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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

1. INTRODUCTION The compressed air system in power plant is one of those critical systems of the plant which is necessary for day to day routine operations in the plants during all situations whether its is project activities, commissioning activities, normal operation of the plant, overhaul & general maintenance activities. Most of instruments, valves & electrical breakers in the plant requires instrument air for on-off operations whereas service air is used to operate many pneumatic equipments, air operated hand tools and for other general service purposes. n other words, one can say that ! & "! system is life line of the power station like !#$%# electric supply system. &on-availability of air supply may lead to shutting down of whole unit.

Classification of Compressors #ompressor is a device used to increase the pressure of air, gases or vapours and deliver it at a higher pressure. #ompressors may be of various types either of positive displacement type or of Dynamic type. 'ositive displacement type compressors are further classified as (eciprocating & )lowers whereas %ynamic compressors are further classified as (adial flow centrifugal blower, a*ial flow compressors & mi*ed flow compressors. #ompressors are sometimes classified by their drive also like steam engine driven, steam turbine driven, electric motor driven & # engine driven etc. Method of connection to the driving unit of compressor may be various types like %irect connected (eduction gear, belt driven or enbloc. Reciprocating compressor n most of the power plants, generally multistage, single or multi cylinders, double acting, vertical or balance opposed reciprocating compressors are used in plant air system. n the general arrangement the piston e*ecutes reciprocating motion in the cylinder, which is either air or water cooled, and is provided with a head which contains valves. The piston rings are for sealing the air. The piston is connected to the driving mechanisms by means of suitable lines or elements. Though the different reciprocating compressors differ in construction details, the following important elements are common+

KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

, Main #ompressing system -cylinder with heads containing air valves & pistons. , %riving /nit , #ooling systems, 0acket cooling, ntercoolers & after coolers , 1ubricating "ystem , (egulating "ystem , /nloading "ystem , !ir dryers

Reciprocating Compressor Cylinder #hamber where the compression process takes place by the change in its volume as the piston moves up and down. Piston #omponent located inside the cylinder directly responsible for the compression of air. Crankshaft #onverts rotational motion generated by the motor to unidirectional motion for the piston. Connecting rod #onnects the crankshaft with the piston. Inlet and e ha!st valves #ontrol the amount of air going in and out of the cylinder.

KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

". #$IN CO#PR%&&IN' &(&T%# n an air compressor the desirable idealistic processes are isothermal and adiabatic. 2ence we have two compression efficiencies3 the isothermal compression efficiency and adiabatic compression efficiency. 4or reciprocating compressors the isothermal compression efficiency is very important and it is taken as the standards of comparison while the centrifugal compressors the adiabatic efficiency is a standard of comparison. sothermal efficiency 5 isothermal work$ actual indicated work The actual indicated work is obtained from the actual indicator diagram taken during the test on the compressor. !diabatic efficiency 5 adiabatic work$ actual indicated work !nother important efficiency of a compressor is the volumetric efficiency which is the ratio of actual volume of the air taken in the cylinder and swept volume of the compressor.

Compressor air system description The power plant is provided with compressor air facilities for both the pneumatic control as well as general service requirement. These compressors and accessories are located in compressor house adjacent to boiler. The capacity of compressor 67.8 m9$min at a discharge pressure of : ;g$cm<. To store compressed air and also relieve the system from pressure fluctuation air receivers are provided. n that instrument air and service air capacity of each air receiver is 6=m9. The air receivers are located at outside the compressor house. !ir drying plant is provided to dry the compressed air required. This air drying plant is of silica gel regenerative type. The compressed air piping inside the compressor house and to the receivers is laid in tranches. The compressor distribution lines from the compressor house are laid in overhead pipe bridges and on wall brackets. &ecessary isolating valves are provided at level of operational convenience. the compressors are provided with alarm and annunciation panel for both instrument and service air compressor.

KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

). DI&TRI*UTION O+ CO#PR%&&%D $IR +RO# P,$NT +ollo-ing are the cons!mer points for instr!ment air. The connection between these valve and the respective instruments are through copper tubing 6. . . . >. <. . . . >. 9. 7. @. . . Turbine 4or generator 2'$1' heaters level control valves )4' circulation and scoop control ?land steam pressure control Mill bay 2ot air shutoff gate 'ulveriser discharge valve cylinder 'urge meter 2ot$ cold air control dampers %M 'lant 4uel oil pump )oiler 4eed water control "2$(2 spray control

KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

. >. >. >. > . > . C. 8. D. :. E.

4uel oil Temp. ,'r. ,4low, and constant %' !u*iliary dampers A$' converter Trip valves in 2B and 1%B )urner tilt drive oil gun retract Bpen$close dampers '! fan % fan 4% fan !sh handling plant

KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

+ollo-ing are the cons!mer points for service air. 6. Turbine <. Mill bay 9. 4uel oil pump 7. )oiler . a. b. c. . a. !tomiFing air for warm-up n service "cavenging < guns in service and < guns scavenging !tomiFing air for igniter n service

KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

b.

&ot in service

.. '%N%R$, D%&CRIPTION O+ CO#PR%&&OR $ND IT& &P%CI+IC$TION #ompressor air plant consists of total 6< numbers of reciprocating, water cooled air compressor manufactured by ;hosla-creppelle. There are si* instrument air -non-lubricated. compressors and si* service air -lubricated. compressors. &pecification of Instr!ment air compressor/ i. Type

KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. i*.

)ore- 1' cylinder 2' cylinder "troke #ompressor speed 4!% at : ;g$cm< 67.8 m9$min.

1ub. Bil sump capacity - <@ liters. 1ub. Bil pressure <-7.@ ;g$cm< #ooling water flow rate 6:= liters$min.

&pecification of &ervice air compressor/ i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. i*. Type )ore- 1' cylinder 2' cylinder "troke #ompressor speed 4!% at : ;g$cm< 67.8 m9$min.

1ub. Bil sump capacity - <@ liters. 1ub. Bil pressure <-7.@ ;g$cm< #ooling water flow rate 6:= liters$min

&pecification of prime mover/ i. ii. iii. iv. Make - #rompton ?reaves #apacityType>oltage- 9 'hase, 76@ >

KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

v. vi.

"peed- 67:@ rpm 4ull load current -

$ir flo- circ!it/0 4rom atmosphere fresh air is taken in through suction filters in 1' cylinder. t is then compressed and delivered to intercooler which cools the air before entering to 2' cylinder. n 2' cylinder air is further compressed to :.@ ;g$cm< pressure and then delivered to after cooler where compressed air is cooled to 7@ G# and delivered through moisture separator to air receivers located outside the plant. The pressuriFed air from the compressor gets cooled off in the air receiver and hence the moisture gets condensed and water collects at the bottom of the receiver which is drained out periodically. 4urther instrument air is taken to the air drying unit where moisture is removed. 1ater flo- circ!it/0 'ressuriFed softened water from bearing cooling water system is supplied to intercooler. ntercooler outlet is connected to 1' cylinder. Hater coming out of 1' cylinder is fed to 2' cylinder. 4or oil cooler water is tapped at 1' outlet and oil cooler outlet is connected to 2' cylinder to inlet. 2' cylinder outlet is connected to water outlet header. 4or after cooler inlet is taken from water inlet header and outlet is connected to water outlet header. Oil flo- circ!it/ +or instr!ment and service air compressor Bil is stored in crankcase. Through suction oil strainer with the help of gear pump oil is sucked and delivered at high pressure to oil cooler. 2igh pressure oil goes to self cleaning plate type of oil filter and from there is supplied to main journal and crank pin. Through this hole big end bearing and small end bearing are lubricated. #ylinder lubricator is only provided to service air compressor which feeds oil to cylinder for piston ring lubrication Difference 2et-een instr!ment and service air compressor 6. 'iston rings and cylinder of instrument air compressors are non lubricated and those of service air compressor are lubricated <. 4or instrument air compressor, intercooler is provided with built in moisture separator where as in service air compressor built in moisture separator is not provided 9. A*tra long distance piece between crankcase and cylinder to eliminate piston rod overrun between lubricated crosshead and cylinder packing is provided for instrument air compressor. Use of service air as instr!ment air

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

Hhen instrument air compressor are under outage service air can be use as instrument air by opening interconnecting valves. "ervice air then passes through oil separator, activated carbon filter then to the air drying plant. Hhen using service air as instrument air it is advisable to isolate absorption tower as silica gel likely to absorb oil from service air and looses it characteristic

3. OP%R$TION O+ $IR CO#PR%&&OR &tarting Ansure that the compressor motor rotates in the same direction as per the mark 4ill the specified quantity and grade of lubrication oil in crankcase, and ensure the oil level Bpen the water main and ensure free flow of water in the all outlet pipes without any leakage Bpen the intercooler, after cooler drain cock , bypass valve and air receiver outlet valves "tart the motor and observe the direction of rotation and also current and voltage of motor Ansure that the lub oil pressure -6.@ to < ;g$cm<. is being indicated on pressure gauge. f there is no oil pressure immediately stop the compressor !llow the compressor to run about 6= minutes and observe any oil leakages, water leakages, abnormal sound, >ibration, Temperature f then machine is running properly , then fully close the drain valve, bypass valve and slowly close the air outlet valve of air receiver to the e*tent that the second stage gauge resister pressure of 9;g Bbserve the running compressor at this pressure about 9= min "lowly raise air pressure to @ ;g by closing the air outlet valve and observe for 9= min &ow close the air outlet valve fully till air pressure reaches the specified working pressure #heck that the loading and unloading of the compressor is taking place at D ;g$cm< and : ;g$cm<

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

Initial !nloading of the compressor nitial unloading is done by loosening the knob in the impulse line of pressure regulator such that air will not be compressed in cylinder )ypass valve if provided should be kept open such that the compressor can run without load i.e. the compressed air will be bled to the atmosphere $!tomatic initial !nloading of the compressor "olenoid valve electrically operated I Bpen to %e-energiFe typeJ performs the initial unloading of compressor which operates sometimes in conjunction with pressure regulator !s soon as machine attends full speed solenoid valve electrically operated I%e-energiFeJ and compressor comes to full load

D!ring r!nning of compressor The following are to be ensuring during running of compressor. 6. Ansure sufficient oil is there in the crankcase by checking the marking on the glass gauge. <. Ansure that sufficient oil is there in the cylinder lubricator by checking gauge glass-for service air compressor. 9. Ansure that the gear pump maintains an oil supply pressure of <-7.@ ;g$cm<. 7. Bperate the safety valves by hand once in a shift. @. Ansure that cooling water flow is maintained by viewing through the sight glasses. Temp. %ifference of 8-6< G# should be maintained between the inlet and outlet points of water. 8. #rankcase oil temp. "hould be within @@-8= G#. D. #ooling water pressure should be held to within <-9 ;g$cm<. Btherwise the jacket packing and joints may leak. :. Hatch the oil dripping tube during operation to make sure that the cylinder lubrication oil is always being fed.-for service air compressor only..

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

E. Ansure that there is no abnormal noise or vibration in 2' cylinder, 1' cylinder and other points. 6=. Ansure that the automatic drain traps are working in good condition. A*tract the moisture and water trapped by operating the bypass valves. 66. To effects the early detection of machine abnormalities and prevent trouble, a record of temperature and pressure of each parts is to be maintained. 6<. Ansure the unloader is functioning the right way without any without any erratic operation.

&topping of the compressor (elease the air from air receiver 1et the compressor run idle for few minutes 'ush the stop button of starter close the inlet water after the compressor has cooled down considerably Bpen oil drain valve of moisture separator , intercooler and air receiver to drain the condensate

4. IN&TRU#%NT $IR &(&T%# $ND IT& DR(IN' &(&T%#

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

Instr!ment air s!pply 'neumatic instruments require supply of purified air at regulated pressure. 4or test purposed, a single small compressor followed by air set -filter and moisture separator. is good enough. )ut for the continuous running of the system, the supply must be large enough to meet the consumption of all the instruments, pure and free from moisture, dirt, oil etc. so as not to affect the instrument adversely. Moisture, oil emulsion and impurities are found in all compressor air system, causing rust and corrosion in pneumatic instrument and tools, clogging pneumatically operated machine, contaminating process flow, blocking and damaging delicate pneumatic instruments. )y incorporating an air dryer in the compress air system, the moisture content of the air is brought down around less than :=ppm, which means very very dry air.

&election criteria for air dryer n selecting the most efficient and economical compressed air dryer, the major consideration is the lowest dew point, the dryer can maintain for the flow of compressed air required.

The ideal 5De-0point6 The dew point is the temperature at which water particles in the air starts to condense, and it differs for every system and depends upon 6. Bn the lowest ambient temperature in which the compressed air lines are located. <. Bn the application for which the compressed air will be used. The system dew point must be lower than the lowest temperature, the line passes through. f not moisture will condensate in line. 4or instance precision instrumentation of pneumatic type always requires -7=deg.# dew point.

$ir Dryer Types 6. (efrigerated type

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

<. 2eatless type+ 2eatless air dryers provide continuous supply very dry air very very low dew point is required. The air is automatically cycled between two desiccant beds, one absorbing moisture from the air while the other being reactivated3 reactivation is accomplished by passing a portion of dry air at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure through the bed being reactivated. n this types of unit the purge is loss and varies from @ to 6=K depending on design. These are commercial up to 9=== &M9$hr capacities. 1orking cycle/0 The air dryer consists of two absorbers !%-6 and !%-< containing molecular sieves as dessicant. The reactivation of molecular sieves is done by counter current, purge e*panded dry air which is discharge to atmosphere. The normal purge flow required for this application is about 6@K. 2eat input is none other than the heat of adsorption produced in the dessicant bed during the deying cycles. The charge over of the cycle is done by using two slide valves "6 and "< which operates on pressure difference and two solenoid valves ">6 and "><. The air from the compressor is passed through an after cooler & pre filter to remove most of the moisture in droplet form. The air is then pass through the slide valve "6 to the adsorbed vessel !%6 & the moisture been removed passes through slide valve "-< to the point of use. ! part of dry air is tapped and is passed through adsorber !%-< for regeneration. This air removes the moisture of the desiccant and is e*hausted into atmosphere. The automatic timer changes over the main flow from the !%-6 to !%-< by operating solenoid valve.

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

,IN% DI$'R$# O+ $IR DR(IN' UNIT

7. 1$T%R COO,IN' &(&T%# These are classified as !nder/ 6. <. 9. Haste water cooling circuit. #losed circuits with atmosphere cooling tank for discharge water pump to supply forced water. #losed circuit cooling system with an overhead tank placed at a height of minimum : meter. 4or gravity feed and water pump with a float switch for pump control. 'rovision should be made for a tap in all cases for draining the cylinder where there is a risk of freeFing.

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

8!antity of -ater re9!ired for :$0 type compressors per min. ! pressure of 6.@-<.= ;g$cm< is necessary for obtaining proper circulation. The delivery of water should be visible for controlling it constantly. The water temperature at the e*it should not be more than @= G#. t is good to install an alarm device in case of stoppage of water supply and for insufficient quantity, to avoid abnormal heating. The cooling water should be clean and free from lime stone, otherwise scaling will be formed and this will reduce heat transfer and water flow capacity through the cylinder, resulting in the overheating of cylinder. Never employ a cooling device 2y means of thermo0syphon The water capacity of the tank shall be more than 6 to < times the volume of water flowing out per hour at the specified pressure per hour. The taps placed on each of the cooling circuit permit to regulate it by throttling the supply in conjunction with their temp. Cylinder -ater connection/ a. Aach cylinder is fitted at its lower end by a water inlet with a cock to regulate the supply. b. !ll the water e*its are visible and are delivered to an open funnel or manifold. The temp. of water should not e*ceed @= G#.

Intercooler/ The highly efficient intercoolers , required to cool the compressed air by the first stage before going to the second stage , are placed above the compressor and in the a*is of each row of cylinders, are of the type L'M and composed of+ a. ! body in mild steel tube.

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

b. ! nest of e*panded copper tubes of small diameter with interior and e*terior water circulation at reverse current. c. Aach intercooler is equipped with a safety valve and drain cock.

&cale formation and its removal/ )efore using water in the compressor, it must be analyFed for its percentage of hardness. f it is found that hardness is more, then it is very important that care must be taken for its removal from time to time. f scale formation is taken place in the intercooler$after cooler and cylinder jacket portion, the cooling of the machine will be impaired. "cale formation very well is judged by placing hand in the intercoolers headers towards 2' cylinder. f there is proper heat dissipation, you will not find any difficulty. The scale formation can also be judged by placing hand in the funnel for outlet of water. The water temperature you will find much less than desired. f scale formation is not removed timely, it will raised the temperature of compressed air. This will result in burning o=f delivery valve cover and LBM rings. A*cessive heat will further result in rapid carbon formation on wall components and seiFure of piston rings. The air temperature will also go higher and will result in shortening life of crankshaft, main and big end bearing. n a nut shell, it is very important to remove scale timely for having better working life of components. 4or de-scaling, anticorrosive, chemical solutions are used.

;. ,U*RIC$TION &(&T%# O+ $IR CO#PR%&&OR

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

,!2rication of 2earings+ 'arts of the compressor, main bearing, big end bearing and small end of the connecting rods and crosshead and guides, are lubricated under pressure by the gear pump. Hhen the compressor starts, the oil pressure starts building up and is indicated by a pressure gauge. The pressure should always be around 6.@-<.= ;g$cm<. The lubrication oil pump works in a definite direction i.e. clockwise direction when observed from flywheel side. Bne should carefully observe that the direction of the rotation of the compressor is clockwise. !n arrow has been provided on the direction of rotation. ,!2ricating oil/ The oil used for the lubrication should have resistance to o*idation and to have de-emulsification property in presence of the water. f oil does not easily separate from the water, the impurities present will form sludge and block the passage in lubricating pipes and the oil will not reach the bearing in sufficient quantity. %irty oil will wear out the bearings abnormally. t is important the deposits from oil and water impurities are cleaned from oil pump periodically by draining oil through plug after <=== working hours. !t the time of topping up, the oil level should be maintained at the ma*imum marked on the oil glass indicator on the crankcase. The refilling of the crankcase should be done by opening the plug on the top plate of the crankcase. Characteristics of oil/ Make sure that pure mineral oil without adding any vegetable or animal oil is used. The principle characteristics of the oil to be used should be as follows+ 6. !ngular viscosity <. 4lash point 9. @-: <== G#

gnition temperature <==-<9= G# 6<-6@ G# 1ess than =.6K

7. "etting point @. #arbon residue

Recommended grades of l!2rication oil ndian oil company )harat 'etroleum "ervo system <@8 -above 8= %eg.4 ambient temp.. )harat cabol 76 or )harat turgona 9= -above 8= %eg.4 ambient temp... 2industan 'etroleum "tadela 9=.

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

<. PR%&&UR% R%'U,$TIN' &(&T%# /nloading system is an automatic control of the compressor unit and its function is to unload the compressor unit when the demand of air falls off. The system is adjusted at the factory for unloading when the pressure in the air receiver reaches working pressure and the compressor automatically starts compressing again when the air receiver pressure falls to restarting pressure, unless the mechanism has been set for other conditions. Press!re reg!lator/ 0 It is device to unload the air compressor automatically when the preset pressure is reached inside the air receiver and load the machine in order to make up the drop in pressure due to air consumption at the outlet of the air receiver. 1orking of !nloading system/ 0 $n air pipe line communicates the air pressure from the air receiver to the double valve cone of the pressure regulator via a moisture trap. Hhen the pressure reaches the prescribed limit at which the pressure regulator has been set to operate, the air under pressure pushes valve upwards against the controlling resistance of the pressure spring raising the double valve cone off the air passage and allows the air under pressure to escape through the connecting pipe to the following unloading device. The interconnected decompressors are fitted on the suction valves. The airs under pressure depress the decompressor pistons which in turn push down the respective decompressors tables against the controlling resistance of respective springs. The decompressor tables which normally rest a little above the respective suction valve plates now come in contact with suction valve plates and press them to open and keep them open so long as the air pressure is not reduced to restarting pressure or to which the regulator has been set. The cylinders suck in air from the atmosphere through the suction air filters and throw it out without any compression. n others words they are rendered idle. n case the pressure regulator doses not function satisfactorily, this may be due to the entry of dust causing sluggish operation and leakage of air. The pressure regulator should be dismantled and double valve cone along with the valve seat carefully cleaned with fuel oil, lubricated with lubricating oil and reassembled. The packing of the moisture trap should be inspected, cleaned and replaced if necessary.

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

1=. PROT%CTION O+ $IR CO#PR%&&OR

4or the following faults audio visual alarm annunciation been provided followed by tripping.

"r.no. 6 < 9 7 @ 8 D :

%escription 1ub. Bil pressure low 1ub. Bil pressure very low Hater flow low Hater flow very low !ir temp. after cooler high !ir receiver pressure low !ir receiver pressure high !ir receiver pressure very high

"et value <.@ ;g$cm< <.= ;g$cm< 6== 1'M E= 1'M 7@ G# D.@ ;g$cm< :.D ;g$cm< E.= ;g$cm<

(emarks !larm Trip !larm Trip !larm & Trip !larm !larm Trip

&tart permissive and interlocks/ 6. <. f sufficient oil pressure is not developed within 6=-6@ sec. of starting of compressor, it gets trip. This is achieved by timer. Hhen selector switch is in manual position and the three way starting lever is in horiFontal position, compressor will not start. This is to see that compressor does not start on load.

Po-er s!pply to compressor/ To all instrument air and service air compressors the power supply is given from station service board. There is no provision of emergency supply to both compressors in case of !# failure.

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

11. #$INT%N$NC% O+ $IR CO#PR%&&OR 4or obtaining highest output, best performance and for efficient operation, a carefully e*ecuted maintenance of air compressor is needed. The maintenance work involved with air compressor may be (outine, "cheduled, Bverhauling maintenance and repairing. #lassification and identification of equipments of compressor+- 4irstly , all the equipments of air compressor are classified and listed as per their replace ability function, siFe and simplicity. dentification is usually in some form of numerical coding. The classification is done as per the following+ /& T+ - !ir compressor 6. <. &on-replaceable items+ 1', 2' cylinder, crankcase body etc. (eplaceable comple* items+ 'iston, 'iston rod, )ig end bearing, small end bearing, crank shaft, connecting rod etc. 9. (eplaceable simple items+ "uction or delivery valve plates, copper ring, ?-ring decompressor piston, small cocks, secondary oil filter, and gland packing. 7. #omponents+ ndividual parts. Bn the basis of the above classification, the jobs of (outine, "cheduled and overhauling maintenance are fi*ed up. The replaceable simple items are attended either during (outine or "cheduled maintenance and replaceable comple* items are attended during overhauling. Ro!tine maintenance t comprises of simple checking, inspection, lubrication and cleaning of the equipment. t may carry out daily or after short running hours. 4ollowing is the checklist for above maintenance 6. #heck the >-belt tension. <. %rain the moisture from intercooler and after cooler. 9. #heck the lub. Bil pressure.

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

7. #heck direction of rotation of flywheel from flywheel end. @. #heck oil level in crankcase. 8. %rain moisture from air receiver. D. %rain moisture from the moisture trap. :. #lean moisture trap filter elements with petrol and dry these thoroughly before fitting. E. #leaning of suction filter. &ched!led maintenance t comprises of critical cleaning, checking and inspection, lubrication and replacement of simple replaceable and fast wearing items. t is carried out after pre-determined period. 4ollowing is the checklist 6. Bpen the inspection cover of cylinder water jackets and clean it. <. #lean the suction and delivery valves check the condition of spring plates, valves plates and cushion plates and replace if necessary. 9. #heck and clean the decompressor system. 7. #lean the intercooler and after cooler elements. @. #lean primary oil filter. 8. #lean secondary oil filter and replace the element. D. %rain the lub. Bil from crank case and refill it. :. #heck the tube leakage of intercooler and after cooler elements and if found, gag the leakage tube by taper copper socket. E. #heck all nuts and bolts and tighten if necessary. 6=. #heck the >-belt alignment.

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INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

Overha!ling maintenance t is carried out after long period of running hours on the replaceable comple* items. %uring this type of maintenance work, the compressor is fully dismantled and then thorough checking , inspection, cleaning, lubrication and replacement of replaceable comple* items are carried out. 4ollowing is the checklist 6. #hecking of the bearing conditions, and replacement if necessary. <. #hecking of the condition of piston, piston ring and piston rod and replacement if necessary. 9. (eplacement of intercooler and after cooler elements. 7. (eplacement of oil pump drive pin. @. !djustment of all the gaps and clearances in compressor. 8. (eplacement of suction filter element. D. #hanging of seal rings and gland packingMs. :. #leaning of air receiver, suction pipe and discharge header. E. (eplacement of valve body.

#aintenance sched!le for khosla0creppelle air compressor Daily/ 6. #heck direction of flywheel -clockwise. from flywheel end. <. #heck oil level in crankcase -fill if necessary. to top notch. 9. %rain moisture from the air receiver. 7. %rain moisture from the moisture trap. @. %rain moisture from intercooler, headers$au*iliary air receiver$low pressure header.

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INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

8. %rain moisture from after cooler, if provided. D. #heck the lub. Bil pressure of compressor -6.@-<.@ ;g$cm<.. :. #heck pressure regulator functions. Maintain 6 ;g$cm< difference appro*. in loading $ unloading pressure.

%very 1== ho!rs/ #lean suction filter element only by blowing with low pressure air from the outer surface,-&ever use petrol$kerosene$diesel for cleaning.,in dusty conditions, clean filter element every @= hours.

%very "3= ho!rs/ 6. #heck the >-belts tensions and adjust if necessary. <. #lean the moisture trap felt- element with petrol and dry these thoroughly before fitting. 9. #heck that the safety valve blows off at correct pressure. %very 1=== ho!rs/ 6. #lean the suction and delivery valve parts and parts of non-return valve. <. #heck and clean decompressor system parts grease and fit. 9. Bpen the inspection cover of cylinder water jackets and checks for sludge and scale formation clean if necessary. %very "=== ho!rs/ 6. %rain lub. Bil from crankcase and distance piece, clean and recharge fresh oil. <. #lean primary oil filter-ensure that plug plate is tightened properly. 9. #lean secondary oil filter bowl and replace the element. 7. Tighten the gland packingMs, flange nuts if necessary. @. #lean the water jackets of cylinder and end plates to remove scale and sludge. 8. #lean the water-cooled intercooler and after cooler elements and remove scale and sludge. and

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INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

D. (efill grease -#astrol !'-9$"hell M'-9$!' )econ-9. in 'lummer block bearing after cleaning -applicable to 7 &8. cylinders. :. #heck the alignment of e*tension shaft and pedestal bearings, if necessary. E. #heck all nuts and bolts and tightens if necessary check the tightness of piston rod nut , specially. 6=. #lean the decompressor pistons and replace damaged B-rings. ?rease the piston and refit. 66. #lean the oil cooler element. 6<. #arry out servicing due as per 6=== %very .=== ho!rs/ 6. #heck condition of bearings and sealing rings. <. #arry out servicing due as per 6=== and <=== hrs. %very ;=== ho!rs/ 6. #hange sealing rings and gland packingMs. <. (eplace the suction filter element. 9. #arry out servicing due as per 6=== and <=== hrs. %very 1==== ho!rs/ 6. (eplace damaged or worn-out valve plate, spring plates and valve body. <. (eplace the connecting rod bolts and nuts. 9. #hecks side clearance of crankshaft for permissible limits. 7. (eplace oil pump driven pin. @. #lean the air receiver $ suction pipe & discharge header etc. 8. Tight all nut-bolts with proper torque. D. #arry out other servicing due as per 6=== and <=== hrs.

&pecial maintenance after first "3= ho!rs >1hen compressor is ne-?

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INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

6. <. 9. 7. @. 8. D.

Hash suction and delivery valves and checks for leakage. #lean the crankcase and distance piece, recharge with fresh oil. #lean the primary oil filter -ensure that plug plate is tightened properly.. #lean secondary oil filter elements and bowl -wash element only in fresh lub. Bil.. #heck all nuts and bolts and plugs, tighten if necessary, especially piston rod nut. #heck that gland packing, bolts and nuts are tight. #arry out servicing due at <@= hrs.

1". TROU*,% &:OOTIN' O+ $IR CO#PR%&&OR

!. The oil pressure is not constant, pressure gauge needle oscillates 6. #heck the oil level in the sump. <. #lean filter or strainers. 9. #heck that there is no air leakage in the oil suction pipes and plug is properly tightened. 7. #heck that the breather valve of the oil pump is not kept open by a foreign material. @. #heck that oil suction point not choked.

). The pressure gauge needle of the oil pressure remains at Fero. 6. #heck that the oil level is correct up to second notch. <. Make sure that the pressure gauge pipe is not blocked or leaking.

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9. #heck the pressure gauge and ensure that it is alright. 7. f the compressor was idle for a long period, bleed the air from the oil circuit.

#. The output of the compressor has decreased. 6. #heck the tightness of the air compressor valve. <. #heck the tightness of the valves and ensure that they are in good condition. 9. #heck that the suction valves are not leaking I n normal running, all valve covers must have the same temperature i.e. the temperature equal to the cylinder wall. Hhen they are hot as compared to cylinder wall it is clear that either the valve is leaking or the decompressor piston is stuck and in keeping the valve in open condition. 7. #heck that the suction air filter is not choked, if necessary. @. #heck that the delivery pipe line is not leaking

%. 'ressure increases in the receiver when the compressor is unloaded. 6. #heck that the pistons of decompressors are not loose in the respective cylinders. <. #heck that the decompressor pistons are not stuck in the upward position and the suction valve are still in operation.

A. >alves are noisy. 6. #heck that the valves are properly tightened on the respective seats. <. #heck that the valve components i.e. valve plates are not broken

4. The pressure increase in the intercooler.

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KTC SYSTEM

INSTRUMENT AIR AND SERVICE AIR SUPPLY

6. #heck that the inlet valves of second stage are not leaking.

?. The compressor knocks+ <. >erify whether the knocking sound comes from the cylinders.

2. f knocking sound comes from the crankcase. 6. Bpen the inspection cover on the top cover of the crankcase and check that the big end bearing and main bearing bolts are properly tight. <. #heck that there is no e*cessive clearance in the big end bearings. 9. #heck the clearance in the crosshead and cross guide is not e*cessive. 7. #heck the clearance between the small end bush and connecting rod and crosshead pin is not e*cessive. @. #heck that the flywheel key is not loose.

f knocking sound comes from cylinder. 6. #heck and verify the cylinder from which the knocking sound is coming. <. #heck that the piston rod nut on crosshead is properly tight. 9. #heck that the piston blocking nut is properly tight and piston is not loose. 7. #heck that the compression rings are not sticking in the grooves. @. #heck that the end clearance on the front and the rear end is correct i.e. 6.@ mm on intermediate plate side -mini.. and < mm on the front end cover side -mini... 8. #heck that no broken valve partsor foreign material have not fallen in the cylinder. D. #heck and ensure that suction and delivery valves are properly tightened on their seats.

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0. The cylinder are overheated+ 6. #hecking that the cooling water is circulating in sufficient quantity. <. #hecks that the condition of the valves is good and valve components i.e. valve plates are not broken. 9. #heck the condition of piston rings and replace if rings are worn out e*cessively. 7. #heck and ensure that 1' discharge valves are not leaking. @. #heck that intercooler and cylinder jackets are not scaled or clogged.

;. Hater in the cylinder. 6. #heck that the water is not leaking inside the cylinder from its wall. <. #heck that there is no crack in the intermediate plate of end cover. 9. #heck that the water is not coming from suction pipe. 7. #heck that water is not leaking from intercooler and going to 2' cylinder.

69. CONC,U&ION

The aim of best operating practice is to achieve cost effective & performance oriented utiliFation of air system. The critical utiliFation of air is for instruments which ensures crucial role of measurement & control. The failure of some of critical instruments operated by instrument air may result into enormous monitory loss due to unwarranted tripping of unit or

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due to generation of misleading information to plant operators. 2ence the primary target is to make available clean & dry instrument air without interruptions and to ensure reliability about the quality of air supplied at all the times. Thrust should be on predictive & preventive maintenance, optimiFed minimum cost operation practices, continuous improvement in the layout of air lines & air bottles supplying air to use points and periodic quality surveillance. 'rogram for periodic checking of working efficiency of compressors must be planned in advance by monitoring isothermal efficiency as well as volumetric efficiency. The energy consumption audit & air consumption audit should be planned & carried out judiciously. The major failures & repetitive maintenance items may be analyFed to plot the failure of frequency, probability of failure and cost of use of spares as compared to the asset value of the compressor. #ost data of use of lubricants, spares & consumables may also be maintained properly to ensure optimum cost of these items. These data can be utiliFed effectively for replacement decisions to minimiFe the operating cost in long run.

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