perfect tenses

1. Choose the correct form of the words in brackets: a. Bart (went / has gone) to Asturias on holiday last month. b. How many cokes (did you drink / have you drunk) today? c. Ben (lives / has lived / lived) in Manchester since 1997. d. I’m tired because I (painted / have painted / have been painting) my flat. e. Paul (just got / has just got / has just been getting) up. He’s having breakfast now. f. Mike (phoned / has phoned) ten minutes ago. He wants you to phone him. 2. Complete the sentences with the Past Perfect form of these verbs: a. You went to Sue’s house, but she wasn’t there. (she / go / out) She had gone out. b. You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn’t the same as before. (it / change / a lot)

c. I invited Rachel to the party, but she couldn’t come. (she / arrange / to do something else)

d. You went to the cinema last night. You got to the cinema late. (the film / already /begin)

e. It was nice to see Dan again after such a long time. (I / not / see / him for five years)

f. I offered Sue something to eat, but she wasn’t hungry. (she / just / have / breakfast)

3. Put the verb into the correct form, past perfect (I had done) or past simple (I did): a. “Was Paul at the party when you arrived?” “No, he had gone (go) home.” b. I felt very tired when I got home, so I ___________________ (go) straight to bed. c. The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody ___________________ (go) to bed. d. Sorry I’m late. The car _____________________ (break) down on my way here. e. We were driving along the road when we __________________ (see) a car which ______________________ (break) down, so we ____________________ (stop) to help. f. John was really glad that he __________________ (pass) all his exams and would have the summer free. g. When her mother started crying, Susie _________________ (say) she was sorry. h. Jennifer had her first baby when she was thirty but she __________________ (be) married since she was twenty-four.

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4. Write the correct form of the words in brackets. Use the Present Perfect Simple or Past Perfect Simple form of the verb: a. Who has taken (take) my roller skates? They aren’t here. b. They ________________ (have) breakfast before they left their house, so they weren’t hungry when they arrived. c. When we got to the cinema, the film ____________________ (start) d. _________________ (you see) Pamela? She’s dancing at Central Square! e. His exhibition photographs ________________ (surprise) me. f. I hardly recognised May. I _______________ (not see) her for such a long time. g. I’d like to visit Jimmy this weekend. He ____________________ (not be) well recently. h. Fortunately, we ____________________ (not go) far when we realised that we ______________________ (forget) our plane tickets. 5. Complete the sentences with the Present Perfect Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous form of the verbs in brackets: a. When my parents decided to come home, … (they / travel for a fortnight) they had been travelling for a fortnight. b. My hair was wet because…(I / swim)

c. His eyes hurt him because… (he / sit in front of the computer for hours)

d. I am tired because … (I / jog for the last thirty minutes)

e. Vanessa speaks English very well because … (she / study all her life)

f. When I arrived, … (the customer / wait for forty five minutes)

g. There is water all around because… (it / rain for the last days)

6. Make sentences from the words in brackets. Put the verb into the correct form: present perfect (I have done), present perfect continuous (I have been doing), past perfect (I had done) or past perfect continuous (I had been doing). a. Amanda is sitting on the ground. She’s out of breath. (she / run) She has been running. b. Where’s my bag? I left it under this chair. (somebody / take / it)_____________________________________________________
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c. We were all surprised when Jenny and Andy got married last year. (they / only / know / each other / a few weeks) _________________________________ d. It’s still raining. I wish it would stop. (it / rain / all day) ________________________________________________________ e. Suddenly I woke up. I was confused and didn’t know where I was. (I / dream) _____________________________________________________________ f. I wasn’t hungry at lunchtime, so I didn’t have anything to eat. (I / have / a big breakfast) _________________________________________________ g. Every year Robert and Tina spend a few days at the same hotel by the sea. (they / go / there for years) ________________________________________________

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review of tenses
Fill in the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets: 1. My parents (recently / buy) _____________________________ some property in the south of France. They (build) ____________________ a summer cottage there at the moment. 2. Andy and sally (go) ________________________ to a concert tomorrow night. They (look forward to) ________________________ it all week. 3. When he (found) _____________________________ Microsoft, Bill Gates was only 20 years old. He (already / write) ___________________________ his first computer program seven years earlier. 4. Mrs Smith said that one day she (retire) _________________________ from teaching. She mentioned that she (spend) ____________________________________ her time learning about computers. 5. They (stand) __________________________ in the queue for an hour when the manager (inform) _________________________ them that no more tickets were available. 6. The men (sentence) ________________________ to eight years in prison. They (rob) _______________________ many banks. 7. The building the squatters (live in) _________________________ at present (abandon) __________________________ for a year. 8. If the rate of unemployment (not be) ______________________________ so high, there (be) _________________________ fewer violent incidents. Let’s hope this situation will change soon. 9. If I (make) _________________________ more of an effort during my school years, I (accept) _______________________ at university. Now I am sorry I didn’t. 10. An accident (occur) ____________ near my house last night. A car (hit) _____________ a young man. He (ride) ___________________ his bicycle when someone in front of him suddenly (open) ______________ a car door. Several witnesses (see) _____________ the accident. The police (question) _________________ them last night. 11. Robert (watch) _________________ the news in English every day on TV and it (help) _______________ him with his English. He says, “If you (watch) ______________ the news in English, it (help) __________________ you too”. 12. I saw a film a week ago, but I (not enjoy) __________________ it very much. The problem was that I (already read) ______________________the book. If I (not read) ________________ the book first, I probably (enjoy) _________________ the film more.

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13. Alan (be) _______________ in a car accident yesterday. The other driver (lose) _________ control of his car because he (fall) ________________ asleep. If he (stop) _________________ to rest, the accident (not occur) ____________________. 14. My car (break down) __________________ yesterday on my way home from work. I (fix) ____________________ it if I (know) _____________________ what to do but as I didn’t, I (have to) __________________ take it to the garage. 15. Last night my neighbour (knock) ______________ on the door. She wanted my father to move his car. She said she (can not) _________________ get out of her parking space. 16. Linda (phone) _____________ me and (explain) ________________that she (not come) ________________________ to our party the next day because she (be) __________ still sick. 17. Barry had an argument with Tom. Barry said that he (return) ____________________ Tom’s money the week before. Tom insisted that he (not receive) ________________ it 18. My teacher (ask) ________________ me if I (ever use) __________________ a computer before. I explained to him that I (learn) _______________ to use computers the year before. He said that it (be) _______________ fantastic and (ask) _________________ me to help some of the other students in the class. 19. My sister (fly) _____________________ home from London today. Her flight (arrive) _______________ in one hour so I (leave) _________________ the house right now to get to the airport on time. 20. I (sleep) _________________________ when the fire (break out) ____________________. 21. She (not see) ________________ her father since he (start) ____________________ to work in France two years ago. 22. I (not sleep) ____________________ at all last night; someone (listen)

__________________ to very loud music all night. 23. Once Susan (pay) _____________________ her fare, she’ll sit at the back of the bus. 24. “(You / write) ___________________ to him tonight?” “Yes, I always (write) ___________ to him on his birthday. (You / want) ___________________ to send him a message?” 25. “I (just / be) __________________ to see the film “The Da Vinci’s Code”. (you / see) _______________ it?” “No, I haven’t. Is it like the book?” “I don’t know, I (not / read) ______________ the book” 26. Unless he (sell) ___________ more, he won’t get much commission. 27. She looked as if her husband (get) ____________________ the sack.

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28. While he was waiting for the bus, there (be) ________________ a robbery at the bank. After the robbers (go away) ___________________, the police (appear) _________________ but they (not be able / catch) _________________ them. 29. Before Peter went out home, he (write) _____________________ a note to Mary saying that he (not be able / come back) ____________________ for dinner that evening. 30. “Who (move) ___________________ the furniture about upstairs?” “It’s Tom, he (paint) ___________________ the front bedroom”. 31. He (always / say) _______________________ that he will mend the window but he never (do) ____________________ it. 32. I used to ski when I (be) ______________ at university but I (break) ________________ a leg five years ago and since then I (not / do) ___________________ any skiing. 33. He (park) _______________ his car under a No Parking sign and (rush) ________________ into the shop. When he (come) ____________ out of the shop ten minutes later the car (be) _______ no longer there. He (wonder) ________________ if someone (steal) ________________ it or if the police (take) ________________ it away. 34. Do not worry! I (give) ___________________ you a call at 6.30, Peter, in case you (fall) _____________ asleep again after your alarm (go) ________________ off. 35. I’m sorry. If I (know) ___________________ before that you were still reading them, I (not throw) __________________ the magazines away. 36. I (not see) ________________ him for three years. I wonder where he (be) _____________. 37. “He’s cut my hair too short” “Don’t worry! It (grow) __________________ again very quickly”. 38. If she (know) _______________ his address, she’d visit him. 39. She had a headache; otherwise she (come) _______________ with us. 40. Would you visit me if I (send) _________________ to prison?

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clauses of purpose
1. Complete each sentence using in order (not) to, so as (not) to or so that and one of the phrases in the box. You will have to make some necessary changes.

she is nearer her work he doesn’t spend much money she knows what’s in the news they keep in contact with each other my friends wouldn’t have to wait for me they don’t get fat they wouldn’t worry for me everybody could know our new address they keep their clothes clean we don’t disturb our neighbours

e.g. Ann reads the newspaper everyday in order to / so as to know what’s in the news. I told my parents I would be back home late last night so that they wouldn’t worry for me. Jack always takes the bus to work in order not to / so as not to spend much money. a. We sent cards to all our friends b. Scientists and doctors wear white coats c. Larry and Jill go jogging every day d. Police officers carry radios e. Let’s turn down the radio f. Mary is moving to Bristol g. I took a taxi to the airport

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relative clauses
1. Join the two sentences with a relative pronoun. There may be more than one correct answer. e.g.: This is the CD. I bought it for Jane. This is the CD which / that I bought for Jane. Jenny’s brother looks like her. He’s about her same age. Jenny’s brother, who is about her same age, looks like her. a. Grand Avenue was the best place to buy clothes. I used to go shopping there. _________________________________________________________________ b. I will call the students. I went to London with them last year. _________________________________________________________________ c. That’s the man. He weighs over 120 kilos. _________________________________________________________________ d. Tim’s shoes don’t match his jacket. They’re brown. _________________________________________________________________ e. My friend Claudia used to be a top model. She was extremely thin. _________________________________________________________________ f. Macalester is an American college. Kofi Annan studied there. _________________________________________________________________ g. I first met Sally in 1999. I was working in Dublin back then. _________________________________________________________________ h. Nail-biting is a habit. You should really try to stop it. _________________________________________________________________ i. Pete has never talked to those students. Their stay abroad was certainly amazing. _________________________________________________________________ j. Eileen is a wonderful person. Her husband is very unfriendly. _________________________________________________________________ k. Lars may bring us something. We want it. _________________________________________________________________ l. Rolling Stone is the magazine. We told them about it yesterday. _________________________________________________________________ m. Please, tell me the reason. Linda got so upset because of it. _________________________________________________________________ n. In 1992 the Olympics took place in Barcelona. Brenda was a baby in 1992. _________________________________________________________________

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2. Point out which of the sentences you joined in Exercise 1 contain a Defining Relative Clause and which contain a Non-defining Relative Clause. e.g.: This is the CD which / that I bought for Jane. “Which / That I bought for Jane” is a defining relative clause Jenny’s brother, who is about her same age, looks like her. “Who is about her same age” is a non-defining relative clause a. _________________________________________________________________ b. _________________________________________________________________ c. _________________________________________________________________ d. _________________________________________________________________ e. _________________________________________________________________ f. _________________________________________________________________ g. _________________________________________________________________ h. _________________________________________________________________ i. _________________________________________________________________ j. _________________________________________________________________ k. _________________________________________________________________ l. _________________________________________________________________ m. _________________________________________________________________ n. _________________________________________________________________ 3. Find four sentences in Exercise 1 which can be joined with a Contact Clause (with no relative pronoun) and rejoin them that way. e.g.: This is the CD. I bought it for Jane. This is the CD I bought for Jane. a. _________________________________________________________________ b. _________________________________________________________________ c. _________________________________________________________________ d. _________________________________________________________________

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conditionals, wish clauses
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. a. If she hadn’t broken (not / break) the window, she wouldn’t have had to pay for a new one. b. If she studied more, she c. They d. If she e. If I lived in France, I f. I’d buy that bag if it g. If they hadn’t gone to the party, they h. If he (be) a better student.

(not / see) the Queen if they hadn’t visited London on that day. (open) the letter, she’ll be surprised. (speak) French well. (be) cheaper. (not / buy) those expensive clothes.

(not / get) up early, he’ll be late. (have) more time. (make) better films.

i. I’d watch more films, if I j. If the studio spent more money, it k. If she l. She

(not / break) the window she wouldn’t have had to pay for a new one. (be) surprised if she hears the news.

2. Finish these conditional sentences with your own words. a. What would you have done if you had lost your purse? b. If I can… c. If they knew it… d. We would have bought the house… e. I’d travel… f. Provided you behave… g. If I won the lottery… h. If she had found a job… i. Unless they get the tickets… 3. Complete with unless or as long as: a. I’m playing tennis tomorrow unless it’s raining. b. The children can stay here noise. c. We’ll go out for a meal d. I lend you my CD player e. I’m going now 4. Translate the following sentences: a. No habríamos podido entrar en la casa si no hubiésemos encontrado la llave. We wouldn’t have been able to go into the house if we hadn’t found the key. they prefer to stay at home. you take a good care of it. you want me to stay. they don’t make too much

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b. Si escucharas música clásica, te gustaría.

c. Estaremos en casa si pasas esta noche.

d. No iremos de viaje a menos que nos llamen nuestros amigos.

e. Si ella no hubiese estudiado tanto, no habría tenido tan buenos resultados.

f. Si estuviera en tu lugar, haría el trabajo cuanto antes.

g. Él no se casaría si no estuviese seguro.

h. Serás recompensado siempre que trabajes duro.

i. Si hubiese visto al ladrón, habría gritado.

5. Write sentences with I wish: a. I don’t have many friends. I wish I had more friends. b. I can’t give up drinking. c. I haven’t got enough time to finish my work. d. It’s too hot. e. I live in Madrid and I don’t like it. f. I am not on holiday now and that’s a pity. g. Laura can’t come to the party. 6. Add comments to these sentences using I wish: a. I’m afraid your sister can’t help me. I wish she would. b. They always arrive late. c. He never invites us round. d. She won’t do anything you ask her to. e. They never call on when they come to town. f. I’m afraid our friends can’t buy the tickets. g. She behaves like a little girl. 7. Imagine that you are in a situation. For each situation make a sentence with I wish: a. You have eaten too many sweets and now feel sick. I wish I hadn’t eaten so many sweets.
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b. You would like to buy some souvenirs but you have forgotten the money.

c. You are walking in an ancient town. You would like to take some photographs but you didn’t bring your camera.

d. An old friend of yours went to visit you but you were out and couldn’t see him.

e. You have bought a new book shelf but after setting it up you realize that you don’t like it.

f. Your mother has given you a sweater for your birthday and you told her you didn’t like it. Now you regret it.

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modals, modal perfects
1. Complete the sentences with must, mustn’t, needn’t: a. Do you want me to wait for you? No, it’s okay. You needn’t wait. b. Lisa gave me a parcel to send. I ___________ forget it. c. You ___________ write to me if you don’t want to but I hope you will. d. What type of car do you want to buy? A big one? Well, it ___________ be big, that’s not important for me. e. This necklace is very expensive. You __________ look after it and you ____________ lose it. f. We have enough drinks for the party so we ___________ buy any more. 2. Error correction. There is one error in each sentence. Find it and write the sentence correctly. a. We should learnt English. We should learn English. b. They don’t must arrive late.

c. He could to win the next Cup.

d. My colleagues should had finished the project.

e. She must has seen the match.

f. They needn’t to start now, it’s too early.

3. Translate the following sentences into English. Use a modal or modal perfect in each one: a. No deberíamos haber jugado a las cartas. We shouldn’t have played cards. b. ¿Deben trabajar hoy? No, tendrán que hacerlo mañana.

c. No es necesario que vayamos de compras. Hicimos la compra ayer.

d. Puede que él haya visto al ladrón.

e. Mi padre debería haber pensado en lo que le dije.

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f. Pudiera ser que vayamos al concierto, pero no es seguro.

4. Rewrite each sentence using a modal or modal perfect: a. It’s a pity we didn’t go to the seaside last summer. We should have gone to the seaside last summer. b. It’s probable that we retire this year.

c. She hasn’t arrived yet. She probably missed the train.

d. I’m sure he is at home now. The lights are on.

e. He is not able to read without glasses.

f. Your girlfriend wasn’t at the party. I’m sure I didn’t see her.

g. It wasn’t necessary that you lent me your car.

5. Fill in the blanks with the correct modal or modal perfect (could, can, might, can’t, must, may, should): a. Laura can cook very well but you should make your own meal today because she’s really tired. b. ___________ I leave now? I __________ post some letters. c. Perhaps the children will be home now; they __________ arrived when we were at the shops. d. They ____________ be staying at Central Hotel but I am not sure. e. When we lived in the countryside we __________ breathe clean air, now we ___________, the city air is so polluted. f. When you were in Africa you ___________ got a terrible disease. What a good thing you didn’t. g. He is getting very good results. He__________ study hard.

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the passive voice
1. Write the verbs in brackets in the right tense. All of them must be in the passive. (offer) the job, but we refused. e.g.: We We were offered the job, but we refused. a. The children b. She c. My house d. The supermarket e. Today, the dog f. The exams g. “Don Quixote” h. My keys i. The bank j. The robbers (take) to the zoo next week. (wake) by a strange noise, but she didn’t get up. (build) in 1990. (open) last week. (take) to the vet by his owner (mark) by the teacher this afternoon. (write) by Cervantes. (find) in the street last Monday. (rob) this week. (arrest) five hours later.

2. Rewrite these sentences in the passive or the active voice. e.g.: She was shocked by the accident The accident shocked her. a. My father will buy a new car next year.

b. The students were given 15 minutes for the test.

c. This restaurant is owned by English people.

d. The children were given some toys by their parents.

e. His girlfriend is going to buy him a car.

f. Tourists are paying a lot of money.

g. They built this house in 1900.

h. Parents always love their children.

i. The film was produced by Spielberg.

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j. Nobody told me the truth.

3. Rewrite these sentences. Write a passive sentence instead of using “somebody”, “they” or “people”. e.g.: Somebody asked me the way to the bus station. I was asked the way to the bus station. a. They cancelled our flight because of the storm.

b. English people drink a lot of tea.

c. Someone broke my cup.

d. People warned us about pickpockets.

e. In Mexico, they cook meat very hot.

f. Somebody is building a hut in that hill.

g. People often ask me where I buy my clothes.

h. They have given me three tickets.

i. Somebody is going to buy this house soon.

j. They will arrest him sooner or later.

4. Use the words in brackets to complete these sentences. Use the structure “to have something done”. (our house / paint) next summer. e.g.: We We are going to have our house painted next summer. a. I have lost my key. I’ll have to b. Your hair is a mess. You should c. The floor is very dirty. Why don’t you d. My father’s car is not working very well. He service) tomorrow. e. Many young people today
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(another key / make). (your hair / cut). (it / clean)? (it /

(their nose / pierce).

f. She has got a bad toothache. She g. Summers are very hot in Spain. Many people (swimming pools / build) in their gardens. h. My office needs a change. I i. I j. They 5. Arrange the words to form correct sentences e.g.: by my birthday my cake was mother made. My birthday cake was made by my mother. a. on the were lights by turned me

(it / remove) in a week.

(it / redecorate) in the spring. (my house / clean) once a week. (their computers / repair) today.

b. she offered new a been has job

c. book published be the will month next

d. sister going interviewed is to be my

e. students asked by the were headmaster the

f. they given some by their were parents money

g. has nobody told been

h. we them have helped by been

i. all by film the watched children was the

j. the has sold house been

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direct and reported speech
1. Rewrite the sentences in reported speech. a. ‘We’re playing tennis tomorrow’ They said that they were playing tennis the following day. b. ‘We’ve been to Paris three times.’ They said that c. ‘Is John going to take his driving test tomorrow?’ He asked d. ‘Please don’t be late tomorrow Philip, or we’ll miss our bus. Philip’s mother asked e. ‘What is Samuel doing today?’ said Fred to Pete. Fred asked f. ‘Paul, go to the supermarket and buy some milk.’ His mother told g. ‘We can buy phones with coloured covers.’ She said that 2. Rewrite the sentences in reported speech. a. ‘I’ll buy you a pencil tomorrow – I promise!’ said Paul to me. Paul promised that he would buy me a pencil the following day. b. ‘Where did you go last month?’ said Grant. Grant asked c. ‘I’ve just been playing football,’ said John. John explained that d. ‘Don’t forget that tomorrow is Susie’s birthday,’ said Maggie. Maggie reminded John e. ‘Please show me your holiday photos,’ said Linda. Linda asked Tom f. ‘I don’t think I will be able to pass my test,’ said Lucas. Lucas remarked that g. ‘I’ll lend you some money, if you need it’ said Samantha to Alex. Samantha offered
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3. Rewrite the statements in direct speech. a. She said that she couldn’t come out with him that day. ‘I can’t come out with you today.’ b. They said that they had seen John the previous week. ‘We c. He said that he was going to the cinema the next month. ‘I d. They said that they would lend him some money to buy some new clothes. ‘We e. She said that he had been having a shower when the phone rang. ‘I f. She said that he would pass his exam if he studied. ‘You g. She said that he had bought a new flat. ‘I 4. Rewrite the questions and commands in reported speech. a. ‘What time does your train arrive?’ said John to Kate. John asked Kate when her train arrived. b. ‘Don’t bother me while I am studying,’ Peter said to his sister. .’ .’ .’ .’ .’ .’

c. ‘Bring your homework tomorrow,’ said the teacher to the class.

d. ‘Have you seen Pretty Woman?’ Jackie said to Anne.

e. ‘Don’t chase our dog!’ Sally said to her little sister.

f. ‘Where can I buy a magazine?’ the tourist said to the man.

g. ‘What time do you go to bed at weekends?’ David said to me.

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