Planning digital radio-relay networks

k&k engineering

Performance and
unavailability
Principles & formulae
Version G.826




2 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5







© 1998-2005
Copying the contents of this booklet as well as translations to other languages, completely or
partly, is not allowed without the permission of K&K Engineering HB. This includes any kind of
copying by print, duplication, tape recording, electronic methods etc.














K&K Engineering HB, Box 2, S-610 54 NÄVEKVARN / Sweden
Phone & Fax: +46-155-535 77
or: +46-8-532 51 888
E-mail: Heinz.Karl@KK-Engineering.a.se
Internet home page: http://www.KK-Engineering.a.se
050306

3 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
Introduction
K&K Engineering’s PC-based computer programs FORMULA and RLTool, are in-
tended for the prediction of performance and availability of radio-relay paths and circuits.
This paper, which is based on H. Karl’s booklets Planning and engineering of radio-relay
networks and Performance and availability as applied to digital radio-relay systems {1,2},
describes the principles and formulae utilized in the program.
In version 1 of this TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/1, the formulae were mainly derived
from CCIR Report 338. The ITU-R Recommendation P.530 has later on replaced this report.
In September 1997, the ITU-R published version 7 of its Rec. P.530. This recommendation
contains a complete new set of formulae for the prediction of both flat and selective multi-
path fading, as well as for the improvement due to diversity. Also the formulae for the pre-
diction of attenuation by atmospheric gases have been modified - Rec. P.676-3. This new
formulae have been introduced in the above programs with effect from version 2.0 for
FORMULA and version 2.20 for RLTool.
During 2001, ITU-R introduced version 9 of Rec. P.530, which contains a complete new set
of formulae for the prediction of multipath fading. This new formulae have been introduced
in the above programs with effect from version 2.0 for FORMULA and version 3.0 for
RLTool.
This paper is based on the new versions of the above ITU-R recommendations.

Note:
In some of the formulae, a distance parameter may be included. Dependent on the subject of
the formula, this distance parameter may represent the geodetic distance, as read from a
map, or the real distance of the radio beam between two antennas. To distinguish between
these two distances, two different symbols are used:
d... distance as read from a map in km, or: geodetic path length = plane projection of the
radio path
d
*
... real length of the radio beam between transmitter and receiver antenna in km = beam
path length
d
*
can be calculated applying the following formula:

( )
6 2 2 *
10

⋅ − + =
B A
h h d d
d* ... real length of the radio beam between transmitter and receiver antenna in km
d ... geodetic path length in km = plane projection of the radio path
h
A
... height above sea level for station A in m
h
B
... height above sea level for station B in m


4 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
Table of contents
1 Path geometry...................................................................................................... 7
1.1 Co-ordinates and bearing............................................................................ 7
1.1.1 Calculation of great-circle distance and bearing ................................ 7
1.1.2 Determination of co-ordinates............................................................ 7
1.2 1
st
Fresnel zone radius................................................................................ 8
1.3 Calculation of antenna heights.................................................................... 8
1.4 Calculation of path clearance...................................................................... 9
1.5 Effective Earth radius factor k .................................................................. 10
1.6 Ground reflection and its calculation........................................................ 10
1.6.1 Calculation of antenna heights ......................................................... 10
1.6.2 Location of reflection point.............................................................. 12
1.6.3 Difference in path length between direct and reflected ray.............. 13
1.6.4 The distance between receiver input level minima or maxima......... 13
1.6.5 Optimum antenna spacing with space diversity protection .............. 14
1.6.6 Efficiency of selected space diversity versus k-value variation ....... 14
1.6.7 Antenna discrimination.................................................................... 14
2 Path attenuation and receiver input level ........................................................... 16
2.1 Total path attenuation during fading-free time.......................................... 16
2.2 Free-space basic attenuation ..................................................................... 16
2.3 Additional attenuation(s) .......................................................................... 16
2.4 Gain or loss in a passive repeater, antenna back-to-back.......................... 16
2.5 Gain or loss in a passive repeater, plane reflector ..................................... 17
2.5.1 Check of far-/near-field operation:................................................... 17
2.5.2 Angle in space.................................................................................. 17
2.5.3 Repeater gain in far field.................................................................. 18
2.5.4 Half-power (3 dB) beam width ........................................................ 19
2.6 Losses due to atmospheric gases............................................................... 20
2.7 Receiver input level during fading-free time ............................................ 21
3 Overall performance of a digital radio-relay link during fading-free time
and time of shallow fading ................................................................................ 22
4 Overall performance of a digital radio-relay link during fading -
Performance calculation.................................................................................... 22
4.1 General...................................................................................................... 22
4.2 The multipath occurrence factor ............................................................... 22
4.2.1 Prediction formula............................................................................ 22
4.2.2 Path inclination ................................................................................ 23
4.2.3 Geoclimatic factor K........................................................................ 23

5 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
4.3 Performance prediction considering multipath fading and
related mechanisms.................................................................................................24
4.3.1 Prediction formulae ..........................................................................24
4.3.2 Fading margin...................................................................................26
4.3.3 Paths going via passive repeaters......................................................26
4.4 Performance prediction considering distortions due to
propagation effects (selective fading) .....................................................................26
4.4.1 Prediction formulae ..........................................................................26
4.4.2 Prediction procedure for path going via a passive repeater...............27
4.5 Small-time-percentage for exceeding the planning objectives due to
attenuation caused by precipitation.........................................................................27
4.5.1 Attenuation caused by rain ...............................................................27
4.5.2 Attenuation coefficient .....................................................................28
4.5.3 Rainfall intensity...............................................................................28
4.5.4 Effective path length.........................................................................29
4.5.5 Fading probability due to rain for one path.......................................29
4.5.6 Prediction procedure for path going via a passive repeater...............29
4.5.7 Worst-month concept and average annual probability......................30
4.6 Improvement of the performance by diversity reception..........................31
4.6.1 Improvement by frequency diversity................................................31
4.6.2 Improvement by space diversity.......................................................32
4.6.3 Improvement by combined frequency and space diversity - 2 Rx ....34
4.6.4 Improvement by combined frequency and space diversity - 4Rx.............35
4.7 Total performance with respect to the G.826 objectives........................................36
4.7.1 Calculation of the block-based severely errored seconds ratio
(SESR)..............................................................................................37
4.7.2 Fading exceeding the background block error ratio
(BBER) objective .............................................................................39
4.7.3 Fading exceeding the errored second ratio (ESR) objective.............41
4.7.4 Total performance for the circuit ......................................................41
5 Unavailability calculations for radio-relay systems............................................43
5.1 Unavailability and reliability of hardware .................................................43
5.1.1 Single (unprotected) structures .........................................................43
5.1.2 Duplicated (protected) structures......................................................44
5.2 Unavailability due to propagation disturbances.........................................46
5.3 Total unavailability....................................................................................46
6 Frequency planning............................................................................................48
6.1 The number of disturbing signals reaching a receiver ...............................48
6.2 General formula for the calculation of interfering signal levels ................48
6.3 Formulae for triangular network configuration .........................................49


6 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
6.3.1 Nodal station disturbs outstation (Tx
A1
_
Rx
C
).............................. 50
6.3.2 Outstation disturbs nodal point (Tx
C

_
Rx
A1
) ................................. 51
6.4 Interference via passive repeater............................................................... 52
6.4.1 Passive repeater as first-source transmitter ...................................... 52
6.4.2 Passive repeater as receiver of interfering signals............................ 54
6.5 Total interference...................................................................................... 54
7 Bibliography...................................................................................................... 56
Appendix I 59
Appendix II 61
Appendix III 62



7 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
Principles and formulae
1 Path geometry
1.1 Co-ordinates and bearing
1.1.1 Calculation of great-circle distance and bearing
[1] [ ] ( )
1 2 2 1 2 1
cos cos cos sin sin cos 12 . 111 x x y y y y a d − ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
d... great-circle distance in km
x
1
... longitude for site A in degrees   negative values for
x
2
... longitude for site B in degrees   W of Greenwich
y
1
... latitude for site A in degrees   negative values for
y
2
... latitude for site B in degrees   S of the equator
and the antenna bearing in A is:
[2]
( )
( )

/
/
,
cos . sin
. cos sin sin
cos
'
⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ −
= Θ ∠

for sin (x
2
- x
1
) > 0: ∠Θ
1
=

∠Θ'
1

for sin (x
2
– x
1
) < 0: ∠Θ
1
=

360
o
- ∠Θ'
1



1.1.2 Determination of co-ordinates
If the co-ordinates for one site, eg A, and the bearing and great-circle distance to the other
site are known, the co-ordinates of that site can be calculated accordingly:
[3] [ ] [ ] ( ) d y y d a y ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ Θ = 0089992 . 0 cos sin cos 0089992 . 0 sin cos sin
1 1 1 2

[4]
[ ]
2 1
2 1
1 2
cos . cos
sin sin 0089992 . 0 cos
cos
y y
y y d
a x x
⋅ − ⋅
± =

for ∠Θ
1
< 180
o
: +acos
for ∠Θ
1
> 180
o
: -acos





8 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
1.2 1
st
Fresnel zone radius
[5]
d f
d d
. r


=
2 1 1
3 17

r
1
... radius of the 1
st
Fresnel zone at a certain point in m
d... radio beam length in km
d
1
... distance from one site to that point in km
d
2

= d – d
1
, in km
f... radio frequency in GHz
1.3 Calculation of antenna heights
The below formula presumes the knowledge or the assumption of one antenna height. If the
antenna height at A is the known one, the antenna height at B can be calculated according
to:
[6]
[ ]
( ) ( )
B
GA A OBST
GB
h
d
h h d d
. k
d d d
h r d
h −
+ ⋅ − − 







+ + ∆ ⋅
=
1
1
2 1 1
74 12

h
GA
... height above ground level for antenna at A in m
h
GB
... height above ground level for antenna at B in m
h
A
... height above sea level for station A in m
h
B
... height above sea level for station B in m
h
OBST
... height above sea level for highest obstacle (with respect to propagation) in m
d... distance A to B in km
d
1
... distance A to obstacle in km
k... effective earth radius factor
∆r
1
... required clearance above obstacle in m
where:

9 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
[7]
100
1
1 r
r r
r
∆ ⋅
= ∆

r1... radius at the 1st Fresnel zone in m
∆r
r
... required clearance above obstacle in %

If there is more than one obstacle which may influence the determination of antenna heights,
the calculation will have to be repeated and the highest value for h
GB
chosen.
For calculation of h
GA
, if h
GB
is known, replace the indices
1
by
2
, and
A
by
B
, and
B
by A.
1.4 Calculation of path clearance
Referring to the same parameters as in formula [6] and the associated figure, the clearance
above an obstacle is:
[8]
( ) ( )( ) ( )
74 12
1 1 1 1 1
. k
d d d
h
d
h h d d h h d
r
OBST
GA A GB B


− −
+ − + +
= ∆

For ∆r
1
> r
1
the 1
st
Fresnel zone is free from intrusions
For r
1
> ∆r
1
> 0 the 1
st
Fresnel zone is intruded, but there is still line-of-sight
For ∆r
1
< 0 no line-of-sight


10 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
1.5 Effective Earth radius factor k
The antenna heights according to the above sections have to be calculated for both the stan-
dard atmosphere - k = 1.33 - and for k
min
.
If k
min
is not known, the below diagram may be used. Path lengths <20 km should be set to
20 km.
1.6 Ground reflection and its calculation
1.6.1 Calculation of antenna heights
The below formulae require the antenna height above the reflection area. Reference should
hereby be made to the figure, which shows the basic path geometry for a reflective path. Pa-
rameters not stated below are according to section 1.3.
[9] υ ⋅ ⋅ + − + = tan 10
3
1
o o A GA
x y h h h
[10] ( ) υ ⋅ ⋅ − − − + = tan 10
3
2 o o B GB
x d y h h h
h
1
... height of antenna above reflection area at site A in m
h
2
... height of antenna above reflection area at site B in m
tan υ... inclination angle for sloping terrain (υ = 0 for horizontal terrain) according
to formula [11]

11 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
[11]
( )
3
1 2
1 2
10
tan
⋅ −

= υ
x x
y y

x
o
, y
o
... midpoint of the reflection area according to formulae [12] and [13]
[12]
2
1 2
1
x x
x x
o

+ =

[13]
2
1 2
1
y y
y y
o

+ =

x
1
... the distance from site A to the beginning of the reflection area in km
x
2
... the distance from site A to the end of the reflection area in km
y
1
... the altitude in m above sea level for point x
1

y
2
... the altitude in m above sea level for point x
2

Basic geometry for a reflective path


12 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
1.6.2 Location of reflection point
[14]
( ) Z
d
d + = 1
2
1

[15]
( )
1 2
1
2
d d Z
d
d − = − =

d
1
and d
2
are the distances in km to the reflection point from either side of the path accord-
ing to Figure 2.
[16]
2 1
2 1
h h
h h
q
+

=

q... parameter to be used in formula [18]
h
1
... height of antenna above reflection area at site A in m
h
2
... height of antenna above reflection area at site B in m
[17]
( )
2
2 1
2
51
d
h h k
Q

+ ⋅ ⋅
=

Q... parameter to be used in formulae [18]-[20]
The other parameters have their previous significance.
[18]
Q
q
V
1
1+
=

[19]
[ ] [ ] [ ]








+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ = ....
1 1 1
1
1
4
8
3
6
2
4 2
Q
V
Q
V
Q
V
Q
V
V Z

Since the series in the above formula converges quite rapidly, it can, with good approxima-
tion, be terminated after the fourth term, and the formula can consequently be written as
follows:
[20]
[ ] [ ]








+
+
+
+
+
+ ≈
3
6
2
4 2
1 1
1
1
Q
V
Q
V
Q
V
V Z


13 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
1.6.3 Difference in path length between direct and reflected ray
[21]
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
10
74 . 12 74 . 12
2





















− = δ
k
d
h
k
d
h
d

δ ... difference in path length between direct and reflected ray in m
The other parameters have their previous significance.
Expressed in terms of wavelengths, this difference will be:
[22]
3 . 0
f ⋅ δ
= τ

τ ... difference in path length between direct and reflected ray in number of
wavelengths
Each time the number of wavelengths, τ, is a positive integer (1, 2, etc), the receiver input
level passes through a minimum. The receiver input level will pass through more than one
minimum when k is varying.
1.6.4 The distance between receiver input level minima or maxima
The pitch, ϑ
1
(or ϑ
2
), i.e. the distance between adjacent minima or maxima in the input
level, can be calculated using the formulae below:
[23]
3
2
2
2
1
10
74 . 12
1 15 . 0





= ϑ
k
d
h
f
d

Receiver input level vs k value variation


14 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
[24]
3
2
1
1
2
10
74 . 12
1 15 . 0





= ϑ
k
d
h
f
d


1.6.5 Optimum antenna spacing with space diversity protection
Optimum spacing between the antennas, for a certain k value, is obtained by dividing the
pitch ϑ
1
and ϑ
2
respectively by a factor 2, i.e.:
[25]
( )
( )
2
2 1
2 1
ϑ
= ∆h

∆h
1(2)
... antenna spacing between diversity antennas in m at station A or B respectively
ϑ
1(2)
... as above
1.6.6 Efficiency of selected space diversity versus k-value variation
[26]
3
2
2
2
1
1
10
74 . 12 3 , 0
2













∆ ⋅ ⋅
= τ ∆
k
d
h
d
h f

[27]
3
2
1
1
2
2
10
74 . 12 3 , 0
2













∆ ⋅ ⋅
= τ ∆
k
d
h
d
h f

∆τ
1(2)
... space diversity efficiency at station A or B respectively:
∆τ = 0.5 corresponds to optimum efficiency
The other parameters have their previous significance.
1.6.7 Antenna discrimination
On steep paths or paths with large clearance it is sometimes possible to take advantage of
the radiation pattern of the antennas to discriminate the reflected signal. Then the angles α
1

and α
2
in the figure on page 11 must be determined. With these values we can enter the
radiation pattern for the used antennas.
[28]
3 2 2 1
1
1
1
10
74 . 12
180














π
= α
k
d
d
h h
d
h


15 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
[29]
3 1 1 2
2
2
2
10
74 . 12
180














π
= α
k
d
d
h h
d
h

α
1(2)
... angles between direct and reflected ray in degrees according to the figure in
section 1.6.1
All other parameters have their previous significance.


16 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
2 Path attenuation and receiver input level
2.1 Total path attenuation during fading-free time
[30]
R B W W g A o L
G G G A A A A A A A − − − + + + + + =
2 1 2 1

A
L
.... total (or net) path attenuation in dB
A
o
.... free-space basic attenuation in dB
A
A
... additional attenuation(s) in dB
A
g
... attenuation due to atmospheric gases in dB
A
W1,2
... antenna feeder attenuation at the transmitting (1) and receiving (2) end, in dB
A
B
... attenuation in the RF-branching assembly of the radio-relay equipment in dB
G
1,2
... antenna gain at the transmitting (1) and receiving (2) end, in dB
G
R
... gain in a passive repeater in dB
2.2 Free-space basic attenuation
[31] f d A
o
lg 20 lg 20 4 . 92
*
⋅ + ⋅ + =
d
*
... length of the radio beam between transmitter and receiver antenna in km
f ... radio frequency in GHz
2.3 Additional attenuation(s)
The additional attenuation can be caused by:
- RF attenuators
- obstacles,
- partial clearance,
- periscopic antennas,
- passive repeaters in the near-field of the closest antenna.
The first four values have to be given as fixed input data, the computer program is not de-
signed to determine one of these values. The program, however, deals with passive repeat-
ers, - see next section.
2.4 Gain or loss in a passive repeater, antenna back-to-back
In formula [30] the free-space basic attenuation A
o
is replaced by:
oB oA
A A +
where:
A
oA
... free-space basic attenuation between station A and the repeater site

17 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
A
oB
... free-space basic attenuation between station B and the repeater site
and G
R
by:
B A
G G +
where:
G
A
... antenna gain in the passive repeater for the antenna directed towards site A
G
B
... antenna gain in the passive repeater for the antenna directed towards site B
2.5 Gain or loss in a passive repeater, plane reflector
2.5.1 Check of far-/near-field operation:
[32]
2
cos
75
*
ψ
⋅ ⋅
⋅ π ⋅
=
Y f
d
s
s
Z

d*
s
... the shorter one of the two partial paths (legs) in km
f... radio frequency in GHz
Y... reflector area in m
2
ψ... angle in space at repeater in degrees

For s
Z
> 2.5 ⇒ far-field condition
For s
Z
< 2.5 ⇒ near-field condition
2.5.2 Angle in space
[33]
( ) ( )( )
[ ] ( ) [ ] ( )
2 ' 6 2 2 ' 6 2
' ' '
1
6 2 '
10 10
cos 10
cos
B R B A R A
A B A R B A A R
h h d h h d
h h h h d d h h
− + ⋅ − + ⋅
− − − ψ ⋅ ⋅ + −
= ψ

[34] ψ = ψ ∠ cos a
h’
A
... height above sea level for the antenna at station A in m (= h
A
+h
GA
)
h’
B
... height above sea level for the antenna at station B in m (= h
B
+h
GB
)
h
R
... height above sea level for passive repeater
1
in m
d
A
... distance station A to passive repeater in km (in plane projection)
d
B
... distance station B to passive repeater in km (in plane projection)

1
This height is the sum of ground level and reflector height


18 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
ψ
1
... angle at repeater point in plane projection in degrees
ψ... angle in space at repeater point in degrees
Y... reflector area (physical area) in m
2

b
max
... largest side dimension (width or height) of the reflector in m
f... radio frequency in GHz
2.5.3 Repeater gain in far field
In formula [30] the free-space basic attenuation A
o
is replaced by:
oB oA
A A +
where:
A
oA
... free-space basic attenuation between station A and the repeater site
A
oB
... free-space basic attenuation between station B and the repeater site
and G
R
is calculated according to:
[35]





 ψ
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2
cos 5 . 139 lg 20
2
Y f G
R

2.5.3.1 Repeater loss in near field
In formula [30] the free-space basic attenuation A
o
is replaced by:
ol
A
where:
A
ol
... free-space basic attenuation for the longer of the two legs
The repeater loss is obtained from the below, computerized diagram. The help parameters
are as per formulae [32] and [36]
[36]
2
cos 4
ψ
⋅ ⋅
π
= η
Y
D
a s

Read A
A
from the above diagram and insert it in formula [30].

19 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
2.5.4 Half-power (3 dB) beam width
[37]
2
cos
3 . 15
2
max
3
ψ
⋅ ⋅
≈ Θ
b f
dB



20 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5

3dB
... half-power or 3 dB beam width in degrees
b
max
... largest side of reflector in m
The other parameters have their previous significance.
2.6 Losses due to atmospheric gases
[38]
*
d A
g g
⋅ γ =
A
g
... attenuation in dB due to absorption by oxygen and water vapour
γ
g
... specific attenuation in dB/km
d*... length of the radio beam between transmitter and receiver antenna in km
and:
[39]
w o g
γ + γ = γ
γ
o
... specific attenuation in dB/km for dry air
γ
w
... specific attenuation in dB/km for water vapour
∗ For f = radio frequency < 57 GHz:
[40]
[ ]
3 2 2 2
5 2 2 2 2 2
57
10
44 . 2 57
5 . 7
351 . 0
27 . 7


⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅








⋅ ⋅ + −
+
⋅ ⋅ +

= γ
t p
t p t p
t
o
r r f
r r f r r f
r

∗ For 57 < f < 63 GHz:
[41]
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
63
5 . 8 2
57 60
18
63 60
63 57 66 . 1
18
63 60

− −
γ
− −
+ − ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − γ
− ⋅ −
= γ
o
t p o o
f f
f f r r
f f

∗ For 63 < f < 350 GHz
[42]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
3 2 2 2
2 2 2
2
5 2 2
5 . 1 5 5 . 1 4
63
10
84 . 2 75 . 118
28 . 0
5 . 1 63
4
10 2 . 1 1 10 2

− −

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
















⋅ ⋅ + −

+
⋅ ⋅ + −
+ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅
= γ
t p
t p
t
t p
t
o
r r f
r r f
r
r r f
f r


21 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
[43]
t
r
t
+
=
273
288

[44]
1013
p
r
p
=

t... average lowest temperature in °C
p... air pressure in hPa

[45]
ρ... water vapour density in g/m
3
. (If no measured data are available for the water
vapour density, approximate values can be obtained from the charts in Appendix I.)
2.7 Receiver input level during fading-free time
[46] ATPC A L L
L Tx Rx
− − =
L
Rx
... receiver input level in dBm during fading-free time
L
Tx
... transmitter output level in dBm
A
L
... total path attenuation in dB during fading-free time acc. to formula [30]
ATPC … control range of the adaptive transmitter power control in dB


[ ]
[ ] [ ]
4 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
5 . 0 4
7
10
44 . 10 153 . 325
01 . 4
85 . 11 31 . 183
73 . 11
81 . 9 235 . 22
79 . 3
10 7 . 7
00167 . 0
0327 . 0


⋅ ρ
















+ −
+
+ −
+
+ −
+ ⋅ +
ρ
+
= γ
t p
t p
t
t p
t
t p
p
t
t
w
r r f
r r f
r
r r f
r
r r f
f
r
r
r


22 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
3 Overall performance of a digital radio-relay link
during fading-free time and time of shallow fading
During fading-free time, the performance is determined by the background bit-error ratio,
BBER. This is also valid for the time of shallow fading.
4 Overall performance of a digital radio-relay link
during fading - Performance calculation
4.1 General
∗ The calculation with respect to the small-time-percentage objective is car-
ried out individually for each path.
∗ The small-time-percentage objectives only take account of multipath fad-
ing through the troposphere, of precipitation and of the influence of inter-
fering signals. Other fading types, such as two-way propagation by
ground-reflected waves, ducting etc are assumed to be compensated for by
appropriate engineering, such as the selection of suitable antenna heights
and/or sites, diversity reception, etc.
∗ For the SESR objective - rain attenuation is assumed to exceed the avail-
able fading margin for at least 10 consecutive seconds. It is thus consid-
ered as unavailability. For the ESR and BBER performance objective,
however, all rain fading, irrespective its duration, has to be treated as a
performance influencing parameter.
∗ Multipath propagation and precipitation appear uncorrelated. The total
time percentage during which the planning objectives are not met is the
sum of two independent contributions.
4.2 The multipath occurrence factor
4.2.1 Prediction formula
For detailed planning:
[47] ( )
L
h f
oi
d K P
⋅ − ⋅ + − −
⋅ ε + ⋅ =
00085 . 0 032 . 0 2 97 . 0
2 . 3 *
10 1
For approximate planning:
[48] ( )
L
h f
oi
d K P
⋅ − ⋅ + − −
⋅ ε + ⋅ =
001 . 0 033 . 0 2 2 . 1
0 . 3 *
10 1
P
oi
... multipath occurrence factor for the individual radio hop

23 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
h
L
... the lower of the two antenna altitudes in m above sea level, i.e. h
A
+h
GA
or
h
B
+h
GB

K... geoclimatic factor
f... frequency in GHz
d
*
... length of the radio beam between transmitter and receiver antenna in km
ε... hop inclination in milliradians
i... serial number of the individual hop (i = 1...n)
4.2.2 Path inclination
The path inclination, ε, is the angle between the line-of-sight and the horizontal. Its absolute
value, calculated according to equation [49], is used in formulae [47] and [48].
[49]
( ) ( )
d
h h h h
GB B GA A
− − +
≈ ε

ε... inclination in milliradians
d... path length in km
h
A
... elevation in m above sea level for the left-hand site
h
B
... elevation in m above sea level for the right-hand site
h
GA
... antenna height in m above the ground for the left-hand site
h
GB
... antenna height in m above the ground for the right-hand site
4.2.3 Geoclimatic factor K
If no fading data are available for the area concerned, the factor K can be estimated follow-
ing the below procedure:
For detailed planning (formula [47]):
[50]
1
003 . 0 9 . 3 42 . 0
10
dN
a
K
⋅ − − −
⋅ σ =
For approximate planning (formula [48]):
[51]
1
0029 . 0 2 . 4
10
dN
K
⋅ − −
=
The parameters have the following significance:
dN1... The point refractivity gradient in the lowest 65 m of the atmosphere not
exceeded for 1% of an average year. The figure can be obtained on a 1.5
o



24 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
grid resolution in latitude and longitude from a database
2
available from
ITU-R (see also ITU-R Rec. 453-8).
σ
a
... The area terrain roughness, defined as the standard deviation in m of the
terrain heights (in m) within a 110 km x 110 km area with a 30” resolution.
The area should be aligned with the longitude, such that two equal halves of
the area are on each side of the longitude going through the hop’s midpoint.
Terrain data are available from Internet, eg the Globe gtopo30 data.
The standard deviation can be calculated applying the following formula:
[52]
( ) 1
2
1 1
2
− κ ⋅ κ








− ⋅ κ
= σ
∑ ∑
κ
=
κ
= j
j
j
j
a
h h

For σ
a
< 1, set σ
a
= 1.
h
j
... altitude a.s.l. in m for the individual height sample
κ... total number of samples
j... ordinal number of the individual sample (j = 1...κ)
For the calculation of a hop’s midpoint, and for the bilinear interpolation in order to obtain
the correct figure for dN
1
, reference should be made to the Annex of this booklet, page 57.
4.3 Performance prediction considering multipath fading
and related mechanisms
4.3.1 Prediction formulae
From the multipath occurrence factor, P
o
, calculated according to either formula [47] or
[48], a fading depth M (dB) is calculated:
[53]
o
P M lg 2 . 1 4 . 27 ⋅ + =
If M is less or equal than the available fading margin, M
F
, i.e.
[54]
F
M M ≤
the probability, that the available fading margin is exceeded is calculated according to the
below formula

2
The corresponding data files, DNDZ_01.txt, DNDZ_LAT.txt and DNDZ_LON.txt can be downloaded
from ITU-R’s website. A table - dN_1.xls - showing dN
1
versus longitude and latitude can be
downloaded from K&K Engineering’s website (see page 2).

25 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
[55]
10
10
F
M
o Fi
P P

⋅ =
P
Fi
... probability rate for exceeding the planning objective, defined by the avail-
able fading margin, M
F
, for one radio hop during the average worst month
P
o
... multipath occurrence factor for the respective radio hop as per formula [47]
or [48]
M
F
... fading margin in dB
i... serial number of the individual hop (i = 1...n)
For fade depths, M, larger than the available fading margin, M
F
, the following method is
recommended:
(i) Use formula [55] above, calculate P
FiM
for the fade margin M as obtained
by formula [53].
(ii) Calculate parameter q
a
for the same fade margin, M, and the associated
value for P
FiM
from:
[56]
( ) [ ]
FiM a
P
M
q − − ⋅

= 1 ln lg
20

(iii) If P
Fi
is very small, your calculator may round:
1 - P
FiM

to become ln 1 = 0. To avoid that, set the quotient to the highest value for 0.999..., which
still is considered by your calculator as an
ln 0.999... ≠ 0
(iv) Calculate parameter q
t
for the same fade margin, M, from:
[57]
( )






+ ⋅ −
⋅ ⋅ +

=

⋅ − −
800
10 3 . 4
10 10 3 . 0 1
2
20
16 . 0 20
M q
q
M
M M
a
t

(v) Finally, calculate the probability, P
Fi
, that the planned fading margin, M
F
,
is exceeded:
[58] ( )
S
Fi
e P

− = 1
where:
[59]
20
10
F
M q
S
⋅ −
=
and:
[60] [ ]

]

¸

|
¹
|
,
\
|
+ + ⋅ ⋅ + + =
− ⋅ − −
800
10 3 . 4 10 10 3 . 0 1 2
20 016 . 0 20 F M
t
M M
M
q q
F F F



26 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
The parameters P
Fi
and M
F
have their previous significance.
4.3.2 Fading margin
[61] D L ATPC L L ATPC L M
Te Rx TeI Rx F
− − + = − + =
M
F
... flat-fading margin in dB
L
Rx
... receiver input level in dBm during fading-free time
L
Tr
... receiver threshold level in dBm for the planning criterion and for an undis-
turbed receiver (CIR = ∞)
L
TrI
... receiver threshold level in dBm for the planning criterion and for a disturbed
receiver (CIR ≠ ∞)
D... receiver threshold degradation in dB due to interfering signals
ATPC … selected control range of the adaptive transmitter power control in dB
4.3.3 Paths going via passive repeaters
The total probability rate for exceeding the fading margin, M
F
, is the sum of the percentage
of time that the fading margin, M
F
, is exceeded for each leg:
[62]
2 1 leg Fi leg Fi Fi
P P P
− −
+ =
4.4 Performance prediction considering distortions due to
propagation effects (selective fading)
4.4.1 Prediction formulae
[63]
3
2
20
10 10 3 . 4
− −

τ
τ
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ η ⋅ =
ref
m B
Si
W P

with:
[64]
3 . 1
50
7 . 0








= τ

d
m

and:
[65]
75 . 0
2 . 0
1
o
P
e
⋅ −
− = η
P
Si
... probability that one radio hop exceeds the planning criterion due to distor-
tions during the average worst month
η... multipath activity factor

27 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
P
o
. multipath occurrence factor acc. to formula [47] or [48]
W... mean value of the width of the signature in MHz
B... mean value of the signature (or notch) depth in dB
τ
ref
... reference delay in ns used to obtain the signature (W and B)
d
*
... beam path length in km
In case the manufacturer submits its equipment data separately for minimum phase (MPh)
and non-minimum phase (NMPh) fading, the mean value can be calculated as
[66]
2
NMPh MPh
W W
W
+
=

for the signature width, and
[67]








+
⋅ =
2
10 10
lg 20
20 20
NMPh MPh
B B
B

for the notch depth, and
[68]
2
, , NMPh ref MPh ref
ref
τ + τ
= τ

for the reference delay.
4.4.2 Prediction procedure for path going via a passive repeater
The statement given in section 4.3.3 is also valid here, i.e. the fading contribution due to
selective multipath propagation will be calculated individually for each leg, applying formu-
lae [63] to [65]. The fading margin, M
F
, is, again, that for the total path length, and will thus
be the same for both legs.
The total percentage of time for selective fading is thus:
[69]
2 1 leg Si leg Si Si
P P P
− −
+ =
4.5 Small-time-percentage for exceeding the planning ob-
jectives due to attenuation caused by precipitation
The influence of rain is predicted by calculating the rain attenuation for 0.01% of the time.
Relating the rain attenuation to the available flat-fading margin, the percentage of time dur-
ing which the fading margin is exceeded is calculated.
4.5.1 Attenuation caused by rain
The attenuation caused by rain is:
[70]
eff R R
d A ⋅ γ =
01 . 0



28 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
A
R0.01
... attenuation due to rainfall in dB during 0.01% of time
γ
R
... rain attenuation coefficient in dB/km
d
eff
... the path length in km influenced by rain - the effective path length
4.5.2 Attenuation coefficient
The attenuation coefficient, γ
R
, versus radio frequency, f, for various clock-minute rainfall
rates during 0.01% of time, J
0.01
, is calculated from formula [71]:
[71]
α
⋅ Τ = γ
01 . 0
J
R

J
0.01
... clock-minute average annual rainfall rate (or rainfall intensity) in mm/h
exceeded for 0.01% of the time, see section 4.5.3
Τ and α are frequency- and polarization-dependent parameters, which are to be obtained
from the table in Appendix III
4.5.3 Rainfall intensity
If no measured data are available, the rainfall intensity can be estimated from 3 parameters,
P
r6
, M
s
and M
c
. Their data can be found in the corresponding data files esarainPR6.txt,
esarain_Mc.txt and esarain_Ms.txt
3
. The data are extracted the following way:
For each of the 3 parameters, P
r6
, M
s
and M
c
, the figures for the 4 grid points surrounding
the hop’s midpoint are used in order to calculate the corresponding figures for the midpoint
applying bilinear calculation - see formula [174] on page 58.
The midpoint’s rainfall intensity, J
0,01
, is then calculated with the help of the midpoint
figures for P
r6
, M
s
and M
c
:
[72]
( )








+ ⋅
− + −
+
⋅ ⋅
=

A
M M C .
B B
M M
A .
J
c s
c s
.
4
2
4
01 0
10 936 1 10 033 1

[73] ( )
6
0117 . 0
6
1
r s
P M
r
e P A
⋅ −
− =

3
The corresponding data files, ESARAINPR6.txt, ESARAIN_Mc.txt and ESARAIN_Ms.txt can be
downloaded from ITU-R’s website. Alternatively, tables - P-Pr6.xls, P-MC.xls and P-MS.xls -
showing the corresponding parameters versus longitude and latitude can be downloaded from K&K
Engineering’s website (see page 2).

29 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
[74]
C
A
M M
B
c s

+
⋅ ⋅ + =
−3
10 3736 . 1 11 . 1

[75]






=
A
C
01 . 0
ln

Appendix II at the end of this handbook shows rainfall intensity charts based on the above
data.
4.5.4 Effective path length
[76]
o
eff
d d
d
d
+
=
1

[77]
01 . 0
015 . 0
35
J
o
e d
⋅ −
⋅ =
d... geodetic path length in km
d
eff
... effective path length in km
Note: For J
0.01
> 100 mm/h, use J
0.01
= 100 mm/h in formula [77].
4.5.5 Fading probability due to rain for one path
The percentage of time during which the rain attenuation exceeds the available flat-fading
margin, M
F
, is estimated to be:
[78]
[ ] ( )






≥ =
⋅ ⋅ + + −
154023 . 0 10
01 . 0
12 . 0 lg 172 . 0 29812 . 0 546 . 0 628 . 11
01 . 0
F
R
M A
Ri
M
A
p
F R

p
Ri
... fading probability in % of time for a radio hop due to rain
M
F
... fading margin in dB
Equation [78] converges quickly to % as the factor decreases and approaches 0.154. For
values <0.154024, a figure of 0.155 is used for A
R0.01
/M
F
in the above equation, giving a
p
Ri
of 8⋅10
-7
%.
4.5.6 Prediction procedure for path going via a passive repeater
Plane reflector type
The rain fading probability is calculated applying the same calculation method as described
in sections 4.5.1-4.5.5, but using
[79]
2 1 leg leg
d d d + =
in formula [76]


30 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
Antenna back-to-back type
∗ If both legs utilise the same polarisation, the calculations is as described
for the plane reflector type
∗ If both legs operate at different polarisations, proceed as follows:

apply the formulae in sections 4.5.1-4.5.5 plus formula [79] for verti-
cal polarisation and obtain p
R-V

perform the same for horizontal polarisation and obtain p
R-H
− obtain the final rain fading probability, p
R
:
[80]
d
d p d p
p
H leg H R V leg V R
Ri
− − − −
⋅ + ⋅
=

4.5.7 Worst-month concept and average annual probability
4.5.7.1 Average annual probability:
[81]
Ri Rai
p P ⋅ = 01 . 0
p
Ri
... fading probability according to formula [78]
P
Rai
... average annual probability, during which the rain attenuation exceeds the
available fading margin.
When the fading margin, M
F
, in formula [78] refers to the BER
SES
threshold level of the re-
ceiver, the above formula [81] changes to
[82]
100
01 . 0
UP
p P
SES Rai SES Rai
⋅ ⋅ =
− −

p
Rai-SES
... fading probability in % according to formula [78], with fading margin, M
F
,
referred to the BER
SES
threshold level of the receiver
P
Rai-SES
... resulting average annual probability rate, during which the rain attenuation
exceeds the available fading margin
UP... portion in percentage of the average annual probability rate, which lasts
longer than 10 consecutive seconds and, thus, has to be treated as unavail-
ability
4.5.7.2 Worst month probability
[83] ( )
87 . 0
33 . 3 01 . 0
Ri Rwmi
p P ⋅ ⋅ =

31 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
P
Rwmi
... average worst month probability, during which the rain attenuation exceeds
the available fading margin
Consequently, that part, UP, of the average annual probability rate, which lasts shorter than
10 consecutive seconds, has also to be converted to an average worst month probability rate,
applying formula [83]:
[84]
87 . 0
100
100
33 . 3 01 . 0 




 −
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
− −
UP
p P
SES Rai UP Rwmi

P
Rwmi-UP
... average worst month probability, during which the portion (100-UP) of the
rain attenuation exceeds the available fading margin to the BER
SES
thresh-
old level of the receiver
p
Rai-SES
and UP as above
4.6 Improvement of the performance by diversity reception
4.6.1 Improvement by frequency diversity
4.6.1.1 For flat fading
[85]
10
2
10
80
F
M
fi
d f
f
I ⋅

∆ ⋅
=


I
fi
... improvement factor due to frequency diversity for the individual hop
f... band centre frequency in GHz
∆f... frequency separation between the two diversity paths, r.f.1 – r.f.2, in GHz
d
*
... beam path length in km
M
F
... flat fading margin according to section 4.3.2. In case the main and the diver-
sity path have different fading margins (due to different Tx output levels,
etc.), the lower of the two fading margins has to be used.
The above formula is verified by measurements for the following data ranges:
2 < f < 13 GHz
30 < d
*
< 75 km
∆f / f < 0.05
If ∆f > 0.5 GHz, use ∆f = 0.5
The validity of formula [85] outside these ranges is not yet sufficiently proved.
Calculate the improved fading probability by applying:
[86]
fi
Fi
dfFi
I
P
P =



32 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
P
dfFi
... probability for the worst month for exceeding the planning criterion due to
fading for a 1+1 frequency-diversity configuration for the individual hop
P
F
... probability in for the worst month for exceeding the planning criterion due
to fading for an unprotected configuration according to equations [55] or
[58] for the individual hop
4.6.1.2 For distortions
[87]
( )
2
2
1
fSi
Si
dfSi
k
P
P
− η
=

P
dfSi
... probability for the worst month for exceeding the planning criterion due to
distortions for a 1+1 frequency-diversity configuration for the individual hop
P
Si
... probability for the worst month for exceeding the planning criterion due to
distortions fading for an unprotected configuration according to equation
[63] for the individual hop
η... multipath activity factor, see equation [65] for the individual hop
[88] 8238 . 0
2
=
fSi
k for r
wi
< 0.5
[89] ( )
( )
wi
r
wi
fSi
r k
− −
− − =
1 lg 13 . 0 109 . 0 2
1 195 . 0 1 for 0.5 < r
wi
< 0.9628
[90] ( )
5136 . 0 2
1 3957 . 0 1
wi
fSi
r k − − = for r
wi
> 0.9628
[91] ( )
17 . 2
2
1 9746 . 0 1
fFi
wi
k r − − = for k
2
fFi
< 0.26
[92] ( )
034 . 1
2
1 6921 . 0 1
fFi
wi
k r − − = for k
2
fFi
> 0.26
[93]
η

− =
Fi fi
fFi
P I
k 1
2

4.6.2 Improvement by space diversity
4.6.2.1 For flat fading:
With f and d* having their previous significance, the equation for the space-diversity im-
provement factor can be written as follows:

33 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
[94]
10 10 34 . 3
10 1
04 . 1 48 . 0 12 . 0 87 . 0 4
F o
M P d f h
si
e I ⋅






− =
− ∗ − −
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ∆ ⋅ ⋅ −

I
si
... improvement factor due to space diversity for the individual hop
∆h... vertical spacing of receiving antennas, centre-to-centre, in m
M
F
... flat fading margin in dB according to section 4.3.2. In case the main and the
diversity path have different fading margins (due to different antenna sizes,
waveguide length, etc.), the fading margin has to be corrected accordingly:
[95] G M M
m F F
∆ − =


[96]
d W m W d m
A A G G G
− −
+ − − = ∆
If ∆G < 0 → ∆G = 0
M
F-m
... flat fading margin in dB for the main-antenna path
P
o
... multipath occurrence factor according to formula [47] or [48]
G
m
... gain in dB for the main antenna
G
d
... gain in dB for the diversity antenna
A
W-m
... waveguide attenuation dB for the main-antenna path
A
W-d
... waveguide attenuation dB for the diversity-antenna path
The above formula is verified by measurements for the following data ranges:
2 < f < 11 GHz
43 < d< 240 km
3 < ∆h < 23 m
The validity of the formula outside these ranges is not yet sufficiently proved.
Calculate the improved flat-fading probability by applying:
[97]
si
Fi
dsFi
I
P
P =

P
dsFi
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding the planning criterion due
to fading for a space-diversity configuration for the individual hop
P
Fi
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding the planning criterion due
to fading for an unprotected configuration according to equations [55] or
[58] for the individual hop
4.6.2.2 For distortions
[98]
( )
2
2
1
sSi
Si
dsSi
k
P
P
− η
=



34 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
P
dsSi
... probability for the worst month for exceeding the planning criterion due to
distortions for a frequency-diversity configuration for the individual hop
P
Si
... probability for the worst month for exceeding the planning criterion due to
distortions for an unprotected configuration according to equation [63] for
the individual hop
η... multipath activity factor, see equation [65] for the individual hop
[99] 8238 . 0
2
=
sSi
k for r
wi
< 0.5
[100] ( )
( )
wi
r
wi sSi
r k
− −
− − =
1 lg 13 . 0 109 . 0 2
1 195 . 0 1 for 0.5 < r
wi
< 0.9628
[101] ( )
5136 . 0 2
1 3957 . 0 1
wi sSi
r k − − = for r
wi
> 0.9628
[102] ( )
17 . 2
2
1 9746 . 0 1
sFi wi
k r − − = for k
2
sFi
< 0.26
[103] ( )
034 . 1
2
1 6921 . 0 1
sFi wi
k r − − = for k
2
sFi
> 0.26
[104]
η

− =
Fi si
sFi
P I
k 1
2

4.6.3 Improvement by combined frequency and space diversity - 2
Rx
4.6.3.1 For flat fading:
The flat fading improvement, I
s,f-2,
and the improved probability, p
ds,fF-2
, is obtained by
using the same formulae [94]-[97] as for space diversity.
The limitations apply also here
4.6.3.2 For selective fading:
Also here, the same formulae as for space diversity are valid, i.e. formulae [98]-[104]. The
flat-fading correlation coefficient, k
sFi
, in formulae [102] and [104], however, has to be
replaced by:
[105]
sFi fFi sFi f
k k k ⋅ =
,

with k
sFi
according to formula [104], and k
fFi
according to formula [93].

35 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
4.6.4 Improvement by combined frequency and space diversity - 4Rx
4.6.4.1 For flat fading:
[106]
D
Fi
i sF df
m
P
P
4
4 ,
=


[107] ( )( )
2 2 3
1 1
sFi
fFi
D
k k m − − ⋅ η =
P
df,sFi
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding the planning criterion due
to fading for a combined frequency/space-diversity configuration with 4 Rx
P
Fi
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding the planning criterion due
to fading for an unprotected configuration according to equations [55] or
[56]
η... multipath activity factor acc. to equation [65]
k
sFi
... flat fading correlation coefficient for space diversity configuration according
to formula [104]
k
fFi
...

flat fading correlation coefficient for frequency diversity configuration ac-
cording to formula [93]
4.6.4.2 For distortions:
[108]
( ) [ ]
2
2
4
4 ,
1
sSi
Si
i sS df
k
P
P
− η
=


P
df,sS-4i
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding the planning criterion due
to distortions for a combined frequency/space-diversity configuration with 4
Rx
P
Si
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding the planning criterion due
to distortions for an unprotected configuration according to equation [63]
k
sS
... selective fading correlation coefficient for space diversity configuration
according to formulae [99] to [104]










36 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
4.7 Total performance with respect to the G.826 objectives.
Table 1 BER
SES
and block sizes...
Path type Bit rate

(Mbit/s)
BER
SES
(Note ii)
Blocks/s
(Note ii)
n
Bits/block
(Note ii)
N
B
...for various PDH systems
Note i
E1
2 4x10
-4
2 000 1 120
2xE1
2x2 2x10
-4
2 000 2 000
E2
8 1.1x10
-4
2 000 4 224
8xE1
8x2 8.8x10
-5
4 000 5 170
E3
34 6.5x10
-5
8 000 6 120
...for various SDH paths and sections
VC-11
1.5 5.4x10
-4
2 000 832
VC-12
2 4.0x10
-4
2 000 1 120
VC-2
6 1.3x10
-4
2 000 3 424
VC-3
34 6.5x10
-5
8 000 6 120
VC-4
140 2.1x10
-5
8 000 18 792
STM-1
155
2.3x10
-5
2.33x10
-4
8 000
192 000
19 940
801
i No figures are stated so far for PDH systems. P.530 advises to select the BER
SES

closest to the SDH transmission rate. This applies for 2 and 34 Mbit/s systems. For the
other PDH capacities, the author proposes the above figures.

37 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
ii The BER
SES
is the bit-error ratio for which the number of errored blocks within 1
second exceeds 30%. The figures stated assume a Poisson distribution of errors.
The Block/s is defined in Rec. G.826 for SDH paths, and in G.829 for SDH sections.
Some STM-1 equipment might be designed with 8000 blocks/s (19 940 bits/block),
but Rec. G.829 defines the block rate and size to be 192 000 block/s and 801
bits/block respectively.
4.7.1 Calculation of the block-based severely errored seconds ratio
(SESR)...
4.7.1.1 ... for an unprotected hop
The total fading probability rate for the individual, unprotected hop is:
[109]
SES Si SES Fi SES Mi
P P P
− − −
+ =
P
Mi-SES
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding BER
SES

on an unpro-
tected hop

due to multipath propagation
P
Fi-SES
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding BER
SES
on an unpro-
tected hop due to multipath fading; calculated acc. to formulae [55] or [58],
applying the relevant fading margin to BER
SES
BER
SES
... the bit-error ratio for which the number of errored blocks within one second
exceeds 30% (Table 1)
P
Si-SES
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding BER
SES
on an unpro-
tected hop due to distortions; calculated acc. to formula [63], applying the
relevant signature data for BER
SES
i... ordinal No for the individual hop
4.7.1.2 ...for a diversity-protected hop
The total fading probability for the individual, protected hop is:
[110] ( )
3 4 75 . 0 75 . 0
SES sSi SES dFi SES Mi
P P P
− − −
+ =
P
Mi-SES
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding BER
SES

on a diversity-
protected hop

due to multipath propagation
P
dFi-SES
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding BER
SES
on a diversity-
protected hop due to multipath fading; calculated acc. to formulae [55] or
[58], applying the relevant fading margin to BER
SES
BER
SES
... the bit-error ratio for which the number of errored blocks within one second
exceeds 30% (Table 1)
P
Si-SES
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding BER
SES
on a diversity-
protected hop due to distortions; calculated acc. to formula [63], applying
the relevant signature data for BER
SES


38 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
i... ordinal No for the individual hop
4.7.1.3 Distribution between performance and unavailability
Performance part
A part of the above excess probability - UM% - (formulae [109] and [110]) may last longer
than 10 consecutive seconds and have to be treated as unavailability. The above figure for
P
Mi-SES
has, thus, to be reduced to:
[111]
100
100
'
UM
P P
SES Mi SES Mi

⋅ =
− −

P
Mi-SES-1’
... resulting probability rate for the worst month for exceeding BER
SES

on a
hop

due to multipath propagation
P
Mi-SES
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding BER
SES

on a hop

due to
multipath propagation as per formulae [109] or [110]
UM... part in percentage of the probability rate, which has to be treated as unavail-
ability

Unavailability part
[112]
10
10
100
G
SES Mi u Mi
UM
P P
∆ −
− −
⋅ ⋅ =

[113] ( ) ( ) ε + ⋅ + ⋅ − ξ ± ⋅ − = ∆

1 lg 7 . 1 lg 7 . 2 2 cos 1 . 1 lg 6 . 5 5 . 10
7 . 0
d G
For ∆G > 10,8: use 10,8
P
Mi-u
... average annual unavailability rate on a hop

due to multipath propagation
P
Mi-SES
and UM as above
ξ... latitude in degrees + 1 decimal
±... + for ξ≤45
ο
− for ξ >45
o
N or S of the Equator
d
*
... hop length in km
ε... path inclination in mrad (formula [49])
4.7.1.4 Resulting block-based severely errored seconds ratio (SESR)
[114]
UP Rwmi SES Mi SES Mi
P P P
− − −
+ =
' "

P
Mi-SES ”
... final probability rate for the worst month for exceeding BER
SES

on a hop

due to multipath propagation

39 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
P
Mi-SES ’
.. resulting probability rate for the worst month for exceeding BER
SES

on a
hop

due to multipath propagation acc to formula [111] above
P
Rwmi-UP
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding BER
SES

on a hop

due
rain fading acc to formula [84]
4.7.2 Fading exceeding the background block error ratio (BBER)
objective
This fading event is caused both by multipath propagation and rain
4.7.2.1 Prediction of BBER due to multipath propagation
The following prediction model is recommended:
[115]
( ) 1 8 . 2
1 2
1
− ⋅ α ⋅
α
⋅ =
− −
m
P P
SES Mi BBE Mi

[116]
SES Mi RBER Mi
SES
P P
BER RBER
m
− −


=
lg lg
lg lg
1

P
Mi-BBE
... BBER probability rate for the worst month due to multipath propagation
P
Mi-SES
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding BER
SES
due to multipath
propagation acc. to formula [109], [110] or [111]
RBER... residual bit-error ratio
BER
SES
... the bit-error ratio for which the number of errored blocks within one second
exceeds 30% (Table 1)
P
Mi-RBER
... from the next formula:
[117]
RBER Si RBER Fi RBER Mi
P P P
− − −
+ =
P
Fi-RBER
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding RBER on a hop due to
fading; calculated acc. to formulae [55] or [58], applying the relevant fading
margin to RBER
P
Si-RBER
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding RBER on a hop due to
distortions; calculated acc. to formula [63], applying the relevant signature
data for RBER

α
1
... number of error/burst for the BER in the range between BER = 10
-3
and
BER
SES
; normally between 10 and 30
α
2
... number of error/burst for the BER in the range between BER
SES
; and RBER;
normally between 1 and 10
i... ordinal No for the individual hop


40 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
4.7.2.2 Prediction of BBER due to rain fading
Use again formula [115] to obtain P
Rwmi-BBER
, but written as:
[118]
( ) 1 8 . 2
2 2
1
− ⋅ α ⋅
α
⋅ =
− −
m
P P
SES Rwmi BBE Rwmi

P
Rwmi-BBE
...BBER probability rate for the worst month due to rain
P
Rwmi-SES
... probability rate for the worst month for exceeding BER
SES
due to rain, cal-
culated acc. to formula [78], applying the relevant fading margin to
BER
SES
, and transferred to the worst-month value by formula [83]
RBER... residual bit-error ratio
BER
SES
... the bit-error ratio for which the number of errored blocks within one second
exceeds 30% (Table 1)
α
1
... number of error/burst for the BER in the range between BER = 10
-3
and
BER
SES
; normally between 10and 30
α
2
... number of error/burst for the BER in the range between BER
SES
; and RBER;
normally between 1and 20
whereby:
[119]
2
2
1

α
α

and:
[120]
SES Rwmi RBER Rwmi
SES
P P
BER RBER
m
− −


=
lg lg
lg lg
2

P
Rwmi-RBER
...probability rate for the worst month for exceeding RBER due to rain, calcu-
lated acc. to formula [78], applying the relevant fading margin to BER
RBER
,
and transferred to the worst-month value by formula [83]
i... ordinal No for the individual hop
4.7.2.3 Prediction of BBER due to equipment contribution
[121] RBER N P
B BBE Ei
⋅ =


P
Ei-BBE
... BBER probability rate due to equipment contribution
RBER... residual bit-error ratio
N
B
... number of bits/block - see Table 1

41 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
4.7.3 Fading exceeding the errored second ratio (ESR) objective
This fading event is caused both by multipath propagation and rain.
4.7.3.1 Prediction of ESR due to multipath propagation
[122]
1
m
SES Mi ES Mi
n P P ⋅ =
− −

P
Mi-ES
... ESR probability rate for the worst month due to multipath fading
n... number of block/s - see Table 1
m
1
... according to formula [116]
The other parameters have their previous significance
4.7.3.2 Prediction of ESR due to rain fading
[123]
2
m
SES Rwmi ES Rwmi
n P P ⋅ =
− −

P
Rwmi-ES
... ESR probability for the worst month due to rain
m
2
... according to formula [120]
The other parameters have their previous significance
4.7.3.3 Prediction of ESR due to equipment contribution
[124] RBER N n P
B ES Ei
⋅ ⋅ =


P
Mi-ES
... ESR probability rate due to equipment contribution
N
B
... number of bits/block - see Table 1
n... number of block/s - see Table 1
4.7.4 Total performance for the circuit
The total rate of time, P
c
, during which the planning objectives are not met for the circuit is
the sum of the cumulated rates, i.e.:
[125]
( )


=
− − − −
+ + =
10
1
i
i
x Ei x Rwmi x Mi x c
P P P P

P
c-x
... fading probability rate for exceeding SESR, ESR or BBER respectively for
the radio circuit
P
Mi-x
... fading probability rates for exceeding SESR, ESR or BBER respectively for
the individual hop due to multipath propagation


42 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
P
Rwmi-x
... fading probability rates for exceeding ESR or BBER respectively for the
individual hop due to rain fading
P
Ei-x
... fading probability rates for exceeding ESR or BBER respectively for the
individual hop due equipment contribution
Remember: Concerning the SESR, it should be observed, that:


P
Rwmi-SES
= P
Ei-SES
= 0
x... either SESR, ESR or BBER
The values for P
c-x
should not exceed the planning objectives, i.e.:
[126]
x pl x c
P P
− −

P
c-x
... predicted total probability rate during which the planning objective is not
met for a radio-relay circuit
P
p-xl
... allowed probability rate for exceeding the planning objective for a radio-
relay circuit, i.e. the planning objective
x... either SESR, ESR or BBER
Formula [125] can be expressed in time:
[127]
x c UN x
P h s

⋅ 





⋅ − ⋅ =
12
3600
10 628 . 2
6

s
x
... total time for exceeding the corresponding planning objective in sec / aver-
age month
h
UN
... from formula [138]

43 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
5 Unavailability calculations for radio-relay systems
5.1 Unavailability and reliability of hardware
5.1.1 Single (unprotected) structures
[128]
S rS
S rS
uS
M
M
P
λ ⋅ +
λ ⋅
=
1

P
uS
... unavailability rate for the single structure
λ
S
... failure rate (failures per time unit) - the sum of the failure rates for the indi-
vidual units, λ
i
, connected in tandem:
[129]

=
λ = λ
n
i
i S
1

M
rS
... mean-time-to-repair (MTTR) for the single structure, in same time unit as the
failure rate.
The mean-time-to-repair figures do no include any waiting time for spare parts. It is thus as-
sumed that there is always access to spare parts when a fault occurs.
The failure rate, λ, can also be expressed in terms of mean-time-between-failure (MTBF):
[130]
λ
=
1
MTBF

MTBF... mean-time-between-failure for the single structure, in same time unit as the
failure rate




44 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
5.1.2 Duplicated (protected) structures
5.1.2.1 The duplicated structures are of the same type

The unavailability of a this type of duplicated structure, including the protection switching
facilities, is calculated according to the following formula:
[131]












+
λ ⋅
+ λ ⋅ λ ⋅ =
rND
rS
ND rND
S rS S rS uD
M
M
M
M M P
1

P
uD
... unavailability rate for the duplicated structure as per above figure
λ
S
... failure rate (failures per time unit) for one of the duplicated equipment (=
single structure as per above figure
λ
ND
... failure rate (failures per time unit) for the (non-duplicated) splitting and
switching device proper - see also below
M
rS
... mean-time-to-repair for one of the duplicated equipment, in same time unit
as the failure rate
M
rND
... mean-time-to-repair for the (non-duplicated) splitting and switching device
proper, in same time unit as the failure rate
Formula [131] is only valid for systems using optional switching. This type of switching
means that a failure in the switch element will not cause system failure unless switching is
required. Consequently, the failure rate, λ
ND
, includes only the values for the splitting and
switching elements themselves, together with those for the switch’s logic and control unit (L
in the above figure), while the level and impedance interfacing elements of the splitting and
switching units are a part of the failure rate of the duplicated equipment, λ
S
, and of the sin-
gle (i.e. non-protected) interface units (I), respectively, as they cause interruption of the
traffic. The MTTR figures for these traffic-interrupting parts are the same as for the dupli-
cated equipment, or = M
rS
.
For the complete path, including the non-protected interface units (I), equation [132] is ex-
tended to:

45 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
[132]
2 1 uI uI uD uP
P P P P + + =
where P
uI(1,2)
are calculated according to equation [128], using the same value for M
rS
as in
formula [131], and the failure rate, λ
I(1,2)
, instead of λ
S
.
5.1.2.2 The duplicated structures are different equipment types
For this type of configuration, the following formula can apply for the calculation of the
unavailability, P
uD
[133] P P P
ND uD
+ =
According to the figure below, these parameters have the following significance:
P
 
… unavailability rate for the two single structures in parallel according to for-
mula:
[134]
2 1 uS uS
P P P ⋅ =
P
uS1,2
… unavailability rate for single structure No 1 or 2 resp. acc. to formulas [128]
and [129].
If one of the single structures itself consists of an 1+1-protected structure, its unavailability
PuD
M
M
L
T
T R
R
D
D
I1 I2
P
  PND PND
PuP
Structural type:
single non-dupl. two parallel single non-duplicated single


46 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
rate (P
uS1
or P
uS2
in formula [134]) has to be obtained from formula [131] or [132] resp.
P
ND
is calculated applying formula [128], with the failures rates for the (non-protected)
switching and splitting elements proper, and the corresponding mean-time-to-repair. (Con-
cerning the distribution of the different hardware parts of the switching and splitting device
to the non-duplicated and duplicated structures, reference should be made to the previous
section 5.1.2.1.)
For the complete hardware structure, including the non-protected interface units (I), equa-
tion [133] is extended to:
[135]
2 1 uI uI uD uP
P P P P + + =
where P
uI1,2
is calculated according to equation [128], using the same value for M
rS
as in
formula [133], and the failure rate, λ
I1,2
, instead of λ
S
.
5.2 Unavailability due to propagation disturbances
The unavailability due to propagation disturbances, P
Ra
, consists of contributions from rain
and from multipath fading:
[136]
u Mi SES ai Rai
P R P
− −
+ =
P
Rai
... probability rate for a radio hop due to rain for the average annual year
P
Ri-SES
... average annual probability rate, during which the rain attenuation exceeds
the available fading margin acc to formula [82]
P
Mi-u
... average annual unavailability rate on a hop

due to fading and distortions acc
to formula [112]
i... ordinal No for the radio hop
5.3 Total unavailability
The total unavailability of a radio circuit, UR
t
, is the sum of the contributions from the hard-
ware and the rain. It should be observed, however, that the unavailability of the hardware
has to be considered for both the go and the return direction of transmission, i.e. twice,
while that for rain is counted only once:
[137]

=
+ ⋅ =
n
i
Rai u t
P P UR
1
2

UR
t
... total unavailability rate of a radio circuit
P
u
... unavailability rate of the total hardware, according to section 5.1
P
Rai
... unavailability due to precipitations, see above
n... number of radio hops included in the circuit

47 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
Formula [137] expressed in time:
[138] 8760 ⋅ =
t UN
UR h
h
UN
... total unavailability in hours / average year



48 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
6 Frequency planning
6.1 The number of disturbing signals reaching a receiver
[139]
y x N
n









=

1

N... number of disturbing signals at each receiver
n... number of hops in the area concerned
x... number of parallel r.f. channels on the individual hop
y... number of parallel r.f. channels on the own hop
and the number of total interferences possible is
[140] n N K ⋅ =
K... number of interference connections
6.2 General formula for the calculation of interfering sig-
nal levels
[141]
G A Rx , Tx Rx , BTx Rx , WTx o Tx Ii
G A A A A A ATPC L I + − − − − − − =
L
Ii
... level of a single interfering signal in dBm
L
Tx
... operating max output level of the disturbing transmitter in dBm
ATPC … selected control range of the adaptive transmitter power control in dB
A
o
... free-space attenuation in dB between disturbing transmitter and disturbed
receiver
A
WTx,Rx
.. waveguide attenuation in dB in the transmitting alt. receiving station
A
BTx,Rx
branching attenuation in dB in the transmitting alt. receiving station
A
WTx,Rx
r.f. attenuators in dB in the transmitting alt. receiving station
A
A
... additional attenuation in dB due to non-clearance of the interference path
and/or other attenuations in the interference path
G
G
... total antenna gain in dB(i) for angles ψ1 and ψ2, according to the following
formula [142]:
[142] ( ) ( )
GRx GTx Rx Tx GRx GTx G
A A G G G G G + − + = + =
Note: In case the transmitter and the receiver antenna operate at different polarization
planes, the two possible H/V combinations have to be considered. In this case, the next
equations apply in stead:

49 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
[143]
( ) 





+ + + = 





+ =
⊥ ⊥ ⊥
− −

10 10
10
10
10 lg 10 10 10 lg 10
A A
Rx Tx
G
G
G
A G G G

[144]
⊥ ⊥
+ =
Rx Tx
G G G

[145]
Rx Tx
G G G + =
⊥ ⊥

[146]
⊥ ⊥
+ =
Rx Tx
A A A

[147]
Rx Tx
A A A + =
⊥ ⊥

G
Tx
... antenna gain for the main direction in dB(i) of the transmitting an-
tenna, referred to an isotropic radiator
G
Rx
... ditto for the receiving antenna
G
Tx||
... antenna gain in dB(i) of the transmitting antenna for angle ψ2 and parallel
polarisation, referred to an isotropic radiator
G
Rx⊥
... ditto for the receiving antenna for angle ψ1 and cross polarisation
G
Tx⊥
... ditto for the transmitting antenna cross polarisation,
G
Rx||
... ditto for the receiving antenna and parallel polarisation
A
Tx||
... antenna discrimination in dB of the transmitting antenna for angle ψ2 and
parallel polarisation, referred to the antenna gain in the direction of trans-
mission
A
Rx⊥
... ditto for the receiving antenna for angle ψ1 and cross polarisation
A
Tx⊥
... ditto for the transmitting antenna cross polarisation
A
Rx||
... ditto for the receiving antenna and parallel polarisation
6.3 Formulae for triangular network configuration


50 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
6.3.1 Nodal station disturbs outstation
(Tx
A1
_
Rx
C
)
[148]
WTx BTx Tx Tx A G C Rx C Ii
A A A ATPC L G A L L ∆ − ∆ − ∆ − ∆ − ∆ + ∆ + − =
− − − 1

[149]
2 1 A A
G G G − = ∆
[150]
2 1 A Tx A Tx Tx
L L L
− −
− = ∆
[151]
2 1 A Tx A Tx Tx
A A A
− −
− = ∆
[152]
2 1 A BTx A BTx BTx
A A A
− −
− = ∆
[153]
2 1 A WTx A WTx WTx
A A A
− −
− = ∆
[154]
2 1 A A
ATPC ATPC ATPC − = ∆
L
Ii
... level of a single interfering signal in dBm
i ... ordinal number of the interfering signal
L
Rx-C
... received level of the wanted carrier signal in dBm during fading-free time at
disturbed receiver C
∆G .. antenna discrimination or side- and back lobe attenuation for angle   !in dB,
for antenna A1 in the nodal station, considering the polarisation for the dis-
turbed and disturbing signal
G
A1
... antenna gain in dB for the disturbing transmitter A1 in the nodal station
G
A2
... antenna gain in dB for the transmitter A2 in the nodal station
L
Tx-A1
... output level in dBm for the disturbing transmitter A1
L
Tx-A2
... output level in dBm for the transmitter A2
A
Tx-A1
... RF attenuator in dB in the disturbing transmitter A1
A
Tx-A2
... RF attenuator in dB in the transmitter A2
A
BTx-A1
.. branching attenuator in dB in the disturbing transmitter A1
A
BTx-A2
.. branching attenuator in dB in the transmitter A2
A
WTx-A1
.. waveguide attenuation in dB in the disturbing transmitter A1
A
WTx-A2
.. waveguide attenuation in dB in the transmitter A2
ATPCA1… automatic transmitter power control range for transmitter A1
ATPCA2… automatic transmitter power control range for transmitter A2
If there is only one interference path to receiver C, equation [148] can be used to select the
antenna A1 by writing:
[155]
WTx BTx Tx Tx Fi I TrI G
A A A ATPC L G M L L A − − ∆ − ∆ − ∆ + ∆ + + − =
Applying the definition of CIR, this equation can be expressed as:

51 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
[156]
WTx BTx Tx Tx Fi G
A A A ATPC L G M CIR A − − ∆ − ∆ − ∆ + ∆ + + =
This equation shows, that the higher the CIR, and the higher the flat fading margin, M
Fi
, the
higher the antenna discrimination necessary.
6.3.2 Outstation disturbs nodal point
(Tx
C

_
Rx
A1
)

[157]
WRx BRx Rx Rx A G A Rx A Ii
A A A L G A L L ∆ − ∆ − ∆ − ∆ + ∆ + − =
− − − 1 1 1

[158]
1 2 A Rx A Rx Rx
L L L
− −
− = ∆
[159]
2 1 A Rx A Rx Rx
A A A
− −
− = ∆
[160]
2 1 A BRx A BRx BRx
A A A
− −
− = ∆
[161]
2 1 A WRx A WRx WRx
A A A
− −
− = ∆
L
Rx-A1
... receiver input level of the wanted signal in dBm during fading-free time at
disturbed receiver A1
L
Rx-A2
... receiver input level of the wanted signal in dBm during fading-free time at
receiver A2
A
Rx-A1
... RF attenuator in dB in the disturbed receiver A1
A
Rx-A2
... RF attenuator in dB in the receiver A2
A
BRx-A1
.. branching attenuation in dB in the disturbed receiver A1
A
BRx-A2
.. branching attenuation in dB in the receiver A2
A
WRx-A1
.. waveguide attenuation in dB in the disturbed receiver A1
A
WRx-A2
.. waveguide attenuation in dB in the receiver A2
The other parameters have their previous significance.


52 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
Also equation [157] can be expressed with the antenna discrimination as the unknown pa-
rameter:
[162]
WRx BRx Rx Rx Fi G
A A A L G M CIR A − − ∆ − ∆ + ∆ + + =
6.4 Interference via passive repeater
6.4.1 Passive repeater as first-source transmitter
[163]
S G A WRx WTx o o Tx Ii
G G A A A A A ATPC L L + + − − − − − − =
2 2 1

For G
G
, equation [142] is valid.
A
o1
... free-space attenuation in dB between PR and its associated transmitter, Tx
A
o2
... free-space attenuation in dB for the interference path between PR and the
disturbed receiver, Rx
A
A2
... (eventual) additional attenuation in dB due to obstacle in the interference
path to Rx
G
S
... passive repeater gain in dB for the interfering signal at angle Θ
S
- for antenna back-to-back:
[164]
2 2 1 G S S S
A G G G − + =
- for plane reflector:
[165]
S
S
b
f Y
G
Θ ⋅

⋅ + =
sin
lg 20 5 . 22


53 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
[166]
If :
R S R S
G G Y f G G = ⇒ 




 ψ
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ≥
2
cos 5 . 139 lg 20
2

G
R
.... gain in passive repeater, plane reflector type, in dB for the wanted signal,
and angle ψ
G
S1
... passive repeater - antenna back-to-back type - gain in dB for the parabolic
antenna towards Tx (main direction)
G
S2
... ditto for the parabolic antenna towards Rx'
A
G2
... antenna discrimination in dB for angle Θ
S
for the passive repeater antenna
towards Rx'
f..... radio frequency in GHz
Y..... physical area of the plane reflector in m
2
b..... largest side dimension of the reflector in m
Θ
Rx
... angle in degrees between the wanted and the interfering signal paths for
receiver Rx
Θ
S
.... angle in degrees between the reflected ray and the interfering signal path
ψ..... angle in space, in degrees, between the incident and reflected ray
The significance of the remaining parameters is according to formula [141]
Formula [165] is valid for:

2
90
ψ
− < Θ
S
, if Θ
S
is outside the reflection angle ψ

2
ψ
≤ Θ
S
, if Θ
S
is inside the reflection angle ψ.
If
2
90
ψ
− ≥ Θ
S
, and outside ψ:


54 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
[167]





 ψ
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + =
2
cos lg 10 25 . 21
2
f Y G
S

6.4.2 Passive repeater as receiver of interfering signals
The level of the interfering signal, L
Ii
is calculated according to the same formula [163] as
above, but with changed Tx-Rx co-ordination.
Formulae [164] to [167] are also valid here, including the conditions for their application, as
well as their limitations.
6.5 Total interference
If more than one interfering signal has to be considered at a receiver’s input, the various
contributions are added together on a power law basis:
[168]
( )

=
− ∆ −
⋅ =
n
i
A CIR L
I
j i Ii
lg L
1
10
10 10

L
I
. combined level in dBm of all interfering signals
L
Ii
... level in dBm of an individual interfering signal
A
j
... adjacent-channel attenuation in dB of the interfering signal in the receiver,
see above. For co-channel interference (∆f = 0): A
j
= 0.
∆CIR… power density compensation in dB:
The influence of interfering signals on the wanted signal depends on
the power distribution within the spectrum of the interfering signal.
When summing up the various interferer signal levels as per formula
[168] we have to compensate for the different power densities by in-

55 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
troducing the parameter ∆CIR. This parameter has to be calculated
for each interfering signal; it is the difference between the highest
CIR and the CIR of the individual interferer:
[169]
i ref i
CIR CIR CIR − = ∆
CIR
ref
… the CIR figure in dB for an interfering signal from a transmitter of the same
system type as the disturbed receiver
CIR
i
… the CIR figure of the individual interferer in dB


56 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
7 Bibliography
{1} Heinz Karl, Performance and availability as applied to digital radio-relay
systems, K&K Engineering
{2} Heinz Karl, Planning and engineering of radio-relay networks, K&K Engi-
neering
























@ Heinz Karl, 2005

57 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
Annex
1. The co-ordinates for the hop’s midpoint are cal cul ated as
follows:
- for the longitude:
[170]
2
2 1
x x
x
o
+
=

- for the latitude:
[171]
2
2 1
y y
y
o
+
=

x
o
... longitude for the midpoint in degrees 
x
1
... longitude for site A in degrees  negative figures for
x
2
... longitude for site B in degrees ⌡ W of Greenwich
y
o
... latitude for the midpoint in degrees 
y
1
... latitude for site A in degrees  negative figures for
y
2
... latitude for site B in degrees ⌡ S of the equator
2. The co-ordinates for the corners of the 110x110 km
area around a hop’s midpoint:
[172] ( )
o C
y y a y sin 999925 . 0 cos 0122165 . 0 cos sin
1 1
⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ Θ =
[173]
C o
C o
o C
y y
y y
a x x
cos cos
sin sin 999925 . 0
cos

⋅ −
+ =

x
o
and y
o
are the co-ordinates in degree of the hop’s midpoint as calculated above.
∗ NE corner: Θ
1
= 45
o
cos Θ
1
= 0.707107 acos = +
∗ SE corner: Θ
1
= 135
o
cos Θ
1
= - 0.707107 acos = +
∗ SW corner Θ
1
= 225
o
cos Θ
1
= - 0.707107 acos = -
∗ NW corner Θ
1
= 315
o
cos Θ
1
= 0.707107 acos = -



58 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
3. Bilinear interpolation
The co-ordinates of a hop’s midpoint, x
o
and y
o
, have been calculated according to section 1
above. This midpoint is located between 4 grid points of a digital map, points I, II, III and
IV, eg those with a mutual distance of 1.5
o
- see the below figure.
x and y are the longitudes and latitudes in degree, z
11-22
are the co-ordinated third parame-
ters, eg the refractivity gradient, dN
1
- section 4.2.3 - or the rainfall intensity, J
0.01
- section
4.5.1. The unknown parameter, z
o
, is obtained by the following calculation:
[174]
( )( ) ( )( )
( )
11 21 12 22
11 12 11 21
11
z z z z
y y
y y
x x
x x
y y
z z y y
x x
z z x x
z z
a b
a o
a b
a o
a b
a o
a b
a o
o
+ − −




+
+

− −
+

− −
+ =







1.5
o

1.5
o
GP III x
b
y
b
z
22
x
o
y
o
z
o
GP II x
a
y
b
z
12
GP I x
a
y
a
z
11
GP IV x
b
y
b
z
21

59 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
Appendix I
Water vapour density - a World atlas
The data below are an extract from ITU-R Rec. P.836 and show the water vapour density in
g/m
3
for two months of the year for the various regions of the world. These charts should be
used the following way:
∗ for the small time-percentage calculation, use the higher of the two values
for the location concerned,
∗ for the fading-free time calculation, use the lower of the two values.


60 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5


61 k&k engineering
TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5 Rev. N-A5 2005-03-06
Appendix II
Rain intensity data - a World atlas
The data below are an extract from ITU-R Rec.P.837-3 and refer to the annual average clock-
minute rainfall rates in mm/h for 0.01% of the time. The figures in the below chart have been
derived from the data and equations shown in chapter 4.5.3. For the charts of other regions of
the World, reference should be made to bibliography {1} or to ITU-R Rec.P.837-3.


62 k&k engineering
2005-03-06 Rev. N-A5 TECHNICAL PAPER KKE 5201/5
Appendix III
Rain attenuation coefficient, parameters Τ ΤΤ Τ and α αα α

Regression coefficients for estimating specific attenuations in equation [71]
Frequency
(GHz)
Τ
H
α
H
Τ
V
α
V
7
8
10
12
15
20
25
30
35
40
35
50
0.00301
0.00454
0.0101
0.0188
0.0367
0.0751
0.124
0.187
0.263
0.350
0.442
0.536
1.332
1.327
1.276
1.217
1.154
1.099
1.061
1.021
0.979
0.939
0.903
0.873
0.00265
0.00395
0.00887
0.0168
0.0335
0.0691
0.113
0.167
0.233
0.310
0.393
0.479
0.00265
0.00395
0.00887
0.0168
0.0335
0.0691
0.113
0.167
0.233
0.310
0.393
0.479

Raindrop size distribution according to Laws and Parsons, [1943]
Terminal velocity of raindrops according to Gunn and Kinzer, [1949]
Index of refraction of water at 20°C, see Ray, [1972]
Values of Τ
H
, Τ
V
, α
H
and α
V
for spheroidal drops [Fedi, 1979; Maggiori, 1981] based on
regression for the range 1 to 150 mm/h.

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