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Answer 2) The command chain doesn't happen accidentally.

Organizational designers lay it out as the last step in creating an organizational structure. Planners first consider a companys goals since organizational structure must support strategy. Designers next determine the tasks needed to reach the goals. Departmentalization follows as designers decide how to group the tasks. Grouping affects resource sharing and the ease with which people communicate and coordinate work. After departmentalizing, designers assign authority for tasks and areas. Once authority is assigned, planners can finally lay out the relationships between positions, thereby creating a chain of command. The reporting relationships established in the final step of organizational design are easy to see on an organizational chart, which depicts a companys structure. Starting at the bottom, each position is connected to one above it by a line. . An organizational chart shows the way in which the chain of command works within the organization. I should understand how the organization is structured, how it is arranged physically, where key people are located, and to whom I report. It will also help us to boost morale, which is likely to have a positive impact on productivity.

Answer 1) People, who do similar tasks, have similar skills and/or jobs in an organization are grouped into a functional structure. The advantages of this kind of structure include quick decision making because the group members are able to communicate easily with each other. In a divisional structure, the company will coordinate inter-group relationships to create a work team that can readily meet the needs of a certain customer or group of customers. Matrix structures are more complex in that they group people in two different ways: by the function they perform and by the product team they are working with. In a matrix structure the team members are given more autonomy and expected to take more responsibility for their work. In a project-organizational structure, the teams are put together based on the number of members needed to produce the product or complete the project. The best example of divisional structure can be easily seen in Large organizations like Standard Chartered and Mobilink as the management breaks down each important function into divisions and departments.

Answer 7) The act or process of centralizing, or the state of being centralized; the act or process of combining or reducing several parts into a whole; as, the centralization of power in the general government; the centralization of commerce in a city. Centralization means minimum autonomy and maximum restrictions on operations of subunits of the organization. The extent to which authority is delegated to lower management levels. Delegation of decisionmaking to the subunits of an organization. It is a matter of degree. The lower the level where decisions are made, the greater is the decentralization. Decentralization is most effective in organizations where subunits are autonomous and costs and profits can be independently measured. Advantages (Centralization) 1) Consistent policies, greater control and standardized procedures 2) Quicker decision making 3) Branches are identical, so customer knows what to expect 4) Tight financial control 4) Business is more flexible as it is able to respond to customer demands faster 5) Improved motivation and performance Advantages (Decentralization) 1) Empower local managers 2) Local knowledge may benefit sales and promotions targetted more effectively 3) Reduces day to day communication with head office

For every organization, small or big, delegation is essential. Managers and supervisors at all levels can lessen their burden by delegating authority. Ability of sub-ordinates increases as they are given some responsibility. Delegation of authority reduces the work load. Hence work is done very quickly and efficiently. Delegation of authority helps trained sub-ordinates also.

Answer 6) Span of control, refers to the number of people a manager directly manages. In a wider span of control, a manager has many subordinates who report to him. In a narrow span of control, a manger has fewer subordinates under him. With a wider span of control, the organizational structure will be flatter, coz lots of people will be reporting to lots of others. But with a narrow span of control, a taller organizational structure is required, to increase the people reporting to others. Narrow span of control results in "Tall Organization." Here there are many managers. Each manager has to manage only few subordinates. Wide span of control results in "Flat Organization". Here there are few managers. Each manager has to manage many subordinates. Downsizing can minimize company output, coz there won't be fresh talent and ideas to be used. It can also affect the culture and atmosphere within the management of an office. People may be worried that they will be next to be downsized. The atmosphere may be more stressful. Flat structures facilitate a greater level of communication between employees and management. They tend to be more democratic and offer a greater level of innovation. The flat structure revolves around qualified and competent staff. Fully engaged, skilled work groups leads to happier workers and lower turnover.