19 February 2008 Life Science Fungi (con’t) Histoplasmosis- found in the manure of bats and birds.

This is a systemic fungus and can be quite serious when a human is infected by it. After a histoplasmosis scare, the area was tested by a microbiologist and it was discovered that the concentration of histoplasmosis was greatest where people walked on a frequent basis. Later, it was discovered that most people in the south are exposed to histoplasmosis on an early and frequent basis, so they tend to be more resistant to illness from it than others. Plants -Multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs (some meat-eating and parasitic plants exist) -Approximately 280,000 species of plants -Range in size from 1mm to over 100m. -Smallest flowering plant- Duckweed -Largest plant- Eucalyptus and Redwood trees -Most plants are vascular- They have vascular tissue (xylem and phloem). This enables plants to grow tall. Vascular plants have well-developed roots and well developed leaves. -16,000 species of non-vascular plants -Plants that are not vascular cannot grow tall. -Bryophytes- non-vascular land plants -mosses -most common of bryophytes -sperm must swim to eggs -found in damp or moist habitat for at least part of the time -follow lichens in succession and are the first step in secondary succession -Some mosses can release spores that get blown on the wind. -There are some parts of the world where mosses are the climax vegetation, such as Ireland, and the British Isles. -compacted moss (peat) that has died can be cut out in blocks and used for fuel or as a building material. -hornworts -liverworts -wort = German word for plant Trends among plants -Plants have a long evolutionary history. -Multicellular green algae-700 million years ago -Simple stalk plants on land-300 million years ago -Extensive forests of vascular plants (tall, woody ferns)-245 million years ago

Seedless Vascular Plants Horsetails Lychophyte Ferns -adapted to living on land -usually live in wet, humid regions because sperm must be able to swim -12,000 species of ferns -temperate or tropical regions -range in size from 4” to 50’ sorus frond

The sorus will produce spores and the spores will drop on the ground by the millions. Spores germinate into heart-shaped structures (gametophyte-n). The Seed Plants -have a seed -most successful in terms of numbers and distribution -the seed enables them to be distributed world-wide -the seed contains the embryo -enables them to reproduce away from water Gymnosperms (from naked seed in Greek) -usually found in drier biomes such as the taiga or Northern Coniferous forest -The first seed plants -seed not packaged in a fruit -700 species -550 of these species are Conifers (seed cones) -pine, fir (friendly fir-the needles are soft), spruce, hemlock, cedar, cypress, redwoods, juniper -these are pollinated by wind, so they produce lots of pollen and they are usually found close together. -Pines produce male and female cones, cones must drop and strike one another to create embryos -150 are either Cycads or Ginkgos Angiosperms (vessel seed) -235,000 species -have flowers so they can trick an insect into pollinating the species

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.