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Summary and Comment 2013

VIDEO 1 How to make soap cold Summary Actually, make a soap cold is not to too difficult. We can make a soap cold by ourself at home. The process to make it can be fun if we have to know about the process. Befoe we do experiments to mak a soap cold, we have to research and learn about how to make a soap cold. Before we begin how to make a soap cold, we must prepare about ingredients and safety tools. There are four important ingredients, they are canola oil, olive oil, water and NAOH or Lye. Safety tools are mask, gloves and glasses also make sure about ventilation or make it in outdoor area. There are 8 steps to make a soap cold. First, prepare tools like digital scale 0.1, soap molds (can silicon or plastic), thermometer, spatula, measuring large lye, stick blender, and cutter. Second, measure a lye with digital scale then cover a lye before we use it in outdoor area. Third, add lye to water (important : never add water to lyr because it can make an explosive). Fourth, measure canola oil and check themperature both of canola oil and lye. Fifth, mix lye to canola oil slowly and blend by spatula. Sixth, blend with stick blender to decrease a bubble water till reach trace about 5 -10 minutes. Seventh, take a trace into soap molds and cover by plastic wrap and cloth to help safonification reaction and wait 24 hours. The last step, take a soap cold, cut it suitable ourself. The soap cold cure about 4-6 weeks. Adding colour and fragrance make a soap cold beatiful and more smell.

Comment According my opinion, video about make soap cold vey usefull. It can help us make a soap cold by ourself at home. We can make a sopa cold by safonification reaction, that is one of chemical reaction by reacting between fatty acid (oil) + lye (base) to form salt (soap cold). In our department, we have practiced about it. We mix some NAOH as base with oil as fatty acid. We know that safonification will be form salt as soap and water (H2O). That reaction very simple and easy. But we still be carefully about base because the base characteristic is hygroscopic. Therefore we must use a gloves. The video give us information about safety to make soap cold. That important things because base that used to make soap cold is danger compound. If we do not carefully, like mix water to base or lye, it will occur an explosive.

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Summary and Comment 2013


Chemical bonds Summary There are many compounds in the universe that combine within molecules or atoms. The processess made up of compound by chemical reaction that accompanied chemical bonds. Generally, there are 3 kinds of chemical bonds, they are covalent, ionic and metalic. Covalent bond is bond by shared electrons that electrons use together. It is divides 2 kinds, covalent polar such as water (H 2O) and covalent nonpolar such as hidrocarbon compound whit long atom C. Ionic bond is there is transfer electron between to ionic compound and each of molecule give one electron and other achive it such as NaCl. Metalic bond is reaction between molecule with metals. Make a chemical bond, we must attention about electeonegativity and octet rule. An electronegativity is the ability to pull an electeron, on periodic table if include one of group from down to up electeronegativity of atom is increase and one of period from left to right electronegativity is increase too. An electronegativity covalent non polar is 0, polar is 0.5 and ionic is 1.7. while the octet rule is factor that influence compound more stable like a noble gas (VIII), example if there is atom has 7 electrons that means, it has pull 1 electron to make a stable condition.

Comment In my opinion, explain about chemical bond from that video is clear and easy to understand. Because we have learnt about it in our department. From that video, it give us information abou chemical bond; that interaction between same of different atom or molecule to form a compound. There are 3 kinds of chemical bond, theyre covalent (that shared electron to the other and use it together which divided by 2 : polar and non polar), ionic bond ( that is transfer electron to other atom such as NaCl), and metalic bond ( bond by reaction within metals). Make a chemical bond, we have to notice about 2 factors, first : electronegativity and second : octet rule. Electronegativity is about atom ability to pull an electron, while octet rule is principle to make compoun more stable with 8 electron.

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Summary and Comment 2013


water Summary Water is the most aboundant compound in the earth surface, covering about 70% of the planet. Almost all of the people and else organism need water, because water is polar molecule that can solvent th properties in living organism. Water is colorlss, odorless and tasteles. H2O is chemical name of water that form by covalent and hydrogen bond between hydrogen and oxygen. When 2 molecules liquid water joins to form hydrogen bond, it makes water more polar and can solvent such us salt and form salt solution. Water has 3 phase, it can from solid to liquid we called fussion or melt, liquid to gas called vapor and solid to gas called sublimation. We can draw it at phase diagram to show the phase boundaries. Most water is liquid but if we make a lower themperature and pressure, it will turn into a solid and has strong hydrogen bond. When solid changes to liquid like ice melt, hydrogen bond will broken and it molecules are free to move closer together. If the water trun into gas, molecules move more freely, this effect the value of water entropy. Mose dissordered water molecules will increase an entropy. Water if from solid and it gives continue themperature will changes be liquid and gas with entropy increase does too.

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Video 4 Fractional distilation


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Summary and Comment 2013


Summary Fractional ditilation is one of the chemical separation tolls, it uses to separate between solute and solvent. The basic principle this tool is separating mixtures based on differences of boiling point between solute and solvent. Generally, fractional distilation used to separate between solute and solvent that has lower difference of boiling point. Fractional distilation consists are coloumns, it called regret), condenser, heating matle as a heat source, thermometerm round-bottom flask to accommode solute or solvent, if it had been separated. The step use fractional distilation : firstly, when heating, solvent will evaporate first, because it has a lower boiling point then solute. Secondly, steam of solvent will pass to condenser and change from gas to liquid by condenses. Finally, both of solvent and solute will separate. Sometimes, coloumn regrat covered by alumunium foil. Is aims to keep system themperature from contaminate by surrounding themperature. Using fractional distilation not too difficult, we just waiting to separate mixture of compound after e arrange all of contains tool. We will get more pure compound from mixture compound before. Comment

Video 5 MSg (monosodium glutamate) Summary


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Almost everyone loved the food was delicious. One complementary seasonings that are often used to flavor food is MSG. MSG is the sodium salt of glutamic acid which is one of the non-essential amino acid most abundant naturally occurring. Addition of MSG often found on restaurant food in china, France, Japan and Italy. All of the added MSG as a food complement. All meals are added MSG generally become more comfortable and tasteful. Generally MSG can increase a person's appetite. But there are many dangers arising from the use of MSG. Some study of mammals, namely mice, concluded MSG if consumed in excessive amounts can lead to obesity. This is evidenced by comparing the rats who consumed between MSG and those who did not consume. In addition, MSG also may cause the retina of the eye and cause damage to brain tissue in humans. MSG hazard impact has been proven by scientific research. GRAS give limits to consume the MSG 16g/10kg weight. if it exceeds the threshold, the negative impact will be felt by humans. For longterm health is advised to stop MSG consumption given the negative impacts behind the delicious taste that is felt by a person. Comment In my opinion, MSG is one of addictive substance that added to some cuisine or snack. Almost product

Video 6 Crystal growth Summary


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Video 7 Air pollution Summary Comment

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