22 January 2008 Life Science Living Organisms Two things needed by all living organisms 1. water 2.

energy- the ability to do work (cellular work) a. potential b. kinetic Most living things on Earth depend on photosynthesis taking place. Most plants have chlorophyll. When sunlight hits the electrons in a chlorophyll molecule the electrons jump to a higher energy level. When they return to their original spot, work is done (ATP) Energy from the sun plantsconsumersdecomposers

decomposers Energy comes into the cycle and is not recycled back to the starting point. First Law of Thermodynamics- Entergy and matter can not be created nor destroyed, but may be changed in form. Second Law of Thermodynamics- The amount of (organized) free energy is declining. a. The amount of energy from the sun is still around, just disorganized. b. This law determines how many of certain organisms we see. Another way to restate this law is that the universe is heading toward entropy (disorganization). Energy Pyramid Metabolism is the major cost of energy.

Autotrophs- produce their own food a. photosynthesis- use light to create food b. chemosynthesis- use chemicals to produce food Heterotrophs- can not produce their own food a. consumer- eat their food b. decomposer- absorb their food Activity: Each group was challenged with the following scenario- You are put in charge of making sure a group of people that is struggling with food production has enough to eat. You are going to be given 1,000 pounds of food a month and the supplies you need to care for one of these three animals- catfish, chicken, or cattle. Which is the most sensible animal to choose? Solution: The catfish is the most sensible because they produce more meat per pound of feed than the others because they are the only ectothermic animal of the three. The other two animals spend a tremendous amount of their energy regulating body temperature. Ectothermic creatures use less energy than endothermic creatures. Of all the approximately known species, only about 15,300 of them are warm-blooded. Metabolism consists of all bodily functions. The greatest user of energy is aerobic respiration. It also creates the most energy (ATP). food consumed  digestion breaks food into simple sugars mitochondria needs smaller molecules, so the long chains of sugar molecules are broken down through Krebs’s Cycle Hydrogen ions are a waste product of this cycle  an oxygen molecule must bond with them so they can be removed as water We breathe to remove the hydrogen ions that are a byproduct of metabolism! How old are the atoms in your body? They have been around since a supernova exploded 10-12 billion years ago. You are made of the stuff of stars!