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Four factors Constituting Friendly Tang-Tubo Relations (China Tibetology vol.

1) During the 200 or more years of Tang -Tubo bilateral relations, and despite the wars that often occurred owing to conflict between the ruling classes of each side, harmony and friendliness nevertheless prevailed. So what were the reasons behind this friendly TangTubo relationship? This article attempts to generali e four factors and briefly discuss each one. l. !"e-"e! culture The so-called !"e - "e!culture is the essence of #hinese humanism, and at the same time constitutes $u %eng hen the brilliance of #hinese traditional civili ation. The first !"e! refers to concord, harmony, peace and geniality, and the second stands for convergence, integration, alliance and merger. &sed in con'unction, they not only stress unity and corporation, but also mean centripetal force and cohesiveness.! T (rof. )ing *ensi states+ !#oncerning the understanding of the meaning of the #hinese !"e-"e! culture, we must point out that while ancient #hinese thin,ers placed much emphasis on !"e-"e! , it does not mean that they overloo,ed the innate contradictions of contemporary events and the need for necessary struggles against them, nor does it mean that no contradictions e-isted among different societies. .ather, by overcoming these contradictions, a state of balance, harmony, coorperation, and "e"e was reached.!2 #hina/s !"e-"e! cultural tradition has a long history The two words were found carved on bone relics and bron e artifacts more than 2000 years ago. (rior to the 0in period 1222-203 *. #.4, the #onfucians had already identified !"e-"e! as meaning the nucleus of human spirituality. The5nalects say+ !6n the practice of rites, /"e/ is most precious!7 and 8encius states+ !9pportune time is inferior to geographical advantage: geographical advantage is inferior to human harmony.! ; These are fre<uently <uoted passages. )un i/s definition of !"e-"e! is+ !The union of heaven and earth that created all things: the connection of/yin/ and /yang/ that gives rise to changes: the right mi-ture of human nature with the necessary disposition that pacifies all societies.! 16n #hinese philosophy and medicine !yin! means feminine and negative and !yang! means masculine and positive.4 6n the yth century 5.D. certain "an classics and #onfucian school culture were introduced into Tubo through (rincess $encheng/s and (rincess =incheng/s marriage into the Tubo ,ingdom. 9ne such classic, the Ti =ing 1#lassic of #hanges4, which contains the essence of !"e-"e culture,! was translated into the Tubo language and was called !*o Tang!, meaning the !Tang #lassic of #hanges!. The translated version was later compiled into the "an *oo,s+ Shu%u.ang%a 1methods of devil eradication4.3 *esides #onfucian disciplines, *uddhist culture also contains the concept of !"e-"e! . During the Dong "an 1>ast "an dynasty4 period, 6ndian *uddhism was introduced into #hina/s central plain regions. ?arma, as the fundamental theoretical basis of *uddhism, combined with @i Ahuan/s belief that+ !The family that accumulates moral merits will certainly have much to celebrate: the family that accumulates evil will certainly have much to suffer,! The twin beliefs not only e-erted influence on the concepts of good and evil on #hina/s #entral (lain people, but also enriched their ethical traditions.B During the reign of Tube/s Songtsen Campo, (rincess *hri,uti from Depal brought with her to Ehasa a lifesi e statue of the eight- year-old Sa,yamuni, and when (rincess $encheng went to Tibet, she brought with her a life-si e statue of Sa,yamuni at the age of twelve. These two statues mar,ed the introduction of *uddhism into Tubo from two different geographical directions and Songtsen Campo was greatly influenced. Temples were built, *uddhist sutras were translated, and *uddhism was earnestly propagated in Tubo territory. 6n actual practice, Tibetan people !Tibetani ed! *uddhism and made it the ,ernel of Tibetan culture 1the true formulation of Tibetan *uddhism occurred, of course, during the postpropagation period4. $ithin *uddhism, the concept of ?arma and !accumulating merit! concurs with the !"e-"e! culture, which also had a profound influence on the ethical morals of the Tubo people, and !evolved into a criteria of behavior encompassing benevolence, goodness,

contentment with one/s lot, 'ustice, tolerance, modesty, honesty, harmony, responsibility and contribution that the whole Tibetan people strive to achieve. 9ver the course of history, this foreign moral norm gradually became an inherent cultural psychological feature.! F The friendly and harmonious relationship between the Tang and Tubo embodies, in terms of relations between nationalities, the ideology of !"e-"e! culture that advocates geniality, tolerance, harmony and cohesiveness. 6n the 7rd year of the #hang<ing (eriod 1F27 5.D.4, the &ncle -Dephew 8onument of 5lliance was set up in front ofthe=o,hang 8onastery in Ehasa, and the !"e-"e! concept was solemnly e-pressed by an oath of alliance+ !The two sovereigns, uncle and enphew, having come to an agreement that their territories be united as one.!and !to restore the former blood closeness and friendly neighborhood for the happiness of both peoples, sign this alliance of great peace to last for eternityG! The &ncle -Dephew 8onumeht of 5lliance was the fruition of #hinese !"e-"e! culure in relations between the Tang and Tubo, and it was also one of the great treasures of #hinese !"e-"e! culture. 2. %orming 5lliances through 8arriage 6n the iHth year of the Ahenguan (eriod of the Tang Dynasty 13;2 5.D.4, >mperor Tang Tai ong formed an alliance with Tubo by marrying (rincess $encheng of the Tang imperial clan to Songtsen Campo, ,ing of the Tubo Dynasty The formality and pomp of the engagement ceremony were so grand that it was a rare event even in the imperial family. Songtsen Campo dispatched a Tubo envoy, #hief 8inister Car Tongtsen, to #hang/an 1capital of the Tang Dynasty4 to receive the (rincess and escort her to Tubo for the wedding. !Songtsen Campo dispatched his #hief 8inister Car Tongtsen to pay respects and a tribute of five thousand taels 1a unit of weight for gold and silver4 of gold and hundreds of precious treasures to >mperor Tang Tai ong.!I Car Tongtsen en'oyed the trust of Songtsen Campo, and occupied the most important position in Tubo. %rom historical records, it is ,nown that !Car Tongtsen was a man of wisdom and intelligence, and it was mainly due to him that Tubo was able to subdue and anne- various tribes and become the strongest country in that region.! ro 5fter Car Tongtsen arrived in #hang/an, >mperor Tang Tai ong hoped to betroth his granddaughter Duanshi, daughter of the eldest (rincess Eang )ie, to him. Car Tongtsen/s answer to the proposal was meaningful and thought-provo,ing. "e declined, saying+ !@our 8a'esty, your humble sub'ect is already married in Tubo, and my wife was betrothed to me by my parents. 6, your sub'ect,could not bear the sadness of my wife, as well as that of my parents, if 6 were to ta,e another wife. 8ost important of all, my Tsenpo has not paid his respects to the (rincess. 5s one of his sub'ects, how dare 6 thin, about marrying at this time! !9n hearing this, Tang Tai ong was delighted and praised him.! n These words were especially endearing to Tang Tai ong, as they accorded with the #onfucian criterion of ethical morals between a monarch and his sub'ects. This incident demonstrates that Car Tongtsen was fully aware of the feudal ethical morals of the #entral (lains, despite being illiterate. 6t may also be inferred that he had made elaborate preparations before going to #hang/an, and his comprehension of protocol helped him to act in a way that concurred with Tang Tai ong/s mentality, and put him in Tang Tai ong/s good graces. "is e-cellent conduct during his stay in #hang/an also deepened understanding and friendly relations between Tang and Tubo. 5ccording to recorded historical events, Thon-mi Sam bhota, a well ,nown Tubo scholar, accompanied Car Tongtsen to #hang/an. Thon-mi Sam bhota was profoundly learned, and was said to have been ordered to devise a Tibetan writing system. 5n adviser of such great learning sent by Songtsen Campo to accompany Car Tongtsen to #hang/an was further insurance against any breaches of ceremony and eti<uette. %rom this careful arrangement, it may be concluded that Sontsen Campo attached great importance to this marriage proposal misson. %rom the Tang point of view, it was also <uite unprecedented that Ei Dao ong, who was ?ing of=iang-ia and 8inister of .ites, should be the bride/s chaperone. Ei Dao ong, who styled himself #hengfan, was one of the !,ings! 1land-grant princes4 of the imperial clan. 5t the age of 2B, he followed Ei Shimin 1Tang Tai ong/ given name4 into battle. "e was well versed in the art of war, and Ei Shimin highly

regarded his ability. 9nce, when Ei Dao ong was wounded in the foot during a battle, Tang Tai ong himself+ !tended Ei Dao-ong/s wound, and bestowed on him an imperial meal.! 22 Ei Dao ong had a very high reputation in the ruling cabinet of the time. "istorical records say that greater importance was attached to both Ei Dan ong and )iaogong ?un'i, ?ing 1another landed prince4 of "e'ian than to any other ?ing in the imperial clan.27 Ei Dao ong had held the position of 8inister of .ites, and was therefore <uite familiar with matters of diplomacy. "aving carefully seleced the most suitable candidate, Tnag Tai ong made the decision that Ei Dao ong should escort (rincess $encheng into Tubo. This alliance by marriage was sumptuously grand, and Songtsen Campo sent a betrothal gift of chests of gold, while the dowry for (rincess $encheng from the Tang court was a huge amount of sil, cloth and other articles. The Tang also sent craftsmen who speciali ed in wine-brewing, roller and grindstone ma,ing, and paper and in, -ma,ing to Tubo, and also sil,worms. 8uch advanced production technology was thus introduced into Tubo, where the highly developed culture and advanced economy of the #entral (lains was publicly displayed. &pon the arrival of (rincess $encheng and her escort envoy at *ohai 1in present-day 8aduo #ounty, 0inghai (rovince4, Songtsen Campo, came personally to meet her, and e-pressed how sight of the gorgeous dress of the Tang people had widened his hori ons. "e respectfully paid the salute of a !son-in-law! to the envoy of the Tang Dynasty, and said cordially and proudly+ !8y forefathers have not had a chance of intermarriage with your great country Dow that 6 am luc,y enough to have the great Tang (rincess as my wife,6 shall build a castle for her to live in, so that our descendants may always remember this great event.!2; 5fterwards, !"e himself gave up the thic, felt and fur clothes that were normally his dress, and began to wear embroidered sil, clothes. "e also began to admire the magnificence of the #entral (lains and decided to send children of tribal chiefs to the #entral (lains to learn "an classics, and also invited "an people of great learning to teach him the correct way to write memorials to the throne!.2J (rior to Songtsen Campo/s death, during a period that stretched from the iHth year of the Ahenguan (eriod 13;2 5.D.4 to the first year of the @onghui (eriod 13H0 5.D.4, Tang and Tubo relations were friendly and harmonious. The alliance by marriage had enabled the Tang and Tubo to set up a close !nephew and uncle! relationship. Tang Tai ong, Songtsen Campo, Car Tongtsen, Ei Dao ong, Thon- mi Sam bhota, %eng De-ia and certain other people were the founders of this friendly relationship. 6n the year B07 5.D., Tsenpo Dusong 8ang'e of Tubo died. "is son, Tsenpo Tride Tsugtsen, succeeded the throne at the age of B years old: the boy/s grandmother, Trimalo, served as .egent during his minority She sent envoys on several occasions re<uesting animperial princess of the Tang Dynasty. 6n the fourth @ear ofthe=inglong (eriod 1B20 5.D.4, >mperor Tang Ahong ong agreed to marry (rincess =incheng, daughter of Ei Shouli, ?ing of @angyong of the imperial clan, to Tesenpo Tride Tsugtsen of Tubo. >mperor Tang Ahong ong himself escorted (rincess =incheng to Sniping #ounty 1in today/s )ingping #ounty, Shan-i (rovince4. This alliance by marriage, from the viewpoint of Tubo, was forged in order to stabili e Tubo and to gain support for Tride Tsugtsen/s power, through strengthening friendly relations with the Tang Dynasty (rior to Tride Tsugtsen/s accession, there had been strong rivalry for the throne among Dusong 8ang'e/s sons, and there was unrest on Tube/s southern border. %rom the Tang Dynasty viewpoint, this friendly relationship could be consolidated by means of a marriage alliance, and avoid wars between Tang and Tubo. Tang Ahong ong e-pressed this sentiment in his edict proposing the marriage of (rincess =incheng to the Tubo ?indom+ !%or many years, and on many occasions, Tsenpo and his grandmother Trimalo have re<uested that 6 propose a princess in marriage, in order to establish a good relationship between Tang and Tubo. 6t appears that they still wish to renew our past ,inship relationship. (rincess =incheng, a daughter of the sovereign, grew up in the palace chambers, and will now go on a long 'ourney. The Throne shall miss her. *ut as the parent 1#hina refers to the >mperor and the 0ueen as the parents of the nation4 of the great masses, the Throne must consider their interests. 6f 6 agree to marry my daughter to the

Tubo ,ingdom, the people of Tang can have good relations with those of Tubo, the border between Tang and Tubo will be tran<uil, and our soldiers need not go to war. The Throne bears the heavy burden of this matter of vital importance to the Tang Dynasty.! 63 The years B20 to B;2 1the 2Ith year of the ?aiyuan (eriod of the Tang Dynasty4, some 70 years after (rincess =incheng had married the Tubo Tsenpo, are regarded as the strongest of the Tubo era. Tride Tsugtsen was very young when he succeeded the throne, and had to follow the advice of the minister for military affairs until he grew up. >ven in adulthood, the generals who guarded the border often deceived him ,and it was for this reason that many wars between the Tang and Tubo occurred over "elong and the $estern .egions. 6t is emphatically pointed out that the fre<uent conflicts that occurred between the Tang and the Tubo is not denied, even though the e-istence of a good relationship between the two powers is emphasi ed. 5s there was a feudal class system, and class struggles within such feudal societies, the conflicts between different ethnic groups were mere reflections of class struggles at different nationalities/ level. 6t is completely preposterous to assert that there were no hostilities between the ancient nationalities. The great contribution made by (rincess =incheng was, therefore, that whenever wars between the Tang and Tubo could not be avoided, she would ma,e full use of her capacity to promote mutual understanding of each side/s differences and intentions. She did her best to mediate contradctions, and e-erted all her effort to alleviate and eliminate them, or to avoid their e-acerbation. She sent three memorials to >mperor Tang )uan ong, reflecting her deep desire for good relations between Tang and Tubo, helped to bring about the second peaceful alliance between Tang and Tubo through her unremitting efforts, and the third peaceful alliance by delimiting the boundary at 8ountain #hiling. Tride Tsugtsen also sent three letters to Tang )uan ong e-pressing his good wishes and hopes for restoration of the past friendliness+ !@our late emperor was my uncle and 6 am his nephew. $hen he agreed that (rincess =incheng should marry me, Tang and Tubo became one family, and all the masses under heaven felt happy and safe.!2B The uncle and nephew analogy, established twice on the basis of alliance by marriage, e-erted tremendous and far-reaching influence of the whole Tang-Tubo relationship. There were later periods of friendship and also of differences, and sometimes conflicts occurred, but the overall relationship was one of uncle and nephew, and any differences were similar to those between members of the family of this uncle and nephew. %or e-ample, in the first year of the Cuangde (eriod 1B37 5.D.4, when Ta/ng De ong succeeded the throne, the Tubo army occupied #hang/an and designated Ei #henghong, son of ?ing Ei Shouli 1a younger brother of (rincess =incheng4, as emperor of Tang. This demonstrated that the people of Tubo still affirmed the relationship of uncle and nephew, even when they occupied #hang/an, the capital of the Tang Dynasty. &p to the year F27 5.D. 1the third year of the #hang<ing (eriod in Tang 8u ong/s reign4, the Tang and Tubo established the >ighth peaceful alliance. *oth parties 'oined in erecting a monument in front of the =o,hang 8onastery in Ehasa to celebrate the uncle-nephew alliance. 9n this monument.they stressed that their relationship was that of uncle and nephew. 6t can also be seen from this fact that the uncle-nephew relationship between Tang and Tubo, was 'ust li,e a red thread 1symbolic of marriages4 running through history, which tied together the Tang-Tubo relationship and maintained the Tang-Tubo friendship. 7. 8utual benefit from commerce and trade The Tang Dynasty was located in the vast basin between the /@ellow and @angt e rivers. 6n the long process of its development, the Tang established a high degree of advanced agriculture. During the 200 or so years from the Ahenguan (eriod to the ?aiyuan (eriod, agricultural production in the Tang Dynasty developed consistently. During the period of Ahenguan, a dou 1e<ual to one decalitre of grain4 was worth only three or four copper coins-the lowest rate of any period of history 6n terms of the handicraft industry, the art of brocadeweaving, of pottery and porcelain, and of paper ma,ing had all reached a high degree of proficiency The great #hinese poet Du %u once described the prosperous society of that time in his poem !.ecalling 9ld Times.! "e wrote+ !6t is necessary to recall the prosperous ?aiyuan times, when ten thousand families

dwelt in a small county: rice and mai e were delicious and white: public and private warehouses were all full. There were no robberies and plunderers on any road in=iu hou 1the whole country4. 6t was not necessary to choose a luc,y day to go out. Sil, from 0i 1referring to the northern part ofShandong and Southeastern part of"ebei4 and gao 1a thin white sil,4 from Eu 1an area in 0ufu, Shandong4 were transported by cart. "usbands and wives had no need to worry about each other while husbands were out plowing the fields, and wives stayed behind tending sil,worns.! Tubo was situated in the high and cold area of the 0inghai-Tibetan (lateau. 6t mainly carried on animal husbandry, and its economy was nomadic, apart from a limited amount of agricultural production in the valley regions. !The nomadic economy has two characteristics+ one is its mobility, or instability: another is its complementarity with agricultural regions, and its dependence on these regions. 6n addition to a general admiration for the more advanced civili ations, a strong desire for commodity e-change also emerges among nomadic people. $henever e-change could not be reali ed 1which often happened4, wars for the purpose of plunder would be launched.! 2F 5ttac,s by the Tubo army in the "elong region, and the central Shaan-i plain of the Tang Dynasty, reflected the need to plunder agricultural regions in order to supplement the shortages of the nomadic economy. *ut this was only one aspect of the whole picture. During Tang times, the commercial economy became developed through the prosperity of the Sil, .oad, and #hang/an, located in the central Shaan-i plain, had become the most important trade center in the >ast. Tubo also paid great attention to trade. #ommercial activities of mutual benefit became a channel of complementarity of the Tang and Tubo economies. This was a channel of peace and friendship and also a prime 1golden4 channel through which each supplied what the other needed. This channel was greatly appreciated by both the Tang and Tubo people. #ommercial trade for mutual benefits first started in the e-change of tea for horses. 5s regards the dietary tastes of the Tubo people, tea, which mainly came from the middle and lower reaches of the @angt e .iver in the Tang ?ingdom, was indispensable. 5ccording to one account in !The #omplementary "istory of the Tang Dynasty!+ !The revered 8r. #hanglu arrived in the west of Tubo. 9ne day he was ma,ing tea in his tent, and Tsenpo as,ed /what is he ma,ing?/ The revered 8r. #hanglu answered, /6t is tea. Tea can dispel an unhappy mood and <uench your thirst./ Tsenpo said that he too had tea. "e then as,ed the revered 8r. #hanglu to wal, out of the tent, and pointed to many ,inds of tea, telling 8r #hanglu, /This is Shou hou tea. This is Shu hou tea. This is Cu hu tea. This is 0imen tea. This is #hangming tea. That is @bnghu tea./ !2I 5s regards national defense, agricultural production, and land transportation, the Tang Dynasty needed large numbers of horses and Tubo was the main supply source . The e-change of tea for horses between Tang and Tubo was, therefore, mutually beneficial. 9n the other hand, Tubo also e-ported to the Tang Dynasty more e-otic materials, such as mus,, ya, tail, antelope, felt, agate, sodium borate , silver, and gold products, while Tang supplied Tubo with sil,, paper, and bows and arrows. Since the handicrafts industry was <uite advanced on the #entral (lains, the technologies of wine brewing, grinders and millstone ma,ing were introduced into Tubo after Tang had dispatched its craftsmen there. 5t that time, Tang and Tubo had two main commercial channels+ the southern route from Ehasa to #hengdu via present day 0amdo, ?angding, Euding, and @a/an: and the eastern route form Ehasa to #hang/an, which was regarded as the great international metropolis,w via present-day 8o hugong,a 1in Tibet4, Dang<ian 1Tibet4, @ushu, Shanshan 1in )ing'iang4, Eiang hou, "ui hou, @uan hou,=ing hou, and *in hou. These economic e-changes between the Tang and the Tubo were a ,ind of nongovernmental commercial e-change, while official e-change was carried on in another form. 5t that time, Tubo often sent envoys to the Tang Dynasty to pay tributes, and in return the Tang would grant largesse in the form of its consumer products to Tubo. This was actually a very special ,ind of e-change of commodities. 5ccording to relevant historical records, most Tubo groups of envoys to Tang would consist of J0 people, and larger delegations might comprise 200 people. $hy did Tubo organi e such large delegations to Tang? The answer lies in the fact that they not only played the role of envoys, but also bore the dual responsibilities of politically friendly e-changes and official

commercial missons. These envoy delegations were made up of nobles and wealthy merchants who mainly engaged in business activities. The Tang adopted a friendly attitude towards the business activities of Tubo envoys, and decreed that the local authorities concerned should permit Tubo envoys to purchase at will. There is one vivid description in a historical record+ !6n "onglu Temple mar,etplace, Tubo people were familiar with the price and <uality of each commodity They li,ed the sil,, satin, bows and arrows, and other goods sold here. $hen salesmen as,ed the authority whether or not they could sell to the Tubo people, the answer was+ /9f course./ Tubo people can buy whatever they want, so that our reputation may reach far beyond to other remote peoples. >ven if we allow them to buy at will, #hina will suffer no harm.!22 6n addition, among the sons of tribal chieftains who were sent to the #entral (lain to study in #hang/an, some were engaged in business activities while studying the "an culture. 6t was ,nown to all that a peaceful environment was a precondition for successful commercial trade activities. Thus, all peoples hoped that the Tang and Tubo might get along well with each other. They were strongly against friction and wars. This common wish is one factor that should not be overloo,ed when studying the formation ofTang-Tubo friendly relations. ;. The (eace (arty %actor 6n addition to the three foregoing factors that comprised the friendly relations between the Tang and Tubo, there was one other. %or more than 200 years, there were many people who advocated peace and friendship between the Tang and the Tubo, and who too, great pains to wor, and strive towards this end. Those people could be called the peace-advocate party 9n the part of Tubo+ !The three Tsenpos following Trisong Detsen were 8uni, Sadnaleg and .alpachen. They all desired to develop *uddhism. 5t that time, the royal family advocated a peaceful alliance with the Tang Dynasty, so that their centrali ed power could be consolidated, but there were also other nobles that favored war as a means to satisfy their own selfish interests. *uddhism is a peaceful, anti-war doctrine that could bring benefit to Tsenpo/s ruling system. %rom this, it could be said that the theoretical foundation for peace advocacy on the part of the royal family was *uddhism.! !9n the part of Tang Dynasty, the ,ingdom itself was a union of many nationalities. 6n the royal family, for e-ample, Cudushi, the mother of Tang Cao u: Doushi, the >mpress of Tang Cao u: and Ahangsun, the >mpress of Tang Tai ong ,were all of )ianbei origin. Thus, they had little pre'udice against minority nationalities. The Tang ruling cli<ue also implemented a more enlightened policy in the border areas. 6n the leap %ebruary of the 2nd year of the $ude (eriod 13iI5.D4, >mperor Tang Cao u promulgated an imperial edict with the instruction that+ !The Tang Dynasty will always carry out a policy of conciliation in order to bring other nationalities in the border areas under control. The best way to soothe unease in border areas is to cement relations with rulers of minority nationalities by marrying daughters of our imperial family into their families.! 27 This instruction laid a solid foundation for state policy in the border areas by combining the use of favors and military might. "is outstanding contribution by virtue of carrying out this enlightened policy in the frontier areas earned Tang Tai ong the epithet, !?han &nder "eaven! by the minority people in the northwestern border areas. "istory will remember that Tang Tai ong made the greatest contribution to establishing and consolidating friendly relations between the Tang and the Tube. The contributions of Tang Ahong ong, Tang De ong and Tang 8u ong also deserve recognition. 5mong court ministers, the #hief 8inister ofTubo, Car Tongtsen, too, great advantage of his lofty official capacity to form a bridge of friendly relations between the Tang and Tubo, which would be passed down for generations. *ande Dang,a (algyi @onden, chief minister in the .alpachen reign, assisted .alpachen in bringing about the #hang<ing (eaceful 5lliance, thereby engraving their names in recorded history. The famous #hief 8inister Ahang=iuling wrote seven letters to Tubo Tsenpo, and three letters to (rincess =incheng ,on behalf of Tang )uan ong, with the aim of maintaining friendly and peaceful relations between the Tang and the Tubo. "e served superbly,

and will never be forgotten by the #hinese people. 5s for peace-advocacy groups, the Tang and Tubo envoys, which comprised the people who had done the hardest wor,, also deserve much credit for maintaining and developing Tang-Tubo friendly relations. @ear after year they traveled to and fro between Ehasa and #hang/an, in the midst of snowstorms and severe cold weather, in order to deliver messages of conferring titles, reciprocate state visits, carry out royal betrothal missions, ma,e official friendship calls, and serve the policy of 5lliance Through 8arriage. Their contribution to the Tang-Tubo friendly relations also added epic chapters to the history of friendship between Tang and Tubo. The fre<uency and si e of contingents in these envoys between Tang and Tubo were far in e-cess of those between other nationalities. The names of members of both Tang and Tubo envoys have been recorded in #hinese history, and it is not, therefore, necessary to list them here. #ombing the efforts of the peace-advocacy forces in the Tang Dynasty with those on the Tubo side, it can be seen that friendly relations between the Tubo and Tang, which lasted a long period of time, were the result of contributions made by many generations of historical figures of the Tang Dynasty. Eoo,ing bac, in history, this long lasting friendship merits redoubling current efforts to perpetuate. The above mentioned four factors, which consist of the !"e-"e! cultural heritage of the "ans,the (olicy of 5lliance by 8arriage, beneficial commercial trade, and the efforts of peaceadvocacy parties, together built agenerallKfriendly relationship between the Tang and Tubo. 5uthor/s Dote+ 6 welcome any and all forms of feedbac,. (lease oblige me with your valuable comments via the #hina Tibetology #enter in *ei'ing. Dotes and *ibliography 2.2.)ing, *ensi, !The $hole Systemic #oncept and 6ts 5ctual 8eaning within #hinese "e-"e #ulture!, !Cuangming Daily!, %eb. 3,2IIB. 7.!#onfucian 5nalectsKspan Eearning! ;.8eng i, !The Second (art of Cong Sunchou! J.)un i, !9n .ites! 3."uang $anlun, !5 "istorical Survey on the >conomic and #ultural .elations *etween Tibet and the 6nland during Tang and Song Times,! Ahongyang 8in u &niversity =ournal, 7rd 6ssue, 2IF3. B.$ang @ue<ing !5 Tentative Study on the .ewards of Coodness and >vildoing of #hinese *uddhism,!Dan'ing &niversity =ournal, 2st issue, 2IF2 F.Tong Defu and (anpan Dor'e, !5. #ollection of Tibetan (hilosophical Thoughts,! p;J, Dational (ublishing "ouse, 2II2.;.iJ.!(art 9ne of the Tubo Lolume in an 9ld Tang Dynasty "istory *oo,! 22.27.!*iography of Ei Dao ong in an 9ld Tang Dynasty "istory *oo,!, pp27J;-27J3, Lolume B, Ahonghua (ublishing "ouse. 23.!5 #omplete "istory *oo, of the Tang Dynasty,! Lolume 23. 2B.Trisong Detsen !.e<uirement for (eace,! !5 #omplete "istory *oo, of the Tang Dynasty!, Lolume III. 2F.Ahang @un, !Sil, .oad #ulture, Tubo Lolume,! pi3F, Ahe'iang (eople/s (ublishing "ouse, 2IIJ 2I. Ei hao. !5 #omplementary "istory *oo, of Tang Dynasty!. 20.Cesang Dar'e, !5 Tentative 5nalysis of the #ommercial and 8onetary >conomy during the (eriod of the Tubo %eudal Dynasty! Ahongyang 8in u &niversity =ournal, 2nd issue, 2IIJ 22.!5 #omplete "istory *oo, of the Tang Dynasty!, Lolume 2B2. 22.$ang %uren, !5 *rief "istory of Tibetan *uddhism!, (;I, 0inghai (eople (ublishing "ouse, 2IF2. 27.!#e %u @uan Cui! Lolume 2B0.

*y+ Wu Fengzhen, translate by Chen