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PERGAMON

Applied Thermal Engineering 18 (1998) 11891205

Heat recovery system to power an onboard NH3-H2O absorption refrigeration plant in trawler chiller shing vessels
Ferna ndez-Seara *, Alberto Vales, Manuel Va zquez Jose
Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo, Spain Received 10 November 1997

Abstract This paper is concerned with the design, modelling and parametric analysis of a gas-to-thermal uid heat recovery system from engine exhausts in a trawler chiller shing vessel to power an NH3-H2O absorption refrigeration plant for onboard cooling production. Synthetic oil was used as heat transfer uid and recirculated. The major components of the system are uid-to-solution and gas-to-uid heat exchangers. Both heat exchangers and the complete system have been modelled. Models are implemented in several computer programs. These models have been used to study the inuence of geometric design parameters and thermal operating conditions on heat exchangers and system thermal performance. The analysis of the results allowed us to nd the optimum thermal operating conditions that minimise total heat transfer area. Optimal design based on real data was performed and the operating function of exhaust gases by-pass control was obtained and is presented. # 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Heat recovery; Heat exchanger; Absorption systems; Ships refrigeration

Nomenclature
A D d h H k area (m2) density (ns/m) diameter (m) convection heat transfer coecient (W/m2 K) height (m) thermal conductivity (W/m K)

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. 1359-4311/98/$19.00 # 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 1 3 5 9 - 4 3 1 1 ( 9 8 ) 0 0 0 0 1 - 5

1190 L m n P Q r R s t th U a b e Z

J. Fernandez-Seara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 18 (1998) 11891205 length (m) mass ow (kg/s) dimensionless parameter () Pressure (Pa) heat power (W) ratio of gas mass ow through economiser () thermal resistance [ m2 K/W] spacing (m) temperature (K) thickness (m) overall heat transfer coecient (W/m2 K) angle angle ns eciency () nned surfaces eciency ()

Subscripts

c f FS G g i max o oil r sol t ts TS w

column n ns surface generator gas inlet maximum outlet thermal uid row solution NH3-H2O tube tubesheet total surfaces wall

1. Introduction Absorption systems are heat-operated, so they can greatly contribute to reduce primary energy consumption and environmental pollution if powered by waste heat or renewable energies. They can complete the chain of optimum utilisation of fuel energy [1]. Alefeld et al. [2] pointed out the great advantages of linking absorption systems to waste heat recovery from gas turbine and gas or diesel engines. Several published papers deal with the subject, either in stationary power plants [3], or road vehicles [4, 5], and sea transport [68]. This paper presents the design, modelling and analysis of a gas-to-thermal uid heat recovery system to power an NH3-H2O absorption refrigeration plant (AARS) used onboard of trawler chiller shing vessels (TCFV). The great advantages of AARS are obtained when refrigeration is needed at medium (108C to 08C) or high (over 08C) temperatures and costfree heat is available. TCFV traditionally used crushed ice for caught sh preservation. Nowadays these vessels are including mechanical refrigeration to keep the ice from melting fast. The hold capacity ranges

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Fig. 1. Trawler chiller shing vessel engine load. Journey from 14th August to 1st September, 1996.

from 80 to 150 m3 and the refrigeration needs from 5 to 10 kW. The hold and evaporation temperature are 08C and 108C, respectively. Ice production is not considered. These shing vessels are driven by a four-stroke diesel engine whose power ranges from 700 to 1200 kW and one or two auxiliary engines of 50 to 250 kW. At present most of the chiller shing vessels do not use any heat recovery system. Only a few of them employ an exhaust gas boiler to heat up water for cleaning purposes. Trawler shing vessels never stop their main engine when cruising or shing. Moreover, engine load is rather high and constant for the shing period and close to full engine load for the onward and return trips, as shown in Fig. 1. Data is taken from onboard machine diaries lled in every 6 h while cruising or shing. For the journey presented in Fig. 1, the cruising periods correspond to measurements from 1 to 8 and from 68 to 73, as well as the peak between measurements 21 and 24. Exhaust gases outlet temperature after turbine ranges from 3508C to 4208C. Its variation for a complete journey is shown in Fig. 2. Taking into consideration the Engine Protocol, a relationship can be obtained between engine load and specic fuel consumption. An experimental formula taken from [9] gives exhaust gases mass ow as a function of engine specic fuel consumption. Therefore gas mass ow can be calculated from engine load. Cooling limit temperature for exhaust gases has been xed at 1808C to provide a wide margin over corrosive acids dew-point [10]. Thus, the gases'

Fig. 2. Exhaust gases temperature after turbine. Journey from 14th August to 1st September, 1996.

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Fig. 3. Recoverable exhaust waste heat. Journey from 14th August to 1st September, 1996.

mass ow, specic heat and their inlet and outlet temperatures are known, then the quantity of recoverable heat is found and shown in Fig. 3. The Coecient of Performance of the AARS is assumed to be 0.5 [11, 12]. Therefore, the heat power and the thermal level required for powering the absorption refrigeration system range from 10 to 20 kW and 1008C to 1508C, respectively, which are much lower than the available waste heat and the exhaust gases temperature. Moreover, as absorption refrigeration system's COP is greatly aected by the intermediate sink temperature [13], where absorption and condensation heat are rejected, onboard systems can prot from using the inexpensive sea water as cooling medium in the absorber and condenser which allows one to maintain low absorption and condensation temperatures and therefore a high system COP. An AARS prototype designed for the use in TCFV has been built in our laboratory, at a cost around 1.5 times higher than the cost of the commercially available compression systems.

Fig. 4. Schematic of heat recovery system.

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This prototype can save from 2 to 4% of the total ship fuel consumption. Both aspects make AARS interesting from an economic viewpoint.

2. Waste heat recovery system The schematic diagram of the waste heat recovery system is depicted in Fig. 4. System design involves selection of heat transfer uid and heat exchangers. Major components of the system are the liquid-to-solution and the gas-to-liquid heat exchangers. The former acts as generator and the latter as economiser. The design also includes a gas bypass control system and is completed with a pump, piping, expansion tank, valves and insulation material. Synthetic oil has been chosen as the heat transfer uid. The selection has been based on the use of an unpressurized system to reduce the capital and maintenance costs and get a safe and reliable operation [14, 15]. The pump is used to force circulation of uid at the rate required by the system. The generator of the absorption system is a two-pass kettle type heat exchanger in the bottom of the distillation column, as shown in Fig. 5. This selection is based on column dimensions [16], which are obtained from [17]. The economiser is a gas-to-liquid heat exchanger composed of a nned tubes matrix arranged in series and tted in the engine stack [18]. Circular plain ns and staggered layout are considered. The exhaust ow goes either through the nned tubes or the bypass duct depending on the bae position, see Fig. 4 and Fig. 6. The bae is positioned according to the AARS control system feedback, to maintain the required generator temperature. If the actual temperature is lower than the required generator temperature the bae will open, increasing the gas mass ow through the economiser.

3. System modelling Thermal analysis of the heat recovery system requires thermal modelling of its major components, generator and economiser. Global independent variables to consider in the simulation are heat power, generation pressure and temperature and inlet and outlet oil

Fig. 5. Two pass kettle type generator.

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Fig. 6. Control system.

temperatures in the generator, bearing in mind that the main goal of the recovery system is to provide the heat power required in the absorption refrigeration system at optimum temperature. Fixed values are taken for exhaust gases inlet and outlet temperatures in the economiser. Heat losses to the environment are neglected. For enabling the computer simulation, relationships for the thermo-physical properties (heat capacity, viscosity, thermal conductivity and density) of exhaust gases, thermal oil and ammoniawater solution must be available. To predict mathematically oil thermal properties curve tting was applied to the catalogue data supplied by the manufacturer for Mobil Therm 600. Exhaust gas viscosity, thermal conductivity and density were also obtained by curve tting on experimental data from [19] and heat capacity from the formula provided by [9]. Thermodynamic and thermal properties for ammoniawater solution have been taken from [20] and surface tension from [21].

3.1. Generator The generator has been modelled according to the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Dierence (LMTD) method. The variables chosen as independent for generator modelling are generation pressure and temperature, oil inlet and outlet temperatures and tube diameters. For thermal oil a reference velocity of 1.8 m/s is considered, as recommended by Boyen [14]. Oil thermal properties are calculated using the mean of inlet and outlet temperatures. The number of tubes per pass is determined from liquid mass ow and reference velocity. Thus, the actual oil circulation velocity is obtained. Global heat transfer coecient is calculated from (1): 1 1 Uo   do lndo  : di do 1 1 R R i o di 2kt hi ho Inner lm coecient is obtained from [22], outer lm coecient is given by [23], and fouling factors are taken from [24]. Tube surface temperature and lm coecients are calculated simultaneously by iteration, from Eqs. (2) and (3)

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Uo tw;o ; tw;i toil tsol ho tw;o tw;o tsol ; Uo tw;o ; tw;i toil tsol hi tw;i toil tw;i :

2 3

3.2. Economiser In designing an economiser for the diesel exhaust environment, special care must be paid to the knowledge of fouling behaviour. Indeed the foulant layer together with gas-side convection are controlling resistances in the heat transfer process. Moreover, an important geometric parameter directly related to fouling is n spacing, due to the possibility of bridging the n gaps with high n densities. Garret-Price [25] includes a review on gas-side fouling factors and n design parameters for fuel exhaust gases. Experimental data on diesel engine fouling is reported by Semler et al. [26] and on marine diesel engine by Geisler [27]. They show the asymptotic behaviour of the fouling. For economiser modelling and based on the literature cited above, the asymptotic value has been taken for fouling resistance as 21.13 m2K/kW. Fin spacing or density are design parameters. However, they have been limited to 5 mm or 180 ns per meter to avoid the bridging of n gaps. Thermal uid mass ow and its inlet and outlet temperatures have been set by the generator calculation. Inlet and outlet exhaust gas temperatures are given by the engine and the exhaust cooling limit, respectively. Then, gas mass ow through the tube bank is obtained from an energy mass balance on the exhaust stream. Gas mass ow will be regulated by the control system. Inner tube diameter is determined from the uid ow and reference velocity. Geometric design parameters are tubes length, n height and density and row and column spacing. Economiser ow arrangement is counter-current multiple-pass cross-ow. All the liquid is single-circuited passing through all tubes in series. The tubes are arranged in rows and columns and coupled by 180-degree return bends. The LMTD has been used in the economiser modelling. The lack of data for the logarithmic mean temperature dierence correction factor, F, for multiple-pass cross-ow arrangement in the general heat transfer literature, [2830], has been overcome by considering the heat exchanger divided into a number of sub-units equal to row numbers. Moreover, in each row the correction factor can be taken approximately as 1, due to the large temperature dierence between both uids at the inlet, which makes the dimensionless temperature P = [(toti)/ (yiti)] 1 0 and therefore F 1 1, according to [2830]. Taking into account the assumption mentioned above, a simple calculation procedure has been developed for this equipment. It is based on considering a discrete gas temperature distribution, with temperature values taken after crossing each tube row. Gas and liquid temperatures and heat transfer are determined by means of series expansion depending on the liquid inlet and gas outlet temperatures, when knowing the heat transfer area in each row and the overall heat transfer coecient. Outlet gas temperature is limited by dew-point of corrosive acid compounds. Comparison of gas temperature after each row and gas inlet temperature in the heat exchanger is used to calculate the number of rows required to recover a given amount of heat power.

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Global heat transfer coecient is obtained from (4) related to tube inner surface: Ui
1 hi

  Ri
di ln
do di

1
pdi A Ro ho 1 Z FT


FS

2kt

Thermal eciency of nned surface is evaluated as follows: ZTS 1 AFS 1 e; ATS 5

where e is the circular ns thermal eciency, obtained from (6): e 2 do th kf n G 2 d2 f do ho 6

In Eq. (6), n and G are given by (7) and (8): s 2 hf n ; kt th do df f K1 n d2o I1 n d 2 I1 n 2 K1 n 2 G do df ; f K0 n 2 I1 n 2 I0 n d2o K1 n d 2 where K0, K1, I0, I1 are corresponding Bessel functions.

Fig. 7. Flow chart of the computation for generator design and analysis.

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Inner lm coecient is calculated from [22] and outer lm coecient is obtained from [31], the inner fouling factor value is taken from [24]. Tubes are made of stainless steel AISI 304 and aluminium ns of `G' type. Tube inner surface temperature is calculated by iteration from (9): Ui tw;i tg toil hi tw;i tw;i toil : 9

Fig. 8. Flow chart of the computation for economiser design and analysis.

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Fig. 9. Flow chart of the global analysis program.

Thermal uid and exhaust gas pressure drops are calculated from [32]. Maximum acceptable value for exhaust gases pressure drop is 40 MPa as given by Fraile [33]. 4. Programing and computation Modelization of the heat recovery system has been implemented using the software package Labview 4.0 for analysis and calculation. Four dierent programs have been written. The rst two programs are concerned with generator and economiser design and analysis from thermal and geometric viewpoints. The third program, called Global Analysis, deals with the complete heat recovery system. Finally a fourth program has been written for optimization of system design. Simple ow diagrams for each program are shown in Figs. 710. All computer programs involve an automatic communication system based on OLE technology with the

Fig. 10. Flow chart of the computation for system optimisation.

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spread sheet Excel 7. This allows direct transmission of data generated during the analysis for further treatment.

5. Results Implemented models have been used to simulate the thermal behaviour of the generator, economiser and complete heat recovery system. Parametric studies were done on design geometric variables for each heat exchanger. The eect of operating conditions and temperature variations on the performance of the complete system has been analysed. 5.1. Generator parametric study Pressure, temperature and thermal load in the absorption system generator, thermal oil inlet and outlet temperatures and tube inner diameter are considered as independent variables in the generator design. The inuence of the independent variables' variation on lm and overall heat transfer coecients, tube surface temperature, uid pressure drop, heat transfer area and equipment dimensions has been investigated and plotted for further analysis. As an example, the eect of tube diameter on generator tubes length and tubesheet diameter, when values in Table 1 are held constant, is shown in Fig. 11. The prole of these graphs is due to thermal uid velocity change as the tube number per pass varies. This is clearly reected on the tube length chart. 5.2. Economiser parametric analysis In designing the economiser the independent variables considered are: inlet and outlet gas and oil temperatures, heat load, tube length and tube outer diameter, n height, thickness and density, tube spacing in each row and row spacing. A square plant heat exchanger has been taken as design criterion. As was done in the generator study, the following design parameters are obtained and plotted separately while keeping constant all the others: lm and overall heat transfer

Table 1 Specied generator parameters Q = 40000 kJ/h tG=1408C PG=15 bar toil,max=1908C Dtoil=58C Ri=0.176 m2K/kW Ro=0.088 m2K/kW kt=18 W/m K

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coecients, tube surface temperature, heat transfer area, minimum tube spacing and tube number in each row, row number, equipment height and oil and exhaust gas pressure drops. Fig. 12 presents the eect of economiser tube length on tube row number. Other design parameters are kept as given in Table 2. 5.3. Overall waste heat recovery system analysis Overall waste heat recovery system design is constrained by the operating conditions required in the absorption system, i.e. generator pressure, temperature and heat load. Independent parameters being considered in the analysis are the highest thermal uid temperature and its maximum gradient in the heat recovery system. The eect of varying any of these parameters on generator and economiser overall heat transfer coecients and heat transfer areas has been studied and plotted while keeping constant main design geometric variables. The plots showing the dependency of generator and economiser heat transfer areas on the highest thermal oil temperature and temperature dierences are presented in Figs. 13 and 14. These results have been obtained while holding constant the values given in Tables 1 and 2. Fig. 13 shows the increase of economiser heat transfer area and the decrease of generator heat transfer area when increasing the highest oil temperature. The conclusion to be drawn from Fig. 13 is the existence of a minimum in total heat transfer area for a value of temperature which could be used as the design criterion. Similar results are found varying the oil temperature dierence, as shown in Fig. 10. From them an optimum value for oil temperature dierence of 5.858C is obtained.

6. Application A practical application based on real data taken from a typical trawler chiller shing vessel has been calculated using the implemented models. The control system has been designed and

Table 2 Specied economiser parameters Tg,i=3008C tg,o=1808C di=30 mm do=35 mm Lf=17 mm thf=0.5 mm Df=120 ns/m kf=220 W/m K sr=sc=80 mm REo=21.13 m2K/kW Rei=0.176 m2K/kW

J. Fernandez-Seara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 18 (1998) 11891205 Table 3 Numerical results for the application Generator di=12 mm do=10 mm U = 763.11 W/m2K Ai=0.6 m2 11 tubes per pass dts=12.7 cm tw,i=154.98C tw,o=144.98C Economiser di=35 mm do=38 mm U = 214.82 W/m2K Ao=9.52 m2 Lt=41 cm Nr=Nc=5 H = 42 cm sr=sf=86 mm Lf=19 mm Df=120 ns/m Z = 74.14% e = 70.59%

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its governing equation obtained as a function of the heat power required by the absorption refrigeration system. Assuming the cooling duty and the COP of the AARS to be 30000 kJ/h (8.33 kW) and 0.5, respectively, the heat power to be recovered is 60000 kJ/h (16.66 kW). Design conditions and material properties are the same as listed in Tables 1 and 2. Dimension constraints have been imposed on the heat recovery system design based on distillation column size, exhaust gas chimney characteristics and onboard available space. Results obtained for the proposed heat recovery system are presented in short in Table 3. 6.1. Control system The control system design is sketched in Fig. 6. It is based on a diverter valve door rotating around the xed upper border whose angular position is controlleld by the generator temperature. The bae position diverts the exhaust gas either through the tube bank or the bypass duct. According to nomenclature indicated on Fig. 6, the gas pass section through economiser and bypass duct are given by Eqs. (10) and (11). A1 a L L cosa h; A2 a L L cosb a h: 10 11

The relationship between both gas pass sections and total pass section are obtained, for the complete angle. The ratio of gas mass ow through the economiser is calculated according to expression (12): rg Q mg Q A1 a : mg;max A1 a A2 a 12

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Fig. 11. Generator tubes length and tubes sheet diameter vs. inner tubes diameter.

Fig. 12. Economiser tube rows vs. tubes length. Square plant is considered as design criterion.

Fig. 13. Generator and Economiser heat transfer areas vs. highest thermal uid temperature.

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Fig. 14. Generator and Economiser heat transfer areas vs. thermal oil temperature dierences.

Fig. 15. Control system operating function.

Thus, the angle to turn can be obtained from gas mass ow ratio and therefore it is a function of heat energy required in the generator. Eq. (13) presents the relationship between the angle to be turned by the bae and the gas mass ow ratio through the economiser. p 2 rg senb2 2 rg cosb 1 rg 1 : 13 arg 2 arctan 2 rg 3 cosb 4 Therefore, from Eqs. (12) and (13), the operating function for the control system is obtained which gives the angle of the bae as a function of the required heat power. Fig. 15 shows the operating function for the considered application.

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7. Conclusions Trawler chiller shing vessels are adequate for installation of ammoniawater absorption refrigeration plants for onboard cooling due to low refrigeration needs at a medium temperature level and appropriate operating conditions of the engine. The high and constant engine load maintained during the shing period allows the recovery of heat from engine exhaust at a thermal level that exceeds that required to power the absorption system. A gas-to-thermal uid waste heat recovery system has been designed, modelled and analysed. Model implementation permits simple and ecient calculation and analysis of various design geometries and thermal system optimization in practical applications. Thermal analysis of the heat recovery system shows the existence of optimum values for highest thermal uid temperature and maximum thermal uid temperature dierence, when minimum total heat transfer area is used as the design criterion. Results obtained from simulations of the system and the design of a practical application from real data show the feasibility of employing this type of heat recovery system in the case studied. An exhaust bypass control system is proposed and its operating function has been obtained and presented for the practical application considered.

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