ii

c 2009 by Ajmal Beg. All rights reserved.
Copyright °

Author and/or publisher shall not be liable for any kind of direct and/or
indirect loss as a result of using information in this book.

National Library of Australia
ISBN: 978-0-9805610-7-4

iii

Dedicated to my family

iv

Contents
1 Introduction

1

2 Intelligent nature of particles
2.1 Intelligent photon and electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Intelligent gravitons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Intelligent cosmological bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Big Bang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 Moment of universe creation . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Group behavior of particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.1 Magnetic lines extending from the bar magnet . .
2.5.2 Different amplitude of waves with equal frequency
2.5.3 Diffraction of particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.4 Light splitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3 Patterns of energy transfer
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3.1 Particle as a medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4 Summary

77

v

vi

CONTENTS

Chapter 1
Introduction
Every object is a collection of particles. Particles interact with one another
under certain rules and exhibit specific behavior. Particle interaction is realized by the exchange of particles known as field particles. Scientists have
identified four fundamental types of particle interactions.
Strong Interaction
Strong interaction is responsible for binding quarks together to form neutrons and protons. Strong interaction is extremely short-ranged and can be
ignored for distance more than 10−15 meters. Strong interaction is realized
by passing of particles called gluon.
Electromagnetic Interaction
Electromagnetic interaction binds electrons and the protons within atoms
and molecules. Electromagnetic interaction decreases inversely with distance
between the interacting particles. Electromagnetic interaction is realized by
passing of photons between charged particles.
Weak Interaction
Weak interaction is responsible for the decay of the nuclei and the decay of
the heavier quarks and leptons. Weak interaction is realized by exchange of
W and Z particles.
Gravitational Interaction
Gravitational interaction (Gravity) holds together planets, stars and the
galaxies together according to existing literature. Gravitational interaction
is realized by exchange of particles called gravitons.
The particle interactions are classified using three types of characteristics:
1

2

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
• The type of particles which are involved in the particle interaction.
• The type of field particle that moves from one particle to another particle.
• The distance the field particle can travel when it heads from one particle
to another particle.

A specific type of the field particle can be identified using follow characteristics.
• The mass of the field particle.
• The speed of the field particle.
• The quantity and type of energy the field particle carry and deliver at
its destination.
Above three characteristics can also define the distance a specific field particle
can travel when it leaves one particle and heads toward another particle.
As shown in Figure 1.1, transfer of a field particle resembles a air travel
where;
• The particle which releases the field particle is like an airport A.
• The particle which receives the field particle is like an airport B.
• The field particle is like an airplane which moves from airport A to
airport B carrying specific type of fuel in specific quantity.
Particle interaction is only feasible when the field particle can behave like an
airplane. To be able to behave like an airplane, a particle needs to have at
least follow capabilities:
• Particle need to have the capability to process information.
• Particles need to have the capability to act according to the processed
information.
In this book, it is assumed that all kinds of particles have above capabilities
and based on this assumption particles are treated in this book as intelligent
particles.
This book explores different ways through which particles can interact in
an intelligent manner. Figure 1.2 illustrates the methodology of this book.
This book also explores the methods which can be used to transfer huge
amount of energy without using very massive particles.
The book is divided into different chapters dealing with different aspects
of interaction among particles.

3
Chapter 1: Introduction
This chapter describes the purpose of this book.
Chapter 2: Intelligent nature of particles
This chapter shows that particles which form this universe exhibit intelligent
behavior. It also shows that the process of creation of this universe was also
a highly creative process.
Chapter 3: Patterns of energy transfer
This chapter explores different patterns of energy transfer among particles.
Chapter 4: Conclusion
This chapter details of the summary of this book.

4

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Figure 1.1: Traveling field particle vs Air travel

5

Figure 1.2: Methodology

6

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Chapter 2
Intelligent nature of particles
This chapter discusses the intelligent behavior of particles. It also shows that
the Big Bang which resulted in creation of these intelligent particles was also
a highly creative process.

2.1

Intelligent photon and electron

Hertz, Hallwach, J. J. Thomson, Philip and Einstein contributed to develop
understanding of photoelectric effect. Figure 2.1 shows the details of different
parts forming the photoelectric effect apparatus. Electrons are emitted when
light falls on a metallic plate.
In photoelectric effect:
• Electron emitted from the surface of the metallic emitter have different
velocities.
• The maximum kinetic energy Kmax of the emitted electron does not
dependent on the intensity of the light which falls on the surface of the
metallic emitter.
• Kmax increases with the frequency of light as shown in Figure 2.2.
Einstein was awarded Noble Prize in year 1922 for his contribution to
physics by developing theory about photoelectric effect. According to Einstein’s theory of photoelectric effect, relationship between Kmax and the energy of incident photon is given by:
Kmax = hf − φ
where
Kmax : Maximum kinetic energy of the emitted electron
7

(2.1)

8

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

hf : Energy of the photon
φ: Work function of the metal
φ is described as minimum energy an electron needs to leave the metal and
is given by:
φ = hf0
(2.2)
It is thought that energy of photon is directly proportional to its frequency:
(2.3)
E∝f
Let’s assume a photoelectric experiment, in which only monochrome light
source is used to incident photons on the metallic emitter. In this case, all
measurable quantities in Equation 2.1 are constant:
Kmax = C1 = Constant

(2.4)

h = C2 = Constant

(2.5)

f = C3 = Constant

(2.6)

φ = C4 = Constant

(2.7)

Equation 2.1 can be rewritten as:
C1 = C2 C3 − C4

(2.8)

Figure 2.3 shows photons falling on atoms that exist at the surface of the
metal. Photons can be absorbed by both nucleus and electrons orbiting
the nucleus. A single electron has a chance to absorb energy from multiple
photons on three different occasions:
• While electron is bound to the nucleus of metal.
• While electron is released from the atom and is still inside the metal.
• While electron is in the space outside the surface of the metal and is
moving toward the electrons collector in the photoelectric device.
Total probability of electron to meet photons in a unit time in photoelectric
device can be described by the relationship:
pcollision = min(p1 + p2 + p3 , 1)

(2.9)

where
pcollision : Total probability of the electron to meet the photons in a unit time
in the photoelectric device

2.1. INTELLIGENT PHOTON AND ELECTRON

9

p1 : Probability of the electron to meet photons while the electron is still
bound to the metal nucleus
p2 : Probability of electron to meet the photons, while electron is released
from nucleus and is moving toward the surface of the metal after gaining
energy from photons
p3 : Probability of electron to meet the photons, while electron is outside
the surface of the metal and is moving toward the electron collector in the
photoelectric device
It is obvious that probability of a single electron to meet photons increases
as the number of photons falling on the metallic emitter increases. The
relationship can be described as:
pcollision ∝ nphoton

(2.10)

where
nphoton : Number of photons that falls on the unit surface area of the metallic
emitter in a certain period of time
Theoretically, Kmax should increase with increase in nphoton :
Kmax ∝ pcollision ∝ nphoton

(2.11)

In photoelectric effect, increasing the intensity or the number of photons
falling on the metallic emitter surface does not increase the value of Kmax .
Kmax is constant when monochrome light falls on the metallic emitter.
Kmax = C1

(2.12)

This book suggests that electron does not absorb more energy than hf regardless of having a chance to do so. To understand the mechanism of energy
transfer between electron and photon, let’s assume two patterns of energy
transfer between electron and photons in photoelectric effect.
Pattern 1: One electron interacts with only one photon.
Pattern 2: One electron interacts with multiple photons.
Let’s look at these patterns in details.
Pattern 1:
In this pattern, which is much simpler compared to the pattern 2, a single
electron absorbs only one photon in a certain period of time. After the
electron has absorbed the energy from photon, it no longer accepts further

10

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

energy from other photons. The electron gets the energy equal to hf when
a single photon has transferred all its energy to the electron.
Kmax = hf − φ

(2.13)

This book suggests that energy transfer between electron and photon is not an
event that is repeated many times, but is a single discrete event which happens
only once within a certain period of time. This pattern of interaction can be
realized through different ways such as:
• An electron is capable of absorbing energy from only one photon within
a certain period of time.
• A photon collides with only those electrons which have not gained energy from any other photon within a certain period of time.
• An electron and group of photons avoid each other after there has
been an energy transfer among an electron and other photons within a
certain period of time.
Second and third reasons indicate the intelligent behavior of electron and
photons, in which electron and photons are capable of sensing one another
and making complex decisions.
Controlled transfer of energy with the surrounding environment is an essential feature of living cells like bacteria. Figure 2.4 shows the basic structure
of bacteria.
The cytoplasmic membrane contains pores through which nutrients, wastes
and other products of the cell pass through as shown in Figure 2.5. Cell only
takes the amount of the nutrients, it can consume. It is the exactly the behavior of the electrons in the photoelectric effect. This book claims that
particles have the capability to interact with environment intelligently.
Figure 2.6 shows docks on the surface of particle (such as photons and
electrons), on the same pattern as the pores on the cytoplasmic membrane.
The reason the docks on the surface of particle have not been observed yet,
can be contributed to the fact that science has not yet progressed to the
stage where the surface of small particles could be directly observed.
Pattern 2:
In this pattern, energy that a single electron accumulates is a sum of energy
transfers from multiple photons. Let’s assume n photons transferred their
energy to electron in a certain period of time and each of these photons

2.1. INTELLIGENT PHOTON AND ELECTRON

11

transferred only a part of the total energy it has. In this case, total energy
transferred to the electron is given as:
Esum = hf

n
X

ki

(2.14)

i=1

Here, ki is the fraction of the total energy of photon i that is transferred to
the electron. However, according to Equation 2.1, the condition below need
to be satisfied.
n
(hf

X

ki − φ) ≤ Kmax

(2.15)

i=1
n
X

ki ≤ Constant

(2.16)

i=1

The above condition can be satisfied, only when the photons and/or electrons
have an intelligent behavior or in other words they have processing power to
make complex decisions. Figure 2.7 shows the simplest behavior by which
Equation 2.16 can be satisfied. A group of photons queues before the electron
to transfer the energy. Different photons transfer a part of energy to the
electron, until it is filled to the level hf . The different intelligent aspects of
this kind of energy transfer are:
• Photons are capable to determine current level of stored energy in electron.
• Electrons are capable to acknowledge the current level of energy stored
in them.
• Electron and photons are capable to follow a protocol of energy transfer.
Electron and photon need to have sophisticated functionality to perform such
energy transfer.

12

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Figure 2.1: Photoelectric effect apparatus

2.1. INTELLIGENT PHOTON AND ELECTRON

Figure 2.2: Relationship between Kmax and the intensity of light

13

14

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Figure 2.3: Absorption of photons by metal

2.1. INTELLIGENT PHOTON AND ELECTRON

Figure 2.4: Basic structure of bacteria

15

16

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Figure 2.5: Pores on the surface of cells

2.1. INTELLIGENT PHOTON AND ELECTRON

Figure 2.6: Surface of particle with docks to exchange field particles

17

18

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Figure 2.7: Complex behavior of electron and photons

2.2. INTELLIGENT GRAVITONS

2.2

19

Intelligent gravitons

Earth rotates around sun due to gravity.
• Gravity is a flow of field particles called gravitons.
• Gravitons flow between center of sun and earth.
• Gravitons are capable of interacting with matter that forms the earth
and can exert momentum on it.
Assuming above statements are true, as illustrated in Figure 2.8 there exist
a strong flow of gravitons between the center of sun and earth. As graviton
exert force on matter, this laser like flow of gravitons can act like a sharp
blade or steel rod. As the earth is spinning around its own axis, this flow of
gravitons can divide the earth into two pieces.
As the earth does not get split into two pieces, it can be assumed that:
• Gravitons are capable of differentiating between different parts of earth
while they travel from center of sun toward earth.
• Gravitons pass through the upper layers of the earth without exerting
any momentum on them.
• Gravitons exert force only on the matter that exists at the center of
the earth as illustrated in Figure 2.9.
This book generalizes this observation and says:
Graviton Flow Rule 1: Graviton releases the energy or in other words, exerts
momentum only on the matter that exists only at the center of the cosmological body.
Let’s assume there is body which is formed from large number of smaller
pieces of mass as illustrated in Figure 2.10. Each smaller body has a center
of gravity as shown in Figure 2.10. The larger body itself has a center of
gravity. The position of the center of gravity of the larger mass is the function of the position of the center of the gravity of smaller body. It can be
assumed that each smaller body itself is a collection of more bodies, each of
them has their own center of gravity. Thus, the position of center of gravity
of a larger object can be treated as a function of positions of center of gravity
of smaller objects, where the number of objects with center of gravity are
very large. There is need of very complex computing functionality to be able
to exactly determine the center of gravity when any larger object is formed
by very large number of smaller objects of different sizes.

20

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Figure 2.8: Strong flow of gravitons between centers of gravity

2.2. INTELLIGENT GRAVITONS

Figure 2.9: Areas where gravitons exert momentum

21

22

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Figure 2.10: Center of gravity when smaller objects form a larger object

2.2. INTELLIGENT GRAVITONS

23

Let’s assume another example of two cosmological bodies, which are hollow from inside as illustrated in Figure 2.11. As gravitons exert momentum
on the matter at the center of the cosmological body, there will be no gravitational force between the two cosmological bodies which are hollow. As this
cannot be true, Graviton Rule 1 is modified into Graviton Rule 2 which is
described as:
Graviton Flow Rule 2: Gravitons acts on the surface of the cosmological body
rather than the center of the gravity, when they travel from one cosmological
body to another.
In the case of the earth, which is spinning around its own axis while rotating
in an orbit around the sun. Such flow of gravitons has two features:
• Gravitons flow in the direction of the line joining the center of gravity
of earth and sun.
• Gravitons act on the external surface of the earth while earth spins
around its own axis.
Such strong force of gravitons can create a long and deep trench on the
surface of the earth as shown in Figure 2.11.
As such long and deep trench is not evident, Graviton Flow Rule 2 is
modified into Graviton Flow Rule 3, which states that:
Graviton Flow Rule 3: Gravitons arriving at the surface of cosmological body,
do not always act on a single point on the surface of the cosmological bodies
or exactly at the center of gravity. Gravitons spread themselves before they
exert momentum on the matter depending on the structure and/or graviton
needs of the cosmological bodies. For bodies which are not formed of matter
of equal density, the gravitons may spread themselves around and inside the
matter forming the cosmological body before exerting the momentum.
Let’s further consider the case, when there is a moon between the earth and
the sun as illustrated in Figure 2.12. Even when the moon becomes a hurdle
for gravitons flowing between the earth and the sun, the earth still rotates in
its orbit. Based on this observation, it can be said that the gravitons leaving
the sun does not exert momentum on the moon, but acts only on the earth
only. Gravitons flow rule is modified as:
Graviton Flow Rule 4: Gravitons acts only on their destination.
Several mechanisms through which gravitons can act only on their destinations are:
Possibility 1 Gravitons pass through the moon without exerting momentum on moon as shown in Figure 2.12.

24

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Figure 2.11: Flow of gravitons in the direction of center of gravity

2.2. INTELLIGENT GRAVITONS

Figure 2.12: Gravitons heading toward the target

25

26

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Possibility 2 Gravitons change their path to avoid the moon.
Possibility 3 Gravitons supply is stopped while there is an obstacle on the
way. During the time when there is no gravitons from the sun to the
earth, the earth uses the stored gravitons.
Possibility 4 Gravitons know their destination and they only act when they
have reached their destinations. In other words, gravitons are like packets of momentum with destination information embedded in them.
Graviton Flow Rule 4 concludes that gravitons act in very coordinated way
to have gravitons distributed themselves to their targets. In later chapters,
the carrier for gravitons will be discussed. Existence of carrier means that
carrier obeys Graviton Flow Rule 4.

2.3. INTELLIGENT COSMOLOGICAL BODIES

2.3

27

Intelligent cosmological bodies

Let’s look at the gravitational forces between earth, moon and sun. Assuming
that the moon is orbiting around the earth in a circular path, force between
moon and the earth is given as:
FM oon,Earth = Constant

(2.17)

Gravitational force between the moon and sun is not constant as the moon
is rotating in an orbit around the earth. This force of attraction between
the sun and the moon is a periodic function of time and is not constant as
illustrated in Figure 2.13 and is given as:
FM oon,Sun = FM oon,Sun (t) 6= Constant

(2.18)

Furthermore, the force between the sun and the moon is not very negligible
and is approximately given by:
FM oon,Sun = FEarth,Sun ∗

mM oon
+ F (t)
mEarth

(2.19)

here,
FEarth,Sun : Gravitational force between earth and sun.
mM oon : Mass of moon.
mEarth : Mass of earth.
The total gravitational force on the moon is given by:
FT otal = FM oon,Sun + FM oon,Earth = Constant

(2.20)

Let’s ignore here that FEarth,M oon is much larger than FM oon,Sun . The above
equation says that the sum of a constant and non-constant value is a constant,
which is not a valid mathematical relationship.
Equation 2.20 can be satisfied in only two cases:
Case 1: FM oon,Sun and FM oon,Earth are both variables. FM oon,Sun and FM oon,Earth
adjust themselves over time to keep sum of both these forces constant.
Case 2: FM oon,Sun is a constant
Case 1 indicates that:
• The flow of gravitons are constantly being adjusted to keep the sum of
FM oon,Sun and FM oon,Earth constant. Gravitons (or the carrier of gravitons) are intelligent particles which adjust their quantity to specific
values to keep the two factors constant.

28

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES
• For simplification purposes only moon, earth and the sun is being considered here. In reality, the solar system consists of many planets and
moons around these planets. The universal applicability of Newton’s
Universal Law of Gravitational Force links every cosmological body
with another cosmological body through flow of gravitons. If every
cosmological body is assumed as a collection of very larger number of
smaller pieces of matter, every piece of matter in the universe is interacting with every other piece of matter. To be able to do so, every
piece of matter needs to be very intelligent.

Zero value for FM oon,Sun is the simplest condition that can satisfy Equation
2.20. In this case, the moon gets gravitons passing through the earth only
and it is the confirmation of the gravitons flow paths as shown in Figure 2.12.
Based on these observations, this book suggests that:
• Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitational Force is valid only between
certain cosmological bodies. A single cosmological body does not attract every other cosmological body.
• As Gravitational Constant is not constant on different points on the
surface of earth, there is a very limited chance that it is constant else
where in the universe.
Let’s assume a bar magnet and a piece of metal around it. The bar
magnet exerts force k on the piece metal. If another seven equal mass pieces
of metal are brought at the same distance to the bar magnet, the force each
piece of metal will experience is k/8. Let’s assume, gravitational force acts
in the same way as magnetic force works on metal. Large body is like the bar
magnet and small body is like a piece of metal in vicinity of this bar magnet.
The small body will experience force k If another seven bodies are brought
near the large body, the gravitational force each body will experience will be
k/8 as shown in the Figure 2.14.

2.3. INTELLIGENT COSMOLOGICAL BODIES

Figure 2.13: Gravitational force as a mathematical function

29

30

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Figure 2.14: Splitting of gravitational force

2.3. INTELLIGENT COSMOLOGICAL BODIES

31

There is no way available to bring 7 new moons around the earth and
verify that gravitons flow will get divided into 8 equal flows each of which
leading to one of these moons. Based on above argument, flow of gravitons
is expected to be divided into multiple paths. If cosmological bodies behave
in the same way as the bar magnet, the cosmological body needs to be able
to perform the following functions:
• Ability to observe or sense new cosmological body.
• Ability to determine the distance toward the newly introduced smaller
cosmological body.
• Ability to keep monitoring the distance to smaller body.
• Ability to determine the distance emitted gravitons can travel.
• Ability to function as multiple channel of graviton flows.
• Ability to function as reflector of gravitons.
Let’s assume that the cosmological body is a mechanical robot. In such case,
cosmological body need to have following functionalities:
• Source to emit signals in surrounding areas.
• Receiver to receive reflected signals to determine presence of a new
body.
• Source to convert these signals into a computable form.
• Source to compute the decision based on the received reflected signals
in the formatted form.
• Computing source consisting of memory containing program and the
unit to run this program.
• Mechanical units to reflect energy.
• Source to split energy into different flows.
It can be said that cosmological body requires following capabilities to be
able to function as a device which can distribute gravitons:
• Cosmological body should be able to sense one another.
• Cosmological body should be able to have computing power to be able
to make sophisticated decision.

32

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES
• Cosmological body should have a source of energy which emit energy.
• Cosmological body should be able to change their form to adjust the
amount of energy received.

Figure 2.15 shows an image of the required functionalities of a cosmological
body.
Many objects on the earth have the information processing power. For
example:
• Viruses are very simple living organisms but have a very sophisticated
mechanism to adjust themselves to the environment. Unlike human
who has a big brain but very limited capability to adjust to the environment, the virus changes and mutates itself to survive. Viruses can
go to dormant state and revive. Virus is just a simple series of proteins.
In case of virus, very highly sophisticated computing is done with very
simple structure. Big cosmological bodies can posses a tiny material to
process the information.
• Looking at the living organisms such as trees and plants, they are very
sophisticated objects, which sense their environments and changes their
structure according to the environment. Trees do not have a brain like
organ as humans have, but still trees and plants posses the capability
to sense and react to the environment.
• The main processing unit, which is used in the devices is made of silicon
and doping materials. Both materials are found on the surface of the
earth. It can be said that even if there is no living organism live on the
planets, the basic material to form a computing device exists.
Based on above observations, possibility of cosmological bodies possessing
the capability to compute the signals cannot be excluded.
Now the next question is it, is it possible for cosmological bodies to posses
a medium to store the information that needs to be processed. Let’s look at
different feasibilities:
• The elements used in fabricating the memory devices exists in large
quantity on the earth.
• Information can be represented and stored using different shapes.
Now let’s consider the ability of cosmological bodies to reflect energy in
any specific direction. Our earth has capability to reflect energy to specific
direction. The earth is spinning around its own axis and is also rotating

2.3. INTELLIGENT COSMOLOGICAL BODIES

Figure 2.15: Cosmological body as smart entity

33

34

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

around the sun. The earth surface has different shapes which have different
reflective and refractive qualities. The sea, the green plains, the deserts all
are reflecting light in different ways. The mountains are changing shapes,
the earth plates are moving, the level of the sea is changing. The areas with
specific reflective properties are constantly changing their locations in the
three dimensional space. Based on these observations, it can be said the
earth has the capability to direct energy in different directions.
All above characteristics are present in objects that exist on the earth.
The earth is a collection of very large number of such objects. A object
which is a collection of intelligent smaller objects can also act as an intelligent
object, in case the objects forming the larger object coordinates their actions.
The only reservation, we have about accepting large cosmological bodies as
very intelligent object is their huge size. Humans are not used to see (living)
intelligent objects of such huge size.
How cosmological bodies are behaving like large intelligent bodies is outside the scope of this book. The most important conclusion here is that
cosmological body can have the capability to sense environment and act according to change in the surrounding environment.
Let’s see how the moon and the earth can sense each other. Earth can
reflect flow of gravitons toward moon without sensing only when:
• The space around the earth in which the moon rotates, has equal density of gravitons. In other words, the space around the earth is like a
sea of gravitons and there exits a force F on every point that exists in
the moon’s orbit.
• The moon’s orbit can be treated like an infinite collection of points
where each point is confined to a infinitely small area.
• The total energy that earth is emitting is infinite as there are infinite
point where each point is capable of exerting force F.
Based on the above observation that space around the earth needs to contain
infinite energy, it can be said that the earth needs to sense the location of
moon. There are two feasible models to sense moon:
Low efficiency model As shown in Figure 2.16, different points on the
surface of the earth, releases streams of gravitons. The gravitons travel
in curve. If gravitons are not captured by the moon, they return to the
surface of the earth and absorbed back. This model can be regarded as
low efficiency model as only a small part of the gravitons are captured
and used by moon.

2.3. INTELLIGENT COSMOLOGICAL BODIES

35

High efficiency model Figure 2.17 illustrates this model. The earth rather
than releasing gravitons in all directions, first detects the position of
the moon. Once the position is detected, the gravitons are released.
The model is more energy efficient, provided particles used in sensing
the moon require less energy compared to the gravitons. The particles
that can be used to sense the moon can be a kind of gravitons which are
more energy efficient compared to the gravitons which exert momentum
on the matter forming the moon.
The nature generally follows the high efficiency model if living beings on
earth are observed. The animals are equipped with multiple organs such as
eyes, ears and nose to sense the environment around them. Bat does not
have eyes but uses echo waves to sense the environment. This high efficiency
model extensively used in human made machinery, where the sensors first
scans the environment before taking any mechanical actions.

Figure 2.16: Using gravitons for sensing

36

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Figure 2.17: Using sensor particles

2.4

Big Bang

Galaxies in our universe contain large number of stars. Galaxies are receding away from earth at a very high speed. The receding speed of galaxies
increases with the distance from earth. This is known as Hubble Law and is
described as:
v = HR
(2.21)
where,
v: Speed of receding
Hubble parameter H : 17 × 10−3 m/(s.lightyear)
R: Distance from the earth
Hubble Law has a limited accuracy of 50%. Hubble suggested that expansion
of universe is responsible for galaxies moving away from earth.

2.4.1

Moment of universe creation

Let’s discuss possible reason of galaxies moving away from one another.
Based on Newton’s law of motion, the velocity of a moving body is given
as:
(2.22)
vf = vi + at0
where,
t: Duration of time during which change in the speed of body is observed

2.4. BIG BANG

37

vi : Initial speed of body at the start of duration t at time instance t0
a: Rate of acceleration
vf : Final speed of body at the end of duration t
Now consider two moving galaxies A and B. The moving speed of galaxies
A and B is given by following equations:
vf (A) = vi(A) + aA tA

(2.23)

vf (B) = vi(B) + aB tB

(2.24)

For simplification purpose, let’s assume that galaxy A and B are moving in
the same direction. The distance between galaxy A and B can increase with
passing of time if:
(2.25)
vf (A) 6= vf (B)
Let’s assume that galaxy A and B were joined together at the time of
universe creation and thus were at rest in relation to one another:
vi(B) = vi(A) = 0

(2.26)

Equation 2.25 and 2.26 can be satisfied under three different scenarios:
Scenario 1:
aA = aB
(2.27)
tA 6= tB

(2.28)

aA 6= aB

(2.29)

tA = tB

(2.30)

aA 6= aB

(2.31)

tA 6= tB

(2.32)

Scenario 2:

Scenario 3:

Let’s look in details each of the above scenarios:
Scenario 1
This scenario can be further divided into two cases:
• Case 1: Galaxy A and B contain equal amount of mass
• Case 2: Galaxy A and B does not contain equal amount of mass

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CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Case 1:
In this case, Galaxy A and B have equal amount of mass and are moving with
equal acceleration rate. It means galaxies A and B were pushed in specific
directions with the same force at the moment of universe creation. Only a
highly controlled and creative event can create galaxies of equal mass which
started their journey containing equal amount of energy.
Case 2:
Only a highly controlled event can result in galaxies of different mass gaining same acceleration rate. Gravity can be also one of the forces under
which Equation 2.27 can be satisfied as objects fall down toward earth’s surface with constant acceleration rate regardless of their mass. Under such
assumption Equation 2.27 indicates possibility that galaxies are moving toward something with constant acceleration rate. It is thought that universe
is expanding. Universe can expand if our universe is enclosed in a spherical
shape container of very dense mass and this spherical shape container wall
is pulling galaxies toward itself due to gravitational like force. Equation 2.28
means that galaxy A and B have been in motion for different interval of times.
It indicates possibility that galaxies were created in temporal sequence and
were pushed toward specific direction in which they have been traveling with
constant acceleration regardless of difference in their mass. Equations 2.28
also indicates that there was a series of events which resulted in creation of
galaxies rather than an uncontrolled Big Bang event.
Scenario 2
Equation 2.30 indicates that galaxy A and B were created at the same instance. Equation 2.29 means that the acceleration rate is different for different galaxies. Let’s divide the process of galaxies creation into two steps:
• A large object is divided into galaxy A and galaxy B, where galaxy A
is larger in mass compared to galaxy B.
• Galaxy A and B are pushed with specific force.
Let’s discuss the second step here.
Large galaxy A should gain lower acceleration rate while small galaxy
B should gain high acceleration rate. As receding speed of galaxies increase
with distance from earth, mass contained in each galaxy should decrease with
distance from earth according to Equation 2.29. If no such decrease in mass
of galaxies is evident, it can be claimed that universe creation is a result of
very intelligent process.

2.4. BIG BANG

39

Scenario 3
Equation 2.32 indicates the possibility that galaxies were created in temporal
sequence. As receding speed of galaxies increase with distance from earth,
mass contained in each galaxy should decrease with increase in distance from
earth according to Equation 2.31. If this is not the case, it indicates that
creation of universe as a result of highly intelligent process.

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CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

2.5

Group behavior of particles

There are several observations that indicates group behavior by particles.
No group behavior by multiple particles is feasible unless there exists a mean
the particles can use to communicate with one another. If nature around
us is observed, animals communicate with one another. Similarly the plants
also communicate with one another. Animal or plant can be regarded as a
collection of large number of particles arranged in specific order. Communication between animals or between plants can be regarded as communication
among multiple group of particles which are arranged in specific order and
confined within a three dimensional space. If communication can happen
between groups of particles, it can also happen within the particles which
form each group. This section discusses several groups behavior exhibited by
groups of particles.

2.5.1

Magnetic lines extending from the bar magnet

Particle physics says that the four identified particle interactions are realized
by flow of field particles. Based on this theory, it can be claimed that magnetic field is also formed by the flow of field particles. Modern science says
that the spin of the electron creates a magnetic field in a perpendicular direction of the flow of the electrons. As the bar magnet is the collection of the
multiple atoms, as shown in Figure 2.18, the field particles forms magnetic
field by grouping together and then travel in curved path toward the other
end of the magnetic bar. This behavior of the field particle is not possible
without:
• Field particles sensing one another.
• Field particles communicating with one another.
• Field particles changing their paths together while moving.

2.5. GROUP BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES

41

Figure 2.18: Group behavior of field particle resulting in magnetic lines

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CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

2.5.2

Different amplitude of waves with equal frequency

Assume that the particle is a boat with a motor. Now let’s consider two
boats A and B.
Power of the engine of boat A FA = F
Power of the engine of boat B FB = 2F
Weight of boat A WA = W
Weight of boat B WB = W
Blade size of boat A SA = s
Blade size of boat B SB = 2s
Rotational speed of motor in boat A = fA
Rotational speed of motor in boat B = fB
Assume both boats are traveling in the same density medium with exactly
the same motor blade rotation speed, then the intensity (amplitude) of waves
created in the water by the two boats will have relations:
IA = 0.5IB

(2.33)

Now let’s assume that the boats in the above example are photons, then
according to Einstein
(2.34)
fA = fB
EA = EB

(2.35)

In other words, if boat is considered a photon then it can be said that according to Einstein:
• All boats (photon) in the universe are equipped with the same capacity
motors.
• Engine blade of all the boats (photons) have exactly the same diameters.
• All engines of the boats (photon) have exactly the same fuel efficiency.
• Boat motor efficiency never degrades over time.
• If the motor efficiency degrades over time, all the motor have the same
time dependent efficiency degradation curve. Furthermore, all the motors were created exactly at the same instance and all have been working exactly the same time since their creation.
Figure 2.19 shows a single boat (photon) according to Einstein thoughts.
The boat creates a wave of amplitude I. To have a wave of amplitude 2I as
shown in Figure 2.19, the basic requirements are:

2.5. GROUP BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES

43

• 2 boats positions themselves side by side to one another
• Engine blades of both boats have complete synchronized motion. It
means that both the blades start rotating from the exactly same 3
dimensional point at exactly the same time.
Such behavior is only possible when:
• Photons can sense one another.
• Photons can communicate with one another.
• Photons can take a group action.
Figure 2.20, shows group of photons moving toward a surface while synchronizing their movements in the same way as a group of migrating birds. In
this case, multiple photons communicate with one another.

2.5.3

Diffraction of particles

Electrons diffract as they pass through a slit as illustrated in Figure 2.21.
The electron diffraction and diffraction of other particles with non-zero mass
is regarded as the most important argument advocating the concept of the
wave-particle duality. The electron diffraction can be described as a physical
effect due to which:
• Electrons organize themselves into specific distribution pattern when
they are forced to pass through a slit.
Such behavior can be observed in daily life. For example, pressing the end
of water hose makes water spread in horizontal directions with pressure.
Electrons can bend their path, in the existence of a an electric field as shown
in Figure 2.21. The slit acts as an obstacle to the flow of the electrons in
different directions. There can be two possible reasons which can realize the
electron diffraction.
• The accumulation of the charge around the slit creates organized deposits of charge which acts like the charged plate. Electrons need to
adopt a group behavior to form any patterns of the electric field near
the slit to deflect the electrons.
• As free path of the electrons is obstructed, the electrons cooperate with
one another and try to go through the slit by organizing their direction
of motions.

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CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Figure 2.19: Group of particles forming wave of variable amplitude

2.5. GROUP BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES

Figure 2.20: Group of photons flying together

45

46

CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Above behaviors are only possible, when
• Electrons can sense one another.
• Electrons can communicate with one another.
• Electrons can take a group action.

2.5. GROUP BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES

Figure 2.21: Wave-particle duality

47

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CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

2.5.4

Light splitting

Let’s assume a light source which emits one photon at a time as shown in
Figure 2.22. Each photon travels in straight line and strikes the splitter.
Due to the photon being a quanta, the photon is not expected to split into
two parts. Photon goes toward right or left. If the flow of the photons from
the source continues, half of the photons go toward right and half of them
go toward left. If the splitting is a real random process, the photons should
not split into two almost equal groups. One side could have only 10% of
the photon, while the other with 90% of the photons. At other occasion,
photons could have been split into two groups of 30% or 70%. If each photon
which strikes the splitter is observed, it cannot be determined whether it will
go toward right or toward left. However, when looked at the total number
of photons, it is equally divided into two equal groups. This observation
indicates that
• The group of photons have a group target to split between two groups.
• Each individual photon tries to accomplish the group target.
Such behavior is only possible when:
• Photons can sense one another.
• Photons can communicate with one another.
• Photons can take a group action.

2.5. GROUP BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES

Figure 2.22: Photons working together to split into two equal groups

49

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CHAPTER 2. INTELLIGENT NATURE OF PARTICLES

Chapter 3
Patterns of energy transfer
This chapter discusses different patterns of energy transfer among particles.
Here, the charge of the field particles is ignored and the focus of this chapter
is mainly the mass of the field particles.

3.1

Particle as a medium

It is thought that objects are made of particles. Particles interact by exchanging energy. Field particles carry energy from one particle to another. Same
particle receives and emits field particles. Figure 3.1 illustrates a particle. It
receives and emits field particle. Let’s assume that
• The field particle has mass.
• The particle which receives the field particle has constant mass over
extended period of time.
• Any field particle with non-zero mass need to leave the particle it enters.
Based on this observation, it can be said that:
• Particle is like a passage/medium for field particles. A field particle
enters the particle and then leaves it after spending sometime in it.
• It is our daily observation that any mass or light which passes through
a medium lose its energy. Based on this observation, it can be said that
field particle also lose energy when they pass through a medium.
• It is not very clear what is the form of energy that field particle lose
by passing through the particle. The energy lost can be kinetic energy
or it can be in the form of light.
51

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CHAPTER 3. PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER

Figure 3.1: Particle as a medium

3.1. PARTICLE AS A MEDIUM

53

Figure 3.1 indicates that field particle lose energy whenever they pass
through a particle. Let’s assume that:
• A field particle is not assembled from small parts which can separate
from one another easily at the moment when it leaves a particle for
travel toward another particle.
• A field particle does not disintegrate into smaller parts when it enters
a particle.
• A field particle retains its shape/structure when it resides in a particle.
Based on the above assumptions and also based on the fact that passing
through a medium is an action which requires consumption of energy, it can
be claimed that:
• The field particles are losing energy since the time of inception of the
universe. It means that the material is gradually losing its strengths.
At a certain point in future, it is expected that there won’t be any
working bond among particles.
• The number of entries by the field particle into a particle cannot be
same for all field particles. A field particle could have made 1 million
entries into a particle, while another field particle could have made 2
million entries. Such diversity in the number of entries can result in
focal areas of different bonding strength in any piece of material.
It is possible to have a mass with long lasting uniform strength qualities,
only when a field particle carry the same quantity of energy at the time of
entry and exit into a particle. Figure 3.2 illustrate such scenario. A particle
has two types of inputs of field particles.
• Particle adjust the inputs E1 and E3 in such an intelligent manner that
E1 remains equal to E2 and follow Equation 3.1 is satisfied.
E1 = E2 = mE1 + nE3

(3.1)

• E3 need to be field particle without a mass such as photon, when E1 is
a field particle with mass.
• Photons and field particles with mass collaborate together to help maintain bonds between particles.

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CHAPTER 3. PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER

Figure 3.2: Field particle carrying fixed quantity of energy

3.1. PARTICLE AS A MEDIUM

55

Figure 3.3 illustrate logical view of a particle as an energy hub. A particle
is made of several smaller logical components:
• It consists of multiple energy receivers, each of which receives energy
from a single field particle.
• It has a subcomponent which accumulates energy received from multiple energy receivers.
• It has an energy emitter unit, which collects energy from the energy
receiver and emits it in the form of field particles.
• The relationship of equation 3.1 can be satisfied only when particles
are able to process logic. Based on this observation, a controller and a
timer has been added in the logical view of the particle.
Figure 3.4 illustrates a possible implementation of energy accumulator described in Figure 3.3. In Figure 3.4, field particles are not in the form of
photons. These particles have mass. Let’s discuss how energy transfer between field particle and the particle which receive this field particle can happen. Photon is the most useful form of energy. Let’s see how a moving field
particle can transfer energy in the form of photons.
• Field particle with mass hits the particle.
• There is a solid and hard surface on which the field particle strikes.
• From our daily observation, it is known that spark emits when two
hard objects collide with one another with high speed. We can expect
photons emissions when a field particle strikes a hard surface area on
the particle.
• A photon receiver captures these photons and transfer them to energy
accumulator using fiber optics.
Figure 3.4 illustrates logically how kinetic energy of field particle can convert
into photons.
• A particle has an entrance for the field particle.
• The field particle enters the particle with high speed.
• There is a solid and hard surface inside the particle. The field particle
hits this solid and hard surface with great speed.

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CHAPTER 3. PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER

Figure 3.3: Particle as an energy hub

3.1. PARTICLE AS A MEDIUM

57

• Collision between the high speed field particle and the hard surface
results in the emissions of the photons.
• Inside the particle, there exist photon receivers which capture these
emitted photons.
• These photons receivers carry the photons to energy accumulator using
fiber optics like mechanisms.
It is obvious that there is a need of a very complex mechanism to convert
kinetic energy of the non-zero mass field particles into photons. Let’s consider
the possibility of preserving energy in the form of mechanical energy based
on follow observations.
• A non-zero mass field particle carries kinetic energy.
• A non-zero mass field particle transfer its kinetic energy to particle
when it hits it.
• A non-zero mass field particle carries kinetic energy when it leaves a
particle.
Figure 3.5 illustrates an image of the field particle which stores mechanical
energy.
• The particle contains a spring mechanism.
• The spring mechanism has an end. Pushing the end compresses the
spring. This spring mechanism is designed in such a way that spring
can remain in the compressed position for a limited period of time.
• At the first stage, a field particle hits the one end of the spring mechanism and compresses the end of the spring mechanism. Compressing
of the end of spring mechanism increases the quantity of energy stored
in the spring mechanism.
• After hitting the end of the spring particle, the field particle comes to
rest and remains next to the end of the spring mechanism.
• After passing of limited period of time, spring mechanism expands and
pushes the field particle at rest to high speed.
• The result of this mechanism is that the field particle enters the particle
containing certain amount of energy. It spends some time in the particle
and then leaves the particle. The energy contained in the field particle
should be same after entering and leaving if spring mechanism is 100%
efficient.

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CHAPTER 3. PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER

Figure 3.4: Conversion of kinetic energy into light

3.1. PARTICLE AS A MEDIUM

Figure 3.5: Conversion of kinetic energy into mechanical energy

59

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CHAPTER 3. PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER

The mechanism as illustrated in Figure 3.5 is a complex structural mechanism. Such spring mechanism needs to be 100% energy efficient to realize
stable atom. In case, the spring mechanism is not 100% efficient, there is a
need to consider other possibilities to add energy to the field particle which
spends sometime in the particle before leaving.
• A single field particle can receive energy from multiple spring mechanisms. However, multiple spring mechanism will make the structure of
the particle more complex.
• The field particle can receive energy in the form of photons when it
resides at rest in the field particle.
• It is believed that electrons jump from one orbit to another, when the
receive photons. In other words, photons help move the mass.
• It can be claimed that photons need to energize non-zero mass field
particle to help realize stable atom.
Let’s consider other mechanisms which do not use springs to store energy.
Figure 3.6 shows a particle which does not use the spring mechanism.
• The particle has a field particle container. Field particle container has
entrance and exit for the field particle.
• The field particle container contains single slot for the field particle.
• This single slot for the field particle remains occupied most of the time.
• When a new particle A enters the particle container, it pushes out the
field particle B that was already in the field particle container.
To have a stable mass, the energy that field particle A and field particle B
carry should be equal. All kinetic energy of field particle A need to transfer
to field particle B. Such 100% efficient collision need to happen at every atom
which forms an object. Let’s consider a case, where particle A is not able to
transfer all its energy to field particle B.
Case 1: Two field particles A and field particle C hit field particle B resting
in the field particle container. The energy transfer during the collision
need to satisfy the follow relationship:
EB = mEC + nEA

(3.2)

where;
EA : Energy of the field particle A before collision with field particle B

3.1. PARTICLE AS A MEDIUM

61

EC : Energy of the field particle C before collision with field particle B
EB : Energy of the field particle B after collision with field particle A
and field particle C
There is a need of high level coordination among field particle A, field
particle B and field particle C to be able to satisfy Equation 3.2.
Case 2: The particle B after collision receives energy from photons in such a
manner that:
EB = EA = mEA + EP hotons
(3.3)
where;
EA : Energy of the field particle A before collision with field particle B
EB : Energy of the field particle B after it leaves the particle
EP hotons : Energy received from photons.
It is our daily observation that transfer of photon to mass results in movement. It is believed that transfer of photons result in the movement of
particles we cannot directly observe. For example, electron receives energy
from photons and move from one orbit to another. Thus, there is a high
probability that field particle B receives energy in the form of photons.
Figure 3.7 illustrates another mechanism through which field particles
move in the space between two particles. External surface of the particle
contains a hard surface area. External surface of the field particle also contains a container for the field particle. Particles arrange themselves in such
a manner that opening of the container of the field particle of one particle
faces the hard surface of the other particle. Particle A pushes field particle
toward Particle B. Field particle from Particle A hits the hard surface of the
field particle B and bounces back toward its container in the field particle
A. To realize such mechanism, there is need of energy for two actions.
• Field particle needs to gain speed when it leaves the field particle container.
• Field particle lose energy when it strikes the hard surface of the other
particle. Field particle needs energy to return to the energy level at
which it left the field particle container.
Photons can be the possible source of energy for above two actions.

62

CHAPTER 3. PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER

Figure 3.6: Energy conversion without spring mechanism

3.1. PARTICLE AS A MEDIUM

Figure 3.7: Handball mechanism

63

64

CHAPTER 3. PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER

So far, we have seen many mechanism which involve energy lose when
a field particle hits its target (particle). Figure 3.8 illustrates a field particle exchange mechanism among two particle which does not involve lose of
energy.
• Each particle contains an internal path through which the field particles
can travel.
• Field particle’s internal path has an entrance and exit.
• The diameter of the internal path is much larger than the diameter of
the field particle.
• The field particle here is able to glide through the internal path without
losing the energy.
• Two particles Particle A and particle B arrange themselves in such a
manner that exit of internal path of one particle face the exit of internal
path of the other particle.
• Field particles continue to travel among particle A and particle B.
The field particle needs to avoid any contact with the walls of the internal
path if it wants to glide through the field particle without losing any energy.
A field particle can have such capability only when:
• Field particle has eyes and is able to see/sense the walls of the internal
path.
• Field particle can process information and make logical decisions.
• Field particle has capability to control its movement.
• Field particle can not only sense the walls of the internal path but it
also can sense other field particles.
• Field particle not only avoid collision with the walls of internal path,
but also avoid collision with the other field particles.
• Field particle is also able to detect the position of the entrance of the
other particle. If field particle sees that there is no other particle with
its entrance at the right position, it stops circulating.

3.1. PARTICLE AS A MEDIUM

Figure 3.8: Energy efficient flow of field particles

65

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CHAPTER 3. PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER

The field particle needs to have highly sophisticated functionalities to be able
to perform above functions. Let’s assume that field particle exchange field
particles through mechanism as illustrated Figure 3.8 and also there exists
sophisticated field particles who are capable of navigating the internal path
without colliding with the walls of the internal path. However, it is not
known why field particle make rotations among the particles. Is exchanging
field particles is a sports? Figure 3.9 shows a sport resembling Tennis being
enjoyed by the particles.
• Is sports an invention of particles?
• Do particles behave like tennis players?
• Do particles make pair like tennis players make pair while playing tennis?
• Do particles constrain their activity to a limited space (space occupied
by Tennis Court)?
• Do particles also follow rules as tennis players follow game rules?
Humans play sports for different purposes such as:
• Burning extra fats.
• Passing time.
• Enjoying time.
• Win award.
• Win respect.
• Prove high physical capacity.
• Building relationships.
• Settle disputed matters.
• Remain active and fit.
Let’s assume that particles are not sophisticated creatures and do not have
emotions like human beings. The only purpose of sports which do not involve
emotions are:
• Burning extra fats.

3.1. PARTICLE AS A MEDIUM

67

• Remain active and fit.
As a human being, we suffer from superiority complex and cannot accept that
tiny particles can be also sophisticated creatures who posses sphosticated
capabilities. For a very short while, let’s suppress our superiority complex
and assume that particles do not have emotions like us but still they are
sophisticated mechanical creatures. Now it can be claimed that:
• Exchange of field particles is a mechanism through which particles dispose any extra energy they have.
• There can be some particles which lack energy and need to collect
energy from other particles. However, extracting energy for useful
purpose from any received non-zero mass field particle is a complex
action. Particles may have the complex structures/mechanisms to extract, store and use mechanical energy.
It has been observed so far that the mass of the field particle is an important
indicator of the energy a field particle carry from one particle to another.
Let’s discuss another possible mechanism of energy exchange using field particles, where the weight of the field particle is not so important. Figure 3.10
illustrate a field particle exchange mechanism where mass of the field particle is not so important. Figure 3.10 illustrated two particles, Particle A and
Particle B.
• Particle A consists of a field particle container which contains a field
container. Particle B has an empty field particle container.
• Particle A transfers its field particle to Particle B.
• Particle A has a heating unit next to the field particle container. Particle A heats the field particle before pushing the field particle toward
Particle B.
• Particle B receives the heated field particle and extracts heat from it.
This extracted heat is transferred to the portion of the field particle B
which needs the energy.
• In this scenario, the mass of the field particle is not important. The
amount of energy, field particle carries from one particle to another
depends on the the temperature to which the field particle was heated.
In this case, the constant mass field particle can carry different quantity
of the energy.

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CHAPTER 3. PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER

Figure 3.9: Particles playing tennis

3.1. PARTICLE AS A MEDIUM

69

• In case, the heat emission from the external surface of the field particle
is negligible during transfer from Particle A to Particle B, speed of
field particle is not important too. Field particle will carry the same
amount of energy regardless of its speed as long as it is able to reach
the entrance of the field particle container of other particles.
• Shape of the surface of field particle which comes in contact with the
heating unit of particle A can be an important factor to decide how
much energy the field particle carries from Particle A to Particle B. A
large surface area of the field particle that comes in contact with the
heating unit of the particle, means that the field particle can collect
energy quickly. Similarly, the area of the field particle which comes in
contact with the heat extractor is also important. A large contact area
means heat from the field particle can be extracted quickly.
• Mass of the field particle can be important in rare cases, where the field
particle can be heated to a certain temperature only. In this case, a
field particle with larger mass is required when there is a need of very
high energy transfer.
In a mechanism like Figure 3.10, Heating Unit needs an energy resource.
• Photons can be source of energy for the Heating Unit.
• A particle does not have unlimited storage of field particles. A particle
need to:
– Collect non-zero mass field particles.
– Heat these collected non-zero mass particles.
– Push them as a field particle toward other particles.
• Similarly, the particle which receives a heated non-zero mass cannot
keep on accommodating field particles from which it has extracted heat.
Such field particles need to be ejected at a lower energy state.
• Based on the above observations, it can be claimed that low energy
field particles swim around the particles.
• Particle which wants to send a field article, lures such swimming low
energy particle into field particle container.
• Such lured particle are heated and pushed toward the particle which
needs them.

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CHAPTER 3. PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER
• Particle which receives the heated field particle, extracts heat from it
and release the field particle in the space around the particle. These
low energy field particles are later captured by other particles.

In Figure 3.10, Particle A is shown as a particle possessing only heating unit
and Particle B is shown as a particle with heat extraction unit. In the real
world, a particle can posses both heating and the heat extraction units. One
moment, it can receive a field particle and at the other moment it can heat
and push a field particle. Let’s discuss another mechanism of exchange of
field particles, where fixed mass field particles can carry different levels of
energy. Figure 3.11 illustrate one such mechanism. In Figure 3.11 Particle
A transfer energy to Particle B.
• Energy transfer from one particle to another particle is in the form of
fuel.
• Field particle resting in container at particle A contains a fuel tank.
• Particle A has a fuel filling unit. Particle A fills the fuel tank before
pushing the field particle toward Particle B.
• Particle B receivers the field particle and extract the fuel using its fuel
extraction.
• Particle A is able to adjust the quantity of the energy transfer by
adjusting the quantity of the fuel in the fuel tank.
• It is our daily observation that different types of fuel converts into different quantity of energy. Particle A is also able to adjust the quantity
of the fuel transfer by changing the type of fuel.
• Figure 3.11 illustrates a concept of field particle with two types of fuel
tanks. First type of fuel tank suits fuel of type Y and second type of
fuel tank suits fuel of type Z. A particle can adjust the quantity of the
fuel transfer by choosing the type of the fuel.
• Particle by choosing the high energy fuel can behave in the same way
as the very massive particle.
Figure 3.13 illustrates another mechanism without using very massive
particle. Particle A needs to transfer energy to Particle B, with can be
transferred only by using a massive particle.
• Let’s assume that the Particle A and Particle B have sophisticated
capabilities.

3.1. PARTICLE AS A MEDIUM

Figure 3.10: Exchange of heated field particle

71

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CHAPTER 3. PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER

Figure 3.11: Exchange of fuel filled field particle

3.1. PARTICLE AS A MEDIUM

Figure 3.12: Field particle with multiple fuel containers

73

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CHAPTER 3. PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER
• Particle A sends a group of smaller field particles toward Particle B.
• Particle B receives the group of smaller field particles.
• Energy transfer using group of smaller particles mean there is no need
for massive particle. Group of smaller particles can realize the behavior
of a single massive particle.

Figure 3.14 illustrate another mechanism through which the particle can
gain high energy without using massive particles.
• There is a sea of tiny field particles each of the field particle having
specific energy.
• It has been observed that the energy transfer is a controlled mechanism
and also mass accepts only fixed amount of energy.
• Based on the above observations, it can be expected that the particle
accepts fixed number of field particles within a certain time.

3.1. PARTICLE AS A MEDIUM

Figure 3.13: Energy transfer without using single massive particle

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CHAPTER 3. PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER

Figure 3.14: Fishing field particles from sea of field particles

Chapter 4
Summary
This book concludes that:
• There can be multiple ways through which energy can transfer from
one particle to another.
• Photons plays important role in realizing different types of particle
interactions.
• The matter can function without using massive particles.

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