1ead teacher 1ead of department *"A member *refect Other specify "otal
Source: Primary data

According to the results presented in table 5.5 above, 2>.:I of the respondents were head teachers, the heads of departments accounted for 2=.:I, the *"A members who were the ma6ority accounted for 4;.;I, the other categories of staff accounted for 3;.:I whereas, 3.3I was accounted for by prefects. 0rom the results it is clears that from the respondents selected to comprise the sample, there was a fair distribution of the respondentsJ across the different levels of the hierarchy.

81218 H#,"/7) L/:/4 '3 E!-2$)#'( !#7).#&-)#'( "he respondent results on the highest level of education were presented using frequency tabulation and the results are presented in table 5.7 below. T$&4/ 81;: H#,"/7) 4/:/4 '3 E!-2$)#'( 0requency *ercent 27 ;.5 9: 4:.5 39 25.7 2> 7.9 92 45.2 2:= 2>>.>

!iploma !egree $asters *h! Other Specify "otal


Source: Primary data

35

0rom the findings in table 5.7 above, more that 4:.5I of the respondents possessed degree level of education, 25.7I were masters degree holders, 45.2I held other qualifications, ;.5I were diploma holders and 7.9I possessed *h! level of education. "his is indication that the provided responses were acquired for the respondents who were knowledgeable to provide the required information for the study.

81218 S2"''4 R/76'(!/() !#7).#&-)#'( "he respondent results on how the school that were part of the study provided responses were presented using frequency tabulation and the results are presented in table 5.9 below. T$&4/ 81<: S2"''4 F./@-/(2+ P/.2/() 24 :.4 27 ;.5 25 :.; 24 :.4 25 :.; 27 ;.5 23 9.: 25 :.; 25 :.; 24 :.4 29 ;.= 23 9.: 25 :.; 2:= 2>>.>

Aisha .irls /irere SS /ukanga SS Isingiro SS ,isyoro SS ,ye<imbire SS $barara 1igh )garama SS )tugu SS (ugaga $odern SS (wamurunga &.SS St. /ridget .irls 1igh School St. Pohn (ustya SS "otal
Source: Primary data

According to table 5.9 above, the ma6ority of the responses were acquired from (wamurunga &.SS D;.=IE followed by /irere SS and ,ye<imbire SS which provided ;.5I of the responses each, who were followed by /ukanga SS, ,isyoro SS, )garama SS, )tugu SS 37

and St. Pohn (ustya SS schools which each provided a :.;I response. "hese were followed by Aisha .irls, Isingiro SS and (ugaga $odern SS schools which provided :.4I response rate each and lastly $barara 1igh and St. /ridget .irls 1igh School each provided 9.:I response rate. 815 O&9/2)#:/ O(/: L/:/4 '3 ICT $!'6)#'( #( 6-&4#2 7/2'(!$.+ 72"''47 "o e#amine the level of I&" adoption in public secondary schools, item mean results were generated to assess the level of I&" adoption. Using a 7 point 'ikert scale ranging between strongly disagree, disagree, not sure, agree and strongly agree, the respondentsJ responses were rated. "he results are presented in table 5.: below.

39

T$&4/ 817: 4/:/4 '3 ICT $!'6)#'( #( 6-&4#2 7/2'(!$.+ S2"''47


I)/% "he staff in public secondary schools possess the required competencies to operate I&"s "he quality of services offered by public secondary schools has improved as a result of the use I&"s -ith the availability of I&"s, our senior management team is effective in decision making As a result of the combined knowledge and skills on I&"s, public schoolsJ performance has improved At our school, management identifies the critical management and specialist competencies required to operate I&"s so as to meet the demands of the clients "o be effective, the management of our organisation has reverted to the use of I&"s to ensure efficient service delivery At our organi<ation, the core competencies of I&"s are clearly defined "he management of our school ensures that the I&" competencies required by staff are adequate and appropriate At our school, we use I&"s to develop documents for different activities -e use I&"s to store documents -e use computers to create databases for students and staff -e use I&"s to manage inventory -e use computers to track school assets -e use computers for records management &omputers are used to develop teaching time tables Our school uses I&"s to generate reports At our school, we use computers for communication purposes through the internet -e use computers to acquire information required for the school A:/.$,/ Source: Primary data M/$( S)!1 D/: 4.7: >.92 4.49 4.57 4.3> 4.7: 4.45 4.95 4.74 4.:5 4.9> 4.99 4.29 4.3> 4.7; 4.9; 3.=; 4.3; 4.3: 5188 >.72 >.95 >.93 >.9> >.9> >.9: >.7; >.:2 >.:5 >.:> >.:2 >.;3 >.=4 >.== >.=2 >.:: >.:7 0171

0rom the results in table 5.: above on the level of I&" adoption in public schools, it was revealed that the staff in public secondary schools to some level possessed the required competencies to operate I&"s D$eanQ4.7:E, the management in schools identified the critical management and specialist competencies required to operate I&"s so as to meet the demands of the clients D$eanQ4.7:E, the core competencies of I&"s were clearly defined D$eanQ4.95E, the schools used I&"s to develop documents for different activities 3:

D$eanQ4.:5E, store documents D$eanQ4.9>, create databases for students and staff D$eanQ4.99E, for records management D$eanQ4.7;E and develop teaching time tables D$eanQ4.9;E. According to the low global mean results of 4.55, this is confirmation that the level of I&" adoption in public secondary schools was still low

818 C"$44/(,/7 '3 ICT $!'6)#'( #( 6-&4#2 7/2'(!$.+ 72"''47 "o study the challenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools, item mean results were generated to assess the challenges of I&" adoption. Using a 7 point 'ikert scale ranging, the respondentsJ responses were rated. "he results are presented in table 5.; below.

3;

T$&4/ 81=: C"$44/(,/7 '3 ICT $!'6)#'( #( 6-&4#2 7/2'(!$.+ 72"''47


"he high cost of setting up and maintaining I&"s hinders the adoption of I&"s Inadequate funds is a barrier to I&"s adoption 'ack of support from top management is a barrier to achieving the full potential of I&"s Inadequate knowledge in implementing the system hinders I&"s adoption "he lack of applicationsAsolutions for users undermines I&"s adoption 'ack of e#pertiseDsE in I" to operate I&"s undermines achieving the full potential of I&"s Insufficient financial support for I&"s hinders effective I&"s adoption *roblems with time management of I&"s implementation process undermines I&"s adoption "he need to work with other stakeholders constrains adoption of I&"s "he lack of information technology DI"E support undermines I&"s adoption )o suitable I&"s or software may hinder I&"s adoption !ifficulty in changing the organi<ationJs culture hinders achieving the full potential of I&"s "he fear of changing the way staff are do things, hinders I&"s adoption I&"s not being perceived as an advantage at all hinders achieving the full potential of I&"s 'ack of commitment and involvement by all employees hinders achieving the full potential of I&"s As a result of a lot of paper work that is difficult to computeri<e, achieving the full potential of I&"s are undermined lack of I&"s technical staff undermines I&"s adoption lack of managerial capacity hinders I&"s adoption lack of awareness and understanding of I&"s undermines I&"s adoption lack of human resources hinders I&"s adoption 'ack of comprehensive legal framework hinders I&"s adoption language barriers hinder computeri<ation during investment lack of resources and knowledge hinders I&"s adoption lack of trust in the I&"s hinders I&"s adoption lack of recognition of the potential to improve business appropriate to the effort and costs of adoption hinders I&"s adoption lack of understanding of the reali<able benefits hinders I&"s adoption A:/.$,/ Source: Primary data $ean Std. !ev 4.79 >.7>=2 4.9: >.722;9 4.4: 4.7> 4.7> 4.:2 4.77 4.57 4.32 4.54 4.4; 4.39 4.49 4.72 4.92 4.5> 4.74 4.42 4.:> 4.95 4.45 4.9= 4.93 4.4: 4.7= 4.9; 51;0 >.:79: >.9>>49 >.7=379 >.:294= >.7=39; >.93;3 >.:52:5 >.7==>7 >.9:=53 >.:47>: >.93425 >.:>>>5 >.9:7;9 >.9>55: >.92:73 >.9:3 >.97:>3 >.9745: >.9:=92 >.7957; >.9;:95 >.75>>= >.7=49; >.7=>3= 01<5;8=

3=

0rom the results in table 5.; above, among the challenges of I&" adoption in public schools includedF high cost of setting up and maintaining I&"s D$eanQ4.79E, inadequate funds D$eanQ4.9:E, 'ack of e#pertiseDsE in I" to operate I&"s D$eanQ4.:2E, Insufficient financial support for I&"s DmeanQ4.77E, I&"s not being perceived as an advantage at all D$eanQ4.72E, lack of commitment and involvement by all employees D$eanQ4.92E and lack of I&"s technical staff D$eanQ4.74E. 'ikewise, lack of awareness and understanding of I&"s D$eanQ4.:>E, lack of human resources D$eanQ4.95E, language barriers D$eanQ4.9=E, lack of resources and knowledge D$eanQ4.93E and lack of understanding of the reali<able benefits D$eanQ4.9;E also undermined I&" adoption in public secondary schools. 81; S).$)/,#/7 )' #%6.':/ ICT $!'6)#'( #( 6-&4#2 7/2'(!$.+ 72"''47 "o identify the strategies to mitigate the challenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools, item mean results were generated using a 7 point 'ikert scale ranging. "he results are presented in table 5.= below.

4>

T$&4/ 81A: C"$44/(,/7 '3 ICT $!'6)#'( #( 6-&4#2 7/2'(!$.+ 72"''47


$ean In order to ensure effective implementation of I&"s, the sources of funds to cover the costs of setting up and maintaining I&"s should be identifies "here should be mobili<ation of financial resources required to setup the I&"s Support from top management is important in achieving the full potential of I&"s "here should be training of staff on how to operate and appreciate the I&"s "here should be attitude change among staff as a means of embracing the I&"s Sourcing for the required e#pertiseDsE in I" to operate the I&"s enhances the effectiveness of the I&"s "ime management should be observed at the implementation stage of the I&"s Stakeholder involvement at different stages of the implementation process improves the efficiency of the I&"s "here should be adequate information technology DI"E support for effective I&"s performance "he suitable I&"s or software should availed in order to achieve the full potential of I&"s %fforts to align staff perceptions about the advantages of the I&"s enhances the acceptance of the I&"s In order to reali<ed the benefits of the I&"s, there should be commitment and involvement by all employees "o ensure successful performance at the I&"s, the management should set realistic deadlines In order to enhance the performance of the I&"s, there is focus on set goals 0ollowing a standardi<ed process has done a lot in improving the effectiveness of the I&"s $anagement should enable better integration of the I&"s activities in order to improve the effectiveness of the school In order to strengthen the effectiveness of the I&"s, there should be an effort to ensure proper record keeping As a result of seeking simplicity and not comple#ity in goal and path, the I&"s has progressed rapidly. A:/.$,/ Source: Primary data 4.99 4.53 4.47 4.92 4.7> 4.9> 4.39 4.97 4.47 4.53 4.94 4.:2 4.45 4.97 4.4> 4.4; 4.74 4.5> 518A Std. !ev >.7: >.7: >.:> >.99 >.93 >.:9 >.9: >.93 >.9: >.:3 >.95 >.9: >.97 >.94 >.:> >.93 >.9> >.99 01<;

Among the strategies proposed by the respondents in table 5.= above to mitigate the challenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools includedF sources of funds to cover

42

the costs of setting up and maintaining I&"s should be identifies D$eanQ4.99E, training of staff on how to operate and appreciate the I&"s D$eanQ4.92E, attitude change among staff as a means of embracing the I&"s D$eanQ4.7>E, Sourcing for the required e#pertiseDsE in I" D$eanQ4.9>E, stakeholder involvement at different stages of the implementation process DmeanQ4.97E, efforts to align staff perceptions about the advantages of the I&"s D$eanQ4.94E, there is focus on set goals D$eanQ4.97E and efforts to ensure proper record keeping should be emphasi<ed D$eanQ4.74E.

43

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

;11 I().'!-2)#'( "his chapter presents the discussion, conclusions, and recommendations arising out of the research findings in chapter four and suggests areas for further study.

;12 D#72-77#'( '3 F#(!#(,7 ;1211 L/:/4 '3 ICT $!'6)#'( #( 6-&4#2 7/2'(!$.+ 72"''47 "he findings on the level of I&" adoption in public schools revealed that the staff in public secondary schools to some level possessed the required competencies to operate I&"s, the management in schools identified the critical management and specialist competencies required to operate I&"s so as to meet the demands of the clients, the core competencies of I&"s were clearly defined, the schools used I&"s to develop documents for different activities, store documents, create databases for students and staff, for records management and develop teaching time tables. In line with the findings, &asolaro and .obbi D3>>:E contend that the global changes have compelled both public and private organisations to adopt I&"s in order to cope with these changes in the environment. I&"s adoption by organisations provides means to access, process and distribute greater amounts of information to the concerned personnel within an organi<ation. "his aids management to make quick and thoughtful decisions to assist the organisations in strategic planning DPimmy and 'i, 3>>4E. "here is need to embrace the stateGofGart technologies especially in public organisations in order to penetrate international markets and remain competitive despite the challenges posed by globali<ation, liberali<ation and technological changes. -indrum and 44

!e /erranger D3>>3E argued that the contributing factors for I&"s adoption by organisations can be categori<ed into five ma6or clusters that include@ the firm characteristicsF business actionF system characteristicF internal and e#ternal e#pertise.

;1212 C"$44/(,/7 '3 ICT $!'6)#'( #( 6-&4#2 7/2'(!$.+ 72"''47 Among the challenges facing I&" adoption in public schools were blamed on the high cost of setting up and maintaining I&"s, inadequate funds, lack of e#pertiseDsE in I" to operate I&"s, insufficient financial support for I&"s, I&"s not being perceived as an advantage at all, lack of commitment and involvement by all employees and lack of I&"s technical staff. In support of the findings, "aylor and $urphy D3>>5E contend that I&"s adoptions by public organisations are faced with many challenges especially poor I&"s infrastructure, lack of I&"s technical and managerial capacity. In addition, lack of awareness and understanding of I&"s are also considered as obstacles among organisations in adopting I&"s to enhance their work processes. In addition lack of human resources, comprehensive legal framework, language barriers and lack of confidence and trust in new technologies by organisations are the main barriers of I&"s adoption. Stockdale and Standing D3>>3E argued that the barriers to I&"s adoption by organisations includes lack of resources and knowledge, the skills levels of business operators, lack of trust in the I&"s and lack of recognition of the potential to improve business appropriate to the effort and costs of adoption and lack of understanding of the reali<able benefits. ;1215 S).$)/,#/7 )' #%6.':/ ICT $!'6)#'( #( 6-&4#2 7/2'(!$.+ 72"''47 0rom the findings of the study, some of the strategies proposed to mitigate the challenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools were to identify the sources of funds to cover the 45

costs of setting up and maintaining I&"s, training of staff on how to operate and appreciate the I&"s, attitude change among staff as a means of embracing the I&"s, sourcing for the required e#pertiseDsE in I", stakeholder involvement at different stages of the implementation process and focus on set goals. In agreement with the findings, 1arwood D3>>9E asserts that itJs quite difficult to decide on the strategies of mitigating the challenges of I&" adoption especially for those organisations who are going to adopt I&"s for the first time. "herefore, there is need to take lessons from the past I&" adoption of other organisations that took place in the market between by other organisations and proved to be successful. "herefore, communication is of utmost importance in every stage of the I&" adoption process, and is the key to its success. It is very important for management to communicate clearly and regularly to all employees the implications of I&" adoption, including the planned changes to working practices and organi<ational processes. "ruthful and thorough communication with employees can play a significant part in managementLs retention strategy, D+aara, 3>>3E. On the other hand training and development should be provided to senior and middle management and should focus on all aspects of the I&" adoption process. "raining should focus on the implications of I&" adoption for the organisation, its effects on employees at all levels of the organi<ation and its impact on working practices and organi<ational structures, D1oover, 3>>>E. Individual counseling on personal ad6ustment and stress coping strategies can assist the employees to Lsolve the problems associated with I&" adoption stressF recommend, demonstrate and initiate coping with I&" adoption stress strategiesF or improve the employeeLs mastery,L D,ilpatrick, 3>>>E.

47

7.4 &onclusion In general, the findings on the level of I&" adoption in public secondary schools revealed that the staff in public secondary schools to some level possessed the required competencies to operate I&"s, the management in schools identified the critical management and specialist competencies required to operate I&"s so as to meet the demands of the clients, the core competencies of I&"s were clearly defined, the schools used I&"s to develop documents for different activities, store documents, create databases for students and staff, for records management and develop teaching time tables. "his is indication that the public schools needed to draw a lot of attention on the I&" adoption process putting a lot of emphasis on needs identification, the required resources for in put, information sharing and implemenation. "his will enhance the sustainability of the schools in the long run. Among the challenges identified by during the study were the high cost of setting up and maintaining I&"s, inadequate funds, lack of e#pertiseDsE in I" to operate I&"s, insufficient financial support for I&"s, I&"s not being perceived as an advantage at all, lack of commitment and involvement by all employees and lack of I&"s technical staff. "his is confirmation that the schools had failed to understudy the entire process that should be followed during I&" adoption which left pertinent issues to be resolved not addressed and resulted into having ma6or constraints during I&" adoption. Among the strategies to mitigate the challenges of I&" adoption in public secondary schools were to identify the sources of funds to cover the costs of setting up and maintaining I&"s, training of staff on how to operate and appreciate the I&"s, attitude change among staff as a means of embracing the I&"s, sourcing for the required e#pertiseDsE in I", stakeholder involvement at different stages of the implementation process and focus on set goals. 49

7.5 (ecommendations On the basis of the findings of the study, the following are the recommendations were drawn@ iE "he school management should put a lot of emphasis on ensuring that the persons in leadership positions possess the ability to influence the activities of others positively, initiate structures Dsuch as goal settingE, which will enable the schools to successfully overcome mutual problems and achieve their I&" goals. iiE "here should be continuous reviews of the I&" operations of the schools through monitoring and evaluation as this will ensure checks and balances and also help identify the gaps still eminent in the I&" adoption processes of the schools. iiiE "here should be active participation approach by all stakeholders in the schools during I&" adoption decision making as this will create a pool of ideas from which decisions are drawn and consequently help the schools overcome the challenges being faced in after month of I&" adoption. ivE 1aving in place effective governance structures will greatly contribute to the closure of the I&" adoption gaps. "herefore, managements should ensure that the current structures provide for backward and forward linkages which benefit the schools. vE $anagements of the schools should develop a training programme for the staff to impart knowledge and skills in I&" usage. "he training should be continuous, focused and there should be mechanisms of evaluating its effectiveness. viE "hrough new idea generation and innovative activity among stakeholders, management should encourage staff to come up with ideas that will help the schools overcome the challenges faced during I&" adoption.

4:

viiE

In order to overcome the challenges of I&" adoption, management should build teams to benchmark from other organisations that have managed well the I&" adoption process and thereafter embark on research and envelopment to help the schools overcome the challenges of I&" adoption.

viiiE

As a way of learning from the past, the company should always carry out adequate research in case of any innovations and advancements in I&" in future to avoid a replica of the mistakes that were made during the I&" adoption process.

4;

REFERENCES Adomi, %.%. D3>>7aE. Internet development and connectivity in )igeria. Program 39 D4E@ 37:G9;. Adomi, %.%. D3>>7bE. "he effects of a price increase on cybercafS services in Abraka, )igeria. The Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances 1 D3E@ :;G;9. Adomi, %.%. D3>>9E. $obile phone usage patterns of library and information science students at !elta State University, Abraka, )igeria. !lectronic "ournal o# $cademic and Special Librarianship % D2E. Adomi, %.%., C Anie, S.O. D3>>9E. An assessment of computer literacy skills of professionals in )igerian university libraries. Library &i Tech 'e(s )3 D3E@ 2>G25. Adomi, %.%., Okiy, (./., C (uteyan, P.O. D3>>4E. A Survey of cybercafSs in !elta State, )igeria. The !lectronic Library )1 D7E@ 5;:G=7. Adomi, %.%., Omodeko, 0.S., C Otdo, *.U. D3>>5E. "he use of cybercafS at !elta State University, Abraka, )igeria. Library &i Tech )) D5E, 4;4G;;. AduwaGOgiegbean, S.%., C Iyamu, %.O.S. D3>>7E. Using information and communication technology in secondary schools in )igeria. !ducational Technology * Society 223. Aginam, %. D3>>9E. )%*A! scores studentsL I&" education in Africa 'ow. +anguard. AlGAnsari, 1. D3>>9E. Internet use by the faculty members of ,uwait University. The !lectronic Library ),D9E@ :=2G;>4. /arak, $. D3>>9E. Instructional principles for fostering learning with I&"@ teachersJ perspectives as learners and instructors. !ducation -n#ormation Technology, 22@232G247, !OI 2>.2>>:As22245G>>9G:493G=. /ecker, 1. P. D3>>>E. Findings #rom the teaching. learning. and computing sur/ey: -s Larry 0uban rightM (etrieved 42 $ay, 3>>5, from http@AAwww.crito.uci.eduAtlcAfindingsAccsso.pdf /ecta. D3>>5E. A (eview of the (esearch 'iterature on /arriers to the Uptake of I&" by "eachers. British !ducational 0ommunications and Technology $gency. /eukesGAmiss, &.$. C.&hiware, %.(.". D3>>9E. "he impact of diffusion of I&"s into educational practices, how good or how badM A review of the )amibia situation. /rakel, *.A., C &hisenga, P. D3>>4E. Impact of I&" based distance learning@ "he African story. The !lectronic Library )1 D7E, 5:9G5;9. 4= D2E, 2>5G

&uckle, *., &larke, S., C Penkins, I. D3>>>E. StudentsL information and communications technology skills and their use during teacher training. "ournal o# -n#ormationTechnology #orTeacher !ducation. 9D2E, =G33. !avis 0. D2=;=E@ *erceived Usefulness, *erceived %ase of Use, and User Acceptance of Information "echnology. $IS 8uarterly, +ol. 24. D2=;=E 42;G452 %nakrire, (., Onyenenia, O... D3>>:E. 0actors affecting the development of information infrastructure in Africa. Library &igh Tech 'e(s ), D3E@27G3>. %nuku, U.A., C %nuku, O. D2=== C 3>>>E /reaking down the walls@ &omputer application in correctionalAprison education. Benin "ournal o# !ducational Studies 1)113 D2A3E@ 95G:2. %voh, &.P. D3>>:E *olicy networks and the transformation of secondary education "hrough I&"s in Africa@ "he prospects and challenges of the )%*A! %Gschools Initiative. -nternational "ournal o# !ducation and 2e/elopment 3sing -n#ormation and 0ommunication Technology 4-"!2-0T5 3 D2E, 95G;5. .oshit, ". D3>>9E. )igeriaLs need for I&"@ S*. 37= technology and policy in Africa. .uha, S. D3>>>E. Are we all technically preparedM "eachersJ perspectives on the causes of comfort or discomfort in using computers at elementary grade teaching, $nnual Meeting o# the 'ational $ssociation #or the !ducation o# 6oung 0hildren $tlanta, .A, )ovember ;G22, 3>>>. Ighoro6e, A.!., C A6ayi, O./. Dn.d.E. 0emale awareness level of information technology in )igeria. ,aku, 0.A. D3>>7E. The use o# -nternet by secondary school teachers in the rural areas o# 2elta State: The case o# 3du Local 7o/ernment $rea. Abraka@ !elta State University. Unpublished /.Sc. D'ISE pro6ect. 'ook, !. D3>>7E. !iscussion *aper@ Impact of "echnology on %ducation, *US! %#cellence &ommittee, !ecember 3>>7. $cfarlane, A., Sakellariou, S. D3>>3E. "he role of I&" in science education, & ambridge "ournal o# !ducation, 43 D3E, pp. 32=G343. )diku, '. D3>>4E. The problem encountered by school personnel in the implementation o# computer use in secondary schools in 3asin 7ishu 2istrict. Unpublished thesis@ $oi University, %idoret. )itda D3>>4E. Use I"@ )ational Information "echnology !evelopment Agency, Abu6a )igeria. )wagwu, -.%. D3>>9E. Integrating I&"s into the globali<ation of the poor developing countries. -n#ormation 2e/elopment )) D4E@ 29:G2:=. 5>

Okebukola, *. D2==:E. Old, new, and current technology in education. 3'!S08 $#rica 1, D27E@ :G 2;. Okebukola, *. D3>>5E. %Glearning in varsities, others underway, )U& boss lists strategies. The 7uardian D23 OctoberE@ 47, 4=. Okwudishu, &.1. D3>>7E. $(areness and use o# in#ormation and communication technology 4-0T5 among /illage secondary school teachers in $niocha South Local 7o/ernment $rea o# 2elta State. Abraka@ !elta State University. Unpublished /.Sc. D'ISE pro6ect. *lante, P., C /eattie, !. D3>>5E. &onnectivity and I&" integration in &anadian elementary and secondary schools@ 0irst results from the Information and &ommunications "echnologies in Schools Survey, 3>>4 H3>>5. *reston, &., &o#, $., C &o#, ,. D3>>>E. "eachers as Innovators in learning@ what motivates teachers to use I&", $iranda)et. http@AAwww.mirandanet.ac.ukApubsAtesTart.htm (effell, *., C -hitworth, A. D3>>3E. Information fluency@ &ritically e#amining I" education. 'e( Library9orld 1:3 D22;3A22;4E@ 53:G47. So, "., Swatman *. $.&. D3>>9E. eG'earning (eadines of 1ong ,ong "eachers. University of South Australia. Southwood, (. D3>>5E. African telecom indicators@ -hat do they use and whyM "ella, A., "ella, A., "oyobo, O.$., Adika, '.O., C Adeyinka, A.A. D3>>:E. An Assessment of Secondary School "eachers Uses of I&"s@ Implications for 0urther !evelopment of I&"Ls Use in )igerian Secondary Schools. The Tur;ish 8nline "ournal o# !ducational Technology. <D4E, 23. "yler, ,.!. D2==;E. "he problem in computer literacy training. +enkatesh, +. C !avis, 0. D3>>>E. A "heoretical %#tension of the "echnology Acceptance $odel. $anagement Science, +ol. 59. D3>>>E 2;9G3>5 +enkatesh, +., $orris $., !avis .., C !avis 0. D3>>4E@ User Acceptance of Information "echnology@ "oward a Unified +iew. $IS 8uarterly, +ol. 3:. D3>>4E 537G5:= -ima, *., C 'awler, $. D3>>:E. Investing in I&"s in educational institutions in developing countries@ An evaluation of their impact in ,enya. -nternational "ournal o# !ducation and 2e/elopment 3sing -0T.

52

?aJacob, A., )or, )., C A<man, 1. D3>>7E. Implementation of the $alaysian Smart School@ An Investigation of "eachingG'earning *ractices and "eacherGStudent (eadiness. -nternet "ournal o# e=Language Learning * Teaching, 3D3E, pp. 29G37. ?usuf, $.O. D3>>7E. Information and communication education@ Analy<ing the )igerian national policy for information technology. -nternational !ducation "ournal < D4E, 429G432. Bhao, ?. C 0rank, ,. A., D3>>4E. An %cological Analysis of 0actors Affecting "echnology Use in Schools. $merican !ducational >esearch "ournal. ,:D5E@ ;>:G;5>.

53

APPENDID I
QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear Respondent, I am carrying out a study on Improving the Performance of Secondar Schoo! Ed"cation thro"gh I#T Adoption$ A #ase of P"%!ic Secondar Schoo!s in &%arara District'. You have been selected as one of the respondents on this subject. The information you give is purely for academic purposes and will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Kindly answer these questions personally and not through others so that we can be able obtain correct & accurate data.

P !T " #$%$! & I%'(!) TI(%

*. +hat is your gender, &a!e (ema!e

-. ge of !espondent )*+), rs )-+.* rs ./+., rs .-+0* rs 0/+0, rs 0- rs 1 a%ove

.. /ow long have you been an employee at the 0chool, 2ess than / ear ) 3 . rs 0 3 , rs - 3 /* rs A%ove /* rs

1. Position /eld 4ead Teacher 4ead of Department PTA mem%er Prefect

2. +hat is the highest level of education you have attained,

54

Dip!oma 5)6

Degree 5.6

&asters 506

PhD5,6

Please indicate the e3tent of your agreement with statements listed below ranging from 24 strongly agree 50 67 14 agree 5 67 . not certain 5%867 - disagree 5967 *4 strongly disagree 5096.

55

Section II$ 2eve! of I#T adoption in p"%!ic secondar schoo!s


Please indicate by tic:ing in the appropriate bo3 to what e3tent the items are relevant;or not to the following statements below. 5Key" 14relevant 5!67 .4quite relevant 5<!67 -4somewhat relevant 50!67 *4not relevant 5%!66

Item The staff in public secondary schools possess the required competencies to operate I8Ts The quality of services offered by public secondary schools has improved as a result of the use I8Ts +ith the availability of I8Ts7 our senior management team is effective in decision ma:ing s a result of the combined :nowledge and s:ills on I8Ts7 public schools= performance has improved t our school7 management identifies the critical management and specialist competencies required to operate I8Ts so as to meet the demands of the clients To be effective7 the management of our organisation has reverted to the use of I8Ts to ensure efficient service delivery t our organi>ation7 the core competencies of I8Ts are clearly defined The management of our school ensures that the I8T competencies required by staff are adequate and appropriate t our school7 we use I8Ts to develop documents for different activities +e use I8Ts to store documents +e use computers to create databases for students and staff +e use I8Ts to manage inventory +e use computers to trac: company assets +e use computers for records management 8omputers are used to develop teaching time tables (ur school uses I8Ts to generate reports t our school7 we use computers for communication purposes through the internet +e use computers to acquire information required for the school Section III$ #ha!!enges of I#T adoption in p"%!ic secondar schoo!s

R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

QR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SR -

NR * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Please indicate by tic:ing in the appropriate bo3 to what e3tent the items are relevant;or not to the following statements below. 5Key" 14relevant 5!67 .4quite relevant 5<!67 -4somewhat relevant 50!67 *4not relevant 5%!66

Item The high cost of setting up and maintaining I8Ts hinders the adoption of I8Ts Inadequate funds is a barrier to I8Ts adoption &ac: of support from top management is a barrier to achieving the full potential of I8Ts Inadequate :nowledge in implementing the system hinders I8Ts adoption The lac: of applications;solutions for users undermines I8Ts adoption &ac: of e3pertise5s6 in IT to operate I8Ts undermines achieving the full potential of I8Ts Insufficient financial support for I8Ts hinders effective I8Ts adoption Problems with time management of I8Ts implementation process undermines I8Ts adoption The need to wor: with other sta:eholders constrains adoption of I8Ts The lac: of information technology 5IT6 support undermines I8Ts adoption %o suitable I8Ts or software may hinder I8Ts adoption 9ifficulty in changing the organi>ation=s culture hinders achieving the full potential of I8Ts The fear of changing the way staff are do things7 hinders I8Ts adoption I8Ts not being perceived as an advantage at all hinders achieving the full potential of I8Ts &ac: of commitment and involvement by all employees hinders achieving the full potential of I8Ts s a result of a lot of paper wor: that is difficult to computeri>e7 achieving the full potential of I8Ts are undermined lac: of I8Ts technical staff undermines I8Ts adoption

R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

QR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SR -

NR * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

57

lac: of managerial capacity hinders I8Ts adoption lac: of awareness and understanding of I8Ts undermines I8Ts adoption lac: of human resources hinders I8Ts adoption &ac: of comprehensive legal framewor: hinders I8Ts adoption language barriers hinder computeri>ation during investment lac: of resources and :nowledge hinders I8Ts adoption lac: of trust in the I8Ts hinders I8Ts adoption lac: of recognition of the potential to improve business appropriate to the effort and costs of adoption hinders I8Ts adoption lac: of understanding of the reali>able benefits hinders I8Ts adoption

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

. . . . . . . . .

* * * * * * * * *

Section I7$ Strategies to improve I#T adoption in p"%!ic secondar schoo!s Please indicate by tic:ing in the appropriate bo3 to what e3tent the items are relevant;or not to the following statements below. 5Key" 14relevant 5!67 .4quite relevant 5<!67 -4somewhat relevant 50!67 *4not relevant 5%!66 Statement In order to ensure effective implementation of I8Ts7 the sources of funds to cover the costs of setting up and maintaining I8Ts should be identifies There should be mobili>ation of financial resources required to setup the I8Ts 0upport from top management is important in achieving the full potential of I8Ts There should be training of staff on how to operate and appreciate the I8Ts There should be attitude change among staff as a means of embracing the /!I0 0ourcing for the required e3pertise5s6 in IT to operate the I8Ts enhances the effectiveness of the I8Ts Time management should be observed at the implementation stage of the I8Ts 0ta:eholder involvement at different stages of the implementation process improves the efficiency of the I8Ts There should be adequate information technology 5IT6 support for effective I8Ts performance The suitable I8Ts or software should availed in order to achieve the full potential of I8Ts $fforts to align staff perceptions about the advantages of the I8Ts enhances the acceptance of the I8Ts In order to reali>ed the benefits of the I8Ts7 there should be commitment and involvement by all employees To ensure successful performance at the I8Ts7 the management should set realistic deadlines In order to enhance the performance of the I8Ts7 there is focus on set goals 'ollowing a standardi>ed process has done a lot in improving the effectiveness of the I8Ts )anagement should enable better integration of the I8Ts activities in order to improve the effectiveness of the school In order to strengthen the effectiveness of the I8Ts7 there should be an effort to ensure proper record :eeping s a result of see:ing simplicity and not comple3ity in goal and path7 the I8Ts has progressed rapidly. R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 QR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SR NR * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

59

APPENDID II S2"''47 Mbarara high School administrators School prefects 1eads of department *"A members Aisha Girls High School School administrators School prefects 1eads of department *"A members Birere Secondary School School administrators School prefects 1eads of department *"A members Bukanga Secondary School School administrators School prefects 1eads of department *"A members Isingiro Secondary School School administrators School prefects 1eads of department *"A members Kisyoro Secondary School School administrators School prefects 1eads of department *"A members Kyezimbire Secondar School School administrators School prefects 1eads of department *"A members Ngarama Secondary School School administrators School prefects 1eads of department *"A members Ntugu Secondary School 5: P'6-4$)#'( 4 = 2> 22 4 ; 2> 22 4 = 2> 22 4 2> 2> 22 4 = 2> 22 4 2> 2> 22 4 = 2> 22 4 = 2> 22 S$%64/ 4 4 2> 4 4 4 2> 4 4 4 2> 4 4 4 2> 4 4 4 2> 4 4 4 2> 4 4 4 2> 4 4 4 2> 4

School administrators School prefects 1eads of department *"A members Rugaga Modern Secondary School School administrators School prefects 1eads of department *"A members St. ohn Rustya Secondary School School administrators School prefects 1eads of department *"A members R!amurunga "ommunity Secondary School School administrators School prefects 1eads of department *"A members St. Bridget Girls High School School administrators School prefects 1eads of department *"A members

4 ; 2> 22 4 = 2> 22 4 2> 2> 22 4 = 2> 22 4 = 2> 22

4 4 2> 4 4 4 2> 4 4 4 2> 4 4 4 2> 4 4 4 2> 4

5;