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(For Induction Level Training Course for Engineers)


RAMAKANT J. THORAT Junior Engr. (Gen) K-45 Batch

CO R!E "#RECTOR Mr. $.". "e%h&u'h (E.E.)

CO R!E CO-OR"#NATOR Mr. M.H. "e%h(an)e ("*. E.E.)


"C#$%&LE 'ME$T

I am very glad to express my deep sense of gratitude and whole hearted thanks to Mr( C( S&"M! (C('(M() and Mr( B(U( &"')M"*E (S(E() for giving me encouragement and necessary facilities for carrying out this seminar. I am also thankful to Mr( +( ( Mr. M()( ES)MU#) (E(E() Course Director & ES)+"$ E ( ,( E(E() Course Co-ordinator who has provided

me this opportunity to do the same. Last ut not the least! I would like to thank all the related people who helped me in the duration of my seminar.

RAMAKANT J. THORAT -r(Engr( ('en) #./0 Batc1


I$ E2

34 I$T*% UCTI%$ 24 B%ILE* EME*'E$CIES C%$T*%L +*%CE U*E 54 6"*I%US B%ILE* C%$T*%L S!STEMS /4C%MM%$ %+E*"TI%$"L +*%BLEMS %F B%ILE* 7 "U2ILI"*IES 04 I$TE*L%C# "$ S"FET! *E8UI*EME$TS

94 C%$T*%L L%%+S :4 84 ;4 C%$CLUSI%$

#NTRO" CT#ON To-days steam generators are larger in size and sophisticated in nature .Failure of any equipment calls for expensive replacement and results in costlier downtime. This emphasizes careful planning on the correct procedure for :-

1. Safe sequence of start-up of equipment s in the power plant. !. "ontinuous trou#le free and efficient operation. $. Safe sequence of shut down of the equipment when needed. This also leads to the provision of adequate and relia#le protection to safeguard the various plant equipments under a#normal and dangerous conditions. The operation of the protections shall #e accompanied #y visual and audi#le annunciation% which provide definite indication of the primary cause or causes of operation of the protection. &estarting of the equipment% which has ones #een tripped #y protection either #y remote% automatic or manual control shall #e possi#le only after the elimination of the cause of tripping. "'(SS)F)"(T)*+ *F ,&*T-"T)*+ ,rotection are classified under three groups namely i. ,rotection causing complete shut down of the unit. ii. ,rotection causing load reduction of the unit. iii. ,rotection causing annunciation only. $rotection cau%ing co&(+ete %hut )o,n o- the unit. i. Failure of feed pumps i.e.% reserve feed pumps if any fails to start on tripping of running pumps even after a preset time delay. ii. .oiler shut down due to failure of #oth F/ Fans% all )d Fans and other conditions. iii. &eheater protection which )s to ensure continuous steam flow through &eheater tu#es at specified conditions. $rotection cau%ing +oa) re)uctioin. i. #" .an% +ormally two )/ Fans are sufficient for .oiler 0"&. )f any one of the two running )/ Fans trips the #oiler the #oiler load shall #e run down to 123 0"&. ii. ." .an% (ny one of the two running F/ Fans trips% the #oiler load shall #e run down to 123 0"&. iii. Mi++%/ $A .an% an) coa+ -ee)er% This reduces the #oiler load correspondingly due to limitation in fuel firing capa#ilities.

$rotection% cau%ing annunciation The cause that lead to visual4audi#le are covered under various su# systems li5e FSSS% S(/"% S. control system% F6-' oil system% (ir and flue gas system% Steam (nd 7ater system% etc. these interloc5s and protection systems are divided into two portions #ased on the area they cover as #riefly descri#ed #elow. #. Boi+er au0i+iarie% inter+oc' an) $rotection. This system ta5es care of sequence of starting protection and interloc5 of #oiler auxiliaries F/ Fans% )/ Fans% (hs% /ampers% 8alves etc. covered in this write up. ##. .urnace %a-eguar) %u(er1i%or* %*%te& (.!!!). This system ta5es care of interloc5s required for starting% supervising the operating and safe shut down of the equipment s connected with fuel firing system.

(#ove ta#le shows the .oiler tripping initiated through FSSS.

BO#2ER EMERGENC3 CONTRO2 $ROCE" RE *#9ective of the emergency control i: 0aintain equipment in maximum state of relia#ility. ii: 0inimize personnel casualties and secondary damage to vital machinery. Three steps in emergency operations i: 0inimization of equipment damage. ii: &estoring #ac5 the equipment in service. iii: "arrying out the necessary repairs. BO#2ER EMERGENC#E! i: .oiler trip out ;0FT:. ii: /istur#ance in #oiler drum water level. iii: 7ater pumps failure. iv: <igh water level v: "arry over. vi: &eheater protection upon loss of load vii: 0inor tu#e lea5age. viii: 0a9or tu#e #urst. ix: F./. fan failures. x: )./. fan trou#les. xi: Furnace explosion. xii: <igh furnace pressure. #M$ORTANT BO#2ER !A.ET#E! ): 0aster Fuel trip ;0FT:. ii: ,artial fuel trip. iii: ,urge.

BO#2ER TR#$ ( #oiler trip command ;0FT: stops all fuel inputs #y tripping (ll of the pulverizer (ll feeders (ll oil guns (ll ignitor "loses the ignitor% light oil and heavy trip valves ( #oiler trip command ;0FT: is initiated #y any of the following conditions #eing present. 'oss of unit /.". power ;for more than ! sec: 'oss of (.". power at any elevation ;for more than ! sec: in service = no feeder esta#lished. 'ow drum water level. <igh drum water level .oth F./. fans are off .oth )./. fans are off 6nit air flow is less than $2 3 of full load air flow #efore #oiler loading has #een a#ove $2 3 'ow furnace pressure. <igh furnace pressure Tur#ine trip 'oss of all fuel 6nit flame failure ;trip: 0anual trip .oth the trip push #uttons on the control console depressed. 2o%% o- -ue+ Trip circuit #ecomes on once a minimum of three of the four igniters at any elevation are proved on. *nce the trip circuit is on% loss of fuel trip will occur if > (ll feeders are off (nd

-ither the igniter trip valve is not open or more than one of the four igniter valves are not open at any elevations (nd -ither the heavy oil trip valve is not open or more than one of the four heavy oil nozzle valves are not open at all elevations (.% "/ and -F (nd -ither the light oil trip valve is not open or more than one of the four heavy oil nozzle valves are not open at all elevations (.% (nd 6nit (" power is not availa#le nit -+a&e -ai+ure /uring light up and until any main fuel either coal or heavy oil is in service at a fire #all condition% the optical flame scanner do not ta5e part in overall flame failure protection system unit flame failure signal is initiated when there is no fire#all conditions at all elevations and either any feeder is on or any heavy oil nozzle valve is not closed at any elevation ; (. or -F : where less than three of the four associated igniters are proven *+ -levation no fire#all condition 'oss of (" power failure for more than ! sec +earest oil elevation less than$ no nozzle valves% oil guns and igniter are proven -levation s #oth coal feeders are off Trip valve operation Trip valve is to cut off oil supply to furnace in 0FT condition ,ermissive to open trip valves (ll the igniter valves are proven closed )gniter oil supply pressure is adequate .oiler trip circuit is reset The trip valve closed automatically *n #oiler trip ;0FT: conditions

)gniter oil pressure going low when any of the )gniter valve is open for more than two seconds light oil trip valve permissive for opening .oiler trip circuit is reset (ll warm-up oil nozzle valves are closed 7arm up fuel supply pressure is adequate light oil trip valve Tripping conditions .oiler trip out conditions 7arm up fuel pressure is low for more than ! sec% any warm up oil nozzle valve is not closed 7arm up air to oil differential pressure is low for more than ! sec <eavy oil trip valve permissive for opening .oiler trip circuit is reset (ll <eavy oil nozzle valves are closed <eavy fuel supply pressure is adequate light oil trip valve Tripping conditions .oiler trip out conditions <eavy fuel pressure is low for more than ! sec when either recirculation valve is closed or any <eavy oil nozzle valve is not closed Steam to <eavy oil differential pressure is low for more than ! sec

4ariou% 5oi+er contro+ %*%te&% 'ight oil pressure control <eavy oil pressure control <eavy oil temperature control ,ulveriser temperature control ,ulveriser air flow control "om#ustion control ,rimary air pressure control Total air flow control (uxiliary air damper control Fuel air damper control <eavy oil > 7arm up oil damper control Furnace draft control. superheater steam temperature control &eheater steam temperature control (uxiliary ,&/S pressure control (uxiliary ,&/S temperature control /rum level control "./ expander level control

BO#2ER #NTER2OCK !3!TEM Contro+ 6 #nter+oc' -or Air Heater +o interloc5 provided can #e started from local40""4remote independently Tri((ing inter+oc' *n motor protections .earing temperature ? @2 " Contro+ 6 #nter+oc' -or #.". -an *ne of the air heater is running

+o #earing temp high indication should persist +o lu# oil pressure low indication should persist /ischarge damper should #e closed 8ane position should #e minimum Tri((ing inter+oc' )./. fan ( = . should trip on .earing temperature high occur

Co&&on O(erationa+ $ro5+e&% o- Boi+er 6 Au0i+iarie%: .re7uent tri(% on -+a&e -ai+ure 1. !. $. A. B. 1. @. "hec5 for proper com#ustion "hec5 for correct total air flow "hec5 for correct coal air ratio "hec5 for correct wind #ox to furnace /, "hec5 for proper functioning of S(/" "hec5 for healthiness of flame scanners "hec5 for flame failure circuit in FSSS

Main !tea&8HRH %tea& te&(erature +o,8high9 1. !. $. A. B. 1. @. C. "hec5 for correct total air flow "hec5 for correct #urner tilt position "hec5 for correct feed water temperature at -conomiser inlet "hec5 for slagging4scaling ;external: on water wall% S< = &< tu#es *perate wall #lowers4'&S. at regular interval as per requirement "hec5 for inside scaling in water walls = S<4&< tu#es "hec5 for cho5ing of S<4&< attemperator nozzles4passing of S<4&< spray control valves "hec5 for any undesired steam outlet due to passing of safety valves% drain valves% vent valves Tri((ing o- 5oi+er on RH (rotection% )ue to c+o%ure o- H$82$ B*(a%% )uring %tart u(%9 1. !. 0aintain sta#le com#ustion Study &< protection logic

$. A. B. 1.

)nitially 5eep <,4', .ypass valves on manual mode. (fter sta#le com#ustion and sufficient flow only they should #e put on (uto "hec5 for proper functioning of these valves on 0anual and (uto "hec5 protection closing circuit for any malfunctioning 0aintain correct <, .ypass downstream temperature

Tri((ing o- nit on high8+o, )ru& +e1e+ 9 1. !. $. A. B. 1. @. C. D. "hec5 for sudden opening4lea5age of waterwall4economizer tu#e "hec5 for tripping of any one of running .F,s "hec5 for malfunctioning of drum level auto control "hec5 for closure of any valve in feed water circuit "hec5 for opening of <, .ypass valve on fast opening mode. "hec5 for sudden throw off4raising of load "hec5 for tripping of two4three coal elevations simultaneously "hec5 for distur#ance in com#ustion "hec5 for malfunctioning of drum level transmitters

Boi+er )ru& (re%%ure )ro((ing %u))en+* 9 1. !. $. A. B. 1. @. "hec5 for interruption of coal to the furnace due to cho5ing in the #urner "hec5 for tripping of feeder4mill "hec5 for distur#ed com#ustion inside furnace "hec5 for any #oiler tu#e lea5age "hec5 for opening of #oiler drains% vent% safety valves "hec5 for cho5ing in mills4drop in air flow through mill "hec5 for malfunctioning of auto control of "0"4Fuel master control

.re7uent tu5e -ai+ure% 9 1. (void sudden stress to #oiler tu#es

!. $. A. B. 1. @. C. D. 12.

0aintain rate of pressurization4de-pressurization as recommended during hydraulic test of #oiler 0aintain rate of rise4drop of temperature as recommended during startup4shut down ;follow start up curve: 0onitor drum4S<4&< metal temperatures during start up4shut down /*+ T T(E0)''S )+T* S-&8)"6+'-SS F'*7 )S -ST(.')S<-/ T<&*6F< &-<-(T-& 0aintain proper water chemistry regime as per recommendations. "hec5 for tu#e thic5ness for any erosion. )n case of erosion% tu#es must #e replaced "hec5 for deposits4scales inside the tu#es. )f found% contact .<-' for further analysis and chemical cleaning. "hec5 for possi#ility of cho5ing "hec5 for foreign materials4o#structions in the connected headers

!u))en re)uction o- +oa) 9 1. !. "hec5 whether it is momentary due to grid distur#ance or due to malfunctioning of tur#ine governing system "hec5 for drum pressure. )f the trend is increasing% ta5e appropriate measures to sta#ilize drum pressure #y reducing4cutting off fuel input to furnace. )f necessary% cut off mills% one #y one. $. A. B. "hec5 for drum level. See whether auto control is a#le to maintain drum level. *therwise ta5e it on manual control. "hec5 for furnace draft "hec5 for secondary air flow% oxygen in flue gas.

High .+ue Ga% te&(erature at A$H out+et 9 1. !. "hec5 for excess (ir and total (ir flow "hec5 for fineness of coal

$. A. B. 1. @. C. D. 12.

"hec5 for fouling of water walls% superheaters% reheaters etc. "hec5 for proper heat transfer in (ir preheaters "hec5 for dampers position of (ir preheaters "hec5 for .urner tilting system and #ring it downwards. Switch over to lower elevation mills. "hec5 for proper (ir distri#ution and functioning S(/" "hec5 for lea5ages through peep holes% manholes% seal water trough etc. "hec5 for tu#e failures.

High e0ce%% Air -+o, 9 1. !. $. A. B. 1. @. "hec5 the (ir flow distri#ution and functioning of S(/" "hec5 the com#ustion "hec5 the fouling of superheater% reheater and <TS< surfaces "hec5 for air ingress through peep holes% manholes% seal trough etc. "hec5 the relia#ility of air flow and *! measurements "hec5 the fineness of coal and functioning of mills. Set for proper air flow and *! in (utomatic com#ustion control.

Mechanica+ !*%te& : $re%%ure $art% : :ater :a++ tu5e -ai+ure 9 1. !. $. A. B. "hec5 for deposits inside the tu#e. (nalyse the deposits. "hec5 for indications for overheating of the failed tu#e and the near#y tu#es. "hec5 the tu#e thic5ness of the failed tu#e and also near#y tu#es. "hec5 the healthiness of near#y wall #lowers for steam passing "hec5 for possi#ility of cho5ing4loss of adequate flow through the tu#e

1. @. C. D.

)n case of scales4chemicals deposits4&ust contact .<-' for further analysis and chemical cleaning "hec5 for foreign materials4o#structions in water wall ring headers "hec5 for possi#ility of failure of weld 9oint "hec5 the orifices of the tu#es in the ring header in case of controlled circulation #oilers.

!u(erheater8Reheater8Econo&i%er8Tu5e -ai+ure9 1. !. $. A. B. 1. @. C. D. 12. "hec5 for indications for overheating of the failed tu#es and the near#y tu#es "hec5 for failure of weld 9oint "hec5 the tu#e thic5ness of the failed tu#e and the near#y tu#es "hec5 the healthiness of near#y long retracta#le soot #lower for steam passing "hec5 for possi#ility of cho5ing4loss of adequate flow through the tu#es "hec5 for foreign materials4o#structions in the connected headers "hec5 the tu#e material for usage of proper grade material )n case of scales4chemicals deposits4rust contact .<-' for further analysis and remedial measures "hec5 the spacing and alignment of coils around the failed tu#e "hec5 the availa#ility4healthiness of tu#e shields4cassette #affles

#nter+oc' an) !a-et* Re7uire&ent%.

Safety controls are needed to protect again%t 5oi+er e0(+o%ion% an) i&(+o%ion%. )nterloc5 and other safety requirements for #oilers are given in the following (merican Society of 0echanical -ngineers ;(S0-: and +ational Fire ,rotection (ssociation ;+F,(: standards. 7here local or state code requirements differ from the (S0- and +F,( codes% the more stringent code requirements must prevail. G (S0- "S/-1 Controls and Safety Devices for Automatically Fired Boilers G +F,(-CB21 Standard for Single Burner Boiler Operation G +F,(-CB2! Standard for the Prevention of Furnace Explosions/ mplosions in !ultiple Burner Boilers G +F,(-CB2$ Standard for Pulveri"ed Fuel Systems !a-et* #nter+oc'%. Safety interloc5s are required #ut not limited to those listed #elow. (dditional safety interloc5s may #e required to fulfill applica#le state and local codes for the #oiler fuel type used. G ,repurge )nterloc5 > ,revents fuel from #eing admitted to a furnace until the furnace has #een thoroughly air-purged to remove residual com#usti#les. G <igh Steam ,ressure )nterloc5 > Fuel is shutoff upon a#normally high #oiler steam pressure. G 'ow (irflow )nterloc5 > Fuel is shutoff upon loss of airflow from the com#ustion air fan or #lower% the induced draft fan or the forced draft fan. G 'ow Fuel Supply )nterloc5HFuel is shut off upon loss of fuel supply

pressure. The loss of fuel supply pressure would result in unsta#le flame conditions. G 'oss of Flame )nterloc5 > (ll fuel is shut off upon loss of flame in the furnace or to an individual #urner in the furnace. G Fan )nterloc5 > Stop forced draft upon loss of induced draft fan. G 'ow 7ater )nterloc5 > Shut off fuel on low water level in #oiler drum. G <igh "om#usti#les )nterloc5 ;optional: > Shut off fuel on highly com#usti#le content in the flue gases. G ,ost ,urge )nterloc5 > "ontinues fan operations to remove residual com#usti#les from the furnace prior to shutting down the fans. "e)icate) !a-et* !*%te&. The safety shutdown system must #e dedicated and independent of the one used for #oiler control. For example% if ,'" controllers are utilized% the design must contain a ,'" for safety shutdown that is separate and independent of the one used for #oiler control. !(ecia+ Con%i)eration%. Special attention should #e maintained throughout the #oiler design to prevent the following safety hazards. G -quipment must #e designed to protect against electrical shoc5 from exposure to control power. G .oiler control must assure a sufficient quantity and duration of pre-purge airflow through the #oiler prior to ignition to prevent #oiler explosions. G .oiler control must assure a sufficient quantity and duration of post-purge airflow through the #oiler during shutdown to prevent #oiler explosions. G .oiler control must assure a sufficient quantity of com#ustion air and prevent excessive fuel during #oiler operation to prevent #oiler explosions. G .oiler control must limit the num#er of retries when igniting the #oiler pilot. The industry standard is to allow three attempts at achieving pilot ignition prior to necessitating a #oiler purge cycle.

BO#2ER CONTRO2 $ANE2 A2ARM! AN" !H T"O:N!. The alarms and shutdowns in Ta#le 1 -! represents the minimum recommended requirements for a #oiler plant. These were selected #ased primarily on #oiler operation safety concerns. ,rovide a separate window in an annunciator system for each dedicated alarm. ,rovide a dedicated common trou#le alarm window to which the non-dedicated alarms are wired. )nclude a first-out listing to show which device connected to the common trou#le alarm tripped first. ,rovide instrumentation to show which device shut the equipment down first during a system shutdown. (n alarm or shutdown is not applica#le if the equipment that it services is not included in the plant. For example% if the #oiler is gas fired only% a low fuel oil pressure alarm is not required.

CONTRO2 2OO$!9 GENERA2. ,rovide controls in accordance with applica#le codes. CONTRO2 2OO$ T3$E!. ( single control loop includes a controlled varia#le sensor% controlled varia#le transmitter% controller% automatic-manual control station% and final control element. "ontrol loops used for #oilers may #e of the pressure% temperature% liquid level type% or flow type. $re%%ure. ,ressure control loops may #e used for the control of #oiler pressure or fuel oil pressure. For the control of #oiler pressure% the final control element regulates fuel flow to the #oiler in response to #oiler drum steam pressure. For the control of fuel oil pressure% the final control element is usually a pressure reducing control valve that regulates in response to downstream pressure. Te&(erature. Temperature control loops may #e used for the control of steam temperature from #oilers or fuel oil temperature from fuel oil heaters. 2e1e+. 'iquid level control loops may #e used for the control of #oiler drum water level. .+o,. Flow control loops may #e used for the control of fuel flow into the #oiler #urners% #urner draft airflow% feed water into a #oiler% or steam flow out of a #oiler. A#R TO . E2-RAT#O. Furnish controls to automatically provide the proper fuel to air ratio over the entire #oiler operating range from maximum turndown to 0aximum "ontinuous &ating ;0"&:. ,rovide cross-limited ;lead-lag: controls #etween air and fuel to increase airflow #efore increasing fuel flow and to decrease fuel flow #efore decreasing airflow. "onsider full metering controls% which measure directly #oth airflow and fuel flow% for all #oilers with capacities greater than B.!C giga9oule4h ;B%222%222 .tu4h:. "onsider an oxygen analyzer% for trim only% for all #oilers with capacities greater than

!B.$! giga9oule4h ;!A%222%222 .tu4h:. "onsider "* trim for all #oilers with capacities greater than B!.@B giga9oule4h ;B2%222%222 .tu4h:% especially coal fired #oilers. -valuate the energy savings of these measures and provide all those that are life cycle cost effective per -xecutive *rder 1$1!$. ( typical cross-limited ;lead-lag: #oiler control system with oxygen trim for a single fuel is used. A+ar&%. Furnish alarms to announce the approach of unsafe conditions. ,rovide shutdowns to shut the equipment down under unsafe conditions. BO#2ER "R M 2E4E2. ,rovide controls to always maintain the #oiler drum level within the #oiler manufacturerIs specifications under all operating conditions. Three types of control systems used in #oiler plants are single element% two element and three element. Three E+e&ent Contro+. ( three element control system utilizes a level transmitter% the amount of steam flow from the #oiler and the amount of water into the #oiler to maintain control of the #oiler drum water level. +ote that although not shown% the steam flow from the #oiler is usually compensated for pressure and temperature. ( three element control system corrects the pro#lems associated with a two element control system and provides the #est method of compensating for varia#le loads. BO#2ER "R M 2E4E2 MEA! REMENT AN" CONTRO2 ,roper operation of /rum 'evel 0easurement and "ontrol circuit is very crucial for uninterrupted operation of .oiler. ,rinciple of measurement and three-element control of .oiler /rum 'evel is explained in this write up. 'iquid level measurement can #e carried out #y measuring the head exerted #y liquid column. Three E+e&ent "ru& 2e1e+ Contro+ 9


)n this control% Feed Flow transmitter measures feed flow and its output is connected to the computing relay to which is connected steam flow signal. /ifference #etween steam flow and feed flow is then fed to drum 'evel control% to which drum level signal is also connected. Since actual measurement of feed flow is carried out% this control circuit gives very sta#le and high quality performance. /rum level control circuits used in ,ower ,lants now a days control the feed flow #y varying the Feed ,ump scoop instead of Feed "ontrol valve on loads a#ove $23 #N"#4#" A2 #TEM RE; #REMENT! Contro++er%. .oilers use three types of controllers. These are digital ;e.g. microprocessor or computer #ased:% analog% and pneumatic. 6se the following guidelines in selecting the type of controller to #e used: G 6se the type of controller that is the most economical and relia#le.

G For plants with many control loops use digital type of controllers. G For the expansion of existing controls within a plant use the existing technology. This may #e either digital% analog electronic% or pneumatic controllers. G 6se pneumatic controllers in hazardous areas. G (void use of pneumatic controllers in the control room. G 7hen using digital control avoid depending on a single or a few control devices for the entire plant without having a #ac5up. ( redundant controller might not #e required if only a single controller controls one loop. <owever% if a single controller controls a large num#er of loops then provide redundancy so that if the controller fails another controller will automatically ta5e over. $roce%% Contro++er%. ,rocess controllers use one or several of the following control modes: G *n-off G ,roportional G )ntegral ;also called reset: G /erivative ;also called rate: 0ost digital controllers have all of the a#ove control modes included. They are also usually provided with anti-reset windup. (nalog and p neumatic controllers often do not include all three control modes or anti-reset windup. Contro+ Mo)e%. )n general% use the following control modes for the indicated control loop. G Flow -- 6se proportional plus integral. G 'evel -- 6se proportional plus integral. G ,ressure and Temperature -- 6se proportional plus integral. 6se proportional plus integral plus rate when the application requires a quic5 response time

.ai+ure Re%(on%e. ,rovide the following minimum actions on controller failure. G The controller should switch to manual operation% hold its last output signal% and send out an alarm showing controller failure if a #ac5up controller is not provided. G The control should automatically switch over to the #ac5up controller and send out an alarm showing controller failure if a #ac5up controller is provided. $rogra&&a5+e 2ogic Contro++er%. ,rogramma#le logic controllers ;,'"s: are usually programmed in the electrical ladder diagram format. *ther formats are also used. 7hen specifying ,'"s include the following features. G ,rovide a controller that can #e programmed in the electrical ladder diagram format when many logic steps are involved. G )nclude provisions so that the controller can #e programmed and the program read without distur#ing its operation. RECOMMEN"E" BO#2ER #N!TR MENTAT#ON BO#2ER CONTRO2 $ANE2 #N"#CATOR!/ RECOR"ER! AN" TOTA2#<ER!. The instrumentation in Ta#le 1-1 represents the minimum recommended requirements for a #oiler plant. This instrumentation selection is #ased primarily on #oiler operation safety concerns. &efer to +F,( CB2!% Standard for the Prevention of Furnace Explosions/ mplosions in !ultiple Burner Boilers for further instrumentation concerns for #oiler plants in the 1$.1C giga9oule4h ;1!%B22%222 .tu4h: or a#ove range and (S0- "S/-1% Controls and Safety Devices for Automatically Fired Boilers for #oiler plants #elow 1$.1C giga9oule4h ;1!%B22%222 .tu4h:. The indicators and recorders can #e either dedicated or shared devices. Totalizers must #e dedicated devices. Shared device selection may #e either #y means of push#uttons% a selector switch% or #y entering commands on a 5ey#oard. ,rovide the following in the display of

information associated with a shared device. G +ame of process varia#le G )nstrument num#er G 6nits G ,rocess varia#le value Store the process data in a storage device such as a computer dis5 or tape if a dedicated recorder or totalizer is not provided. 'a#el the computer dis5 or tape as to process varia#le% instrument num#er% date% time% and units. The time la#el must include hours% minutes% and seconds. Store the data so that it can #e retrieved selectively. )n selective retrieval as a minimum include the name of process varia#le% instrument num#er% date and desired time interval. )nclude maximum and minimum points and alarms with the data to #e recorded. ,rovide a dedicated printer or printer4plotter on which the recorded and totalized data can #e presented on paper on demand. /ata storage% retrieval% and printing must meet federal% state% and local environmental documentation requirements. (n instrumentation item is not applica#le if the equipment that it services is not included in the plant. For example% if an air preheater is not provided then an air preheater outlet temperature indicator does not have to #e furnished. BO#2ER CONTRO2 $ANE2 CONTRO22ER!. ,rovide controllers as required for the proper operation of the #oiler plant. "ontrollers required for a typical #oiler plant include steam header pressure ;plant master and #oiler master:% #oiler drum water level ;feedwater flow:% fuel flow% com#ustion air flow and #oiler furnace draft. BO#2ER $ROTECT#ON! AN" . RNACE !A.EG AR" AN" ! $ER4#!OR3 !3!TEM There are three distinct systems for the *peration and "ontrol of .oiler in !12 07 and B22 07 .oilers. These are 1. 0easurement and process control system for the control of .oiler ,rocesses. This system is provided mainly for measurement and of mechanical properties such as ,ressure% temperature% Flow and level of water and steam. Fuel and (ir flow control% Furnace /raft control% /rum level control% coordinated master pressure control etc are some of the

controls and measurements included in this system% !. .oiler )nterloc5 system is mainly used for the sequential and interloc5ing "ontrol of )/ fans% F/ Fans and ,( Fans and some other equipment of the .oiler. $. Furnace Safeguard and Supervisory System% popularly called FSSS% continuously monitors the operations related to fuel admission and some other vital parameters to ensure safety of the .oiler. Fenerally furnace oil or any 5ind of fuel is suscepti#le to explosion hazards. 0a9ority of explosions occurs during start up% shout down and low load operations. There are many steps that must #e followed #y the operator to admit fuel in to the furnace safely and properly. )f left to the 9udgement of the operators% there is a high pro#a#ility of error. <uman reaction time to such situations is inadequate. "onsidering these facts a proper .urner 0anagement System% called FSSS is installed in the .oilers. -very operation related to fuel admission is accomplished through FSSS. Through FSSS% startup operations% routine operation and withdrawal of the .oiler are initiated and supervised. )n some of the !12 07 plants% drum level controller controls the A@ .F, Scoop position where as another controller is used to maintain the /, across control valve. Schematic diagram is as shown in fig. C. .ig. =

)n most of the newer plants% Feed "ontrol valve is full open. This avoids energy loss in throttling of control valve. Three-element control output is fed to .F, Scoop and it is the only control point to achieve feed flow regulation. )n such cases% "ontrol "ircuit for maintaining /, across valve is not required. (s there is a limitation which does not allow scoop position #elow $23% at low drum pressure #elow $B 5g4cm! ;encountered during startups: 'ow load feed line is provided with control valve for regulation of feed flow. )n such instances% /rum level controller output is fed to the feed control valve instead of .F, scoop. 7hen Full 'oad feed line is ta5en in to service% three-element control with .F, scoop regulation is ta5en in to service.

Re)uction in Boi+er Tu5e .ai+ure% >.? #ntro)uction9 )n )ndian power sector% coal #ased thermal power generating stations operate as #ase load stations and they provide ma9or chun5 of the demand. <ence their availa#ility is highly desira#le. These power plants have to undergo certain regulatory outages as well as outages for necessary maintenance. These outages are termed as planned outages. (nd all the other outages% which cause unit outage% are forced or unplanned outage. ( typical classification of forced outage is shown #elow. (s it is clear that the ma9or reason for forced outage is tu#e lea5age in #oiler pressure parts.

( coal #ased thermal power plant of the size of /T,S would loss its availa#ility #y a#out 1.1B 3% if it experiences one tu#e lea5age every 1 months in each of its unit. This would #e equivalent to a direct generation loss of @! 06s and a direct revenue loss of &s.!1B 0illion. -ach start up of #oiler 4 tur#ine after attending the pro#lem would result in consumption of large quantity of oil% coal and /0 water. The start 4 stop due to the frequent tu#e lea5ages would affect the long-term life and performance of #oiler and tur#ine. (nd in case of frequent lea5ages

#oiler parameters may also #e need to #e restricted to lower value compared to design parameters and this would result in continuous loss in heat rate. @.? Root Cau%e o- Tu5e .ai+ure%9 The #oiler pressure parts are su#9ected to very high steam pressures and flow internally and high temperatures and a#rasive environment externally. <ence they are li5ely to fail and cause a forced outage. )ndia has huge reserves of coal that can #e used for power generation. .ut the quality of coal is poor due to very high proportion of highly a#rasive ash content. The ash content is as high as AB 3 in )ndian coals. The inherent nature of power generation process is such that the #oiler pressure parts get a continuous exposure towards high temperature flue gases containing a#rasive ash. This erosion leads to tu#e thinning process% which ultimately results in #oiler tu#e rupture causing a forced outage. $re1ention o- Ero%ion A Con1entiona+ Techni7ue%9 There are prevalent industry wide practices of erosion prevention or reduction. 1. Thic5er tu#es !. Shielding Techno+og* o- H4O. $roce%%9 !e+ection o- the (roce%%9 )n mar5et there are many technologies availa#le for surface coating. 1. 7ire Flame spray !. (rc wire spray $. ,owder Flame spray A. ,lasma spray .ut% in the a#ove-mentioned surface coating technologies% temperature used for the spraying as well as #ase metal temperature goes more than 122J "% which may lead to change in microstructure of the metal.

"irect Bene-it%9 ;a: )n case of a tu#e lea5age loss of revenues is &s. 1C 0illion for this loss of generation. <ence prevention of one tu#e lea5age helps the company to continue to provide su#sidy or lower tariff to retail consumers. ;#: (lso start up after each tu#e lea5age consumes on an average 1. @B Eilo 'itters oil !. B2 Tonnes of coal These resources are consumed without generating electricity. <ence it is a direct loss. This direct loss costs are more than &s 1 million. (lso these processes generate additional green house gases. <ence prevention of one tu#e lea5age provides #enefit in terms of 1. 'ower tariff to consumers !. 'esser pollution = resource conservation to society at large !2"(!tea& +ea' )etector)9 S'/ detects the tu#e lea5age in various zones in the furnace.)t uses ultrasonic technique to detect the tu#e lea5age.11 to 1C S'/ s are placed at various locations in the furnace%the signals from the a#ove S'/ s are #rought in the ,lant control room for monitoring the steam lea5 in the tu#es. Re)uction o- Boi+er E0it .+ue Ga% Te&(erature The )ndian power sector has always #een operating in the deficit regime. The customer has #een facing the #runt of the impact. The power costs and availa#ility of quality power are the ma9or issues for the customer. (nd the suppliers have #een charging for availa#ility and relia#ility. )n the regions where players other than state electricity #oards are supplying the power directly to the end user% they have #een charging a premium for the consistent supply. <ence the power availa#ility% quality and ultimately the cost are the three issues% which the customer has #een dealing with to control his own costs. )n )ndia% the coal #ased thermal power plants are the #ac5#one of the power generation sector. *ut of total generation more than @2 3 is #eing met #y the coal #ased thermal plants. The

soaring cost% unrelia#ility of supply% dependency on other countries has made oil and gas power plants not via#le. (lmost all of existing oil and gas-#ased power plants are either idle or running with reduced capacity. +on-fossil 4 renewa#le energy #ased power is considered an alternate due to its environmentally clean power and non-exhaustive primary energy source. .ut commercially and economically it is not via#le due to high capital investment. <ence efficiency of the coal-#ased power plant plays a ma9or role in the costs of power availa#le for consumption. The #asic coal #ased power generation plants operate on the modified &an5ine cycle. <ere there is a lot of scope for inefficiencies. *r inversely there is a lot of scope for improvement in the operating efficiency.