NGO Profile: Aga Khan Foundation Coast Region - Kwale

DOCTOR OF EDUCATION PROGRAM: Contemporary Approaches to Educational Problems – Ed 855.716: Spring 2014
Name of Organization Aga Khan Foundation Coast Region URL Atrash Ali, Area Manager, Aga Khan Foundation – Coast Region Bondeni Primary School |Kisauni Road P.O. Box 99786, 80107 | Mombasa Tel: +254 20 2310852 | Mob: +254 722 859078 / +254 735 590355 Contact Information Rosemary Oyollo, Area Programs Manager – Aga Khan Foundation Coast Region Bondeni Primary School |Kisauni Road P.O. Box 99786, 80107 | Mombasa Tel: +254 20 2310852 | Mob: +254 733 444831 / +254 705 707281 Focus Access/Equity Location Kwale County Kwale County is located in south coast of Kenya, it borders the Republic of Tanzania to the South West, and the following Counties; Taita Taveta to the West, Kilifi to the North, Mombasa to the North East and the Indian Ocean to the East. Kwale County has 3 administrative districts –Kinango, Matuga and Msambweni. Public schools in the county have been performing dismally in national examinations over the past years. This has raised concerns among education stakeholders. Despite the many forums educationists and leaders have held in the past to lay strategies to improve education in the region, the county remains poor in provision of Context quality education and in national exam performance. Background of the issue The deteriorating education standards can be attributed to inadequacy and breakdown of essential learning facilities, persistent famine and extreme poverty, leading to parents’ inability to provide for the children’s education and other needs. In some schools in the marginal areas, pupils receive tuition under trees and makeshift classrooms while sitting on bare floor or stones. Retrogressive cultural beliefs and practices such as early marriages for the girl-child and a negative attitude towards education make it difficult for education to prosper in the region.

Witchcraft and superstition hinder learning in some areas where parents withdraw their children from schools suspected to be under an evil spell. Prolonged drought and famine, wildlife crop destruction in Kwale County poor educational infrastructure and lack of adequate personnel have all contributed to the poor academic performance, particularly in the marginal areas highly dependent on food aid. Two of its marginalized districts – Kinango and Msambweni- were among the 50 bottom districts nationally in the 2013 KCPE results. Paradoxically, even Matuga, a high potential area was not spared this ignominy. It barely improved by moving from position 43 to 41. The Challenge (1-2 lines) What are the barriers that challenge mainstreaming gender across the preschool and primary education system? What are the priorities that SESEA project should address to ensure that gender is woven into the fabric of the project? The Challenge (Longer The study will focus on understanding gender barriers in public pre primary Description) and primary schools in the region. Two of the cross cutting issues that SIP is addressing is gender inequity and inequality. The findings will be used to inform education stakeholders specifically district education officers, school management committees, teacher training on mitigating this challenge. It will also help us in our programming activities such as the need to improve teacher pedagogy to be more gender responsive, conduct Awareness campaigns and community involvement programs to change negative attitudes towards female education, sensitizing parents, guardians and policymakers about the detrimental cultural prejudices which discriminate against girls, early marriages through men’s and women’s groups, religious bodies, house-to house campaigns and seminars among others. One key asset that works for us is the existing gender policy in education by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoEST) and internal AKF Gender Policy. However, findings from the field show that most teachers, head teachers and parents are not aware of the policies. Beyond awareness there is need to devise ways of putting the policy into action especially in the rural areas. The project team also needs to understand and integrate new knowledge on gender equality to pass onto teachers and education officials during training workshops, education stakeholder forums, village meetings, and local chief ‘barazas’ (public meetings) etc.

The study will focus on sampled public primary schools and their respective catchment areas in Kwale county, specifically learners in classes 3 and 6 to establish enrolment trends and factors underpinning access and retention, participation in learning viz performance and completion of girls from a school and community level perspectives.


Name of Organization Aga Khan Development Network (East Africa) URL Anthony Gioko, Vice Principal, Professional Development Centre and Outreach, Aga Khan Academy, Mombasa |Mbuyuni Road, Kizingo P.O. Box 90066, 80100 | Mombasa, Kenya Contact Information Tel: + 020 232 7738 / 041 223 0049 |Mob: 0720 631 144, 0735 931 144, 0722 721656| Focus Access/Equity Location Mombasa County The Aga Khan Academies are an integrated network of schools in Africa, South and Central Asia, and the Middle East and provides a rigorous international standard of education combined with structured leadership-development and service experiences from pre-primary to upper secondary levels. The aim is to develop homegrown intellectual talent of exceptional calibre – boys and girls of great integrity, understanding and generosity of spirit who will become the men and women who will be leaders of their professions and who will build and lead Mission, Vision, institutions of civil society. History (and other The Aga Khan Academies have a dual mission: to provide an outstanding education information that allows to exceptional students from diverse backgrounds and to model and disseminate the Hopkins students to highly effective educational practice. The Professional Development Centre (PDC) know about the is dedicated to training new teachers to the highest standards, while offering organization (two-three veteran teachers the opportunity to stay on the cutting edge of education through paragraphs) research and practice. The PDCs offers a broad program of professional development for faculty and staff, including interactive learning techniques and student-centred teaching methods. In addition, offer interconnections through state-of-the-art information technology that allows teachers to collaborate, share best practices and teaching resources. Through similar linkages with universities across the globe, the PDCs will support faculty research aimed at creating new knowledge about teaching and learning. Background of the subjects. While Science and Mathematics subjects have been performed better by issue boys, the arts and languages especially English and Kiswahili has been a domain of girls only. A study done by University of Nairobi (2012) on gender differences in

Context The performance of girls and boys in national examinations has varied according to

performance of English in Mombasa county revealed that indeed girls outperformed boys in languages. The variance is explained by among other issues lack of effective teaching strategies, poor reading habits and attitude by boys. The Professional Development Centre through its outreach programs for teachers of English and teacher association meeting addresses challenges faced by language teachers and strategies to tackle them. The Challenge Gender differences in language performance in public schools in Mombasa County The Challenge (Longer Description) A critical evidence based study on the above will help Aga Khan Academy PDC in one of its gender training workshops and seminars with teachers and head Describe the challenge teachers. This will also provide basis for engagement with the county and district in terms of what education officials to further support teacher professional development, research can do to particularly gender responsive pedagogy. support progress toward your intended Some of the challenges include resource constraints as PDC has few staff and goal. What obstacles would require technical support to conduct short studies/research. There is also are you facing? the issue of financial constraints because the budget is already in place. The team Examples may include would also broadly need to integrate gender equality in all its programs including strategic design, training, monthly association meetings. resistance from above, The target is teachers, pupils and head teachers from 15-20 sampled Mombasa policy constraints, public primary schools. resource constraints, or integration of new knowledge on gender equality. The more focused the target (specific population and specific challenge), the more productive the results will be. Please keep in mind that we need to build a collaborative rapport, select the challenge, create a research design, write a paper, and create a slide presentation in 6 weeks

PROGRAM GOALS ADDRESSED IN THIS COURSE  Participate in a diverse community of educational practice.  Contribute to the public discourse on improvement of education.  Link education research to policy and practice.  Provide leadership in their education context by applying advanced theoretical perspectives to Problems of Practice.  Lead innovative education policy. PROGRAM COMPETENCIES ADDRESSED IN THIS COURSE  Identify the contextualized Problem of Practice.  Examine the Problem of Practice through multiple theoretical perspective(s).  Synthesize literature from multiple perspectives relevant to the Problem of Practice.  Formulate clearly stated and researchable question(s) relevant to the Problem of Practice.  Conduct a needs assessment to refine the Problem of Practice.  Communicate the outcome of needs assessment related to the Problem of Practice. Contemporary Approaches to Educational Problems (CAE) has been developed to serve as a template for investigating and refining your Problem of Practice (POP) including the following steps:  Framing an important, researchable question focused on a POP (theoretical, empirical, and/or contextual frame or lens for your investigation);  Planning and conducting a needs assessment to refine the question —determine the data and existing documents needed to refine the question; and  Provide some recommendation, policy, and/or question to address to focus the POP. Required Readings Boser, U. (2012). Race to the Top: What Have We Learned From States So Far? Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Retrieved from Donaldson, M.L. (2012). Teachers’ Perspectives on Evaluation Reform. Washingon, D.C.: Center for American Progress. Retrieved from Glazerman, S., Protik, A., B., T., Bruch, J., & Seftor, N. (2012). Moving High-Performing Teachers: Implementation of Transfer Incentives in Seven Districts. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Education Sciences. Retrieved from Goldhaber, D. (2002). The mystery of good teaching. Education Next, 2(1), 50-55. Retrieved from

Goe, L., Bell, C., & Little, O. (2008). Approaches to Evaluating Teacher Effectiveness: A Research Synthesis. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from [Read pp. 1-19] Levačid, R. (2009). Teacher incentives and performance: An application of principal -agent theory. Oxford Development Studies, 37(1), 33-46. doi 10.1080/13600810802660844 Marzano, R., Frontier, T., & and Livingston, D. (2011). Effective Supervision. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Read Ch. 2 A Brief History of Supervision and Evaluation Measures of Effective Teaching (2013). Ensuring fair and reliable measures of effective teaching: Culminating findings from the MET project’s three-year study. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved from actitioner_Brief.pdf Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. (1979). Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW). New York: United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved from Temin, M. & Levine, R. (2009). Start with a girl: A new agenda for global health. Washington, D.C.: Center for Global Development. Retrieved from United Nations. (2010). Resources for speakers on global issues: Millennium development goals. New York: United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved from United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. (n.d.). UNESCO eAtlas of Gender Equality in Education. Paris, France: Author. Retrieved from Van der Gaag, N. (2013). Because I am a girl: state of the world’s girls 2013 – In double jeopardy: adolescent girls and disasters. Brussels, Belgium: Plan. Retrieved from Weisberg, D., Sexton, S., Mulhern, J., & Keeling, D. (2009). The Widget Effect: Our National Failure to Acknowledge and Act on Differences in Teacher Effectiveness. Brooklyn, NY: The New Teacher Project. Retrieved from Yellin, T., and Jennings, K. F. (Producers), & Robbins, R. (Director). (2013). Remarkable stories of nine girls around the world - told by celebrated writers and voiced by renowned actors (Motion picture). United States: Ten Times Ten and Vulcan Productions. Retrieved from

Assignments In this course, there are three major assignments: (1) Case Study 1—Teacher Effectiveness and Evaluation (25%), (2) Case Study 2—Girl’s Education (25%), and (3) a Literature Review based on your Problem of Practice (30%). In the first case study, students will be responsible for an individual assignment and a team presentation. In the second case study, students will be responsible for a team paper and team presentation. Finally, you will write a literature review focused on the contextual, empirical, and theoretical perspectives to inform your POP project and your needs assessment for your Research Methods and Systematic Inquiry I course. In addition, 20% of your grade will be derived from your participation with your team on the collaborative team projects. Assignment descriptions and rubrics are provided within the course sessions. Evaluation and Grading Team discussion participation = 20% Case Study 1 – Individual assignment = 10% Case Study 1 – Team presentation = 15% Case Study 2 – Girl's education team paper = 15% Case Study 2 – Girls education team presentation = 10% Literature review = 20% POP Literature Review Presentation = 10%
A 94-96% Assignments worth 10% Assignments worth 15% Assignments worth 20% 10% 15% 20% 9.4-9.6 14.1-14.4 18.8-19.2 A89-92% 8.9-9.2 13.35-13.8 17.8-18.4 B+ 88-91% 8.8-9.1 13.2-13.65 17.6-18.2 B 84-86% 8.4-8.6 12.6-12.9 16.8-17.2 B79-82% 7.9-8.2 11.85-12.3 15.8-16.4 C+ 78-81% 7.8-8.1 11.7-12.15 15.6-16.2 C 74-76% 7.4-7.6 11.1-11.4 14.8-15.2





Grading Scale A = 94-100% A= 90-93% B+ = 87-89% B = 84-86% B= 80-83% C+ = 77-79% C = 74-76% C= 70-73% F = 0-69% The grades of D+, D, and D- are not awarded at the graduate level.

Course Outline Session Dates
Session 1 1/27 – 2/9

The Case of Teacher Effectiveness

Goldhaber, D (2002); Goe, L., Bell, C., & Little, O. (2008); Measures of Effective Teaching (2013).

Assignments Due
2/9 – Submit Initial Search Strategy for Literature Review

Session 2

2/10 – 2/23

Lit Review Work Week Analyzing the Case of Teacher Effectiveness Introduction to Girls Education Select required and supplemental readings from session 1 Yellin, T., and Jennings, K. F. (Producers), & Robbins, R. (Director). (2013); Yousafzai, M. (2013, July 12); Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. (1979); United Nations. (2010); Center for Civic Partnerships. (2013); Aspen Institute. (2013) United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. (n.d.); Temin, M. & Levine, R. (2009); Van der Gaag, N. (2013).

Session 3

2/24 – 3/9

Session 4

3/10 – 3/23

2/23 – Submit 1 – 2 page description of constructs for Lit Review 3/6 – Teams post presentation 3/9 – Individuals submit assignment I don’t have dates for when the assignments are due. 3/10 – 3/16: Synch Session with instructor 3/17 – 3/23: Synch Session with NGO

Session 5

3/24 – 4/20

Girls Education Work Weeks

I don’t have dates for when the assignments are due.Team Presentation and Team Paper due 4/20

Session 6 Session 7

4/21 – 4/27 4/28 – 5/10

Lit Review Work Week Moving Forward: Initiating the Development of a Problem of Practice

5/4 – Post Individual Lit Review Presentations 5/5 - 5/10 – Provide Feedback on Students’ Presentations 5/10 – Submit Literature Review

Late Assignments Assignments are due at the designated time. An electronic copy must be submitted to Gradebook or other specified website. Assignments turned in late will have a 10% penalty. Assignments submitted more than a week later than the due date will graded at the discretion of the faculty.

Participation Active engagement is an essential component of the learning process. Participation in online courses includes active reading and discussion within online forums and activities during the session in which the class is engaged with the same content. Students are expected to log into the course, monitor team discussions, and engage as appropriate throughout each session. In addition, team members will have need to participate in team activities and assignments. Each team member will provide feedback to their teammates, which will be used by your instructor in submitting your participation grade. Please notify the instructor in the case that you are not able to participate in a session at the designated time. See the student grading and evaluation section of your syllabus for the relative weighting of discussion. Academic Conduct The School of Education defines academic misconduct as any intentional or unintentional act that provides an unfair or improper advantage beyond a student’s own work, intellect, or effort, including but not limited to cheating, fabrication, plagiarism, unapproved multiple submissions, or helping others engage in misconduct. This includes the misuse of electronic media, text, print, images, speeches and ideas. Any act that violates the spirit of authorship or gives undue advantage is a violation. Students are responsible for understanding what constitutes academic misconduct. (Please refer to the School of Education’s Academi c Catalog for the current academic year for more information on the School’s policies and procedures relating to academic conduct--, see Academic and Student Conduct Policies under the Academic Policies section.) Please note that student work may be submitted to an online plagiarism detection tool at the discretion of the course instructor. If student work is deemed plagiarized, the course instructor shall follow the policy and procedures governing academic misconduct as laid out in the School of Education’s Academic Catalog. Policy on Academic Integrity The School of Education has adopted a policy regarding academic integrity that reads in part: The University reserves the right to dismiss at any time a student whose academic standing or general conduct is considered unsatisfactory…School of Education s tudents assume an obligation to conduct themselves in a manner appropriate to the Johns Hopkins University’s mission as an institution of higher education and with accepted standards of ethical and professional conduct. Students must demonstrate personal integrity and honesty at all times in completing classroom assignments and examinations, in carrying out their fieldwork or other applied learning activities, and in their interactions with others. Students are obligated to refrain from acts they know or, under the circumstances, have reason to know will impair their integrity or the integrity of the University. Violations of academic integrity and ethical conduct include, but are not limited to cheating, plagiarism, unapproved multiple submissions, knowingly furnishing false or incomplete information to

any agent of the University for inclusion in academic records, violation of the rights of human and animal subjects in research, and falsification, forgery, alteration, destruction, or misuse of the University seal and official documents. (For further information on what constitutes cheating, plagiarism, etc., please see Appendix B, Fostering an Academic Community Based on Integrity. For violations related to non-academic conduct matters, see Policies Governing Student Conduct.) (Johns Hopkins University School of Education, 2010) For more information regarding Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s academic policy, view the Johns Hopkins University School of Education Academic Policy Manual: Academic Year 2010-2011 at Plagiarism It is important to distinguish between plagiarism and the legitimate presentation of the work of other through quotations or paraphrasing. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) gives the following guidance: Plagiarism (Principle 1.10). Researchers do not claim the words and ideas of another as their own; they give credit where credit is due (APA Ethics Code Standard 8.11, Plagiarism).Quotation marks should be used to indicate the exact words of another. Each time your paraphrase another author (i.e., summarize a passage or rearrange the order of a sentence and change some of the words), you need to credit the source in the text. The following paragraph is an example of how one might appropriately paraphrase some of the foregoing material this section: As stated in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010), the ethical principles of scientific publication are designed to ensure the integrity of scientific knowledge and to protect the intellectual property rights of others. As the Publication Manual explains, authors are expected to correct the record if they discover errors in their publications; they are also expected to give credit to others for their work when it is quoted or paraphrased. The key element of this principle is that an author does not present the work of another as if it were his or her own work. This can extend to ideas as well as written words. (p. 349) You should review the rules for quoting and paraphrasing the work of other that are given in sections 3.34-3.41of the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual. Policy on Incomplete Grades The School of Education has adopted the following policy regarding incomplete grades:

An I (Incomplete) grade is used when the instructor is not prepared to give a final grade for the course because of some justifiable delay in the student’s completion of specific coursework. A final grade is submitted to the Office of the Registrar by the instructor (using the Grade Change Form, See Appendix A) after the student’s completed work has been graded, provided the work was done within the agreed time frame. In the event that the work is not completed within the agreed time frame, and no grade is reported within four weeks after the start of the following semester, a grade of “F” replaces the “I” on the student’s academic transcript. The Academic Year Calendar details the last date that students may submit incomplete work for each semester. (p. 41) (Johns Hopkins University School of Education, 2010) For more information regarding Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s academic policy, view the Johns Hopkins University School of Education Academic Policy Manual: Academic Year 2010-2011 at Religious Observance Accommodation Policy Religious holidays are valid reasons to be excused from participating in an online course on a particular day or days during a session. Students who are not able to participate on a particular day typically do not need to inform the instructor unless a specific assignment is due on that day. Please make alternative arrangements to submit an assignment on another day during the session. It is expected that students will complete all work within every session of the course. Statement of Academic Continuity Please note that in the event of serious consequences arising from extreme weather conditions, communicable health problems, or other extraordinary circumstances, the School of Education may change the normal academic schedule and/or make appropriate changes to course structure, format, and delivery. In the event such changes become necessary, information will be posted on the School of Education web site. Accommodations for Students with Disabilities If you are a student with a documented disability who requires an academic adjustment, auxiliary aid or other similar accommodations, please contact Jennifer Eddinger in the Disability Services Office at 410-516-9734 or via email at Statement of Diversity and Inclusion Johns Hopkins University is a community committed to sharing values of diversity and inclusion in order to achieve and sustain excellence. We believe excellence is best promoted by being a diverse group of students, faculty, and staff who are committed to creating a climate of mutual respect that is supportive of one another’s success. Through its curricula and clinical experiences, the School of Education purposefully supports the University’s goal of diversity, and, in particular, works toward an ultimate outcome of best serving the needs of all students

in K-12 schools and/or the community. Faculty and candidates are expected to demonstrate a commitment to diversity as it relates to planning, instruction, management, and assessment. IDEA Course Evaluation Please remember to complete the IDEA course evaluation for this course. These evaluations are an important tool in the School of Education’s ongoing efforts to improve instructional quality and strengthen its programs. The results of the IDEA course evaluations are kept anonymous— your instructor will only receive aggregated data and comments for the entire class. Typically, an email with a link to the online course evaluation form will be sent to your JHU email address approximately 85% of the way through the course. Thereafter, you will be sent periodic email reminders until you complete the evaluation. The deadline for completing the evaluation is normally one week after the last meeting of class. Please remember to activate your JHU email account and to check it regularly. (Please note that it is the School of Education’s policy to send all faculty, staff, and student email communications to a JHU email address, rather than to personal or alternative work email addresses.) If you are unsure how to activate your JHU email account, if you’re having difficulty accessing the course evaluations or you haven’t received an email reminder by the day of the last class, or if you have any questions in general about the IDEA course evaluation process, please contact Jenna Ballard (410-516-9710;

Supplemental Readings Curtis, R. (2012). Building it together: The design and implementation of Hillsborough County Public Schools’ teacher evaluation system. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute. Retrieved from Curtis, R. (2012). Putting the pieces in place: Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public Schools’ teacher evaluation system. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute. Retrieved from Glazerman, S., Loeb, S., Goldhaber, D., Staiger, D., Raudenbush, S., & Whitehurst, G. (2010). Evaluating teachers: The important role of value-added. Washington, DC: The Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings. Retrieved from ers/1117_evaluating_teachers.pdf Hansen, M. (2013). Anticipating innovation in teacher evaluation systems: Lessons for researchers and policymakers. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved from Ho, A. D., & Kane, T. J. (2013). The reliability of classroom observations by school personnel. Retrieved from _Paper.pdf Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2012). Gathering feedback for teaching: Combining high-quality observations with student surveys and achievement gains. Retrieved from Kane, T. J., McCaffrey, D. F., Miller, T., & Staiger, D. O. (2013). Have we identified effective teachers? Validating measures of effective teaching using random assignment. Retrieved from _Paper.pdf Measures of Effective Teacher Project. (2012). Asking students about teaching: Student perception surveys and their implementation. Retrieved from Measures of Effective Teacher Project. (2012). Gathering feedback for teaching: Combining high-quality observations with student surveys and achievement gains. Retrieved from Measures of Effective Teacher Project. (2013). Feedback for better teaching: Nine principles for using measures of effective teaching. Retrieved from pdf

Measures of Effective Teacher Project. (n.d.). Learning about teaching: Initial findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project. Retrieved from Mihaly, K., McCaffrey, D. F., Staiger, D. O., & Lockwood, J. R. (2013). A composite estimator of effective teaching. Retrieved from earch_Paper.pdf Sanders, W. L., & Horn, S. P. (1994). The Tennessee value-added assessment system (TVAAS): Mixedmodel methodology in educational assessment, 8, 299-311. Retrieved from Tyler, J. H. (2011). Designing high quality evaluation systems for high school teachers: Challenges and potential solutions. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Wise, A. E., Darling-Hammond, L., McLaughlin, M. W., & Burnstein, H. T. (1985). Teacher evaluation: A study of effective practices, The Elementary School Journal, 86, 60-121. Retrieved from Websites and videos: *View the video titled Measures of Effective Teaching Video View several video recordings listed below from the MET website (based on team choice) ( 1. Introduction and a variety of indicators ( 2. Section 1 – High quality classroom observations in four steps ( 3. Section 2 – The strengths and weaknesses of the measures ( 4. The different strengths and weaknesses of measures ( 5. Combining measures improved reliability as well as predictive power ( 6. Section 3 – Compared to what? ( *Baltimore City Public Schools Evaluation and Promotion Website (peruse) ( *Guidebook to the Teacher Effectiveness Evaluation for Baltimore City Public Schools (peruse) ( *Danielson Video of Teacher Effectiveness: RAND Website on Teacher Effectiveness Met Project website

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