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2G - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991.[1] Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted; 2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels; and 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages. 2G network allows for much greater penetration intensity. 2G technologies enabled the various mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages and MMS (multi media messages). All text messages sent over 2G are digitally encrypted, allowing for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it. After 2G was launched, the previous mobile telephone systems were retrospectively dubbed 1G. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog, radio signals on 2G networks are digital. Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system. 2G has been superseded by newer technologies such as 2.5G, 2.75G, 3G, and 4G; however, 2G networks are still used in many parts of the world.

1 2G technologies 2 Capacities, advantages, and disadvantages 2.1 Capacity 2.2 Disadvantages 2.3 Advantage 3 Evolution 3.1 2.5G (GPRS) 3.2 2.75G (EDGE) 4 See also 5 References

2G technologies
2G technologies can be divided into Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)-based and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based standards depending on the type of multiplexing used. The main 2G standards are: GSM (TDMA-based), originally from Europe but used in almost all countries on all six inhabited continents. Today accounts for over 80% of all subscribers around the world. Over 60 GSM operators are also using CDMA2000 in the 450 MHz frequency band (CDMA450).[2] IS-95 aka cdmaOne (CDMA-based, commonly referred as simply CDMA in the US), used in the Americas and parts of Asia. Today accounts for about 17% of all subscribers globally. Over a dozen CDMA operators have migrated to GSM including operators in Mexico, India, Australia and South Korea. PDC (TDMA-based), used exclusively in Japan 1/4

75G services because they are several times slower than present-day 3G service. This was possible because cell towers and related equipment had become less expensive. This meant that cells had to be smaller. proprietary network used by Nextel in the United States and Telus Mobility in Canada IS-136 a. The digital systems were designed to emit less radio power from the handsets. A general rule can be applied to make it sound simple. meaning that the range of sound that they convey is reduced. Advantage While digital calls tend to be free of static and background noise. digital will sound better. Capacities. the free encyclopedia iDEN (TDMA-based). Talking on a digital cell phone. 2G services are frequently referred as Personal Communications Service. National regulations differ greatly among countries which dictate where 2G can be 2/4 .a.wikipedia. This can be both an advantage and a disadvantage.5G or 2. so more cells had to be placed in the same amount of space. in the United States. commonly referred as simply 'TDMA' in the US).Wikipedia. 2. by dropping calls or being unintelligible. though. generally holding a call longer and allowing at least some of the audio transmitted to be understood.10/5/13 2G . but digital has a jagged steppy one. but is mostly not a problem on 2G systems deployed on lower frequencies. Disadvantages In less populous areas.k. Under slightly worse conditions. allowing more calls to be transmitted in same amount of radio bandwidth. As conditions worsen.5G (GPRS) en. the weaker digital signal transmitted by a cellular phone may not be sufficient to reach a cell tower. D-AMPS (TDMA-based. Under good conditions. digital will start to completely fail. advantages. but are considered by the general public to be 2. Analog has a smooth decay curve. analog will experience static.[citation needed ] Evolution 2G networks were built mainly for voice services and slow data transmission (defined in IMT-2000 specification documents). This tends to be a particular problem on 2G systems deployed on higher frequencies. was once prevalent in the Americas but most have migrated to GSM. the lossy compression they use reduces their quality. " Frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength ". while digital has occasional dropouts. while analog slowly gets worse. or PCS. and disadvantages Capacity Using digital signals between the handsets and the towers increases system capacity in two key ways: Digital voice data can be compressed and multiplexed much more effectively than analog voice encodings through the use of various codecs. a caller hears less of the tonality of someone's voice.

org/wiki/2G 3/4 .org/web/20100130085408/http://www.cdg. April 20. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE).[3] It can also be used for WAP. as an extension on top of standard GSM. CDMA Development Group.cfm?t=6&o=6532.cdg. See also Mobile radio telephone. as well as Internet access. Retrieved December 23. en. the free encyclopedia 2. 2. Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS).10/5/13 2G .cdg.5G. The first major step in the evolution of GSM networks to 3G occurred with the introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). 2011. or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC) is a backwardcompatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates. CDMA2000 networks similarly evolved through the introduction of 1xRTT.5G ("second and a half generation") is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packetswitched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain. India References 1. and for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access.cdg. independent of whether the user actually is utilizing the capacity or is in an idle state. Archived (http://web. EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003—initially by Cingular (now AT&T) in the United States. The combination of these capabilities came to be known as 2. GPRS could provide data rates from 56 kbit/s up to 115 kbit/s.asp) from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved December 2004. GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic 2009.asp? h_area=0&h_technology=999&h_frequency=1) from the original on 30 January 2010. Archived (http://web. ^ "Radiolinja's History" (http://www. 2009.elisa.75G (EDGE) GPRS1 networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK encoding. Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS). delivering an average user data throughput of 80-100 kbit/s in commercial networks. It does not necessarily provide faster services because bundling of timeslots is used for circuit-switched data services (HSCSD) as well. while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time. 1xRTT supports bi-directional (up and downlink) peak data rates up to ^ "CDMA Worldwide" (http://www. SMS & MMS services. ^ "CDMA2000 1X" (http://www. EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family and it is an upgrade that provides a potential threefold increase in capacity of GSM/GPRS networks.asp). It can be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access. 2.50). Retrieved July 31.asp? h_area=0&h_technology=999&h_frequency=1).6 kbit/s.archive. also known as 0G 1G 3G 4G 2G spectrum

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