24 January 2008 Life Science The Hydrologic Cycle 1. evaporation- water rises from other sources 2.

evapotranspiration- water is a byproduct of plant transpiration 3. condensation- water vapor cools and forms clouds 4. precipitation- rain/sleet/snow falls on the ground 5. percolation- water seeps into the ground 6. absorption- plant roots draw water from the ground 7. respiration- moisture comes from the breath of animals and people 8. decomposition- moisture is a byproduct of rotting 9. ingestion- food is eaten and processed by the body.

If the world’s supply of water was represented by 5 gallons, 18 drops would be suitable for human use. The Earth and its various abiotic and biotic systems are greatly influenced by water. Water is essential for life on Earth. Water is stored in the following reservoirs: atmosphere, oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, soils, snowfields, and groundwater. Water moves from one reservoir to another through processes like: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, deposition, runoff, infiltration, sublimation, transpiration, and groundwater flow. Water molecules are stored in the atmosphere in all three states of matter. Water vapor in the atmosphere is commonly referred to as humidity. If liquid and solid forms of water can overcome atmospheric updrafts they can fall to the Earth's surface as precipitation. The formation of ice crystals and water droplets occurs when the atmosphere is cooled to a temperature that causes condensation or deposition. A number of different precipitation types have been classified by meteorologists including rain, freezing rain, snow, ice pellets, snow pellets, and hail. Fog represents the saturation of air near the ground surface.

Water 3 phases Liquid- It is very rare for things to occur in liquid form in nature, other examples are oil and mercury. Gas Solid- even when the temperature is low enough that water has frozen to a solid, it is not so cold that life cannot exist within it or around it. The hydrogen bonds in water are weak, but they have the ability to stretch before they break. This explains surface tension and the ability to “bend water” (demonstration from class).

Five Properties of Water Water has a high specific heat. • One calorie is needed to raise one gram of water one degree Celsius. • Most animals that live in the water are ectothermic.

Water has a high heat of vaporization. • It takes a lot of energy to convert liquid water to a gas. • • Additional input of 540 calories is needed to go from 99 degrees Celsius to 100 degrees Celsius. This prevents lakes from spontaneously evaporating.

Water has a high heat of fusion. • 80 calories per gram of water is needed to go from 1 degree Celsius to 0 degrees Celsius. • This prevents water from flash-freezing in the wild. Water is most dense at 4 degrees Celsius or 39 degrees Fahrenheit. • This causes the phenomenon of “turning over” in a lake in the spring and fall. Water has a high surface tension. • Surface tension is that property of water by which individual water molecules "cling" to neighboring water molecules. • The class watched a demonstration of this property when the instructor sprinkled pepper flakes on water and then disturbed the surface tension by introducing soap on the end of a paperclip.

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