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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE 2001

Maximum Efficiency and Output of Class-F Power Amplifiers
Frederick H. Raab, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract—A class-F power amplifier (PA) improves efficiency and power-output capability (over that of class A) by using selected harmonics to shape its drain–voltage and drain–current waveforms. Typically, one waveform (e.g., voltage) approximates a square wave, while the other (e.g., current) approximates a half sine wave. The output power and efficiency of an ideal class-F PA can be related to the Fourier coefficients of the waveforms, and Fourier coefficients for maximally flat waveforms have been determined. This paper extends that theory by determining the coefficients for the maximum power and efficiency possible in a class-F PA with a given set of controlled harmonics. Index Terms—Amplifier, class F, power.

I. INTRODUCTION HE implementation of class-F power amplifiers (PAs) is based upon achieving (approximately) open- or short-circuit impedances at the harmonic frequencies [1], [2], [12]. Consequently, it has become a popular technique for improving the efficiency of PAs operating at UHF and microwave frequencies. While a wide variety of different class-F PAs has been implemented [3]–[9], the impact of using different numbers of harmonics remains only partially understood. Previous papers by the author determine performance parameters for maximally flat waveforms [10], [11]. The purpose of this paper is to expand upon that work to determine the upper limits of output power and efficiency as functions of the number of harmonics used in the amplifier. This allows a designer to make a tradeoff between output-network complexity and efficiency. II. BASIC THEORY The circuit of a generic class-F PA is shown in Fig. 1. The basic principles of operation are as follows. • Fundamental-frequency drain voltage and current are shifted in phase by 180 from each other. • One drain waveform (e.g., voltage) adds odd harmonics to build its shape to a square wave (Fig. 2). • The other drain waveform (e.g., current) adds even harmonics to build its shape toward a half sine wave (Fig. 3). • No power is generated at the harmonics because there is either no voltage or no current present at a given harmonic. Harmonic impedances are either zero or infinite.

T

Fig. 1. Generic class-F PA.

Manuscript received February 1, 2000. This work was performed in part by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The author is with the Green Mountain Radio Research Company, Colchester, VT 05446 USA. Publisher Item Identifier S 0018-9480(01)04436-2.

Fig. 2. Voltage (odd-harmonic) waveforms.

0018–9480/01$10.00 © 2001 IEEE

86. The effects of the harmonics in a given waveform are manifested and [10] that relate the dc compoin waveform factors and ) to the fundamental-frequency components nents ( and ). The resulting power and efficiency. 3. the peak-to-peak of the even (current) waveform is unaffected by properly phased harmonics. in turn. As shown in Fig. Fixing the waveform minimum at zero gives the minimum supply voltage needed for full output. Flattening of the waveform reduces the peak voltage and. while typical. no distortion of the waveform). as is an ideal FET (no on-state resistance.g. Only when all harmonics are properly terminated can it act as a true switch. minimizes the dc-input power and. hence. The waveform factors for maximally flat waveforms are derived in [10] and [11] by setting various derivatives of the waveforms to zero. therefore. COEFFICIENTS FOR MAXIMUM POWER AND EFFICIENCY Maximally flat waveforms represent the limiting case of perfect (low resistance) saturation of the RF-power device during conduction of peak drain current. maximum efficiency and maximum power-output capability occur for the same waveform coefficients. maximizes efficiency. • The RF-power device acts as a saturating current source (e. The power output. it is convenient to fix the fundamental-frequency amplitude at unity. therefore. Since waveforms contain either odd or even harmonics and a given harmonic is present only in one waveform. respectively. The amplitude of the harmonic(s) is then adjusted to minimize the downward excursion of the waveform. which produces (11) and (6) (12) Fig. 4. To find the Fourier coefficients for maximum power and efficiency. maximizes the power-output capability for a given rating. • At microwave frequencies. (10) is set equal to zero. the effects of the odd and even harmonics can be determined separately. which. and 90. a soft switch). and peak drain voltage and current ( and ( ) as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) A resistive load impedance at the fundamental frequency is assumed. dc input. are not the maximum possible. Current (even-harmonic) waveforms.6.7. the number of harmonics is usually relatively small. which yields (8) As shown in [10].6. . 81.4 as harmonics are added.. the maximum efficiency of an ideal PA increases from the 50% of class A to 70.RAAB: MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY AND OUTPUT OF CLASS-F PAs 1163 and (7) The power-output capability (output power with V and A) is obtained by dividing power output by peak voltage and current. III. Negative voltage and current are not permitted. Thus. The maximum efficiency and power-output capability for a given set of harmonics (Table III) is obtained by inserting the appropriate waveform coefficients from Tables I and II into (7) and (8). and efficiency are then (5) .This process is readily illustrated with a waveform that is enhanced by only the second harmonic (9) The derivative with respect to time is (10) To find the location of the minimum voltage.

VOL. an analytical solution was not found. and the corresponding waveforms are shown in Figs. even with the aid of a computer algebra program. obtained by a numerical evaluation based upon the waveforms themselves. To minimize (14) Setting this equal to zero produces (15) The waveform constants are then determined from (16) . thus (13) The peak voltage is (19) and. 49. JUNE 2001 TABLE I MAXIMUM-EFFICIENCY WAVEFORM COEFFICIENTS FOR ODD HARMONICS TABLE II MAXIMUM-EFFICIENCY WAVEFORM COEFFICIENTS FOR EVEN HARMONICS TABLE III MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY AND POWER-OUTPUT CAPABILITY OF CLASS-F PAS The supply voltage in (9) must be sufficient to ensure that the drain voltage is nonnegative. In contrast to the maximally flat waveforms. hence. in principle. The resultant coefficients are given in Tables I and II. Unfortunately. . . be obtained in a generally similar manner. These sets of coefficients are. The waveform For coefficient for the fundamental-frequency amplitude is (17) and the second harmonic amplitude is (18) (20) The coefficients for the third harmonic are derived in an analogous manner [3].1164 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES. third and fifth) can. Derivatives of the minimum voltage must be taken with respect to both harmonic amplitudes and the resultant equations solved simultaneously. The coefficients for combinations of harmonics (second and fourth. 6. 2 and 3. therefore. Those for the fifth harmonic by itself can similarly be derived with the aid of a computer algebra program (Maple). NO. The derivation for the amplitude of fourth harmonic by itself degenerates to a numerical solution in the final step. the maximum power/efficiency waveforms exhibit slight ripples.

Inoue..” in IEEE MTT-S Int. pp. Boston. and Y. [9] B. H. F. 2. 1667–1672. Solid State Radio Engineering. pp. V. 32. Giannini. 2000. Dig. Dig. June 13–15. pp. Duvanaud.. [2] F.” RF Design. 129–149. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author gratefully acknowledges technical program monitor W.” in IEEE MTT-S Int. no. G. Ohta. pp. Microwave Symp. Mar. pp. “Class-F power amplifiers with maximally flat waveforms. Microwave Symp.. 7775–778. 14. “Class-F power amplifiers with reduced conduction angles. Heima... Microwave Symp. Mitsui. CONCLUSIONS Waveform coefficients for maximum efficiency and poweroutput capability in a class-F amplifier have been determined. June 13–15. 1997.” IEEE Trans. and F. 2. [7] F. Broadcast. 2. 1980. Microwave Theory Tech. June 13–15. R. The resultant efficiencies and power-output capabilities are the absolute maxima possible in an ideal class-F PA with a finite number of harmonics. pp. 45. pp. [4] A.. Raab. harmonic levels are not especially critical. pp. Efficiency and power-output capability. 2000. Krizhanovski. Microwave Symp. 3. 1. L. “Circuit design technique for high-efficiency class-F amplifiers. 771–774. Boston. Limiti. P-558. Dig.RAAB: MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY AND OUTPUT OF CLASS-F PAs 1165 Fig. MA.” in IEEE MTT-S Int. June 13–15. Hatch. Dig. V. Nov. The maximum efficiency and power-output capability are generally 6%–8% higher than those for maximally flat waveforms. Boston.. pp. 1. MAXIMUM POWER AND EFFICIENCY The variations of efficiency and power-output capability with the level of the third harmonic are shown in Fig. Leclerc. C. and E. [6] A. Dec. MA. 2000. Raab. These results are scalable to real PAs by inclusion of appropriate factors for on-state resistance and load reactance [1]. Raab.” IEEE Trans. W. H. V. Robin. G.” in IEEE MTT-S Int. 1998. vol.” in Proc. Nov. “Influence of output impedance on power added efficiency of SI-bipolar power transistors. “Analysis of class-F and inverse class-F amplifiers. Bostian. 5. The variation is gradual and relatively flat near the maximum-efficiency point. “Rectangularly driven class-A harmonic-control amplifier. Effect of third-harmonic level. H. 1998. vol. [3] P. 19. van Rijs et al. hence. vol. p. vol. 1945–1948. F. “An introduction to class-F power amplifiers. 1999. no.. N. MA. Hattori. Boston. REFERENCES [1] H. Fig.. [5] A. [12] F. June 11–13. 2000. vol. A subsequent paper will show that the same maximum efficiencies apply to class-C and class-E PAs based upon a finite number of harmonics. . 79–84. Colantonio. C. 2007–2012. Serru. 46. Huin. H. vol. T. Krauss.. vol. 5. vol. July 1996.” RF Design. May 1996. 5. no. pt.” RF Microwave Computer-Aided Eng. [8] F. 2000. RFIC Symp. Boston. IV. 473–476. [10] F. “A single supply very high power and efficiency integrated pHEMT amplifier for GSM applications. 455–459. Raab. MA. 7.. and E.” IEEE Trans. “An introduction to class-F power amplifiers. Ingruber et al. [11] . “On the class-F power-amplifier design. A. MA. 4. Grebennikov. 19. New York: Wiley. vol. 44. Leuzzi. Rudiakova and V. vol. “Driving waveforms for class-F power amplifiers. Microwave Theory Tech.

His professional activities include RF PAs. 6. Dr. He co-authored Solid State Radio Engineering (New York: Wiley. Colchester. a consulting firm that he founded in 1980. the Radio Club of America (RCA). the Association of Old Crows (AOC). M.. He was program chairman of RF Expo East’90. JUNE 2001 Frederick H. the Armed Forces Communicaitons and Electronics Association (AFCEA). He is an extra-class amateur-radio operator W1FR. ..S. Raab is a member of Eta Kappa Nu. degrees in electrical engineering from Iowa State University (ISU).D. Ames. and radio-communication/navigation systems. He was the recipient of the 1995 ISU Professional Achievement Citation in Engineering. 1980) and over 80 technical papers. in 1968. VOL. He holds seven patents.1166 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES. 49. and 1972. radio transmitters. and Ph. VT. respectively. He is Chief Engineer and Owner of the Green Mountain Radio Research Company (GMRR). licensed since 1961. Raab (S’66–M’72–SM’80) received the B. and the Institute of Navigation (ION).S. NO. Sigma Xi. 1970.

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