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The Original Chrysler Hemi Engine The decision made by Chrysler Corporation in the late 1940s concerning building

a V-8 engine lead to one of the most technologically advanced automotive engine designs in the world !ith it" new ground in terms of performance" was created" in that it lead the way for ma#ing power $ow the engine got produced is an intriguing story That it did get the go-ahead from a very staunch group of ultra conservative engineers is a testament to the basic design itself %t has been well documented that with the release of the first generation of $emi headed V-8 engines" Chrysler set off the &horsepower wars& of the early 19'0s that lasted into the early 19(0s Certainly" it forced )eneral *otors and +ord *otor Company to #eep upping the ante in ma#ing more power from their engines %f you loo# at applications running today" you have to go no further than the ma,or drag racing organi-ations The top engines for producing huge amounts of horsepower" along with one that continues to set speed records" are those with hemispherical heads on them The early $emi lead Chrysler to develop the second generation of the $emi headed V-8 .nd as this is written" a third generation is proving its worth in current Chrysler vehicles Chrysler Corporation began testing different engine designs prior to the beginning of !orld !ar %% /inpointing an e0act date is ,ust not possible since the records in that era were spotty" misplaced" or not recorded at all +rom all indications the wor# of ma#ing new engines got started in 191( This wor# continued during the war" and of course" went right on" after the war was concluded 2othing was left to con,ecture" however" with every imaginable type of engine receiving scrutiny by Chrysler 3ngineering This included but was not limited to a ' cylinder in line" several 4 cylinder inlines" 40 degree V-4s" 90 degree V-4s" and of course several 90 degree V-8s .ll sorts of different e0haust and inta#e combinations were tried The 90 degree V-4 was found to be very unsatisfactory because it lac#ed smoothness The weight and length of a straight 8 engine was now considered as too heavy and too long Two stro#e cycle engines were re,ected because they were noisy and smo#y The advent of !orld !ar %% did not stop the engineering department from wor#ing on new engines 5ut of need" these men developed a superb tan# engine by combining five inline flathead /lymouth 4 cylinder engines in a radial combination that wor#ed on a single common cran#shaft %t was rugged" durable" powerful" and fairly economical as well %t went on to power hundreds of tan#s that were also being built at the Chrysler Corporation 5ne of those engines is on display in the !alter / Chrysler *useum in .uburn $ills" *ichigan6 another is at the 2ew 3ngland .ir *useum .long the way" the engineering staff" lead by 7upervising 3ngineer 8ohn /latner" had began to use a single cylinder engine to test new head designs or combustion chambers Their concern at that time was the loss of volumetric and thermal efficiency due to carbon deposits 7ome losses would occur with as little as 10"000 miles on an engine 5nce these deposits got started" they would ,ust increase until engine power would be down as much as 90: - a truly noticeable difference 5ne area that had shown really true promise was the hemispherical combustion chamber The standard wisdom about such a &$emi& was that the engine was rough and li#ed high octane fuel .s well" the cost and comple0ity in manufacturing such an engine could not be ,ustified in a mass production environment ;et" testing results indicated that ,ust the opposite seemed to be true concerning the $emi

Chrysler had begun development of two large hemispherical headed engines during !orld !ar %% 5ne was a V-19 for application in tan#s and the other was a V-14 operating in a inverted position for the aircraft industry 2either of these engines ever reached production - not because they weren<t good" but because there was ,ust so many other things going on" and winning the war was ,ob number 1 The first Chrysler Hemi - an airplane engine !hat did come from testing the aircraft engine was ,ust another Chrysler accomplishment that went by unheralded but was nevertheless noted later The inverted V-14 was conservatively rated at 9"'00 horsepower" and Chrysler has always been #nown for under rating their engines The hemispherical chamber, as the name implies, is a portion of the sphere. And here you can see the arch shape of the sphere itself. With this we can bring the spark plug into the center of the chamber which is an excellent position for the spark plug. The same shape over in this view allows us to put the valves in a position where when they open, like this inlet valve, it has excellent breathing of the air past the valve seat. This combination of the excellent breathing, of the inlet and the exhaust makes for a very high volumetric efficiency of the engine. Willem Weertman on the 4 ! "emi +or testing" a /-4( Thunderbolt was selected %ntroduced in 1941" the /-4( was the largest and heaviest single seater in the .ir +orce inventory at the time %t was powered by a huge 9"800 cubic inch radial engine that developed 9"100 horsepower %t gave the 40 foot wing span plane a top speed of 419 miles an hour at 1'"000 feet 7ome modifications were necessary to accommodate the long V-14 !hen done" the slimmed down nose actually helped reduce the drag produced by the big round radial /reliminary testing showed promise )ingerly the big fighter was coa0ed slowly into higher altitudes and higher speeds +inally the go ahead was given for an all out test .t 1'"000 feet" the huge plane" under the Chrysler V-14<s power" bro#e the '00 mile an hour barrier 2o one thought it was possible for a piston engine to achieve that speed in level flight Than#s to accurate radar timing" it is beyond doubt how powerful that engine truly was +lat out" it pulled the huge /-4( along at '04 miles an hour Conventional wisdom at that time said that the V-14 was ma#ing at least 1"000 horsepower" and li#ely closer to 1"'00= 8ust to be sure" the test /-4( went out the ne0t day with a different test pilot and again level at 1'"000 feet" went through the '00 mile an hour mar# $and sha#es and elation went all around $owever" the engine never went into production The important thing to #eep in mind about this engine is that it was a $emi headed" push rod valve activated type %t survived the war" and now is on display at the !alter / Chrysler *useum in .uburn $ills" *ichigan >.ccording to ?ob 2ist" a Chrysler ad in Space Smithsonian mentioned three of these engines made6 one is at the 7mithsonian" and the third" according to @on !agner" is in the 2ew 3ngland .ir *useum in Connecticut A Editor's note: The Continental "Hyper" inverted-V12 engine feat red "spherical" com! stion cham!ers and sodi m cooled e"ha st valves# This engine prod ced 1$%&& hp# in 1'()$ and *as tested in the +oc,heed -.-(' and /c0onnell -.-%1# +i,e the Chrysler V1%$ it *as never made in mass prod ction#

Hemispherical heads in cars: the state of the art .t the end of the war" of course" engineering now #new how good the $emi heads could be 2ot that they were something new or invented by Chrysler The first recorded use of a $emispherical combustion chamber was a four cylinder affair that powered a car named the &!elch & There seems to be a conflict as the origin of the !elch 5ne records it as being a *ichigan company" while another e0cellent source said that it was a ?ritish design Chrysler was also not the first company to test or use the $emi heads on an engine %t was the design of choice for many famous marBues in the automotive industry *iller racing @uesenberg 7tut- 5ffenhauser .ll high performance machinery There is an urban legend about the legendary )eneral *otors engineer Cora @untov" better #nown as the father of the Chevrolet Corvette ?efore coming to )*" he designed a set of $emi heads that were retrofitted to the +ord flathead V-8 Degend has it that Chrysler somehow &borrowed& the design from @untov 2othing could be further from the truth @untov didn<t #now anything about what Chrysler was doing" and Chrysler had entered into $emi engineering long before @untov began construction of his aftermar#et" bolt on heads %f anyone at Chrysler was aware of the @untov innovation" it was certainly never ac#nowledged . @untov headed +ord V-8 is on display at the @on )arlits 7peed *useum in 5cala" +lorida .t first glance" it certainly appears to resemble the +ire /ower That would only reinforce the fact that great minds travel in the same circles Walter #. $hrysler was always proud of the %boys% in engineering, but he could still disparage them with the best of his well&known temper. The Airflow may have been meant for 'e(oto only, but Walter wanted it yesterday for $hrysler. The engineering staff advised it was being rushed and that manufacturing wasn)t up to making sure that the line techni*ues were going to ensure a *uality car, but Walter kept up the pressure. That gave +eneral ,otors, which was running scared of the design, time to spread vicious rumors about it. 3ngineering held sway at Chrysler at the time !alter / Chrysler had gotten his start with a car that was designed and built by three engineers who had been wor#ing for 7tudeba#er +red Ceder" 5 E 7#elton" and Carl ?reer made it possible for !alter Chrysler to be able to introduce the first true high compression in line 4 cylinder flathead engine in his 1994 Chrysler car They also saw to it that the Chrysler had the new Doc#heed hydraulic bra#es on all four wheels ?reer was credited or panned" whichever way you choose to loo# at it" with the styling and engineering development of the 1914 .irflow Chrysler That model has now been credited with being the first car of its time from which all modern designs are now based $ad it not been rushed" it would have been a great success !or#ing in the engine development area was 8ames Ceder" the younger brother of +red !or#ing for 8ames were Eay !hite" *el Carpentier" and !illiam @rin#ard 8oining this group was a young 3v *oeller" one of the first graduates of the Chrysler %nstitute in 1919 $e came aboard the automobile engine development team in 194( after wor#ing through the war in the aircraft engine development program These men tested virtually every engine they could find in every combination that they could thin# of 5ne of the engines they tested that truly stood out for power and efficiency was built in 3ngland by $ealey %t was used in a small passenger car %t had twin camshafts" located in the bloc# They operated push rods for the overhead valves in the hemispherical combustion chambers %t was a long sto#e" small bore engine" yet it made the most power for its si-e of any engine they had tested to date

8ohn /latner testing the different configurations on the single cylinder engine in the lab" found the $emi head was displaying characteristics opposite of what the established doctrine indicated The $emi limited #noc#ing %t also had far superior volumetric and thermal efficiency !ith a compression ratio of ( 0 F 1" the $emi beat the D-head which reBuired a compression ratio of 10 0 F 1 to achieve the same results The overhead valve arrangement was somewhat better than that" but suffered from losses in volumetric efficiency" and the valves did not last %t was clear that the $emispherical combustion chambered heads were superior to all else The inta#e valve was situated close to the manifold and carburetor .t an angle of '8 degrees across the top of the combustion chamber" the e0haust valve allowed magnificently efficient burnt gas releases ?ecause of this" the heads e0tended valve life" aiding in effective uniform valve stem cooling and valve seat cooling inside the chamber !ith that information in hand" 8ames Ceder elected to go ahead and test the head on one of Chrysler<s e0isting engines . double overhead camshaft arrangement driven by a dual chain had to be made to accommodate the $emi shaped combustion chamber 5nce that was done" and suitable modifications made to the Chrysler 4 cylinder engine" it was installed in a Chrysler car The test vehicle went to !allace Cierer" who was in charge of getting results in actual road test conditions *r Cierer reported significant power increases The engine ran easily on the 80 octane fuel that was standard for the time Eoughness" which was the current theory about hemispherical heads" ,ust did not e0ist under any condition The $emi head 4 cylinder engine actually being smoother than the flathead 4 cylinder" with a nearly undetectable level of noise and vibration at idle speeds Chrysler Corporation background: complacency The .irflow was mentioned earlier in this article for a reason %t had been a commercial sales flop %t nearly sent @e7oto" with only an .irflow design as a single body style in the introduction year of 1914" into insolvency= The Chrysler line had a companion ma#e called the C. 7i0 G&.irstream&H" which was conventionally styled That #ept the wolf from Chrysler<s door in 1914 !alter Chrysler stepped down from his own company the very ne0t year $e complained mightily about his own engineering staff 7ome speculate he was displeased with their caution in getting the .irflow to mar#et Gsee earlier sidebarH . whole chapter could be devoted to this and % will not go there in this" e0cept to set the bac#ground for the mood in Chrysler that prevailed after the failure of the .irflow The Corporation stopped innovating" and if you are not constantly evolving" the business is standing still .fter allowing the .irflow to die a slow death when the 191( model year was over" Chrysler Corporation did not reach out to any innovative style or even new engineering for a listless period of nearly two decades . prime e0ample concerning the lac# of engineering innovations was in the area of transmissions )eneral *otors used 5ldsmobile as its e0perimental or introductory division for new engineering %n 191(" as the .irflow was being left to wither" 5ldsmobile Galong with" briefly" ?uic#H introduced a 4 speed semi-automatic transmission with planetary gears %t used a standard pedal operated clutch" but had no fluid coupling The driver had to declutch in order to shift it into reverse or a forward range when the vehicle was standing still" and also while bra#ing to a standstill 7hift points were

determined by throttle opening and vehicle speed6 shifts did not reBuire letting up the accelerator" and there was no &clun#ing& into the ne0t higher gear The two forward ranges could be used in seBuence to get four speed operation" by using the &D& range to get rolling in first gear" after which the first-to-second shift would automatically occur The driver could then move the shift lever to the &$& position without declutching or letting up the accelerator to progress into third gear The transmission would automatically shift into fourth when needed with no pause" as was reBuired in Chrysler<s *4 5ptionally" the driver could move from a standstill in the &$& range" in which the transmission only used first" third" and fourth The transmission provided full throttle downshift for passing .cceleration was leisurely" but it certainly made for a lot of publicity .fter all" it was the first real attempt at innovation in transmissions . limited e0tra cost option for 5ldsmobile in 191(" it was offered across the board in 1918 Gand in the ?uic# 7pecial" but their rigid torBue tube made shifts harsh and hurt reliability" so it was soon droppedH 98"000 installations were recorded The industry was put on notice with that $hrysler)s first %tor*ue converter% was technically a fluid coupling, which converted tor*ue into forward motion without a clutch. Chrysler had to ta#e notice of 5ldsmobile<s semi-automatic" and installed a torBue converter ahead of a conventional clutch" which drove a regular three speed transmission %t had the similar effect of clutchless driving in that the car could be left in third gear Gor whatever gear was selectedH all the time ;ou only had to use the clutch when shifting gears .cceleration was very leisurely" but it wor#ed" and #ept costs of development low %t too# Chrysler two years to get that far 7o when the &+luid @riving& e0perience was introduced in 1919" besides being limited to the top of the line Chrysler cars only" 5ldsmobile had shot by Chrysler big time with its derivative of the semiautomatic that had evolved into the first fully clutchless truly automatic transmission" the $ydra-*atic /eople couldn<t get enough of the I'( option .lthough it operated through a comple0 set of gears" clutches and bra#e bands" it was solid" rugged and very reliable %t was offered in all 1919 5ldsmobile models6 the very ne0t year" Cadillac and /ontiac had the $ydra-matic in all their car lines" and it was being sold in 2ash" $udson" Jaiser and +ra-ier automobiles Chrysler did very little in response +inally" in 1941" Chrysler introduced fluid drive to the @odge lines and the *4 to the Chrysler and @e7oto lines G2o e0planation for not giving either to /lymouth" their largest producer H They answered the $ydra-*atic with a new semiautomatic *echanically it was less comple0" and used engine vacuum to operate the bands in Dow or $igh ranges for the four speeds @ubbed &Vacu-matic"& it was less than could have been e0pected for such a great team of engineers .fter all" at that point" 3ngineering was running the Chrysler Corporation= $emi .nderson" with 48 years as a *opar mechanic" wroteF KThe *4 transmission had no bands6 it had synchroni-ed low and high ranges and was governorLsolenoid operated !ith the fluid drive coupling they were called )yro-matic and with torBue converter" V8 only" it was called )yro-torBue Gthis was introduced with the 19'1 @odge Eed Eam V8" its only year in the @odge6 /owerflite followed in 19'4 H That was the mood in and around Chrysler Corporation as it entered the war years %t was li#e a period of hibernation The head of Chrysler" J T Jeller often described himself as &a machinist by trade & $e never developed the legendary s#ills that his boss had in engineering" styling" sales" and human resources Jeller was more interested in rema#ing the conference room than new designs6 he loved to micromanage" and wouldn<t ta#e advice The lac# of decisions was being

reinforced with the decline of the +ord *otor Company because it pushed Chrysler Corporation into being the number two vehicle producer This status lasted past the end of the war" with Chrysler remaining number two in vehicle production in 194( and 1948 )iven the high sales figures in the warmed over 1941-style 194( and 1948 cars" the corporationMs leaders ignored the styling changes and engineering innovations coming from the other car companies" which ended up bac#firing as they lost their N9 position The production version of the Chrysler Hemi V8 gets approved !ith tough standards %nto this climate came the younger brother of +red Ceder" 8ames" leading an innovative" aggressive group of engineers" who wanted to build a hemispherical head" compact-bloc#" 90 degree V-8 to power Chrysler cars %n any corporation" there are wide differences of opinion Care has to be ta#en whenever you try to advance your idea because other guys who want to advance their ideas act against you !hen 8ames Ceder made his presentation for the new V-8" his own brother" +red Ceder" told the group that Chrysler had made its money on straight engines +red would have no part of a V-8 and never would % can<t imagine how 8ames must have felt with that from his own brother !illiam @rin#ard had become *anager of the 3ngine @evelopment @epartment in 1941 $e and 8ohn /latner refused to give up on the concept of a compact $emi headed V-86 it was well #nown that Cadillac and 5ldsmobile were wor#ing diligently on their own compact V-8 engines slated for introduction in model year 1949 Ta#ing the concept to the boardroom resulted in some heavy arguments . large group of research e0perts were brought in and total confusion reined +inally" the Chief 5perating 5fficer stepped in J T Jeller had been personally selected by !alter Chrysler to succeed him 2ormally very conservative" J T said to @rin#ard6 &?ill" % thin# you have the right plan & That settled the issue and turned everything around !ithin a few wee#s" in 1948" the engineers had a 110 cubic inch 90 V-8 with $emi heads running in the laboratory @esignated the .189" this engine was e0clusively used on a dynamometer to evaluate its performance and characteristics .fter many tests" Chrysler management was suitably impressed They gave the 5 J for an engine of this si-e and type to be designed for production The $emi was to be= !ith the order in hand" *el Carpentier<s department built the prototype $emi V-8 @esignated model .919" it had a slightly higher displacement at 111 cubic inches" and was shorter and lighter than the .189 %t was built with manufacturing considerations foremost in mind6 and to specifications laid down by !illiam @rin#ard" head of engine development $e wanted a 100"000 mile engine and would accept nothing less %t was a ma,or effort to achieve those standards" but @rin#ard was resolved 2o ma,or parts" such as bearings" valves" pistons" and rings" were to be replaced at anything less than 100"000 miles . ma,or obstacle right off was premature camshaft wear %t was Chrysler<s first attempt at a production overhead valve engine" and they were not familiar with valve loading" which caused the area between the valve tappets and the camshaft lobe to wear very Buic#ly 7ome of the prototype engines failed right in the engine plant They wouldn<t have gone a hundred miles" let alone 100"000 ?ob Eodger Glater to be head of development of the 100H was called in with a team to assist in solving the wear problem !ith a lot of trial and error" eventually the highly s#illed engineers did resolve the issue" with a change in the tappet

material and the method in which the face of the tappet was formed" to reduce the valve unit load6 they also added a graphite coating and specified an additive for the engine oil .nother ma,or hurdle was how to enable spar# plug changes without ta#ing off the large valve covers This was finally resolved by using a steel tube that went through the valve cover" a long ceramic boot over the spar# plug" and an 5-ring to seal the tube against the valve cover to prevent oil lea#s The spar# plug tubes and wires were put underneath a cover that had the wires e0iting at the bac# of the engine which gave the new V-8 a clean loo# 5ther engine improvements included shot peening the cran#shaft to reduce fatigue and having it machined to remove any tool mar#s or surface roughness The tappets were hydraulic to enhance Buiet" smooth operation" and to increase valve life through constant control of opening and closing Chrysler wor#ed with the Carter Company to develop a water ,ac#eted carburetor with an integral automatic cho#e to ensure that the new engine would not stall or develop ice within the carb . dual brea#er ignition was developed to insure constant" hot spar#ing while maintaining a reserve of ignition voltage +inally" after over 8"000 hours of rigorous dynamometer testing" and more than '00"000 miles of road testing for reliability" the Chrysler V-8 was ready for production ?ased upon the data submitted from all the tests" the engine was finally ready .long the way" the new engine had been designated &+ire /ower & 7o certain were the management team of the success of this engine that some months into the testing of the +ire /ower" orders had been sent out to @e7oto and to @odge to submit proposals for a $emi V-8 of their own /lymouth seemed to have been left out" a portent for the future %ntroduced in the fall of 19'0 as a 19'1 model" the +ire /ower V-8 was offered as on option in the 7aratoga Ge0cept for the coupe modelsH" while it was standard in the 2ew ;or#er and %mperial The lesser !indsor models made do with the flat head si0 of 9'0 cubic inches The +ire /ower was an oversBuare engine6 the bore G1 81 inchesH was larger than the stro#e G1 41 inchesH .s built it had a displacement of 111 1 cubic inches The inta#e valve was 1 81 inches6 and positioned '8 'O across the hemisphere was the 1 '-inch-diameter e0haust valve" both actuated by pushrods operating roc#er arms The roc#ers rode on twin shafts %t was well damped" and the cran#shaft rode on ' main bearings Chrysler designed the pistons to be able to &slip& between the cran#shaft counterweights at the bottom of the stro#e" achieving a much smoother running engine" with less friction and slower wear characteristics The engineers also built the +ire /ower to run with slower piston speeds which ensured long piston and ring life The bloc# was relatively light" short and very rigid !ith a two barreled carb it made 180 horsepower GgrossH and 119 foot pounds of torBue The introductory compression ratio was ( 0F1 7ome criticism was leveled at the weight of the engine" in particular the $emi heads6 a single $emi head" fully assembled" weighed 119 pounds" while a Cadillac engine head weighed 91 pounds Critical comments had less sting because both engines weighed in at (00 pounds The $emi beat out Cadillac<s V-8 by 90 horsepower while using less sBuee-e than that Cadillac<s ( ' F 1 ratio The Cadillac and +ire /ower V8s measured out 111 cubic inches !hether ma#ing the engine the same si-e was deliberately done on Chrysler<s part is ,ust con,ecture - rightP

+rom the very start" performance was on everyone<s mind 7omeone convinced Chrysler management to install the +ire /ower into a 7aratoga Club Coupe %t was the lightest body manufactured by Chrysler at the time Eeleased in 8uly of 19'1" the +ire /ower 7aratoga Coupe was a first shot response to 5ldsmobile doing the same thing in 19'0 when they installed their V-8 in an 88 Coupe The 7aratoga was a real fire crac#er right off the production line %t would sprint the car from rest to 40 miles an hour in 19 seconds flat= %t beat Cadillac<s 11 ' second run" and 5lds< 19 ' second time %t ran the 1L4 mile in 18 seconds at around 89 miles an hour" about as fast as any stoc# car off the show room floor that was around The Chrysler 2ew ;or#er Convertible was chosen as the pace car for the %ndianapolis '00 race FIRST RACE WON WITH A HEMI -sing a new $hrysler $lub $oupe on a .ew /orker chassis, Tommy Thompson drove the "emi to its first win at the 'etroit 0air +rounds in front of 0ord and +, executives. 1t was a half mile dirt track of 23 mile duration. The +ire /ower had ample reserves of untapped horsepower" which the engineering staff was very well aware of +or the time being" Chrysler was interested in further development and improvement of the $emi" but not high performance .t least" not at first %n *arch of 19'9" 8ames Ceder Gnow Vice /resident of 3ngineeringH and some of his team presented a &white paper& to the 7ociety of .utomotive 3ngineers Eight after the meeting he was mobbed by what he called the &hot rod& boys They were over enthusiastic" boisterous" even obno0ious ?ut as Ceder was fond of recalling" &they were so darn involved with ma0imum horsepower out of our +ire /ower" % ,ust couldn<t help being intrigued with what they had in mind as well as listening to their suggestions & !ith that" performance testing was commenced in the Chrysler engine labs on the +ire /ower !hile the testing progressed" *r Ceder #ept in touch with his adopted gang of &hot rod& boys $e listened to and passed along their suggestions on how to ma#e the $emi &grow & The first investigation involved two areas for increased performanceF compression ratio and volumetric efficiency Qsing high compression pistons" compression ratios of ( ' F 1" 10 0 F 1" and 19 ' F 1 were tried 2othing else on the engine was changed The 19 ' F 1 pistons achieved a 1' : increase in horsepower over the 10: increase with the ( ' F 1 pistons That translated into about 998 horsepower ?ut" it would run only on aviation gasoline of 110 octane That high CE would have to wait for general use fuels to be widely available across the country The ne0t area involved volumetric efficiency The stoc# e0haust headers were replaced for streamlined units That alone increased torBue from 119 foot pounds to 110 The horsepower went up to 191 )aining confidence" they e0plored other areas for improving volumetric efficiencyF the valve ports" inta#e manifolding" carburetors" and camshafts The $emi heads had plenty of room for much larger valves *oving slowly" the ports were smoothed" and then opened up 19' of an inch on the e0haust and 9' of an inch on the inta#e +or manifolding and carburetion" engineers developed a set of 4 inline" single barrel carbs" each feeding two cylinders They also e0perimented with different grinds on the camshaft .s it happened" the electronic computer was newly introduced" and Chrysler Corporation" no stranger to electronics by any means" was one of the first companies to utili-e computer generated computations to achieve the ma0imum out of the camshafts it was testing ". 'avid 4raew wrote5 ,any years ago 1 worked for the +etty 6il $ompany. 1n those days +etty had its own well servicing e*uipment 7today you hire specialist contracting firms & for more money and less productivity8. The best service

unit was powered by an industrial 9: "emi. That thing was known for its ability to pull the pipe out of wells faster and easier than any of the other service e*uipment, powered by "all&(cott, 'etroit or $ummins engines of the day 7in the ;:23s and !3s8. Dab results did not really surprise anyone The test engine" designated as the J-110" responded e0ceptionally well to the modifications %n the first run with a slightly hotter than stoc# cam" along with the high flow heads and standard flow carburetion system The +ire /ower achieved 99' horsepower and 119 pounds of torBue 2e0t using the mid range camshaft" which gave the best all around performance" the $emi stepped up to 9(' horsepower and 1'9 pounds of torBue= %n the final test" a high performance grind camshaft" along with the four carb high speed manifold was tested The J-110 put out 108 horses with a twist of 141 foot pounds Eemember" the pistons were stoc# 7o" ,ust to settle the issue" the 19 ' F 1 pistons were installed This combination spun out 1'1 horsepower and 18' foot pounds of torBue .lthough personally satisfied" 8ames Ceder maintained his composure $e wrote of the tests that &the basic +ire /ower cylinder gives performance comparable with %ndianapolis engines" which have been developed for power without regard to any other purpose & %n conclusion" he statedF &we remain unalterably convinced that" in the battle of the combustion chambers" the spherical segment chamber has demonstrated unBuestionable supremacy & %n the meantime" in 19'9" the @e7oto @ivision introduced its version of the $emi head V-8 %t was a 90 degree design of 9(4 cubic inches and was rated at 140 horsepower %t resulted in '0"000 installations= !hile smaller" the @e7oto V-8 had all the same characteristics of the Chrysler $emi Cadillac gave Chrysler a little &touch& in 19'9 by upping the horsepower ante to 190 in its 111 V-8 %t was achieved by a slight boost in compression ratio Chrysler was not too concerned" the Chrysler was still faster %n fact" a 19'9 Chrysler was &Jing& of the beach speed trials conducted by 2.7C.E at @aytona ?each" +lorida The third and final version of the original $emi design was introduced by @odge @ivision in late 19'9 as a 19'1 model %t was a 90 degree design of 941 cubic inches that was rated at 140 horsepower The original Hemi in racing 5ne other notable thing occurred in 19'1 that must be mentioned .n engineer who was involved in resolving problems with the +ire /ower" who had become a #ey member of !illiam @rin#ard<s team" made a proposal that Chrysler build a car around a high performance +ire /ower that had e0cellent handling and uniBue styling %t was ta#en seriously" very seriously ?ob Eodger was instrumental in seeing the Chrysler 100 come to life 5utside of the Chrysler Corporation" the +ire /ower was used in some racing and as power plants for other car ma#ers ?riggs Cunningham was one notable builder that saw the raw potential of the $emi $is goal was to win the 94 hour race at De*ans To Bualify" he had to build 9' cars $e received some technical information assistance from Chrysler for his efforts" however" any engine modifications were done solely by him with parts he either built or obtained from other sources $e raced his cars for three years" and retired from the circuit in 19'' $e did race in De*ans in 19'9" finishing in fourth" a remar#able first effort

+or all his stoic outward appearance" 8ames Ceder was immensely proud of the $emi engine $e also had a desire to see it be used in racing applications $e had an eye on the %ndianapolis '00" the greatest spectacle in racing at the time $e had the lab begin e0perimenting with the 111 +ire /ower 8ohn /latner and @on *oore were deeply involved in building the &%ndy& engine which received the designation of .111 %t was built with 8 $ilborn fuel in,ectors" big valves and ports" streamlined big e0haust manifolds" and a sort of modified camshaft that made the engine ma#e &burbling& noises at idle Qnder the Buise of testing tires for +irestone and )ood ;ear" the engine was installed in an %ndianiapolis special racer !ith the .111 engine" it easily ran the same lap speeds as the speciali-ed 5ffenhauser and *iller racing machines The true opportunity to put the .111 to the test came in 8une of 19'4 7hortly after the running of the 19'4 *emorial @ay '00" Chrysler Corporation dedicated its Chelsea proving grounds The first four finishing %ndy drivers were invited to bring their racers over to christen the 4 ( mile long oval race trac# !ith wide lanes" and ban#ed curves" the drivers were able to hold their cars wide open all the way around The single fastest lap that day was made at 1(9 miles an hour Then the Jurtis Jraft tire test car with the $emi .111 made a couple warm up laps Coming out of the 4th turn" the driver opened the engine up %t screamed by the centrally located pits and timing stand %ts deep $emi bellow could be heard all the way around the long trac# !hen it went by the ne0t time" it was rolling at 189 miles an hour .nd then did it again" and then again *r Ceder and his engineers were delighted They #new that a stoc# bloc# engine with push rod technology could easily compete at %ndy" and most li#ely" easily win %t was not to be The news of the test was given wide publicity %n a flurry of activity" the engine si-e rule was changed to allow only a 9(9 cubic inch limit for stoc# engines . slight increase in piston stro#e easily achiesved the 9(9 si-e $owever" down on power" it didn<t Bualify %t would not be the last time that rules were changed by sanctioning bodies when Chrysler came out to play 19'1 saw Cadillac reach out and &touch& Chrysler again The Caddy V-8 now had an output of 910 horsepower To add sting" 5ldsmobile had increased its V-8 to have 14' horsepower6 but it was ?uic#" ChryslerMs direct competitor" that prompted Chrysler to move Buic#er )*<s prestigious division introduced a 199 cubic inch V-8 that had a top output of 188 horsepower 5n the beach at @aytona in the 2.7C.E speed trials" Chrysler +ire /ower V-8 cars got beaten by Cadillac The Caddy flew over the sand at 111 miles an hour %t snapped past the Chrysler" reaching 40 in 11 1 seconds +or all its punch" the 5ldsmobile too# a bac# seat to the 19'1 @odge which set a record of 109 miles an hour $owever" it wasn<t that easy $udson" with a big flathead 4 cylinder engine" cleaned up on the racing circuit %n another notable first" Dee /etty" who had switched from /lymouth to the V-8 @odge" gave the @odge division its first 2.7C.E victory /etty had given /lymouth its first 2.7C.E win in 1949 The 19'4 model year saw the first stages of performance improvements in the $emi engines from the Corporation Chrysler +ire /ower V-8s now had 19' horsepower by bumping up the compression ratio to ( ' F 1 .s well" it had another version with a four barrel carburetor that put out 91' horsepower That beat out Cadillac which did ma#e an increase to 910 horsepower ?uic# increased its punch to 900 horsepower 2ot to be left out" @e7oto also increased compression to boost output to 1(0 horsepower ?ut" 5ldsmobile bored out the 101 to 194 cubic inches with an output of 18' horsepower %n line" of course" @odge bumped the compression ratio for an increase to 1'0 horses

Ta#ing note of the previous yearMs racing success" and shared information from Chrysler" independent supplier 5ffenhauser manufactured an aftermar#et manifold for a four barrel carburetor that would fit the @odge $emi V-8 !hether this was done in con,unction with" or because of" @odge<s selection as the %ndianapolis '00 race pace car has never been clarified This became a dealer installed option !ith the manifold and 4 barrel" the 941 cubic inch V-8 was estimated Gno actual figures were givenH at 180 to 18' horsepower Dee /etty drove a 19'4 $emi powered Chrysler to victory in @aytona and went on to win the 2.7C.E Championship The big Chrysler also dusted the Cadillac in 2.7C.E speed trials" setting a record at 118 miles an hour The "##: a Hemi sho!case and the first production car !ith "## horsepo!er 5ne of the biggest advances in automotive history was introduced in 8anuary 19'' %t should have come as no surprise since Chrysler had already built a 100 GclaimedH horsepower engine from the 111 +ire /ower in 19'1= %t was used in the J110 concept vehicle built by )hia in %taly %n 19'9" another concept car" using a similar engine powered the )hia built C900 Clear indications for the future Chrysler Corporation held its 19'' model year introduction five days after +ord and nine days after Chevrolet" in what was believed would be li#e saving the best for last Virgil 30ner<s &+orward Doo#& seemed to have ,ust dropped from outer space onto the Chrysler Corporation vehicles %f you put the 19'4 cars alongside the 19''s" you would swear that there was no way that they could have been built by the same company .t my @ad<s dealership" floor traffic was the heaviest that it had ever been ;et" the real show stopper was yet to come 8anuary (" 19'' was the date that dealers were allowed to place the C-100 on their show room floors %t was an absolute marvel The first day" it was almost a mob scene= .t our store" the show room was ,ammed all day long and every day thereafter for a whole wee# ?ob Eodger<s suggested concept in 19'1 came through as he had envisioned The Chrysler C-100 was the first production car to have 100 horsepower %t was uniBue %t was special %t generated enormous interest %t was the hottest thing on wheels at that time %t blew everybody away %t wasn<t ine0pensive by any means either ?ase price was I4"01' /retty steep in comparison to a fully loaded /lymouth that could be had for I9"944= 5n the street" people would turn and stare when a 100 went by Curiosity see#ers would follow a 100 and bombard the operator with Buestions when they par#ed !hen one did par#" a crowd would gather around it $ard to imagine" but that automobile created a special niche that was very unfortunately let go by Chrysler itself To achieve 100 horsepower" Chrysler followed established performance techniBues $igh flow heads with larger" cleaner ports and valves that were operated from a speciality camshaft" through solid valve tappets" bumped up compression to 8 ' F 1" combined with dual e0hausts" and two four barrel carburetors %t was not e0otic either %t was totally reliable" reBuired no real special effort to operate" delivered a smooth but firm ride" and had some of the best bra#es in the entire industry %n one of the first road tests of the C-100" Tom *cCahill" writing for *echani0 %lustrated" wrung out the big Chrysler $e was effusive in his praise $e consistently got to 40 miles an hour in under 10 seconds 5ut of his several timed runs" his average was 9 8 seconds That was li#e a bomb shell= . record li#e running the four minute mile $e put the C-100 on a

certain highway that he used and got up to 110 miles an hour before he ran out of road $e wrote about that by statingF &it was as strong as )rant<s Tomb" and 110 times as fast & %n 2.7C.E" on the beach at @aytona" a completely stoc# C-100 confirmed Qncle Tom<s finding by posting a 198 mile an hour timed run %t was the fastest vehicle there ta#ing top speed honors Tim +loc#" driving a C-100" won the 2.7C.E Championship .ll fitting tributes to the engine that Chrysler advertised as &the most powerful production car built in .merica& with &the greatest" safest power in any .merican car & !hich it was= 2ot to be forgotten were the sister $emi engines from the @e7oto and @odge divisions The @e7oto $emi was bored a little bit to ma#e 991 cubic inches !ith a four barrel carburetor and dual e0hausts" it made 900 horsepower 5ver at @odge" the smallest version of the $emi was also bored a little bit to ma#e 9(0 cubic inches . special modification engine pac#age that was dealer installed pushed output to 191 horsepower and 94' foot pounds of torBue The 19'4 +ire /ower saw some changes to continue to be at the head of the horsepower race The 111 cylinders were bored out 0 110 of an inch which gave an increase in cubic inches to 1'4 04 The camshaft specifications remained the same as did the valves Compression was raised in an altered set of heads to 9 0 F 1 The e0haust manifolds were changed to encourage higher flow rates %t gave the 100? a rated horsepower of 140 .dditionally" an optional set of heads that were installed at the dealer level bumped the compression ratio to 10 0 F 1 That gave the 100? a 1'' horsepower rating %t also made it the first production engine to e0ceed one horsepower per cubic inch Chrysler wasted no time to point that out Tom *cCahill was again enthusiastic about the 100" calling it &motori-ed dynamite" a connoisseur<s car not meant for timid driving& and &Qnmatched in a class by itself & *r *cCahill" who owned several 100s for his personal cars" of which was one of the first 19'' C-100s" also praised the suspension and handling Bualities of the 100? by addingF &these cars hun#er in to a corner li#e a starving dog clamped on a bone & The engine wasn<t all there was to the 100F he called it the &best handling car % have ever driven straight from the show room & 5ver several timed runs" Qncle Tom got an average 0 to 40 mph times of 8 9 seconds !ith the new 1'' horsepower V-8" the 100? allowed Chrysler to again clean up the beach at @aytona %t set a new record of 119 miles an hour Tom *cCahill pointed out that running on wet sand was not a real good way to determine speeds $e was correct in stating that it in no way provided the best surface for traction $is own speed tests on a dry asphalt road got very near 140 miles an hour with the 140 horsepower engine ?uc# ?a#er was crowned 2.7C.E Champion driving a 19'4 Chrysler 100? The Hemi also po!ers $e%otos and $odges Chrysler also paid attention to the two other $emi engines in its corporate stable The @e7oto got a new raised bloc# with a 1 (9 inch bore and a 1 80 stro#e it made 110 cubic inches !ith a power pa# option" it had an output of 9'' horsepower ?ut it wasn<t Buite over for the 19'4 @e7oto $emi engine %ntroduced as a late edition" the new .dventurer model had its own uniBue $emi . small bore increase to 1 (8 inches in the 110 came out to 141 cubic inches 5utput rose to 190 horsepower - pretty close to the Chrysler $emi @e7oto brought a couple of cars to the @aytona 7peed !ee#6 however" after the .dventurer made a run of 144 miles an hour" it mysteriously had ma,or engine problems and did not return /erhaps a politically correct

move so as to not embarrass the 100P 7hortly after" a @e7oto .dventurer convertible was chosen to pace the %ndianapolis '00 7ister @odge also introduced a new raised bloc# that had a bore of 1 41 inches combined with a stro#e of 1 40 inches which translated into a 11' cubic inch displacement %n standard trim" it was rated at 918 horsepower There were two other factory options available 5ne was a 910 horse offer" and the other gave out 940 horsepower .s well" in what seemed to be a standard at @odge" a dealer-installed option which consisted of a twin four barrel carburetion manifold was also offered 2o figures were made public" however" it was generally accepted that this engine made 990 to 99' horsepower %n the newly introduced @-'00 trim" that option turned the @odge car into a racing terror at drag strips all over the country %t also propelled the 19'4 @odge down @aytona<s beach at 110 miles an hour 19'( was a banner year" especially at the Chrysler Corporation %ndustry leading styling combined with industry innovative engineering sent the public clamoring bac# to Chrysler Corporation dealer showrooms in droves . hotly debated issue concerned the body Buality of all Chrysler divisions in 19'( %n actuality" the 19'( styling was intended for introduction in 1940 Virgil 30ner pushed to get the 1940 style introduced in 19'( 3ngineering did not have much time" so a whole lot of corners were cut to get the cars on the production line +it and finish left much to be desired %nappropriate rattles" sBuea#s" wind noise" and terrible water lea#s were built right in= 3ach car sold to a friend in 19'( turned them into enemies within a few short wee#s= $owever" in all fairness" it should be pointed out that by doing so" Chrysler then dropped itself to the appro0imate level of the norm of the rest of the .merican auto industry +ord was no better" and may have actually been worse Chevrolet seemed better because they produced so many cars" in reality they were not of any better Buality The area that the 19'( Chrysler Corporation shone in was the hardware underneath those &rust in place& bodies 8ust as an aside" my )randpa used to tell my father that &he couldn<t sleep at night for hearing all the cars on the lot rusting & % don<t thin# my @ad was too amused The +ire /ower was boosted again in displacement by boring to 4 0 inches and stro#ing to 1 90 inches That eBuated to 199 cubic inches %n standard form it belted out 19' horsepower Eemember" this is still the same bloc# introduced in 19'' +or the new 100-C" the output went up to 1(' horsepower $igher compression heads made 190 horsepower .long with the new bodies came the torsion bar suspension" and the ultimate in automatic transmissions" the TorBueflite three speed Tom *cCahill again went enthusiastic about the performance Qtili-ing several runs" he whipped the big car from 0 to 40 mph in an ( 8 seconds 5n his &private& public highway" he made 140 miles an hour $e praised the handling due to the torsion bar set up" claiming that it &set into a groove better than a needle on a record & $e effused that the 100 series were a collection of &beautiful brutes& suggesting that they were for &hairy chested drivers & $e went on to describe the driving e0perience as about as &subtle as wearing velvet bo0ing gloves & !ith the 100C" Chrysler again lead the way at the @aytona 7peed !ee# $owever" the performance was off" with the fastest 100 ma#ing a one way run of 118 miles an hour .t first the Chrysler engineers thought that the beach surface"

which varied from year to year" was the culprit Certain that they had a 14' mile an hour car" they too# the same car to the Chelsea /roving )rounds outside the Chrysler $eadBuarters 5pened up on the ' mile trac#" the 100C only made about 140 miles an hour The driver reported a heavy wind whistle at high speed +inally" it was recogni-ed that the windshield trim for the front of the roof stuc# out nearly an inch" ma#ing it a very effective air bra#e Qsing clay they formed the top of the windshield into a smooth" clean shape with no edges The same car went out and ran 144 miles an hour with the clay covering the windshield trim The )'2 C)&& engine 2 sed only in the )&&C3 2ot forgetting its other $emi engines" Chrysler boosted @e7oto and @odge in 19'( The 19'( @e7oto was bored out slightly again to 1 80 inches with a 1 80 inch stro#e" a totally &sBuare& engine %t measured 14' cubic inches !ith two four barrel carburetors" it also produced 14' horsepower" an industry first Chrysler did not capitali-e on it as it should Technically" yes the 100? made more than one horse per cubic inch" however" that was a speciali-ed optional engine .nd yes" Chevrolet was crowing about their new 981 ci V-8 ma#ing 981 horsepower ?ut" in contention" that too was a speciali-ed engine" and a I'14 option at that= ?ig money in 19'( The @e7oto 14'" on the other hand" was a &standard& engine that reBuired no special order or chec#ing an option order to obtain it These were great performance cars in their own right .n .dventurer with the 14' was good to get to 40 in 8 seconds %t was tested by *echani0 %lustrated and *otor Trend where both testers obtained top speeds of 140 miles an hour @odge too received its share of attention The 11' $emi was bored to 1 49 inches with a 1 80 stro#e that came to 19' cubic inches %t was available with three different power choices 7tandard was 94' horsepower 7tepping up with increased compression" you could get 940 horses 5ptional for the @-'00 the 19' output was measured at 98' horsepower .s had become usual practice" a dealer installed manifold and dual four barrels boosted the 19' to 110 horsepower $owever" the new body style did not lead itself to racing as had the 19'4 @odge cars were losing out Ruic# action by @odge management made the Chrysler 1'4 $emi available as an pricey e0tra cost option %t helped performance without a doubt $owever" for @odge 19'( was an off year performance wise !ith Buality problems looming e0tra large early in the 19'( model year" not much money was allocated to restyling for 19'8 To its credit" Chrysler engineering was engaged in a crash &reverse& engineering pro,ect to improve Buality so as to end the death threats that had been received They were successful" in many respects" especially for ending the water and dust lea#s 7omewhere" along the way going into 19'8" a little bit of sting was lost" and Chrysler no longer actively sought the performance image6 perhaps it sought to not draw as much attention to that due to the high incidence of poor Buality control e0hibited by the 19'( models *ost of the Corporation cars stood pat for 19'8" so the public still saw Buality problems in the same style cars The first-generation Hemi fades a!ay The former fierce growl of the $emi was about to be silenced 19'8 was the last hoorah The 100@ had the same engine as the 100C" e0cept the @ was rated at a standard 180 horsepower 30perimenting with fuel in,ection" Chrysler had ?endi0 build an electronic system that produced 190 horsepower from the 199 $emi %t was troublesome and only 14 cars had it installed6 all were changed to carburetors for free by Chrysler

5ne of the design changes was a new windshield that rolled up into the roof" eliminating the troublesome trim of 19'( $owever" it really didn<t ma#e that much difference The $emi had reached its safe limit for boring out .s well" the manufacturing process for the 19'8 engine run had changed The hardened cran#shaft was replaced by a drop steel forged unit The optional &chassis pac#age& was not offered The rear a0le ratio options were drastically reduced .t the @aytona 7peed !ee#" the 100@ was obviously not what the earlier marBues had been %t won the flying mile" but was beaten by /ontiac for top speed" although the /ontiac was still not up to the 119 mile an hour mar# set by the 100? in 19'4 Tom *cCahill still called it &.merica<s best sedan & $e could whip the 100@ to 40 in 9 0 seconds . sign of the times in that the 19'( and the 19'4 could outrun the 19'8 The &@& managed a top speed of 11' miles an hour There was only one other $emi engine left in 19'8 That belonged to @odge %t was the 19' cubic inch model %t was sad because it was relegated to mundane hauler duties in two different tunes The first had a rating of 9'9 horsepower and was standard in the Coronets The step up was 94' horsepower and that was the standard engine in the Eoyal The top engines were now wedge heads @odge had two in different configurations @e7oto made no prete0t in 19'8 %ts $emi bellow was forever silenced 2ow it made due with two wedge head V-8s that were &corporate si-ed"& displacing the same as @odge +or 19'9" Chrysler Corporation no longer offered the $emi in its Chrysler marBue cars $owever" the $emi wasn<t Buite gone yet The standard engine in the Crown %mperial Gyes" the top of the lineH was the 19' horsepower 199 $emi V-8 ?ut that was the end for the first generation $emi engines" at least the ones built by Chrysler +or a great display of some real cherry first generation $emi V-8s stop by the @on )arlits *useum of 7peed in 5cala" +lorida @on loved those engines .ll of his &7wamp Eat& dragsters were powered by the Chrysler $emi $e also built several stoc# appearing +ords that had the $emi stuffed under the hood They are on display too 7o great was the potential of the $emi V-8 that two specialty manufacturers sprang up" devoted to building only that engine= . host of aftermar#et parts were manufactured solely for the Chrysler $emi engines The $emi headed Chrysler based V-8 engine is solely responsible for virtually all the drag racing records in the world ;ou cannot compete in the top fuel categories in any class in the %$E. or the 2$E. unless it is a $emi V-8= Eeportedly the horsepower generated on speciali-ed high potency fuel reaches upward of 4"000= % thin# 8ames Ceder is still smiling" wherever he is ?ill @rin#ard is probably with him and ,ust as proud too !hile they may be rather rare today" there are still some undiscovered first generation $emi V-8 engines out there waiting to be reborn They were not ,ust used in cars" either @odge truc#s had them *any farm applications li#e sprayers and water irrigation pumps had them They also powered several manufacturers< boats .nd in a very special application" they cran#ed up the +ederal mandated civil defense sirens in big cities" towns" and villages all across .merica in the '0s and 40s Chec# those wrec#ing and ,un# yards closely ;ou never #now