You are on page 1of 12

Izad Khormaee (www.EngrCS.

com) Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits I page 167



Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits - Chapter 12

1A. The following diagram is an RL filter:

a) Find the cutoff frequency in hertz
b) Calculate H(jw) at w
c
, 0.2w
c
and 5w
c
.
c) If v
i
= 10 cos wt V, write the steady-state expression for v
o
when w=w
c
, w=0.2w
c
and w=5w
c
.

Solution:

a)
RL Low Pass filter w
c
= R/L = 127 / (10 x 10
-3
) = 12.7 Krad/s
fc = w
c
/ 2t = 2021.27 Hz.

b)
Transfer function is
12700
12700
) (
) (
) (
+
=
+
= =
s w s
w
s V
s V
s H
c
c
i
o

o
c
o
c
o
c
j
w j s H
j
w j s H
j s
jw s H
69 . 78 | 196 . 0
12700 12700 ) 5 (
12700
) 5 (
31 . 11 | 981 . 0
12700 12700 ) 2 . 0 (
12700
) 2 . 0 (
45 | 707 . 0
1 tan | 12700 12700
12700
12700 12700
12700
12700
12700
) (
1 2 2
=
+
= =
=
+
= =
=
+
=
+
=
+
= =


c)
v
o
(t) |
wc
= (0.707)(10)cos (w
c
t 45
o
) = 7.07 cos(12700t 45
o
) V
v
o
(t) |
0.2wc
= (0.981)(10)cos (w
c
t 11.31
o
) = 9.81 cos(12700t 11.31
o
) V
v
o
(t) |
5wc
= (0.196)(10)cos (w
c
t 78.69
o
) = 1.96 cos(12700t 78.69
o
) V


1B. The following diagram is an RL filter:

a) Find the cutoff frequency in hertz
b) Calculate H(jw) at 0.5w
c
, w
c
, and 10w
c
.
c) If v
i
= 20 cos wt V, write the steady-state expression for v
o
when w=w
c
, w=0.5w
c
and w=10w
c
.

Solution:


200 O
5 mH
+
v
i

-
+
v
o

-
127 O
10 mH
+
v
i

-
+
v
o

-
Izad Khormaee (www.EngrCS.com) Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits I page 168

2A. Use a 5 mH inductor to design a low-pass , RL, Passive filter with a cutoff frequency of 1 kHz.
a) Specify the value of the resistor.
b) A load having a resistance of 270 O is connected across the output terminal of the filter. What is
the corner, or cutoff, frequency of the loaded filter in hertz?

Solution:

a)
fc = 1000 Hz w
c
= 2f
c
= 2000 rad/s
we have w
c
= R/L R= L w
c
= (0.005)(2000 ) = 31.42

b)
R
eqv
= 31.42 || 270 = 28.14
we have w
c
= R/L = (28.14) / (0.005) = 5628 rad/s
f
c
= w
c
/2 = 5628 / 2 = 895.77 Hz

2B. Use a 10 mH inductor to design a low-pass , RL, Passive filter with a cutoff frequency of 10 kHz.
a) Specify the value of the resistor.
b) A load having a resistance of 500 O is connected across the output terminal of the filter. What is
the corner, or cutoff, frequency of the loaded filter in hertz?

Solution:

3A. Using a 100 nF capacitor, design a high-pass passive filter with a cutoff frequency of 300 Hz.
a) Specify the value of R in kO.
b) A 47 kO resistor is connected across the output terminals of the filter. What is the cutoff
frequency, in hertz, of the loaded filter?

Solution:

a)
w
c
= 1/RC 2 (300) = 1/(R x 100x10
-9
) R = 5205.16

b)
R
eqv
= 5205.16 || 47000 = 4767.08
w
c
= 1/RC = 1 / (4767.08 x 100x10
-9
) = 2097.7 rad/s
f
c
= w
c
/2 = 2097.7 / 2 = 333.86 Hz

3B. Using a 25 nF capacitor, design a high-pass passive filter with a cutoff frequency of 100 Hz.
a) Specify the value of R in kO.
b) A 20 kO resistor is connected across the output terminals of the filter. What is the cutoff
+
-
R
C=100 nf 1/sC
Vi(s)
H(s) =s / (s +w
c
) +

Vo

-
R
5 mH
+
v
i

-
+
v
o

-
Izad Khormaee (www.EngrCS.com) Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits I page 169

frequency, in hertz, of the loaded filter?

Solution:

4A. Using a 5 mH inductor, design a high-pass, RL, passive filter with a cutoff frequency of 25 krads/s.
a) Specify the value of the resistance.
b) Assume the filter is connected to a pure resistive load. The cutoff frequency is not to drop below
24 krad/s. What is the smallest load resistor that can be connected across the output terminals of
the filter?

Solution:


a)
w
c
= R/L R = w
c
L = (25000)(0.005) = 125

b)

+
-
L=5 mH sL
Vi(s)
+

Vo

-
R
R
o

+
-
L=5 mH sL
Vi(s)
H(s) =s / (s +w
c
) +

Vo

-
R
Izad Khormaee (www.EngrCS.com) Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits I page 170

O >
>

O = > =

=

=

=

=
= =
+ +

= =
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
+
+
+
=
+
=

7 . 301
96 . 0
250 ) 125 (
125 & 96 . 0
25000
24000
2
2
2 2
0 2
2
1
) (
) (
2 / 1 ) (
) (
| ) ( |
) ( ) (
) )( (
1 1
1
1 1
1
) (
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2 2
o
o o
o
o o
o
unloaded C
loaded C
o o
o
unloaded C loaded C
o o
o
o o
o
loaded C
o o o
o o
loaded C
o o
loaded
o o o o
o
o
loaded
R
R R
R
R
RR R R
R
w
w
RR R R
R
w w
RR R R
R
L
R
RR L R L R L
R R
w
R R L w R R R L w R L w
R R R R L w
wLR
w
wc w s WhenH
R R R R L w
wLR
S H
R R jwL RR
jwLR
sLR R sL R
R sL
R sL
R
R sL
Zeq R
Zeq
S H


4B. Using a 10 mH inductor, design a high-pass, RL, passive filter with a cutoff frequency of 10 krads/s.
a) Specify the value of the resistance.
b) Assume the filter is connected to a pure resistive load. The cutoff frequency is not to drop below
8 krad/s. What is the smallest load resistor that can be connected across the output terminals of the
filter?

Solution:


5A. For the bandpass filter shown below find
a) w
o

b) f
o

c) Q
d) w
c1

e) f
c1

f) w
c2

g) f
c2

h)
Izad Khormaee (www.EngrCS.com) Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits I page 171


Solution:

a)
s rad
x x LC
w / 10
) 10 10 )( 10 10 (
1 1
5
9 3
0
= = =



b)
Hz
w
f
o
15920
2
10
2
5
0
= = =
t t


c)
8 ) 10 )( 10 10 )( 10 8 (
5 9 3
= = = =

x x RCw
w
Q
o
o
|


d)
s krad
Q Q
w w
o c
/ 95 . 93
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =

e)
kHz
w
f
c
c
96 . 14
2
1
1
= =
t

f)
s krad
Q Q
w w
o c
/ 45 . 106
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =

g)
kHz
w
f
c
c
94 . 16
2
2
2
= =
t


h)
Q
f
kHz or s krad
Q
w
o o
= = = = 99 . 1 / 5 . 12
8
10
5
|

5B. For the bandpass filter shown below find
a) w
o

b) f
o

c) Q
d) w
c1

e) f
c1

f) w
c2

8 kO
10 mH 10 nF
+

v
o

-
+

v
i

-
Izad Khormaee (www.EngrCS.com) Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits I page 172

g) f
c2

h)

Solution:


6A. Using a 50 nF capacitor in the following bandpass circuit, design a filter with a quality factor of 5
and a center frequency of 20 krad/s.
a) Specify the numerical values of R and L.
b) Calculate the upper and lower cutoff frequencies in kilohertz.
c) Calculate the bandwidth in hertz.

Solution:

a)
Given: Q=5, w
o
= 20 krad/s
O = = = = =
= = = =

k
x x C w
Q
R
RC
w w
Q
mH
x x C w
L
LC
w
o
o o
o
o
5
) 10 50 )( 10 2 (
5
/ 1
50
) 10 50 ( ) 10 2 (
1 1 1
9 4
9 2 4 2
|

b)

s krad
Q Q
w w
o c
/ 10 . 18
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
kHz
w
f
c
c
88 . 2
2
1
1
= =
t

s krad
Q Q
w w
o c
/ 10 . 22
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
kHz
w
f
c
c
52 . 3
2
2
2
= =
t


10 kO
50 mH 100 nF
+

v
o

-
+

v
i

-
R
L
C=50 nF
v
i

+
-
+

v
o


Izad Khormaee (www.EngrCS.com) Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits I page 173

c)
Hz or s rad
Q
w
62 . 636 / 4000
0
= = |

6B. Using a 200 nF capacitor in the following bandpass circuit, design a filter with a quality factor of 10
and a center frequency of 5 krad/s.
a) Specify the numerical values of R and L.
b) Calculate the upper and lower cutoff frequencies in kilohertz.
c) Calculate the bandwidth in hertz.

Solution:


7A. For the bandreject filter in the following figure, calculate
a) w
o

b) f
o

c) Q
d) w
c1

e) f
c1

f) w
c2

g) f
c2

h) in kilohertz

Solution:

a)
s rad
x x LC
w / 10
) 10 20 )( 10 50 (
1 1
6
9 6
0
= = =



b)
kHz
w
f
o
15 . 159
2
10
2
6
0
= = =
t t


R
L
C=200 nF
v
i

+
-
+

v
o


750 O
50 uH
20 nF +

v
o


-
+

v
i


-
Izad Khormaee (www.EngrCS.com) Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits I page 174

c)
15 ) 10 )( 10 20 )( 750 (
6 9
= = = =

x RCw
w
Q
o
o
|


d)
s krad
Q Q
w w
o c
/ 22 . 967
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =

e)
kHz
w
f
c
c
94 . 153
2
1
1
= =
t

f)
s Mrad
Q Q
w w
o c
/ 03 . 1
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =

g)
kHz
w
f
c
c
55 . 164
2
2
2
= =
t


h)
kHz f f
c c
61 . 10 94 . 153 55 . 164
1 2
= = = |

7B. For the bandreject filter in the following figure, calculate
a) w
o

b) f
o

c) Q
d) w
c1

e) f
c1

f) w
c2

g) f
c2

h) in kilohertz

Solution:


8A. Use a 0.5 uF capacitor to design a bandreject filter shown below. The filter has a center frequency of
4 kHz and a quality factor of 5.
a) Specifiy the numerical values of R and L.
2 kO
150 uH
10 uF +

v
o


-
+

v
i


-
Izad Khormaee (www.EngrCS.com) Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits I page 175

b) Calculate the upper and lower corner, or cutoff, frequencies in kilohertz.
c) Calculate the filter bandwidth in hertz.

Solution:

a)
f
o
= 4 krad/s - w
o
= 2f
0
= 8 krad/s
O = = = = =
= = = =

89 . 397
) 10 5 . 0 )( 8000 (
5
/ 1
17 . 3
) 10 5 . 0 ( ) 8000 (
1 1 1
6
6 2 2
x C w
Q
R
RC
w w
Q
mH
x C w
L
LC
w
o
o o
o
o
t |
t

b)

kHz
Q Q
f f
o c
62 . 3
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
kHz
Q Q
f f
o c
42 . 4
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =

c)
Hz
Q
f
or
Hz f f
c c
800
800
0
1 2
= =
= =
|
|


8B. Use a 2.5 uF capacitor to design a bandreject filter shown below. The filter has a center frequency of
10 kHz and a quality factor of 10.
a) Specifiy the numerical values of R and L.
b) Calculate the upper and lower corner, or cutoff, frequencies in kilohertz.
R
L
0.5 uF +

v
o


-
+

v
i


-
Izad Khormaee (www.EngrCS.com) Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits I page 176

c) Calculate the filter bandwidth in hertz.

Solution:


9A. Design a series RLC bandpass filter for detecting the low-frequency tone generated by pushing a
telephone button shown below:
L R LC wo
LC s L R s
s L R
s H / / 1
/ 1 ) / (
) / (
) (
2
= =
+ +
= |

The Frequency generated by telephone buttons (Dual Tune Multiple Frequency DTMF) shown
below:

1
ABC
2
DEF
3
697 Hz
GHI
4
JKL
5
MNO
6
770 Hz
PRS
7
TUV
8
WXY
9
852 Hz
*
OPER
0
# 941 Hz
1209 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz
High-Frequency Group

a) Calculate the values of L and C that place the cutoff frequencies at the edges of the DTMF low-
frequency band. Note that the resistance in standard telephone circuits is always R=600 O.
b) What is the output amplitude of this circuit at each of the low-band frequencies, relative to the
peak amplitude of the bandpass filter?
c) What is the output amplitude of this circuit at the lowest of the high-band frequencies?

R
L
2.5 uF +

v
o


-
+

v
i


-
R
sL
+

v
o


-
v
i

1/sC
+
-
Low Frequency Group
Izad Khormaee (www.EngrCS.com) Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits I page 177

Solution:

a)
Set the cutoff frequencies (f
c1
and f
c2
) at the edges of the low frequency group, therefore:
w
c1
= 2(697) = 4379.38 rad/s
w
c2
= 2(941) = 5912.48 rad/s
Thus
= w
c2
- w
c1
= 1533.10 rad/s
H
B
R
L L R 39 . 0
10 . 1533
600
/ = = = = |
w
o
2
= (w
c1
* w
c2
)
uF
L w
C
LC
w
o
o
1 . 0
) 39 , 0 )( 38 . 4379 )( 48 . 5912 (
1
) (
1 1
2
= = = =

b) At the outmost two frequencies in the low-frequency group (w
c1
= 697 Hz and w
c2
= 941 Hz) the
amplitudes are:
| | 707 . 0
2
| |
| | | |
697 697 peak
peak
Hz Hz
V
V
V V = = =
The non cut-off frequency need to be calculated by using the following equations:
2 2 2 2
) ( ) (
| | | ) ( || | | |
|
|
w w w
w
V jw H V V
o
peakz peakz
+
= =
Therefore
2 2 2 2
770
)) 10 . 1533 )( 05 . 4838 (( ) 05 . 4838 52 . 5088 (
) 10 . 1533 )( 05 . 4838 (
| | | |
+
=
peakz Hz
V V =0.948 | |
peakz
V
| | 948 . 0
)) 10 . 1533 )( 27 . 5353 (( ) 27 . 5353 52 . 5088 (
) 10 . 1533 )( 27 . 5353 (
| | | |
2 2 2 2
852 peakz peakz Hz
V V V =
+
=

It is not a coincidence that these two magnitudes are the same. The frequencies in both bands of the
DTMF system were carefully chosen to produce this type of predictable behavior with linear filters. In
other words, the frequencies were chosen to be equally far apart with respect to the response produced
by a linear filter. Most musical scales consist of tones designed with this same property note intervals
are selected to place the notes equally far apart. That is why the DTMF tones remind us of musical
notes! Unlike musical scales, DTMF frequencies were selected to be harmonically unrelated, to lower
the risk of misidentifying a tones frequency if the circuit elements are not perfectly linear.

c) The high-band frequency closest to the low-frequency band is 1209 Hz. The amplitude of a tone with
this frequency is:
| | 344 . 0
)) 10 . 1533 )( 37 . 7596 (( ) 37 . 7596 52 . 5088 (
) 10 . 1533 )( 37 . 7596 (
| | | |
2 2 2 2
1209 peakz peakz Hz
V V V =
+
=
This is less than one half the amplitude of the signals with the low-band cutoff frequencies, ensuring
adequate separation of the bands.

Izad Khormaee (www.EngrCS.com) Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits I page 178


9B. Design a series RLC bandreject filter for eliminating the low-frequency tones (697-941 Hz) generated
by pushing a telephone button shown below:


1
ABC
2
DEF
3
697 Hz
GHI
4
JKL
5
MNO
6
770 Hz
PRS
7
TUV
8
WXY
9
852 Hz
*
OPER
0
# 941 Hz
1209 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz
High-Frequency Group


Solution:



Low Frequency Group