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ADVANCED RLA STUDY OF BOILERS & CASE STUDIES

S.I. MAHANT, ASST. DIRECTOR ,NPTI, WR, NAGPUR.

Abstract
Boilers used for generation of power or process steam, has to undergo for remaining life assessment study as a statutory requirement, after 1,00,000 running hours or 25 years of operation for safe and reliable further operation of boiler. Central Boiler Board has issued a gazette notification as ndian Boiler !egulation "#1 $ table 1 or 2, which co%ers the type of test to be carried out on each component of the boiler pressure parts. &he tests mentioned in B! tables are applicable for small process steam boiler to highest 500 '( capacity boiler. &he con%entional )*+ methods can only used for assessing the certain damage mechanisms li,e distortion, thinning, swelling, crac,ing, o-ide scale thic,ness, metallurgical degradation. &his paper highlights the importance of %arious test methods used in !emaining .ife $ssessment of boiler and latest )*+ methods required for some components e-pected to be undergo certain damage mechanism li,e hydrogen damage, stress corrosion crac,ing, *issimilar weld metal crac,ing, lea,age from furnace s,in casing, thermal fatigue crac,ing of attachment welds, material mi- up, etc. &his paper also gi%es some guidelines to the plant personal in preparing the scope of !.$ of boiler for carrying out a meaningful and realistic assessment of the components.
1.0 INTRODUCTION

The total installed capacity of power plants in India is 1,09,868 MW as on October 2003 In which !a"or contrib#tion is fro! p#l$erised coal fired plants i e 6%,9&6 MW The a$era'e all India plant load factor of ther!al power plants is aro#nd 69 9( to )2 1( *ress#re parts in creep re'i!e in fossil power stations are desi'ned based on allowable stress deri$ed by applyin' an arbitrary desi'n factor to !ean stress to ca#se r#pt#re in 1,00,000 ho#rs It is ens#red that e$en the wea+est lot of !aterial wo#ld s#r$i$e i!posed conditions for desi'ned life Therefore it beco!es ine$itable to e$al#ate the condition of the boiler which had to withstand fati'#e stresses, creep da!a'e, detri!ental stresses, o,idation, both locali-ed and #nifor! corrosion attac+s and the co!bined effect of abo$e indi$id#al stresses .entral /oiler /oard has iss#ed a 'a-ette notification carryin' o#t 0e!ainin' 1ife 2ssess!ent st#dy of hi'h press#re boilers, which were operated for !ore than 1,00,000 ho#rs or 2& years They ha$e 'i$en the type of tests to be co$ered for all the boiler co!ponents in the Indian /oiler 0e'#lation 391 2, table 1 or 2 respecti$ely The non3destr#cti$e tests are #sef#l in assessin' the present condition of the indi$id#al co!ponent and in calc#latin' their re!ainin' life especially where sa!plin' is not feasible for co!ponents life dr#!, headers 4

pipes 5estr#cti$e tests are #sed for acc#rate !echanical 4 !etall#r'ical properties for assessin' the re!ainin' life for t#be sections only The inte'rity of press#re parts operatin' at hi'h te!perat#res and hi'h press#re stea! has beco!e a 'rowin' concern for electric #tilities, as the e,istin' e6#ip!ents 7 parts are a'in' d#e to nor!al 7 abnor!al operatin' conditions 2 'reater awareness has been inf#sed allo$er the world, and in India, this is especially catchin' the attention of techno3econo!ic personnel 2 direct need has, th#s, e!er'ed as to how to assess the condition of the co!ponents and to e,tend their life, if re6#ired 2ltho#'h the cost of settin' #p new power plant has escalated beyond econo!ic li!its, the e,tension of life of power plant wo#ld definitely offset the cost, if not f#lly, at least partially 2nother pertinent aspect in the life e,tension of power plant co!ponent in the a$oidance 7 pre$ention of catastrophic conse6#ences in certain welded co!ponents In order to reali-e this aspect, the rate of da!a'e acc#!#lation is to be assessed acc#rately and the inte'rity of the co!ponent is e$al#ated precisely The p#rpose of 012 acti$ity is not to contin#e the operation of a plant beyond its desi'n life, b#t !erely to ens#re f#ll #tili-ation #p to its #sef#l life The idea is to a$oid pre!at#re retire!ent of plants and plant co!ponents, on the basis of the so3called desi'n life 2 +ey in'redient in plant is the re!ainin' life assess!ent technolo'y /eyond this, ob"ecti$e of 012 technolo'y sensor helps in settin' #p proper inspection sched#les, !aintenance proced#res and operatin' proced#res The data and !ethodolo'ies needed for life assess!ent are sa!e as those opti!i-in' these factors 012 techni6#e can 6#antify the penalty in ter!s of red#ced plant life res#ltin' fro! the chan'ed operatin' !ode 8o!e of the desi'n factors !any fa$orable and #nfa$orable factors that hold the balance between desi'n and act#al life are ill#strated sche!atically in the followin' 'i$en fi'#re

Actual Life
9se of !ini!#! properties in desi'n :actor of safety in desi'n .onser$ation operation of #nit O$eresti!ation of o,idation effects

Design Life
9nanticipated stresses e ' , resid#al, syste! stresses Operation o#tside desi'n li!its e ' , e,cessi$e te!perat#res, load cyclin' of base load #nits Operational and en$iron!ental effects 5e'radation of !aterial properties in ser$ice e ' , te!per e!brittle!ent, softenin'

Actual Life
Fig. Favorable an unfavorable factors effecting t!e useful life of co"#onents.

This paper hi'hli'hts the i!portance of $ario#s ;5< !ethods #sed in 0e!ainin' 1ife 2ssess!ent of boiler as per I/0 and also special ;5T !ethods to assess the certain da!a'e !echanis!s This paper also 'i$es so!e '#idelines to the plant personal in preparin' the scope of 012 of boiler for carryin' o#t a !eanin'f#l and realistic assess!ent of the co!ponents $.0 R%&AININ' LIF% A((%((&%NT (TUDI%(

The re!ainin' life assess!ent st#dy in$ol$es a detailed 6#alitati$e and 6#antitati$e e,a!ination and tests and interpretation of test res#lts for e$ery critical co!ponent =ario#s latest technolo'ies a$ailable in ;on3destr#cti$e and destr#cti$e tests will be #sed to assess the present stat#s of each co!ponent 2 typical e,a!ination !ethods re6#ired for assessin' re!ainin' life of boiler co!ponents is 'i$en in 2nne,#re > 1 The !ethodolo'y, test proced#re and concl#sions are 'i$en in forthco!in' chapters $.1 &%T)ODOLO'* OF +OR, The 012 scope of wor+ en$isa'ed is co$ered in the followin' !anner? 0e$iewin' rele$ant desi'n, operatin', o#ta'e, !aintenance, history and fail#re analysis data and as well as records a$ailable at the station for the boiler co!ponents Inter$iew of the operation 4 !aintenance personnel of the boiler !aintenance di$ision incl#din' infor!ation and abo#t o$erall boiler perfor!ance, operational and !aintenance history of the syste! and indi$id#al co!ponents !odification7 deletion !ade if any, additional boiler operational data etc The ser$ice infor!ation pro$ided by the concerned a#thorities is assessed and scr#tinised @#antitati$e condition assess!ent and identification of critical inspection -ones are carried o#t on the history3base 5etailed inspection plan, incl#din' ;5< proced#re will be !ade !ainly on the basis of hi'h 4 low te!perat#re co!ponents The low te!perat#re co!ponents i e which does not e,posed !ore than %&00 ., are not effected by the creep defor!ation Aowe$er, the low te!perat#re co!ponents when e,posed to hi'h te!perat#re they will #nder'o !etall#r'ical defor!ation instead of creep The necessary proper s#rface preparation of all the critical co!ponents at specific locations is i!portant for carryin' o#t $ario#s tests, otherwise so!e indications 7 obser$ations will be !issed This is followed by act#al inspection of condition indicatin' para!eters by $ario#s ;on35estr#cti$e Techni6#es $i- $is#al e,a!ination, di!ensional !eas#re!ent, #ltrasonic testin', !a'netic particle inspection, dye penetrant inspection, in3sit# !etallo'raphy B0eplicationC, in3sit# hardness test, 0e!ote $ideo i!a'escopy and any other specific test !ethods The health assess!ent of $ario#s co!ponents is carried o#t #sin' appropriate field3 testin' e6#ip!ents

When se$eral acti$ities7 testin' are to be carried o#t on the sa!e co!ponent, which is #s#ally the case, the lo'istics are followed for testin' se6#ence so that !ini!#! ti!e and !aterial is spent :indin's re6#irin' i!!ediate attention of plant a#thorities to facilitate ta+in' action are 'i$en then and there to plant a#thorities for the needf#l The field obser$ations are f#rther a#'!ented with laboratory in$esti'ations and a lo'ical analysis of the res#lts 2dditionally, assess!ent of creep da!a'e will be done on post3ser$ice sa!ples of s#per heater 4 re3heater t#bes by s#b"ectin' these to #ni3a,ial 8tress 0#pt#re tests The creep test res#lts will be st#died alon' with the presence of o,ide scale 4 !etall#r'ical stat#s of these hi'h te!perat#re t#bes for calc#lation of re!ainin' life The sa!ples fro! $ario#s sections are s#b"ected to !echanical tests li+e tensile 4 flattenin' tests to calc#late the safe wor+in' press#re li!it and pro$ide reco!!endations thereof The res#lts fro! the field tests and post ser$ice accelerated laboratory tests wo#ld be analysed alon' with laboratory in$esti'ation li+e deposit analysis, Optical Microscopy, etc to esti!ate the re!ainin' life of the co!ponents li+e headers, dr#!, stea! pipelines etc The 012 st#dy helps in 'i$in' reco!!endatory decisions li+e r#n7 repair7 replace for f#rther safe #sa'e of boiler $.$ T%(T -ROC%DUR%

/oth the destr#cti$e 4 non3destr#cti$e test !ethods are #sed to assess the present condition and re!ainin' life calc#lation of all critical co!ponents /y ;on3destr#cti$e testin' !ethods, condition of the !etallic co!ponents 4 weld inte'rity of the co!ponents is assessed witho#t destroyin' or defacin' the !ain co!ponents 5estr#cti$e tests will 'i$e the physical 4 !etall#r'ical stat#s of the t#be co!ponents Ma"or types of 5estr#cti$e 4 ;on3 destr#cti$e testin' !ethods that are bein' widely e!ployed for /oiler press#re parts are as follows? 1 2 3 % & 6 ) 8 9 10 11 12 13 1% 1& =is#al Inspection B:ibroscopic InspectionC 5i!ensional Inspection Thic+ness !eas#re!ent 1i6#id *enetrant :law 5etection Ma'netic *article :law 5etection 9ltrasonic :law 5etection 0adio'raphic <,a!ination In3sit# Metallo'raphy or 0eplication In3sit# Aardness Testin' In3sit# !aterial 'rade .hec+in' In3sit# o,ide scale thic+ness !eas#re!ent Mechanical testin' BTensile 4 :lattenin' testC > lab test Metallo'raphy incl#din' O,ide scale thic+ness !eas#re!ent > lab test 2ccelerated .reep 0#pt#re Test > lab test 5eposit 2nalysis
%

16 .old wal+, hot wal+ s#r$ey and Aan'er inspection 1) Wei'ht loss analysis for econo!iser t#bes $.$.1 .I(UAL %/A&INATION 0.%1 0FI2RO(CO-IC IN(-%CTION1

=is#al e,a!ination is carried o#t to assess !aterial wasta'e d#e to o,idation, erosion7corrosion proble!s, fo#lin' conditions of heat transfer s#rfaces, inte'rity of attach!ents in coils This incl#des inspection of dr#! internals to ens#re proper stea!7water separation 5#rin' $is#al inspection the obser$ations !ade with reference to discoloration of coils, !isali'n!ent is considered in decidin' sa!ple t#bes re!o$al for !etall#r'ical e,a!ination *rior e$al#ation of press#re part condition, based on e,perience and desi'n +nowled'e fro! si!ilar plants !a+es sa!ple selection !ore rational 8a!ples fro! the re'ions th#s deter!ined to be !ost s#sceptible to fail#res and sa!ples depictin' the 'eneral condition of each co!ponent are selected for an e$al#ation of the !etall#r'ical condition 2ll the critical co!ponents sho#ld be e,a!ined $is#ally, preferably with the assistance of a !a'nifyin' lens or 'lass and torch The internal condition assess!ent of the co!ponents sho#ld be carried o#t by :ibroscopic inspection The fiber optic probe of the e6#ip!ent to be inserted into the co!ponents thro#'h a nipple or hand hole openin' !ade by c#ttin' The $is#al e,a!ination sho#ld co$er all aspects Bfa#ltsC of the co!ponent incl#din' welds aC bC cC dC eC fC 'C hC iC 1inear, an'#lar and rotational !isali'n!ent of parts Incorrect location of co!ponents =isible di!ension error Weld defects occ#rrin' at the s#rface s#ch as blowholes, pipes, e,posed porosity, e,posed incl#sions, #nfilled crate, #n3f#sed welds etc 5istortion d#e to weldin' i e local shrin+a'e, ca!ber, blowin', twistin' 4 b#c+lin' etc d#e to ther!al stresses 8#rface crac+s in the weld !etal or parent !etal 5a!a'es to parent !etal s#ch as #nder c#t, b#rnin', o$erheatin' etc *rofile defects s#ch as e,cessi$e con$e,ity or conca$ity, o$erlap, #ne6#al le' len'ths, e,cessi$e reinforce!ent, inco!pletely filled 'roo$es, e,cessi$e penetration bead, root 'roo$es, shrin+a'e 'roo$es etc Incorrect finish li+e ripple crac+s, #ne$en welds, peelin' !ar+s and e,cessi$e 'rindin' etc DI&%N(IONAL &%A(UR%&%NT 0D&1

$.$.$

O#tside dia!eter !eas#re!ents are 'enerally e!ployed to deter!ine the swellin' Bb#l'in'C d#e to creep or o$er heatin' 5ia!eter !eas#re!ents are !ade #sin' di'ital $ernier calipers and bow 'a#'es The percenta'e of swellin' can be calc#lated for assessin' the acc#!#lated strains in the co!ponent 2ny $al#e !ore than &( swellin' is alar!in' sta'e and re6#ires detailed st#dy on the co!ponent $.$.3 T)IC,N%(( &%A(UR%&%NT 0T&1

Thic+ness !eas#re!ents at critical areas 'i$e a !eas#re of thic+ness loss o$er the years d#e to fl#e 'as erosion, stea! i!pin'e!ent and corrosion or any other reason The thic+ness !eas#re!ents are !ade #sin' #ltrasonic thic+ness 'a#'e More than 20( thinnin'
&

is 'enerally considered as alar!in' sta'e and necessary correcti$e action for replace!ent can be planned $.$.4 D*% -%N%TRANT IN(-%CTION 0D-I1

This techni6#e is adopted pri!arily for detection of crac+s or crac+ li+e discontin#ities that are open to the s#rface of a part, li+e s#rface porosity, pittin', pin holes and other weld defects The penetrant, which is either a fl#orescent li6#id or a colo#red dye, is spread o$er the s#rface of the co!ponent, fro! where it is drawn into s#rface3brea+in' discontin#ities by capillary action <,cess penetrant is then re!o$ed fro! the s#rface and a de$eloper in the for! of an absorbent white power is applied The penetrant is now drawn o#t of the discontin#ities into the de$eloper, a'ain by capillary action, and the res#lts are inspected either directly, in the case of colo#red dye penetrants, or #nder #ltra3$iolet li'ht, in the case of fl#orescent penetrants This si!ple description i!!ediately ill#strates both the !a"or ad$anta'e and the !a"or disad$anta'e of penetrant testin' The !ethod does not depend on the properties of the !aterial, as in the case of !a'netic testin'? it wor+s on !a'netic and non3!a'netic !aterials, on !etals and non3!etals Aowe$er, defects will only be detected if they co!!#nicate directly with the s#rface and are not bloc+ed with 'rease, o,ide, wear debris and so on There are si, !a"or sta'es in a penetrant inspection? 1 8#rface preparation 2 2pplication of the penetrant 3 0e!o$al of e,cess penetrant % 5e$elop!ent, to re$eal any indications & Inspection 6 :inal cleanin' (urface -re#aration56 *oor preparation is the !ost co!!on ca#se of test fail#re .onta!inants s#ch as o,ide scale, paint, oil, 'rease or wear debris can seal off s#rface openin's and pre$ent entry of the penetrant, or they can trap e,cess penetrant on the s#rface and 'i$e rise to false indications 8o!e conta!inants, partic#larly oil and 'rease, can de'rade or !as+ the fl#orescence or the colo#r of the penetrant Mechanical cleanin' !ay be necessary to re!o$e loose conta!ination b#t it !#st be #sed as sparin'ly as possible to a$oid closin' #p s#rface discontin#ities Dentle wire br#shin' is #s#ally the !ost that sho#ld be allowed Where$er possible, cleanin' sho#ld be done che!ically, #sin' paint stripper, if re6#ired, and a de'reasin' a'ent In critical applications, a !etall#r'ical etch !ay also be #sed It !#st be re!e!bered, howe$er, that for so!e !aterials and so!e applications there are restrictions on the #se of che!ical cleanin' a'ents The #se of an incorrect s#bstance co#ld res#lt in the stress corrosion of a#stenitic steels, for e,a!ple, and there are $ery strin'ent re6#ire!ents on the #se of the !aterials within the circ#its of n#clear reactors 8pecialist ad$ice !#st be so#'ht in any case of do#bt

-enetrant A##lication56 *enetrant can be applied by dippin', br#shin' or sprayin' :or inspections carried o#t on power station plant, sprayin' fro! an aerosol can is #sed al!ost e,cl#si$ely, with br#shin' bein' #sed in a few speciali-ed cases or where there are diffic#lties of access The penetrant !#st be allowed ti!e to seep into the s#rface discontin#ities This is #s#ally called the Edwell ti!eF and is deter!ined by e,peri!ent and past e,perience Ti!es of #p to 30 !in#tes are typical b#t dwell ti!es of #p to an ho#r or !ore !ay be needed for the detection of $ery find crac+in' on a#stenitic 'enerator end3rin's :or these lon'er dwell ti!es it is #s#ally necessary to re3wet the penetrant periodically Re"oval of e7cess #enetrant56 The ai! here is to re!o$e the e,cess penetrant fro! the s#rface witho#t re!o$in' it fro! the s#rface discontin#ities There are three !ain types of penetrant syste!, which are characteri-ed by their !ethod of re!o$al? +ater68as!able #enetrants ha$e an oily base b#t contain an e!#lsifier which allows the e,cess penetrant to be re!o$ed by a water spray This has the ad$anta'es of speed, si!plicity and cheapness and is widely #sed for testin' lar'e co!ponents d#rin' !an#fact#re It has the disad$anta'e of bein' the least sensiti$e syste! -ost6e"ulsifiable #enetrants are not the!sel$es water3washable b#t they can be !ade so by addin' an e!#lsifier as an e,tra step after penetration This blends with the e,cess penetrant on the s#rface and the !i,t#re is then re!o$ed with a water spray 8o lon' as the test is carried o#t correctly, the e!#lsifier penetrates the s#rface discontin#ities only to a $ery li!ited e,tent and there is !#ch less chance of penetrant bein' washed o#t of shallow defects This all the ad$anta'es of the water3washable syste! > apart fro! needin' an e,tra process step > and the additional ad$anta'es of bein' !ore controllable and !ore sensiti$e It is widely #sed for the critical testin' of lar'e n#!bers of co!ponents d#rin' !an#fact#re where a hi'h thro#'hp#t is re6#ired (olvent6re"ovable #enetrants, as their na!e s#''ests, are re!o$ed with a special sol$ent This is the !ost sensiti$e syste! b#t it is not s#itable for lar'e3scale applications It is, howe$er, $ery well s#ited for the relati$ely s!all scale, local inspections #s#ally re6#ired on power station plant The water3washable and post3e!#lsifiable syste!s will be !et only rarely in power station #se and are not disc#ssed any f#rther here 5etails can be fo#nd in te,tboo+s, standards and the !an#fact#rerFs literat#re The sol$ent re!o$able syste! is #sed e,tensi$ely, al!ost always in the for! of aerosol cans These will incl#de a Ere!o$erF or a Ere!o$er7cleanerF 2s !#ch of the e,cess penetrant as possible is first wiped off with a dry lint3free cloth and the s#rface is then cleaned #sin' a cloth !oistened with penetrant re!o$er The re!o$er !#st not be sprayed directly onto the s#rface and the a!o#nt of cleanin' sho#ld be +ept to a !ini!#! to a$oid drawin' penetrant o#t of s#rface discontin#ities If a fl#orescent syste! is bein' #sed, the s#rface can be e,a!ined #nder #ltra3$iolet li'ht to chec+ for co!plete re!o$al
)

Develo#"ent56 The absorbent de$eloper power can be applied in a n#!ber of ways, dependin' on the penetrant syste! bein' #sed I can be a dry power, or it can be held in s#spension or sol#tion in water or an or'anic sol$ent :or the sol$ent3re!o$able syste!, the de$eloper is #s#ally s#spended in a sol$ent and s#pplied in the for! of an aerosol can 2fter thoro#'h a'itation of the can, this sho#ld be applied to 'i$e a li'ht #nifor! coatin' The ti!e re6#ired for de$elop!ent is a'ain deter!ined by e,peri!ent and pre$io#s e,perience It !#st be lon' that they beco!e bl#rred as the penetrant spreads o#t thro#'h t he de$eloper Ti!es of 10 to 30 !in#tes are typical b#t lon'er ti!es !ay be re6#ired for $ery fine crac+s It is #s#ally helpf#l to inspect the co!ponent at inter$als d#rin' the de$elop!ent Ins#ection56 The s#ccess of the penetrant !ethod depends on two factors? B2C The enhanced contrast pro$ided by the fl#orescent or colo#red indication B/C The sideways spread of the penetrant which prod#ces as indication wider than the act#al defect When applied caref#lly #nder fa$o#rable conditions, penetrant testin' can re$eal $ery s!all indications > certainly of the order of 1 !! or e$en s!aller indications > certainly of the order of 1 !! or e$en s!aller > and care !#st be ta+en to ens#re that these are detected $is#ally :or colo#red penetrants, 'ood li'htin' is essential while, for fl#orescent penetrants, it is necessary to s#bd#e the a!bient li'htin' to increase the contrast of the fl#orescent indications :or critical wor+, the #se of a hand lens is reco!!ended 5efects s#ch as porosity, incl#sions or blow holes are re$ealed readily as fine dots and the si-e, shape and the e,tent to which the penetrant spreads can 'i$e an idea of the si-e and depth of the defect 8o!e $ery poro#s !aterials can EbleedF penetrant so prof#sely that there is a ris+ that s!all b#t potentially !ore da!a'in' defects, s#ch as fine crac+s, !ay be obsc#red It is so!eti!es possible to detect these by cleanin' the s#rfaces and re3applyin' de$eloper b#t, as a 'eneral r#le, the penetrant !ethod is not s#itable for the detection of $ery fine defects in poro#s !aterials 1inear defects s#ch as crac+s will #s#ally be re$ealed as contin#o#s linear indications, altho#'h they !ay appear inter!ittent if the defect is fine or sli'htly closed In 'eneral, fine crac+s prod#ce faint indications while lar'e crac+s prod#ce clear, rapidly spreadin' indications The characteri-ation of crac+ type and depth fro! the appearance of penetrant indications is not, howe$er, $ery reliable process :alse indications are co!!on and they al!ost always arise fro! inco!plete re!o$al of penetrant, especially where it is trapped in loose o,ide, +eyways, threads and so on These are fairly ob$io#s b#t the !ain ris+ is that they !ay !as+ real indications If they cannot be a$oided, f#rther infor!ation !ay be obtained by watchin' the indications caref#lly as they de$elop

Final Cleaning.6 It is 'ood practice to clean co!ponents after penetrant inspection and this is essential if the resid#es co#ld da!a'e the !aterial > by ca#sin' 'eneral corrosion or stress3corrosion, for e,a!ple In so!e cases the co!ponents !ay needs to be re3inspected > to !onitor a defect to chec+ for possible 'rowth, for e,a!ple > and here it is essential to re!o$e penetrant fro! the defect before it dries o#t .leanin' is done by si!ilar !ethods to those #sed for s#rface preparation, !a+in' #se of the re!o$er3cleaner in the sol$ent3re!o$able syste! T!e li"itation of t!is test "et!o is9 it can etect onl: i"#erfections t!at are o#en to surface. %7tre"e roug! or #orous surfaces are li;el: to #ro uce false in ications. 2pplication, penetrant testin' is #sed widely for the s#rface inspection of non3 !a'netic co!ponents in power station plant, al!ost always in the for! of the sol$ent3 re!o$able syste! altho#'h en'ineers sho#ld be aware of the e,istence of other syste!s Typical applications incl#de the testin' of a#stenitic welds on s#perheaters and reheaters, a#stenitic3end rin's on 'enerators, copper cond#ctor bars, al#!ini#! 'enerator wed'es, bra-ed3on erosion shields and hard faced co!ponents s#ch as discs and seats in $al$es )ealt! -recautions56 The che!icals #sed in penetrant syste!s are often both fla!!able and to,ic and can present a considerable safety ha-ard to operators In the lar'e scale fi,ed penetrant testin' installations #sed by !an#fact#rers, considerable care is ta+en to co$er tan+s and to pro$ide ade6#ate $entilation This is not #s#ally possible #nder site conditions and the operator !#st be aware of the dan'er and arran'e his wor+ accordin'ly This will in$ol$e, for e,a!ple, ta+in' fire preca#tions, pro$idin' $entilation in confined spaces and !ini!i-in' the #se of penetrant and the ti!e of any e,pos#re The lar'e3scale fi,ed penetrant testin' installations #sed by !an#fact#rers, considerable care is ta+en to co$er tan+s and to pro$ide ade6#ate $entilation This is not #s#ally possible #nder site conditions and the operator !#st be aware of the dan'er and arran'e his wor+ accordin'ly This will in$ol$e, for e,a!ple, ta+in' fire preca#tions, pro$idin' $entilation in confined spaces and !ini!i-in' the #se of penetrant and the ti!e of any e,pos#re A vantages5 6 =ersatility > it wor+s on any !aterial 8i!plicity and econo!y > little e6#ip!ent is needed 5irect indications Ai'h sensiti$ity B#nder fa$o#rable conditionsC The discontin#ities !#st be open to the s#rface and no bloc+ed or conta!inated *oro#s !aterials or ro#'h s#rfaces !ay be i!possible to test *enetrant !aterials can be har!f#l both to the operator and to the !aterial bein' tested 2n indi$id#al test is $ery slow co!pared to a !a'netic test

$.$.<. &A'N%TIC -ARTICL% IN(-%CTION 0&-I156 The techni6#e is adopted for locatin' s#rface and s#b3s#rface discontin#ities li+e sea!s, laps, 6#enchin' and 'rindin' crac+s and s#rface r#pt#re occ#rrin' on welds in ferro!a'netic !aterials This !ethod is also #sed for detectin' s#rface fati'#e crac+s de$eloped d#rin' ser$ice The principle is, when the part #nder test is !a'neti-ed, !a'netic discontin#ities that lie in a direction 'enerally trans$erse to the direction of the !a'netic field and will ca#se a lea+a'e field to be for!ed at and abo$e the s#rface of the part The presence of any discontin#ity is detected by the #se of finely di$ided ferro!a'netic particles applied o$er the s#rface This !a'netically held collection of particles for!s and o#tline of the discontin#ity and 'enerally indicates its location, si-e, shape and e,tent 2 practical test proced#re consists of the followin' !ain sta'es 8#rface preparation Ma'netisation 2pplication of the !a'netic particles Bthe !a'neti-ation is #s#ally !aintained d#rin' this sta'eC Inspection .leanin' and, if necessary, de3!a'netisation (urface -re#aration56 It will be seen that M*I is inherently capable of a $ery hi'h sensiti$ity of inspection That capability can only be reali-ed if it is !atched by a hi'h standard of s#rface preparation In partic#lar, s#rface irre'#larities s#ch as weld ripple or #nderc#t !#st be 'ro#nd to a s!ooth profile to a$oid the for!ation of non3rele$ant indications, which !i'ht !as+ real defects The layer of !a'netic iron o,ide, which for!s on boiler co!ponents s#ch as t#bes and headers operatin' at hi'h te!perat#res, also presents proble!s, since the thic+ness and relati$ely hi'h per!eability of the layer red#ce considerably the sensiti$ity of the test 8#ch co!ponents !#st be 'ro#nd to bri'ht !etal before inspection In 'eneral, 'rindin' is needed to prepare the s#rface of power station co!ponents for M*I, altho#'h wire br#shin' !ay be ade6#ate for s!ooth s#rfaces, which ha$e not seen operation at hi'h te!perat#res The !ore $iolent !ethods s#ch as shot blastin' !#st be a$oided beca#se of the ris+ of peenin' o$er s#rface brea+in' defects If a lower standard of test can be tolerated, then the s#rface preparation re6#ire!ent can be rela,ed 2n e,a!ple of this is the inspection of lar'e len'thsF of weld in str#ct#ral steelwor+, where the critical defect si-e is #s#ally lar'e and where the cost of s#rface 'rindin' wo#ld be prohibiti$e /#t this co#rse of action is rarely ad$isable on power station plant and !#st be #sed with e,tre!e ca#tion &agneti=ation56 The cr#cial factor which has to be considered here is the an'le between the discontin#ity and the !a'netic field 2 discontin#ity at ri'ht an'les to the applied field effecti$ely Ec#tsF the fl#, lines, forcin' the! to "#!p thro#'h the air to 'i$e the re6#ired lea+a'e fl#, The discontin#ity lyin' parallel to the field, howe$er, ca#ses al!ost no
10

dist#rbance to the fl#, lines and is #nli+ely to be detected In practice, linear discontin#ities lyin' #p to %0o, either side of the perpendic#lar direction can #s#ally be detected and "a''ed discontin#ities lyin' 'enerally !ore nearly parallel to the field !ay also be detected The ob"ecti$e, therefore, is to prod#ce in the co!ponent #nder test a !a'netic field of the correct stren'th, lyin' in the correct direction In so!e cases the orientation of e,pected defects is +nown and the !a'neti-ation techni6#e can be selected accordin'ly In 'eneral, howe$er, it will be necessary to carry o#t two tests, with the s#rface of the co!ponent !a'neti-ed in perpendic#lar directions There are three !ain ways of !a'neti-in' a co!ponent? 1 2n electric cond#ctor carryin' a hea$y c#rrent is arran'ed so as to prod#ce the re6#ired !a'netic field in the co!ponent > Eind#ced !a'neti-ationF 2 The !a'netic field is prod#ced by passin' the c#rrent thro#'h the co!ponent itself > Ec#rrent flowF 3 The co!ponent is !ade to co!plete a !a'netic circ#it > E!a'netic flowF I!portant Methods of !a'netisation are .irc#lar 4 1on'it#dinal Ma'netisation 5ifferent !a'netisin' c#rrents B*ower so#rceC li+e direct c#rrent B5.C, alternatin' c#rrent B2.C and half wa$e rectified direct c#rrent BAW5.C #sed for inspection The stren'th, direction and distrib#tion of !a'netic fields are 'reatly affected by the type of c#rrent 2. c#rrent best s#ited for detectin' s#rface discontin#ities li+e fati'#e crac+s in ser$ice 5. 4 AW5. are best s#ited for detection of s#bs#rface or deep3seated discontin#ities7 defects &agnetic #articles56 The !a'netic particles are #s#ally applied as a s#spension in a li6#id > often referred to as a E!a'netic in+F These !a'netic in+s can be water3based or +erosene based Water3 based in+s Bwhich also contain wettin' a'ents and corrosion inhibitorsC are cheap and safe b#t their #se !ay be prohibited? in the circ#its of 'as cooled n#clear reactors, for e,a!ple, or near electrical !achinery The +erosene3based in+s a$oid these proble!s and are 'enerally considered to be rather !ore sensiti$e b#t they present proble!s of fla!!ability, odo#r and possible da!a'e to the operatorFs s+in Ma'netic in+s are a$ailable in aerosol cans or they can be sprayed onto the s#rface with a press#re sprayer or flooded on fro! a plastic wash bottle In all cases, the container has to be +ept thoro#'hly a'itated to !aintain the !a'netic particles in s#spension The b#ild3#p of particles at a position of lea+a'e fl#, can be !ade $isible in two ways Most co!!only the particles ha$e a distincti$e colo#r > #s#ally blac+ > and here it is #s#al to apply a thin coat of 6#ic+ dryin' white contrast paint before the inspection 2lternati$ely, the particles !ay be !ade fl#orescent and the co!ponent e,a!ined #nder #ltra3$iolet li'ht, as described below This offers a $ery sensiti$e techni6#e 'i$in' hi'h contrast indications and it is widely #sed for critical applications or where contrast paint cannot be #sed The !edia of inspection either dry or wet !ethod dependin' on the s#rface conditions of the co!ponent Fla8 Inter#retation? 3 The s#rface defects appear sharp and distinct, where as s#bs#rface flaws appear ro#'h and f#--y Width of the s#bs#rface flaw indication $aries with depth .orrect interpretation de!ands the s+ill of the operator
11

Classification of fla8s? 3 aC 8#rface and s#bs#rface defects? 1 Inherent Binitial solidificationC *ipe, blow holes se're'ation, non3!etallic incl#sion, internal fiss#res and in'ot crac+s 2 *rocessin' 8ea!s, la!ination, coolin' crac+s, for'in' b#rsts, castin' 4 weldin' defect, !achinin' tears 4 'rindin' crac+s 3 8er$ice 8er$ice crac+s, fati'#e crac+s, corrosion and o$er stressin' Inter'ran#lar corrosion, stress corrosion 4 hydro'en e!brittle!ent crac+in' bC ;on > rele$ant indications occ#r d#e to fl#, lea+a'e and beca#se of chan'e in per!eability cC :alse indications are d#e to i!proper s#rface A vantages?3 1ocatin' s!all and shallow s#rface crac+s in ferro3!a'netic !aterials Ordinarily, no elaborate pre3cleanin' is necessary and crac+s filled with forei'n !aterial can be detected It is a rapid and si!ple test It prod#ces direct indications It wor+s e$en if the crac+s are pl#''ed with debris or o,ide It wor+s thro#'h a s#rface coatin' > altho#'h sensiti$ity !ay be considerably red#ced The e6#ip!ent is r#''ed and relati$ely si!ple Li"itations? 3 1 2 This test !ethod will wor+ only on ferro3!a'netic !aterials Thin coatin' of paint and other non > !a'netic co$erin's, s#ch as platin', 3 2d$ersely affect the sensiti$ity of the testin' % 5e!a'netisation followin' inspection is often necessary & *ost cleanin' to re!o$e re!nants of the !a'netic particles clin'in' to the 6 8#rface !ay so!eti!es to re6#ired after testin' and de!a'netisation ) <,ceedin'ly lar'e c#rrents so!eti!es are re6#ired for $ery lar'e parts 8 .are is necessary to a$oid local heatin' and b#rnin' of finished parts 9 <,perienced and s+illed personal is re6#ired for interpretation 10 It is #nreliable for s#b3s#rface defects 11 2 sa!ple !#st be !a'neti-ed in the correct direction7 12 Odd shapes !ay be diffic#lt to !a'neti-e correctly $.$.>. ULTRA(ONIC T%(TIN' 0UT156 9ltrasonic inspection is a nondestr#cti$e !ethod in which bea!s of hi'h fre6#ency so#nd wa$es are introd#ced into !aterials for the detection of s#rface and s#bs#rface flaws in
12

the !aterial The so#nd wa$es tra$el thro#'h the !aterial with so!e attendant loss of ener'y Batten#ationC and are reflected at interfaces The reflected bea! is displayed and then analy-ed to define the presence and location of flaws or discontin#ities The de'ree of reflection depends lar'ely on the physical state of the !aterials for!in' specific physical properties of the !aterial .rac+s, la!inations, shrin+a'e ca$ities, b#rsts, fla+es, pores, disbands, and other discontin#ities that prod#ce reflecti$e interfaces can be easily detected Incl#sions and other in ho!o'eneities can also be detected by ca#sin' partial reflection or scatterin' of the #ltrasonic wa$es or by prod#cin' so!e other detectable effect on the #ltrasonic wa$es Most #ltrasonic inspection is done at fre6#encies between 0 1 and 2& MA- well abo$e the ran'e of h#!an hearin', which is abo#t 20 A- to 20 +A- 9ltrasonic wa$es are !echanical $ibrationsG the a!plit#des to $ibrations in !etal parts bein' #ltrasonically inspected i!pose stresses well below the elastic li!it, th#s pre$entin' per!anent effects on the parts 9ltrasonic inspection is one of the !ost widely #sed !ethods of nondestr#cti$e inspection Its pri!ary application in the inspection of !etals is the detection and characteri-ation of internal flawsG it is also #sed to detect s#rface flaws, to define bond characteristics, to !eas#re the thic+ness and e,tent of corrosion, and B!#ch less fre6#entlyC to deter!ine physical properties, str#ct#re, 'rain si-e, and elastic constants Ins#ection &et!o 5 6 a1 Nor"al Inci ent -ulse 6 %c!o Ins#ection &et!o 5

The 9ltrasonic ener'y is co#pled to the co!ponent bein' inspected thro#'h a co#plant B#s#ally oil or 'rease C that trans!its the #ltraso#nd between the face of the transd#cer 4 the face of the co!ponent When #ltrasonic ener'y tra$els thro#'h a test sa!ple 4 stri+es a discontin#ity, part of the ener'y will be reflected bac+ 4 the re!ainin' part in the !aterial propa'ates in the forward direction 2lso a refracted bea! fro! the discontin#ity is a$ailable for interpretation 9ltrasonic ener'y that is reflected 4 ret#rned to the probe is the so#rce of the defect indication The so#nd ener'y that tra$eled co!pletely thro#'h the test piece will be reflected at the end, 'i$in' the lar'e bac+ echo indication Once e,cited in the !aterial, the p#lse will contin#e to reflect fro! the parallel s#rfaces, creatin' a !#ltiple echo display when the ti!e base is s#fficiently lar'e 2s there is contin#o#s atten#ation of the so#nd ener'y in the !aterial, the a!plit#de of the echoes decreases b1 Nor"al Inci ent T!roug! Trans"ission &et!o 5

Many a ti!es p#lse echo techni6#e !ay not pro$ide re6#ired test infor!ation This !ay occ#r when a flaw does not pro$ide a s#itable reflection s#rface or where the orientation or location of the flaw which is not fa$o#rable for detection #sin' sin'le probe 2lso, hi'hly atten#atin' !aterials are often tested with thro#'h3trans!ission !ethod In trans!ission !ethod two transd#cers one as a trans!itter and other as a recei$er, are placed on either side of the test speci!en The disad$anta'e of this !ethod is that two opposite side are to be accessible and parallel

13

=ario#s other !ethods are resonance, fre6#ency !od#lation and accostin' i!a'in' etc are also can be #sed dependin' #pon the re6#ire!ent c1 Angle -robe -ulse 6 %c!o Ins#ection &et!o 5

2n'le bea! transd#cers pro$ide access to areas that are inaccessible to nor!al bea! probes 2n'le bea! inspection is acco!plished with shear wa$e probes Ultrasonic Fla8 etection e?ui#"ent? In a flaw detector there are three essential wor+in' #nits in addition to a power s#pply #nit that pro$ides direct c#rrent at appropriate $olta'es to the three wor+in' #nits The three essential wor+in' #nits are ? *#lse trans!itter, recei$er a!plifier 4 cathode ray oscilloscope Ba cathode ray t#be pl#s a ti!e base 'eneratorC The f#nction of a ti!e base 'enerator, as in an ordinary oscilloscope, is to pro$ide s6#are wa$e si'nals for the cathode ray t#be, ens#rin' that the spot appears only d#rin' the sweep period, b#t not d#rin' the fly bac+ or waitin' ti!e H#st after the be'innin' of the saw tooth wa$e, the p#lse trans!itter is tri''ered 4 it deli$ers a fast risin', short, hi'h $olta'e spi+e to the probe 2n alternate syste! is so!eti!es fa$ored In this alternate syste!, the ti!e base is of a sin'le sweep type Bwhen tri''ered it co!pletes one cycle 4 then waits for ne,t tri''er si'nalC In that case sin'le additional #nit, a cloc+ p#lse 'enerator, is needed to do the tri''erin' 4 to set the repetition rate :ro! the trans!itter the electrical p#lse is fed thro#'h a cable to the probe, an e,ternal de$ice which is not part of the flaw detector itself It is possible to #se probes of different !a+es with a n#!ber of flaw detectors In the probe, the pie-o3electric transd#cer is shoc+3e,cited by the short, hi'h $olta'e p#lse 4 !ade to $ibrate as its own resonant fre6#ency for a few oscillations, th#s radiatin' an #ltrasonic p#lse into the test ob"ect It is hea$ily da!ped to +eep the #ltrasonic p#lse short, nor!ally "#st a few cycles The #ltrasonic echo p#lse is pic+ed #p by the sa!e probe, which recon$erts it into an electrical si'nal, b#t ha$in' a $olta'e !any orders of !a'nit#de s!aller than the trans!itted p#lse, so that it !#st be a!plified before it can ser$e any #sef#l p#rpose In the recei$er a!plifier, the echo si'nals are a!plified 4 filtered to so!e e,tent In !ost flaw detectors, there are two independent facilities to control the recei$er 'ain? one is calibrated in decibels 4 the other is #ncalibrated 2fter a!plification at the #ltrasonic carrier fre6#ency, the si'nals are rectified 4 f#rther a!plified before bein' fed to the deflection plates of cathode ray t#be 8o!e flaw detectors ha$e $ario#s ancillary circ#its, e ' ti!e $aryin' 'ain control to co!pensate for si'nal loss with distance in the !aterial, a b#ilt in !onitor for se!i a#to!atic defect indication Detection of Fla8s on t!e follo8ing? 3 :or'in's 3 In'ots, drop for'in's 4 !achined for'in's .astin' 3 8teel castin's, steel !o#lds 4 'rey cast iron ;on3ferro#s !aterials
1%

*orcelain 0aw !aterials, rods and a,les 8heets, *ipes, cylinders, Welded sea! testin' A vantages? 3 8#perior penetratin' power, which allows the detection of flaws deep in the part 9ltrasonic inspection is done ro#tinely to thic+ness of a few !eters on !any types of parts and to thic+nesses of abo#t 6 ! B20 ftC in the a,ial inspection of parts s#ch as lon' steel shafts or rotor for'in's Ai'h sensiti$ity, per!ittin' the detection of e,tre!ely s!all flaws Dreater acc#racy than other nondestr#cti$e !ethods in deter!inin' the position of internal flaws, esti!atin' their si-e, and characteri-in' their orientation, shape, and nat#re Only one s#rface needs to be accessible Operation is electronic, which pro$ides al!ost instantaneo#s indications of flaws This !a+es the !ethod s#itable for i!!ediate interpretation, a#to!ation, rapid scannin', in3line prod#ction !onitorin', and process control With !ost syste!s, a per!anent record of inspection res#lts can be !ade for f#t#re reference =ol#!etric scannin' ability, enablin' the inspection of a $ol#!e of !etal e,tendin' fro! front s#rface to bac+ s#rface of a part ;onha-ardo#s to operations or to nearby personnel and has no effect on e6#ip!ent and !aterials in the $icinity *ortability *ro$ides an o#tp#t that can be processed di'itally by a co!p#ter to characteri-e defects and to deter!ine !aterial properties Disa vantages? 3 $.$.> Man#al operation re6#ires caref#l attention by e,perienced technicians <,tensi$e technical +nowled'e is re6#ired for the de$elop!ent of inspection proced#res *arts that are ro#'h, irre'#lar in shape, $ery s!all or thin, or not ho!o'eneo#s are diffic#lt to inspect 5iscontin#ities that are present in a shallow layer i!!ediately beneath the s#rface !ay not be detectable .o#plants are needed to pro$ide effecti$e transfer of #ltrasonic wa$e ener'y between transd#cers and parts bein' inspected 0eference standards are needed, both for calibratin' the e6#ip!ent and for characteri-in' flaws

RADIO'RA-)IC %/A&INATION 0RT1

0adio'raphic test !ethod is #sed to detect the presence and nat#re of !acroscopic defects or discontin#ities in the interior of welds 0adio'raphic test !ethod !a+e #se of the ability of short wa$e len'th radiations s#ch as EIF rays or 'a!!a rays to penetrate ob"ects opa6#e to ordinary li'ht In 'eneral the shorter the wa$elen'th, the 'reater the penetratin' power

1&

0adio'raphs !a+in' #se of I > ray radiation are #s#ally called e,o'raphsG radio'raphs !ade #sin' a 'a!!a ray are called 'a!!a'raphs 2 s#ccessf#l radio'raph will be one in which has so faithf#lly recorded i!a'e that the presence or absence of a defect in a weld is established if present, its si-e, shape and location are clearly defined The so#rce of radiation !ay be one of the electrical apparat#s, which prod#ces I > rays, or artificially prod#ced isotopes s#ch as Iridi#! 192, cobalt 60, cesi#! 13) etc Iridi#! 192 Bcan be #sed for steel and si!ilar !etals for the thic+ness fro! 0 2&Jto 3 &JC .obalt 60 Bfor steel !a,i!#! penetratin' ability is ) &JC Thalli#! 1)0 BThin li'ht !etals and steels less than 172Jthic+C A vantages5 / Ra: Units 0adiation can be sh#t off *enetratin' power is ad"#stable *ro$ides radio'raphs with 'ood contrast 2nd sensiti$ity .an be #sed on all !aterials Disa vantages5 / Ra: Units Ai'h initial cost 1ess portable and access is li!ited 0e6#ires electric power for operation <lectrical ha-ard d#e to hi'h $olta'e Ra ioisoto#es <!its radiation contin#o#sly 0e6#ires proper shieldin' of the so#rce *enetratin' power cannot be ad"#sted 0adio'raphic contrast 'enerally less than I > ray It poses an en$iron!ent radiation ha-ard, beca#se radioacti$e isotopes cannot be t#rned off, and so#rces !#st be stored, loc+ed in shielded container when not in #se Ra ioisoto#es 8!all and portable ;o electric power is re6#ired and no coolin' syste! re6#ired Initial cost is less 2ccess into s!all areas, Ai'h penetration power

$.$.@

R%-LICATION 0R1 AIN6(ITU &%TALLO'RA-)*B

Microstr#ct#re chan'e or de'radation ta+es place in all steels d#e to hi'h te!perat#re and hi'h stresses e,perienced by it d#rin' operation On the basis of che!ical co!position and 'rade of steel, !a,i!#! te!perat#res and stresses are definite creep life is considered by desi'ner /#t in act#al practice we fo#nd pre!at#re fail#re d#e to shot ter! o$erheatin', lon' ter! o$er heatin', ther!al fati'#e, corrosion fati'#e, stress corrosion crac+in', hydro'en da!a'e, pittin', soot blower erosion, coal particle erosion, water and fire side corrosion actin' in tande!

16

Identification of real ca#se of fail#re or da!a'e !echanis! and to assess the condition of the co!ponent, in3sit# !etallo'raphy is carried o#t The process in$ol$es preli!inary preparation of the !etal s#rface #sin' polishin' e6#ip!ent When the spot is ens#red free fro! r#st and scale polishin' will be done #sin' abrasi$e paper of $aryin' 'rits fro! 120, 200, %00 and 600 in se6#ence 8#bse6#ently dia!ond paste lappin' is done followed by etchin' with 2( or &( nital to re$eal the str#ct#re for carbon 4 low ally steel =ilella and other etchants are #sed for hi'h alloy steels 2doptin' <lectro3polishin' can also do the s#rface preparation 2fter the preparation of the s#rface the !icrostr#ct#re of co!ponent is tr#ly transferred to a fil! Transparent fil! with 'reen reflectin' foil can be #sed which can be e,a!ined in laboratory with !a'nification #p to &00I to assess the !etall#r'ical da!a'es li+e creep ca$itation :or e,a!ination at hi'her !a'nification, the !icrostr#ct#re of the co!ponent can be transferred to cell#lose acetate replicatin' tape 2 cell#lose acetate fil! of 0 1 to 0 1&!! thic+ness and 20 I %0 !! si-e is c#t fro! roll or sheet 2 few drops of acetone will be applied on one s#rface for abo#t & seconds and this !a+es the acetate fil! soft on one side and retains hardness on the re$erse side The soft side is pressed #nifor!ly o$er the etched s#rface #sin' clean and plain r#bber and e,ertin' the force of the th#!b for abo#t 10 seconds It will be protected a'ainst d#st and left for so!e ti!e for dryin' The dried fil! will be lifted #p #sin' fine +nife and will be +ept between parallel 'lass slides This stored fil!s BreplicasC helps in !icrostr#ct#re e,a!ination #sin' li'ht optical !icroscope at hi'her !a'nifications in the laboratory A vantages of re#lication "et!o 5 *eriodic !onitorin' of sa!e spot can be !ade as per predeter!ined sched#le of operation ho#rs for caref#l obser$ation of se6#ence of de'radation 2ppro,i!ate life assess!ent can be !ade It is hi'hly cost effecti$e and reliable 0eplicas are per!anent records 5etails of !icrostr#ct#re at hi'her !a'nification #nder 8cannin' <lectronic Microscope can be possible Mini!#! area BspotC is re6#ired for 'rindin' and polishin', thic+ness red#ction of co!ponent is also !ini!#! )ARDN%(( &%A(UR%&%NT 0)A1

$.$.C

2 portable hardness tester is #sed for in3sit# hardness !eas#re!ent of $ario#s critical co!ponents li+e stea! dr#!, hi'h and low te!perat#re headers, pipelines etc Aardness !eas#re!ent aids in assess!ent of !etall#r'ical stat#s7 condition of the co!ponent

1)

One of the techni6#e for hardness test is based on dyna!ic !ethod predicated #pon the principle of ener'y !eas#re!ent 5#rin' hardness test, an i!pact body, e6#ipped with a spherically shaped t#n'sten carbide test tip, i!pacts #nder sprin' force a'ainst the test s#rface fro! which it rebo#nds I!pact and rebo#nd $elocities are !eas#red in a contactless !anner at the precise !o!ent, when the spherically test tip is located appro,i!ately 1!! fro! the test s#rface This is acco!plished by a per!anent !a'net b#ilt into the i!pact body which, d#rin' the test i!pact, passes thro#'h a coil 5#rin' the forward and rebo#nd !o$e!ent, electrical $olta'es are ind#ced which are proportional to the $elocities The !eas#re!ent $al#es deri$ed fro! the i!pact and rebo#nd $elocities are processed into the hardness n#!ber by the indicatin' de$ice Other alternati$e !ethods are also a$ailable based on #ltrasonic principle $.$.10 IN6(ITU &AT%RIAL 'RAD% ID%NTIFICATION 2 portable optical e!ission spectro!eter is #sed to chec+ the !aterial co!position and type of the !aterial 'rade The portable optical e!ission spectro!eter wor+s by !a+in' an electric arc contact with the sa!ple #nder test Aence, to !a+e the electrical contact possible the test s#rface !#st be free fro! any ins#lation !aterial li+e paint, dirt, etc 5. arc is #sed for analysis of #nprepared s#rface at site It consists of hand held probe with a contact optical syste! that !eas#res the li'ht e!itted fro! the electric arc which stri+es to the !etal s#rface The !eas#re!ent of the li'ht t#rned into electrical si'nals are con$erted into analytical res#lts in ter!s of appro,i!ate analysis and 'rade of the !aterials $.$.11 IN6(ITU O/ID% (CAL% &%A(UR%&%NT 2 portable #ltrasonic flaw detector with hi'h fre6#ency special probes wo#ld be #sed to !eas#re the o,ide scale thic+ness of the hi'h te!perat#re t#bes 0e!ainin' life wo#ld be calc#lated based on the ori'inal data li+e dia!eter, thic+ness, operatin' press#re 4 te!perat#res, r#nnin' ho#rs and act#al !eas#red thic+ness, dia!eter 4 o,ide scale thic+ness #sin' standard for!#lae $.$.1$ &%C)ANICAL T%(TIN' T#be sa!ples caref#lly selected after the $is#al inspection fro! all sections are s#b"ected to tensile testin' and flattenin' testin' as per standards The wor+in' press#re wo#ld be calc#lated #sin' the #lti!ate tensile stren'th as deter!ined in the tensile test and other para!eters as pro$ided in I/0 The flattenin' test res#lts wo#ld be #sed to assess the e!brittle!ent of any +ind has set in the co!ponent $.$.13 &%TALLO'RA-)* D O/ID% (CAL% T)IC,N%(( &%A(UR%&%NT. T#be sa!ples caref#lly selected after the $is#al inspection fro! s#per heaters7 re3 heaters are analysed in laboratory for !aterial de'radation, e,tent of o,ide scalin' and corrosion7erosion

18

In3sit# o,ide scale thic+ness !eas#re!ent can be done selected t#bes for assess!ent of thic+ness of o,ide scale 'rown and correlated to re!ainin' life esti!ation by stea! side o,ide scale thic+ness $.$.14 ACC%L%RAT%D CR%%- RU-TUR% T%(T. 8#per heater 4 reheater t#bes operatin' at hi'her te!perat#res B!ore than %&0 0.C are s#b"ected to a ti!e dependent pheno!enon +nown as creep The sa!ple t#bes re!o$ed fro! boiler will be s#b"ected to creep r#pt#re tests at accelerated te!perat#re and at ser$ice press#re The data obtained thro#'h s#ch accelerated stress r#pt#re tests are #sed for creep re!ainin' life esti!ation $.$.1< D%-O(IT ANAL*(I( 5eposit sa!ples caref#lly selected after the $is#al inspection fro! critical co!ponents li+e dr#! internal and e,ternal deposits on hi'h 4 low te!perat#re t#bes etc are analysed in laboratory for ele!ental analysis by con$entional che!ical !ethods7ato!ic absorption spectro!eter $.$.1E COLD D )OT +AL, (UR.%* OF (U--ORT( .old 4 hot wal+ down s#r$eys are re6#ired to done on the s#pports of the hi'h te!perat#re headers, dr#!, critical stea! pipin' etc to assess the present condition of proper loadin's on the s#pports 2ny de$iations fro! the desi'n $al#es !ay be ad"#sted d#rin' the o$erha#lin' period and can be !onitored d#rin' hot condition $.$.1> +%I')T LO(( CALCULATION <cono!iser t#bes will be tested for wei'ht loss calc#lation to assess the e,tent of !aterial loss d#e to erosion proble! in addition to the abo$e said tests, since the econo!i-er -one is !ore prone to the erosion 3.0 )%ALT) A((%((&%NT OF .ARIOU( CO&-ON%NT(

2ll the filed obser$ations recorded fro! $ario#s tests li+e $is#al e,a!ination, dye penetrant inspection, !a'netic particle inspection, #ltrasonic testin', di!ensional !eas#re!ent, in3sit# !etallo'raphy, in3sit# hardness !eas#re!ent, fibroscopic inspection will be #sed for the assess!ent of present le$el of de'radation of each co!ponent 2ll the recordable indications7obser$ations of $ario#s tests will also be considered in final reco!!endations for f#rther #sa'e of boiler

19

4.0

R%&AININ' LIF% CALCULATION The re!ainin' life assess!ent will be done based on $ario#s followin' !ethods?

4.1

&etallogra#!ic &et!o

8ince creep strain and str#ct#ral chan'es are pro'ressi$ely acc#!#lated in co!ponents operatin' at hi'h te!perat#re and press#re, atte!pts ha$e been !ade to de$elop non destr#cti$e !etallo'raphic techni6#es to 6#antify in3sit# !etallo'raphy or replication These !etallo'raphically distin'#ish para!eters are =oid or ca$ity for!ation 5efor!ation of the 'rain, principally in the direction of principle stress and .han'es in carbide dispersion and their nat#re, or si!ply chan'e in hardness O#t of these the techni6#e of correlatin' $oid for!ation with life fraction cons#!ed had fo#nd wider acceptance It has be'an to be #sed to pro$ide $ery broad esti!ate of re!ainin' life ;o do#bt, the effecti$eness of the predictions is s#b"ect to the selection of the worst affected area for !etallo'raphy Materials with hi'h creep d#ctility li+e the ferritic 1 .r K Mo or 2 L .r 1 Mo steels, where !ost of the creep strain is acco!!odated in the for! of trans'ran#lar slip !anifestin' itself !etallo'raphically in the for! of defor!ed Belon'atedC 'rains In s#ch cases ca$ities or $oids for! towards the close of creep life Materials with li!ited creep d#ctility, li+e the a#stenitic 8 8 or the welds and the A2M in the ferritic .r3Mo steels where $oids n#cleate early in creep life at 'rain bo#ndaries The re!ainin' life can be calc#lated fro! the followin' for!#la ? Tre! 1 N t 33333333333333333333333333 O 1 > B 1 > 2 Cn 7 31 P n > stress constant for creep 3 r7 s r > strain at r#pt#re s 3 secondary creep strain N r , tr t7tr > e,pended creep life fraction 2 > n#!ber fraction of ca$itated bo#ndaries

Where 2 N 1 > Q 1 > t7tr R 317 n

2s an alternate to the !eas#re!ent of 2, a !ethod of da!a'e classification has been proposed by ;e#ba#er and Wedel with e,pended life fraction The da!a'e classification is 'i$en below ?

20

(tructural Classification 9nda!a'ed 2 / . 5

&icrostructure Action nee e featur es :errite 4 pearlite ;one Isolated ca$ities ;one #ntil ne,t !a"or sched#led !aintenance o#ta'e Oriented ca$ities 0eplica test at specified inter$al preferably within 1 K to 3 years 1in+ed ca$ities 1i!ited ser$ice #ntil repair and B!icrocrac+sC better to inspect within 6 !onths Macrocrac+s I!!ediate repair

%7#en e life fraction 0 12 0 %6 0 &0 0 8% 1 00

Wedel and ;e#ba#er b#ilt the conser$ation into their reco!!endation and $iewed their techni6#e !ore as a !onitorin' techni6#e than as a life prediction Their proced#re, beca#se of its si!plicity has fo#nd world wide s#pport with power plant operators 4.$ Accelerate unia7ial cree# test "et!o

2 $ery co!!on way of esti!atin' the re!ainin' life #nder creep conditions the #se of 9nia,ial creep test on the ser$ice e,posed !aterial 2n approach co!!only e!ployed is to test a speci!en fro! the ser$ice3e,posed co!ponent to r#pt#re #nder accelerated conditions in the laboratory The iso3stress accelerated creep r#pt#re test !ay be cond#cted at the chosen hi'her te!perat#re for a d#ration of ho#rs as per pre3calc#lation and if the test passes this d#ration witho#t r#pt#re the e,tension of life for the boiler can be reco!!ended for calc#lated years B10 yearsC

21

4.3 O7i e scale t!ic;ness "et!o The !ini!#! re!ainin' life is calc#lated based on the o,ide scale !eas#red with the optical !icroscope and or other non3destr#cti$e !ethods by #sin' the followin' for!#lae or life fraction r#le? 1o' I N 0 00022 * > ) 2& I > 8cale thic+ness in !ils T > te!perat#re in 0 0 B0 : S %60 C where * N T B 20 S lo' t C

* > T B20 S lo' t C t 3 ti!e in ho#rs

:or a boiler t#be operatin' at a hi'h te!perat#re an esti!ate of stea! side o,ide scale thic+ness with 13M para!eter of t#be is first established The e6#i$alent te!perat#re of operation of t#be is th#s esti!ated fro! a practical data of o,ide layer thic+ness and the d#ration of ser$ice e,pos#re Tnowin' the $al#e of e6#i$alent te!perat#re and the applied stress, the t Bti!e to r#pt#reC is esti!ated based on the proposed relationship between 13M para!eter and the r#pt#re stress of that steel :ro! the +nowled'e of e,pended life, the re!ainin' life is th#s predicted Therefore, once 13M para!eter relationship for stea! side o,ide, scale 'rowth +inetics and r#pt#re stress for the partic#lar steel is established, the !ethod is !ost si!ple approach for re!nant life prediction 4.4 Assess"ent for tubes o#erating in t!e non6cree# regi"e Water wall t#bes are nor!ally carbon or low alloy steel with ser$ice te!perat#res #p to abo#t %&0o . and are therefore o#tside the re'i!e of creep defor!ation 2s a res#lt, they are desi'ned for infinite life ass#!in' no corrosion occ#rs 0e!ainin' life analysis is re6#ired when a wall thinnin' !echanis! s#ch as corrosion or erosion does occ#r, partic#larly for !aterial re!o$al rates in e,cess of abo#t %0 n!7hr B13 8 !ils7yrC Waterwall t#be re!ainin' life is based on a !ethod that li!its the de$eloped hoop stress to less than a critical $al#e which is related to the stren'th of the !aterial 2 for!#la for the re!ainin' life of these t#bes will be si!ilar to that de$eloped by the .<D/ W2 B 2 :. > * C > * B 5 > 2 W C 0 N 33333333333333333333333333333333333333 . B 2 :. > * C 5 > ori'inal o#tside dia!eter of the t#be, !! :. > !aterial fail#re criterion, ;7 !!2 :. N 172Tt B:#ts > :ps C :#ts > #lti!ate tensile stren'th of the !aterial, ;7 !!2 :ps > proof stress of the !aterial, ;7 !!2 Tt > a safety factor to acco!!odate scatter in tensile data W > ori'inal wall thic+ness, !! W2 > present wall thic+ness, !! . > corrosion rate, n!7hr * > internal press#re, ;7!!2 0 > re!ainin' life, hrs

22

Other !ethods are hardness based techni6#e, strain !eas#re!ent techni6#e, wall thinnin' techni6#e etc also a$ailable for calc#latin' the re!ainin' life Aowe$er, the opti!#! $al#e is to be ta+en for life assess!ent based on history and all other test !ethods <.0 CONCUL(ION

I!!ediately after co!pletion of st#dy at site, an interi! report indicatin' the findin's of $ario#s tests at site is s#b!itted This report shall also contain specific points7findin's, which needs an i!!ediate attention fro! the plant a#thorities The safe wor+in' press#re calc#lations also will be carried o#t on all the co!ponents of the boiler based on act#al !eas#re!ent of $ario#s para!eters, !echanical tests li+e flattenin' test, tensile test, !aterial properties etc 2ll the findin's indicatin' the stat#s of the co!ponents inspected are incl#ded in the final report The report contains the reco!!endations for the co!ponents, on one of the followin' decision na!ely3 0#n 0epair 0ef#rbish 0eplace7 Modification 0e3inspection 3 based on the thoro#'h analysis of history data, operational 4 !aintenance data, field in$esti'ation infor!ation re'ardin' health assess!ent of each co!ponent, laboratory e$al#ation, re!ainin' life calc#lations, wor+in' press#re calc#lations etc The concl#sions can be !ade for e,tension of life for another ten years of safe operation of boiler with s#''ested reco!!endations li+e re'#lar inspection of critical co!ponents d#rin' o$erha#ls, adherence to safe operational 4 !aintenance tactics, etc Aowe$er it is reco!!ended to carry o#t 012 st#dy after 10 years co!pletion of first 012 st#dy as per Indian /oiler re'#lations E.0 C-RI9 TRC %/-%RI%NC%5

.entral *ower 0esearch Instit#te, Ther!al 0esearch .entre has #nderta+en 0e!ainin' life assess!ent st#dies on $ario#s capacities, ran'in' fro! 3) T*A to &00 MW power plant 4 process stea! plant boilers

FFFFFFFF

23

CA(% (TUDI%( T!e follo8ing case stu ies 8oul li;e to be #resente uring t!e #resentation ti"e b: one of t!e aut!or (!ri. .en;ates8ara Rao. &.9 8!o 8as coor inate various RLA stu ies of boilers ranging fro" #rocess stea" to <00&+ ca#acit:5
Cree# failure of !ea ers9 #i#e D tubes. Catastro#!ic failure of !ea er ue to 8el failure. T!er"al fatigue crac;ing in Atte"#erator !ea er 8el Goints. )ig! Te"#erature O7i ation failures in (u#er !eater D Re6!eater tubes. &icro6crac;ing of issi"ilar "etal in <00 &+ boilers. %rosion failures in %cono"iser D 8ater 8all tubes. (!ort ter" over!eating failures of 2oiler tubes inclu ing bloc;age of tubes b: foreign #articles. ): rogen a"age failure in 8ater 8all tubes. (econ ar: failures of boiler tubes ue to stea" i"#inge"ent.

2%

2&

Anne7ure 1

Typical c!p" #!$% &!$ B!il"$ c!'p!("()


(l. No. 1. $. 3. 4. <. E. >. @. C. 10. 11. 1$. 13. 14. Na"e of t!e co"#onent 2oiler Dru" D Connecting tubes D Do8n co"ers (H) ra iant roof !ea er 0()6 11 To# +ater +all !ea er D Connecting tube Front9 L)( D R)( (C+ !ea ers D connecting tubes Front9 L)( D R)( -laten IHL )ea er D Connecting tubes D -i#es -laten OHL )ea ers D Connecting tubes D -i#es Div. (H) IHL !ea ers D Connecting #i#es D tubes Div. (H) OHL !ea ers D Connecting #i#es D tubes RH) IHL )ea er D connecting #i#es D tubes RH) OHL )ea ers D connecting #i#es D tubes De su#er !eater lin;s bet8een LT() D Div. An Div. D -laten LT() OHL )ea er D connecting #i#es D tubes LT() IHL )ea er D connecting #i#es D tubes %co. IHL )ea er D connecting #i#es D tubes .I / / / / / / / / / / / / / / DI& / / / / / / / / / / / / / / D/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / &-I / / / / / / / / / / / / / / UT / / / / / / / / / / / / / / R / 66 66 66 / / / / / / / / / 66 )T / / / / / / / / / / / / / 66 RT 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 FI 66 66 66 66 / / 66 / / / / 66 66 66 O(T 66 66 66 66 / / 66 66 66 / 66 66 66 66 ( 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 Ot!ers DA9 II9 (C 666 666 666 (C (C 666 666 (C (C 666 (C 666 666

26

(l. No. 1<. 1E. 1>. 1@. 1C. $0. $1. $$. $3. $4. $<. $E.

Na"e of t!e co"#onent %co. OHL )ea er D connecting #i#es D tubes )anger tube !ea ers 041 D connecting #i#es D tubes 2otto" +.+. inlet !ea er %co. Coils 2otto" D to# ban; LT() coils ban; tubes D ter"inal tubes Div. () coil tubes -laten () coil tubes R) coil tubes +all R) tubes +ater 8all tubes D (creen Tubes &ain (tea"9 )ot Re6!eat D Col Re6!eat lines Au7iliaries 0(to# .alves D (afet: .alves1

.I / / / / / / / / / / / /

DI& / / / / / / / / / / / /

D/ / / 66 66 / / / 66 / / /

&-I / / / 66 66 / / / 66 / / /

UT / / / 66 66 / / / 66 / / 66

R 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 / /

)T / / / 66 66 66 66 66 66 / / /

RT 66 66 66 66 66 / / / 66 66 66 66

FI / 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66

O(T 66 66 66 66 / / / / / 66 66 66

( 66 66 66 (61 (6$ (6$ (6$ (6$ (61 (61 66 66

Ot!ers 666 666 666 666 666 666 666 666 666 666 )C 66

.I 6 .isual Ins#ection DI& &-I 6 &agnetic -article Ins#ection UT )T 6 )ar ness Test RT O(T 6 O7i e (cale T!ic;. &easure"ent (61 DA 6 De#osit Anal:sis II )C 6 )anger C!ec;ing

6 Di"ension 0O.D. D T!ic;1 6 Ultrasonic Test 6 Ra iogra#!: Test 6 Tube (a"#le 0&ec!. D &et.1 6 Internal Ins#ection

DR FI (6$ (C

6 D:e -enetrant Test 6 Re#licaiton 0In6situ "etallogra#!:1 6 Fibrosco#ic Ins#ection 6 Tube (a"#le 0&ec!.9 &et. D (RT1 6 (u##ort C!ec;ing

2)

29