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I well remember the interest excited among the learned Hindus of Calcutta by the publication of the Sarva-darana-sagraha of !dhava "ch!rya in the #ibliotheca Indica in $%&%' It was originally edited by (ait )varachandra *idy!s!gara+ but a subse,uent edition+ with no important alterations+ was published in $%-. by (ait /!r!n!tha /ar0av!chaspati' /he wor0 had been used by 1ilson in his 2S0etch of the 3eligious Sects of the Hindus2 4first published in the 5siatic 3esearches+ vol' xvi'+ Calcutta+ $%.%67 but it does not appear to have been ever much 0nown in India' S' copies of it are very scarce7 and those found in the 8orth of India+ as far as I have had an opportunity of examining them+ seem to be all derived from one copy+ brought originally from the South+ and therefore written in the /elugu character' Certain mista0es are found in all ali0e+ and probably arose from some illegible readings in the old /elugu original' I have noticed the same thing in the 8!gar9 copies of !dhava:s Commentary on the #lac0 ;a<ur *eda+ which are current in the 8orth of India' 5s I was at that time the =riental Secretary of the #engal[vi] 5siatic Society+ I was naturally attracted to the boo07 and I subse,uently read it with my friend (ait aheachandra 8y!yaratna+ the present (rincipal of the Sans0rit College at Calcutta' I always hoped to translate it into >nglish7 but I was continually prevented by other engagements while I remained in India' Soon after my return to >ngland+ I tried to carry out my intention7 but I found that several chapters+ to which I had not paid the same attention as to the rest+ were too difficult to be translated in >ngland+ where I could no longer en<oy the advantage of reference to my old friends the (aits of the Sans0rit College' In despair I laid my translation aside for years+ until I happened to learn that my friend+ r' 5' >' ?ough+ at that time a (rofessor in the Sans0rit College at #enares+ was thin0ing of translating the boo0' I at once proposed to him that we should do it together+ and he 0indly consented to my proposal7 and we accordingly each undertoo0 certain chapters of the wor0' He had the advantage of the help of some of the (aits of #enares+ especially of (ait 3!ma ira+ the assistant (rofessor of S!0hya+ who was himself a 3!m!nu<a7 and I trust that+ though we have doubtless left some things unexplained or explained wrongly+ we may have been able to throw light on many of the dar0 sayings with which the original abounds' =ur translations were originally published at intervals in the #enares (ait between $%-@ and $%-%7 but they have been carefully revised for their present republication' /he wor0 itself is an interesting specimen of Hindu critical ability' /he author successively passes in review[vii] the sixteen philosophical systems current in the fourteenth century in the South of India+ and gives what appeared to him to be their most important tenets+ and the principal arguments by which their followers endeavoured to maintain them7 and he often displays some ,uaint humour as he throws himself for the time into the position of their advocate+ and holds+ as it were+ a temporary brief in behalf of opinions entirely at variance with his own'[$] 1e may sometimes differ from him in his <udgment of the relative importance of their doctrines+ but it is always interesting to see the point of view of an acute native critic' In the course of his s0etches he fre,uently explains at some length obscure details in the different systems7 and I can hardly imagine a better guide for the >uropean reader who wishes to study any one of these Aaranas in its native authorities' In one or two cases 4as notably in the #auddha+ and perhaps in the Baina system6 he could only draw his materials second-hand from the discussions in the wor0s of #rahmanical controversialists7 but in the great ma<ority he ,uotes directly from the wor0s of their founders or leading exponents+ and he is continually following in their trac0 even where he does not ,uote their exact words'[.] /he systems are arranged from the *ed!nta point of view+Cour author having been elected+ in 5'A' $DD$+ the head [viii]of the Sm!rta order in the ah of Eingeri in the ysore territory+ founded by Ea0ara "ch!rya+ the great *ed!ntist teacher of the eighth century+ through whose efforts the *ed!nta became what it is at presentCthe ac0nowledged view of Hindu orthodoxy' /he systems form a gradually ascending scale+Cthe first+ the Ch!rv!0a and #auddha+ being the lowest as the furthest removed from the *ed!nta+ and the last+ the S!0hya and ;oga+ being the highest as

approaching most nearly to it' /he sixteen systems here discussed attracted to their study the noblest minds in India throughout the mediFval period of its history' Hiouen /hsang says of the schools in his dayG 2Hes Icoles philosophi,ues sont constamment en lutte+ et le bruit de leurs discussions passionnIes s:IlJve comme les flots de la mer' Hes hIrIti,ues des diverses sectes s:attachent K des maLtres particuliers+ et+ par des voies diffIrentes+ marchent tous au mMme but'2 1e can still catch some faint echo of the din as we read the mediFval literature' /hus+ for instance+ when Ning Harsha wanders among the *indhya forests+ he finds 2seated on the roc0s and reclining under the trees "rhata begging mon0s+ Evetapadas+ ah!p!upatas+ (!arabhi0shus+ #h!gavatas+ *arins+ NealuOchanas+ Ho0!yati0as+ N!pilas+ N!!das+ 5upanishadas+ )svara0!rins+ Aharma!strins+ (aur!i0as+ S!ptatantavas+ E!bdas+ (!Ochar!tri0as+ Pc'+ all listening to their own accepted tenets and Qealously defending them'2[D] any of these sects will occupy us in the ensuing pages7 many of them also are found in !dhava:s poem on the controversial triumphs [ix]of Ea0ara "ch!rya+ and in the spurious prose wor0 on the same sub<ect+ ascribed to 5nant!nandagiri' 1ell may some old poet have put into the mouth of ;udhishhira the lines which one so often hears from the lips of modern paitsC *ed! vibhinn! smitayo vibhinn!+ 8!sau munir yasya mata na bhinnam+ Aharmasya tattva nihita guh!y!+ ah!<ano yena gata sa panth!'[@] 5nd may we not also say with Clement of 5lexandria+ RST UVWXW VYZT UT [Z\]^T+ U _` a]bVT RX`^T cU`VdT e]S+ c^\d]` ^ fce^S U UV g]W\hT bS^iV`Y^Y^S R[Z ^ UT iS[VYVi^T UT U] f^`f`VX UT U] [[ZWScT ^`Y]ST+ cYUZ d]` [^e]W+ T dY^W ^e] UW [\]S^W+ ihUT b:+ VR^S+ W^UV[ dWU^ ihUj]U^S' >' #' C'

[$] /he most remar0able instance of this philosophical e,uanimity is that of *!chaspati ira+ who wrote standard treatises on each of the six systems except the *aieshi0a+ adopting+ of course+ the peculiar point of view of each+ and excluding for the time every alien tenet' [.] 5n index of the names of authors and wor0s ,uoted is given in Ar' Hall:s #ibliographical Catalogue+ pp' $k.-$k@+ and also in (rofessor 5ufrecht:s #odleian Catalogue+ p' .@-' [D] Er9harsha-charita+ p' .l@ 4Calcutta ed'6 [@] mound in the ah!bh' iii' $-@l.+ with some variations' I give them as I have heard them from (ait 3!man!r!yaa *idy!ratna'

I' II' III' I*' *' /he Ch!rv!0a System 4>' #' C'6 /he #auddha System 45' >' ?'6 /he "rhata or Baina System 4>' #' C'6 /he 3!m!nu<a System 45' >' ?'6 /he (nra-pra<Oa System 45' >' ?'6 (age . $. Dk k@ %-

*I' *II' *III' Io' o' oI' oII' oIII' oI*' o*' o*I'

/he 8a0ul9a-(!upata System 45' >' ?'6 /he Eaiva System 4>' #' C'6 /he (ratyabhi<O! or 3ecognitive System 45' >' ?'6 /he 3asevara or ercurial System 45' >' ?'6 /he *aieshi0a or 5uln0ya System 4>' #' C'6 /he 50shap!da or 8y!ya System 4>' #' C'6 /he Baimin9ya System 4>' #' C'6 /he (!in9ya System 4>' #' C'6 /he S!0hya System 4>' #' C'6 /he (!taO<ala or ;oga System 4>' #' C'6 /he *ed!nta or System of Sa0ara "ch!rya 5ppendixC=n the pp!dhi 4>' #' C'6

$lD $$. $.% $D$@& $k$ $-% .lD ..$ .D$ .-D .-&



$' I worship Eiva+ the abode of eternal 0nowledge+ the storehouse of supreme felicity7 by whom the earth and the rest were produced+ in him only has this all a ma0er' .' Aaily I follow my ?uru Sarva<Oa-*ishu+ who 0nows all the "gamas+ the son of E!rgap!i+ who has gone to the further shore of the seas of all the systems+ and has contented the hearts of all man0ind by the proper meaning of the term Soul' D' /he synopsis of all the systems is made by the venerable !dhava mighty in power+ the Naustubha-<ewel of the mil0-ocean of the fortunate S!yaa' @' Having thoroughly searched the E!stras of former teachers+ very hard to be crossed+ the fortunate S!yaa- !dhava[&] the lord has expounded them for the delight of the good' Het the virtuous listen with a mind from which all envy has been far banished7 who finds not delight in a garland strung of various flowersq

[&] Ar' 5' C' #urnell+ in his preface to his edition of the *aa-#r!hmaa+ has solved the riddle of the relation of !dhava and S!yaa' S!yaa is a pure Araviian name given to a child who is born after all the elder children have died' !dhava elsewhere calls S!yaa his 2younger brother+2 as an allegorical description of his body+ himself being the eternal soul' His use of the term S!yaa!dhava here 4not the dual6 seems to prove that the two names represent the same person' /he body seems meant by the S!yaa of the third lo0a' !yaa was the father of !dhava+ and the true reading may be rman-myaa' [.]


[1e have said in our preliminary invocation 2salutation to Eiva+ the abode of eternal 0nowledge+ the storehouse of supreme felicity+2] but how can we attribute to the Aivine #eing the giving of supreme felicity+ when such a notion has been utterly abolished by Ch!rv!0a+ the crest-gem of the atheistical school+ the follower of the doctrine of #ihaspatiq /he efforts of Ch!rv!0a are indeed hard to be eradicated+ for the ma<ority of living beings hold by the current refrainC 1hile life is yours+ live <oyously7 8one can escape Aeath:s searching eyeG 1hen once this frame of ours they burn+ How shall it e:er again returnq /he mass of men+ in accordance with the E!stras of policy and en<oyment+ considering wealth and desire the only ends of man+ and denying the existence of any ob<ect belonging to a future world+ are found to follow only the doctrine of Ch!rv!0a' Hence another name for that school is Ho0!yata+ Ca name well accordant with the thing signified'[k] In this school the four elements+ earth+ Pc'+ are the [D]original principles7 from these alone+ when transformed into the body+ intelligence is produced+ <ust as the inebriating power is developed from the mixing of certain ingredients7[-] and when these are destroyed+ intelligence at once perishes also' /hey ,uote the Eruti for this [#ihad "ray' pp' ii' @+ $.]+ 2Springing forth from these elements+ itself solid 0nowledge+ it is destroyed when they are destroyed+Cafter death no intelligence remains'2[%] /herefore the soul is only the body distinguished by the attribute of intelligence+ since there is no evidence for any soul distinct from the body+ as such cannot be proved+ since this school holds that perception is the only source of 0nowledge and does not allow inference+ Pc' /he only end of man is en<oyment produced by sensual pleasures' 8or may you say that such cannot be called the end of man as they are always mixed with some 0ind of pain+ because it is our wisdom to en<oy the pure pleasure as far as we can+ and to avoid the pain which inevitably accompanies it7 <ust as the man who desires fish ta0es the fish with their scales and bones+ and having ta0en as many as he wants+ desists7 or <ust as the man who desires rice+ ta0es the rice+ straw and all+ and having ta0en as much as he wants+ desists' It is not therefore for us+ through a fear of pain+ to re<ect the pleasure which our nature instinctively recognises as congenial' en do not refrain from sowing rice+ because forsooth there are wild animals to devour it7 nor do they refuse to set the coo0ing-pots on the fire+ because forsooth there are beggars to pester us for a share of the contents' If any one were [@]so timid as to forsa0e a visible pleasure+ he would indeed be foolish li0e a beast+ as has been said by the poetC /he pleasure which arises to men from contact with sensible ob<ects+ Is to be relin,uished as accompanied by pain+Csuch is the reasoning of fools7 /he berries of paddy+ rich with the finest white grains+ 1hat man+ see0ing his true interest+ would fling away because covered with hus0 and dustq[r] If you ob<ect that+ if there be no such thing as happiness in a future world+ then how should men of experienced wisdom engage in the agnihotra and other sacrifices+ which can only be performed with great expenditure of money and bodily fatigue+ your ob<ection cannot be accepted as any proof to the contrary+ since the agnihotra+ Pc'+ are only useful as means of livelihood+ for the *eda is tainted by the three faults of untruth+ self-contradiction+ and tautology7[$l] then again the impostors who call themselves *aidic pundits are mutually destructive+ as the authority of the <O!na-0!a is overthrown by those who maintain that of the 0arma-0!a+ while those who maintain the authority of the <O!na-0!a re<ect that of the 0arma-0!a7 and lastly+ the three *edas themselves are only

the incoherent rhapsodies of 0naves+ and to this effect runs the popular sayingC /he 5gnihotra+ the three *edas+ the ascetic:s three staves+ and smearing oneself with ashes+C #ihaspati says+ these are but means of livelihood for those who have no manliness nor sense' Hence it follows that there is no other hell than mundane pain produced by purely mundane causes+ as thorns+ Pc'7 the only Supreme is the earthly monarch whose existence is proved by all the world:s eyesight7 and the only Hiberation is the dissolution of the body' #y holding the doctrine that the soul is identical with the body+ [&]such phrases as 2I am thin+2 2I am blac0+2 Pc'+ are at once intelligible+ as the attributes of thinness+ Pc'+ and self-consciousness will reside in the same sub<ect [the body]7 li0e and the use of the phrase 2my body2 is metaphorical 2the head of 3!hu2 [3!hu being really all head]' 5ll this has been thus summed upC In this school there are four elements+ earth+ water+ fire+ and air7 5nd from these four elements alone is intelligence produced+C Bust li0e the intoxicating power from 0iwa+ Pc'+ mixed together7 Since in 2I am fat+2 2I am lean+2 these attributes[$$] abide in the same sub<ect+ 5nd since fatness+ Pc'+ reside only in the body+[$.] it alone is the soul and no other+ 5nd such phrases as 2my body2 are only significant metaphorically' 2#e it so+2 says the opponent7 2your wish would be gained if inference+ Pc'+ had no force of proof7 but then they have this force7 else+ if they had not+ then how+ on perceiving smo0e+ should the thoughts of the intelligent immediately proceed to fire7 or why+ on hearing another say+ :/here are fruits on the ban0 of the river+: do those who desire fruit proceed at once to the shoreq2 5ll this+ however+ is only the inflation of the world of fancy' /hose who maintain the authority of inference accept the sign or middle term as the causer of 0nowledge+ which middle term must be found in the minor and be itself invariably connected with the ma<or'[$D] 8ow this invariable connection must be a relation destitute of any condition accepted or disputed7[$@] and this connection does not possess its power of causing inference by virtue of its existence+ as the eye+ Pc'+ are the cause of perception+ but by virtue of its being known' 1hat then is the means of this connection:s being 0nownq [k] 1e will first show that it is not perception' 8ow perception is held to be of two 0inds+ external and internal [i.e.+ as produced by the external senses+ or by the inner sense+ mind]' /he former is not the re,uired means7 for although it is possible that the actual contact of the senses and the ob<ect will produce the 0nowledge of the particular ob<ect thus brought in contact+ yet as there can never be such contact in the case of the past or the future+ the universal proposition[$&] which was to embrace the invariable connection of the middle and ma<or terms in every case becomes impossible to be 0nown' 8or may you maintain that this 0nowledge of the universal proposition has the general class as its ob<ect+ because if so+ there might arise a doubt as to the existence of the invariable connection in this particular case[$k] [as+ for instance+ in this particular smo0e as implying fire]' 8or is internal perception the means+ since you cannot establish that the mind has any power to act independently towards an external ob<ect+ since all allow that it is dependent on the external senses+ as has been said by one of the logicians+ 2/he eye+ Pc'+ have their ob<ects as described7 but mind externally is dependent on the others'2 8or can inference be the means of the 0nowledge of the universal proposition+ since in the case of this inference we should also re,uire another inference to establish it+ and so on+ and hence would arise the fallacy of an ad infinitum retrogression' 8or can testimony be the means thereof+ since we may either allege in reply+ in accordance with the *aieshi0a doctrine of Na!da+ that this is included in the topic of inference7 or else we may hold

that this fresh proof of testimony is unable to leap over the old barrier that [-]stopped the progress of inference+ since it depends itself on the recognition of a sign in the form of the language used in the child:s presence by the old man7[$-] and+ moreover+ there is no more reason for our believing on another:s word that smo0e and fire are invariably connected+ than for our receiving the ipse dixit of anu+P c' [which+ of course+ we Ch!rv!0as re<ect]' 5nd again+ if testimony were to be accepted as the only means of the 0nowledge of the universal proposition+ then in the case of a man to whom the fact of the invariable connection between the middle and ma<or terms had not been pointed out by another person+ there could be no inference of one thing [as fire] on seeing another thing [as smo0e]7 hence+ on your own showing+ the whole topic of inference for oneself[$%] would have to end in mere idle words' /hen again comparison+[$r] Pc'+ must be utterly re<ected as the means of the 0nowledge of the universal proposition+ since it is impossible that they can produce the 0nowledge of the unconditioned connection [i.e.+ the universal proposition]+ because their end is to produce the 0nowledge of ,uite another connection+ viQ'+ the relation of a name to something so named' 5gain+ this same absence of a condition+[.l] which has been given as the definition of an invariable connection [i.e.+ a universal proposition]+ can itself never be 0nown7 since it is impossible to establish that all conditions must be ob<ects of perception7 and therefore+ although the absence of [%]perceptible things may be itself perceptible+ the absence of non-perceptible things must be itself non-perceptible7 and thus+ since we must here too have recourse to inference+ Pc'+ we cannot leap over the obstacle which has already been planted to bar them' 5gain+ we must accept as the definition of the condition+ 2it is that which is reciprocal or e,uipollent in extension[.$] with the ma<or term though not constantly accompanying the middle'2 /hese three distinguishing clauses+ 2not constantly accompanying the middle term+2 2constantly accompanying the ma<or term+2 and 2being constantly accompanied by it2 [i.e.+ reciprocal]+ are needed in the full definition to stop respectively three such fallacious conditions+ in the argument to prove the non-eternity of sound+ as 2being produced+2 2the nature of a <ar+2 and 2the not causing audition72[..] wherefore the definition holds+Cand again it is established by the lo0a of the great Aoctor beginning samsama'[.D] [r] #ut since the 0nowledge of the condition must here precede the 0nowledge of the condition:s absence+ it is only when there is the 0nowledge of the condition+ that the 0nowledge of the universality of the proposition is possible+ i.e.+ a 0nowledge in the form of such a connection between the middle term and ma<or term as is distinguished by the absence of any such condition7 and on the other hand+ the 0nowledge of the condition depends upon the 0nowledge of the invariable connection' /hus we fasten on our opponents as with adamantine glue the thunderboltli0e fallacy of reasoning in a circle' Hence by the impossibility of 0nowing the universality of a proposition it becomes impossible to establish inference+ Pc'[.@] /he step which the mind ta0es from the 0nowledge of smo0e+ Pc'+ to the 0nowledge of fire+ Pc'+ can be accounted for by its being based on a former perception or by its being an error7 and that in some cases this step is <ustified by the result+ is accidental <ust li0e the coincidence of effects observed in the employment of gems+ charms+ drugs+ Pc' mrom this it follows that fate+ Pc'+[.&] do not exist+ since these can only be proved by inference' #ut an opponent will say+ if you thus do not allow adisha+ the various phenomena of the world become destitute of any cause' [$l] #ut we cannot accept this ob<ection as valid+ since these phenomena can all be produced spontaneously from the inherent nature of things' /hus it has been saidC /he fire is hot+ the water cold+ refreshing cool the breeQe of morn7 #y whom came this varietyq from their own nature was it born'

5nd all this has been also said by #ihaspatiC /here is no heaven+ no final liberation+ nor any soul in another world+ 8or do the actions of the four castes+ orders+ Pc'+ produce any real effect' /he 5gnihotra+ the three *edas+ the ascetic:s three staves+ and smearing one:s self with ashes+ 1ere made by 8ature as the livelihood of those destitute of 0nowledge and manliness' If a beast slain in the Byotishoma rite will itself go to heaven+ 1hy then does not the sacrificer forthwith offer his own fatherq[.k] If the Er!ddha produces gratification to beings who are dead+ /hen here+ too+ in the case of travellers when they start+ it is needless to give provisions for the <ourney' If beings in heaven are gratified by our offering the Er!ddha here+ /hen why not give the food down below to those who are standing on the housetopq 1hile life remains let a man live happily+ let him feed on ghee even though he runs in debt7 1hen once the body becomes ashes+ how can it ever return againq If he who departs from the body goes to another world+ How is it that he comes not bac0 again+ restless for love of his 0indredq Hence it is only as a means of livelihood that #rahmans have established here 5ll these ceremonies for the dead+Cthere is no other fruit anywhere' /he three authors of the *edas were buffoons+ 0naves+ and demons' 5ll the well-0nown formulF of the pandits+ <arphar9+ turphar9+ Pc'[.-] 5nd all the obscene rites for the ,ueen commanded in the 5wamedha+ [$$]/hese were invented by buffoons+ and so all the various 0inds of presents to the priests+[.%] 1hile the eating of flesh was similarly commanded by night-prowling demons' Hence in 0indness to the mass of living beings must we fly for refuge to the doctrine of Ch!rv!0a' Such is the pleasant consummation' >' #' C'

[k] 2Ea0ara+ #h!s0ara+ and other commentators name the Ho0!yati0as+ and these appear to be a branch of the Sect of Ch!rv!0a2 4Colebroo0e6' Ho0!yata may be etymologically analysed as 2prevalent in the world2 4loka and yata6' Hau0!yati0a occurs in (!ini:s u0thagaa' [-] Kiwa is explained as 2drug or seed used to produce fermentation in the manufacture of spirits from sugar+ bassia+ Pc'2 Colebroo0e ,uotes from Ea0araG 2/he faculty of thought results from a modification of the aggregate elements in li0e manner as sugar with a ferment and other ingredients becomes an inebriating li,uor7 and as betel+ areca+ lime+ and extract of catechu chewed together have an exhilarating property not found in those substances severally'2 [%] =f course Ea0ara+ in his commentary+ gives a very different interpretation+ applying it to the cessation of individual existence when the 0nowledge of the Supreme is once attained' Cf' Eabara:s Comm' Baimini Snt'+ i' i' &' [r] I ta0e kaa as here e,ual to the #engali kun' Cf' 5tharva-*'+ xi' D+ &' Av ka gvas taul maaks tush. [$l] See 8y!ya Sntras+ ii' &-' [$$] I.e.+ personality and fatness+ Pc' [$.] I read dehe for deha' [$D] Hiterally+ 2must be an attribute of the sub<ect and have invariable concomitance 4vypti6'2 [$@] mor the sandigdha and nichita updhi see Siddh!nta only by one party' u0t!vali+ p' $.&' /he former is accepted

[$&] Hiterally+ the 0nowledge of the invariable concomitance 4as of smo0e by fire6' [$k] /he attributes of the class are not always found in every member+Cthus idiots are men+ though man is a rational animal7 and again+ this particular smo0e might be a sign of a fire in some other place' [$-] See S!hitya Aarpaa 4#allantyne:s trans' p' $k6+ and Siddh!nta- '+ p' %l' [$%] /he properly logical+ as distinguished from the rhetorical+ argument' [$r] 2 pamna or the 0nowledge of a similarity is the instrument in the production of an inference from similarity' /his particular inference consists in the 0nowledge of the relation of a name to something so named'2 #allantyne:s /ar0a Sangraha' [.l] /he up!dhi is the condition which must be supplied to restrict a too general middle term+ as in the inference 2the mountain has smo0e because it has fire+2 if we add wet fuel as the condition of the fire+ the middle term will be no longer too general' In the case of a true vy!pti+ there is+ of course+ no up!dhi' [.$] :sWUSYU`i]S 4(r' 5nal'+ ii' .&6' 1e have here our 5 with distributed predicate' [..] If we omitted the first clause+ and only made the up!dhi 2that which constantly accompanies the ma<or term and is constantly accompanied by it+2 then in the 8aiy!yi0a argument 2sound is noneternal+ because it has the nature of sound+2 2being produced2 would serve as a 9m!sa0a up!dhi+ to establish the vya!hichra fallacy+ as it is reciprocal with 2non-eternal72 but the omitted clause excludes it+ as an up!dhi must be consistent with either party:s opinions+ and+ of course+ the 8aiy!yi0a maintains that 2being produced2 always accompanies the class of sound' Similarly+ if we defined the up!dhi as 2not constantly accompanying the middle term and constantly accompanied by the ma<or+2 we might have as an up!dhi 2the nature of a <ar+2 as this is never found with the middle term 4the class or nature of sound only residing in sound+ and that of a <ar only in a <ar6+ while+ at the same time+ wherever the class of <ar is found there is also found non-eternity' Hastly+ if we defined the up!dhi as 2not constantly accompanying the middle term+ and constantly accompanying the ma<or+2 we might have as a 9m!sa0a up!dhi 2the not causing audition+2 i.e.+ the not being apprehended by the organs of hearing7 but this is excluded+ as non-eternity is not always found where this is+ ether being inaudible and yet eternal' [.D] /his refers to an obscure lo0a of pdayan!ch!rya+ 2where a reciprocal and a non-reciprocal universal connection 4i.e.+ universal propositions which severally do and do not distribute their predicates6 relate to the same argument 4as e.g.+ to prove the existence of smo0e6+ there that nonreciprocating term of the second will be a fallacious middle+ which is not invariably accompanied by the other reciprocal of the first'2 /hus 2the mountain has smo0e because it has fire2 4here fire and smo0e are non-reciprocating+ as fire is not found invariably accompanied by smo0e though smo0e is by fire6+ or 2because it has fire from wet fuel2 4smo0e and fire from wet fuel being reciprocal and always accompanying each other67 the non-reciprocating term of the former 4fire6 will give a fallacious inference+ because it is also+ of course+ not invariably accompanied by the special 0ind of fire+ that produced from wet fuel' #ut this will not be the case where the nonreciprocating term is thus invariably accompanied by the other reciprocal+ as 2the mountain has fire because it has smo0e72 here+ though fire and smo0e do not reciprocate+ yet smo0e will be a true middle+ because it is invariably accompanied by heat+ which is the reciprocal of fire' I wish to add here+ once for all+ that I own my explanation of this+ as well as many another+ difficulty in the Sarva-darana-agraha to my old friend and teacher+ (ait ahea Chandra 8y!yaratna+ of the Calcutta Sans0rit College' [.@] Cf' Sextus >mpiricus+ (' Hyp' ii' In the chapter on the #uddhist system infra+ we have an attempt to establish the authority of the universal proposition from the relation of cause and effect or genus and species' [.&] Adisha+ i.e.+ the merit and demerit in our actions which produce their effects in future births'

[.k] /his is an old #uddhist retort' See #urnouf+ Introd'+ p' .lr' [.-] 3ig-*eda+ x' $lk' mor the 5wamedha rites+ see 1ilson:s 3ig-*eda+ (reface+ vol' ii' p' xiii' [.%] =r this may mean 2and all the various other things to be handled in the rites'2 [$.]


5t this point the #uddhists remar0G 5s for what you 4Ch!rv!0as6 laid down as to the difficulty of ascertaining invariable concomitance+ your position is unacceptable+ inasmuch as invariable concomitance is easily cognisable by means of identity and causality' It has accordingly been saidC 2mrom the relation of cause and effect+ or from identity as a determinant+ results a law of invariable concomitanceCnot through the mere observation of the desired result in similar cases+ nor through the non-observation of it in dissimilar cases'2[.r] =n the hypothesis 4of the 8aiy!yi0as6 that it is concomitance and non-concomitance 4e.g.+ 5 is where # is+ 5 is not where # is not6 that determine an invariable connection+ the unconditional attendance of the ma<or or the middle term would be unascertainable+ it being impossible to exclude all doubt with regard to instances past and future+ and present but unperceived' If one 4a 8aiy!yi0a6 re<oin that uncertainty in regard to such instances is e,ually inevitable on our system+ we replyG Say not so+ for such a supposition as that an effect may be produced without any cause would destroy itself by putting a stop to activity of any 0ind7 for such doubts [$D]alone are to be entertained+ the entertainment of which does not implicate us in practical absurdity and the li0e+ as it has been said+ 2Aoubt terminates where there is a practical absurdity'2[Dl] $' #y ascertainment of an effectuation+ then+ of that 4viQ'+ of the designate of the middle6 is ascertained the invariable concomitance 4of the ma<or67 and the ascertainment of such effectuation may arise from the well-0nown series of five causes+ in the perceptive cognition or non-cognition of cause and effect' /hat fire and smo0e+ for instance+ stand in the relation of cause and effect is ascertained by five indications+ viQ'+ 4$'6 /hat an effect is not cognised prior to its effectuation+ that 4.'6 the cause being perceived 4D'6 the effect is perceived+ and that after the effect is cognised 4@'6 there is its non-cognition+ 4&'6 when the 4material6 cause is no longer cognised' .' In li0e manner an invariable concomitance is ascertained by the ascertainment of identity 4e.g.+ a sisu-tree is a tree+ or wherever we observe the attributes of a sisu we observe also the attribute arboreity6+ an absurdity attaching to the contrary opinion+ inasmuch as if a sisu-tree should lose its arboreity it would lose its own self' #ut+ on the other hand+ where there exists no absurdity+ and where a 4mere6 concomitance is again and again observed+ who can exclude all doubt of failure in the concomitanceq 5n ascertainment of the identity of sisu and tree is competent in virtue of the reference to the same ob<ect 4i.e.+ predication6+C/his tree is a sisu' mor reference to the same ob<ect 4predication6 is not competent where there is no difference whatever 4e.g.+ to say+ 25 <ar is a <ar+2 is no combination of diverse attributes in a common sub<ect6+ because the two terms cannot+ as being synonymous+ be simultaneously employed7 nor can reference to the same ob<ect ta0e place where there is a reciprocal exclusion 4of the two terms6+ inasmuch as we never find+ for instance+ horse and cow predicated the one of the other'[$@] It has thus been evinced that an effect or a self-same supposes a cause or a self-same 4as invariable concomitants6' If a man does not allow that inference is a form of evidence+ prama+ one may replyG ;ou merely

assert thus much+ that inference is not a form of evidenceG do you allege no proof of this+ or do you allege anyq /he former alternative is not allowable according to the maxim that bare assertion is no proof of the matter asserted' 8or is the latter alternative any better+ for if while you assert that inference is no form of evidence+ you produce some truncated argument 4to prove+ i.e.+ infer+ that it is none6+ you will be involved in an absurdity+ <ust as if you asserted your own mother to be barren' #esides+ when you affirm that the establishment of a form of evidence and of the corresponding fallacious evidence results from their homogeneity+ you yourself admit induction by identity' 5gain+ when you affirm that the dissentiency of others is 0nown by the symbolism of words+ you yourself allow induction by causality' 1hen you deny the existence of any ob<ect on the ground of its not being perceived+ you yourself admit an inference of which non-perception is the middle term' Conformably it has been said by /ath!gataC 2/he admission of a form of evidence in general results from its being present to the understanding of others' 2/he existence of a form of evidence also follows from its negation by a certain person'2 5ll this has been fully handled by great authorities7 and we desist for fear of an undue enlargement of our treatise' /hese same #auddhas discuss the highest end of man from four standpoints' Celebrated under the designations of !dhyami0a+ ;og!ch!ra+ Sautr!nti0a+ and *aibh!shi0a+ these #uddhists adopt respectively the doctrines of a universal void 4nihilism6+ an external void 4sub<ective idealism6+ the inferribility of external ob<ects 4representationism[$&]6+ and the perceptibility of external ob<ects 4presentationism6'[D$] /hough the venerated #uddha be the only one teacher 4his disciples6 are fourfold in conse,uence of this diversity of views7 <ust as when one has said+ 2/he sun has set+2 the adulterer+ the thief+ the divinity student+ and others understand that it is time to set about their assignations+ their theft+ their religious duties+ and so forth+ according to their several inclinations' It is to be borne in mind that four points of view have been laid out+ viQ'+ 4$'6 5ll is momentary+ momentary7 4.'6 all is pain+ pain7 4D'6 all is li0e itself alone7 4@'6 all is void+ void' =f these points of view+ the momentariness of fleeting things+ blue and so forth 4i.e.+ whatever be their ,uality6+ is to be inferred from their existence7 thus+ whatever is is momentary 4or fluxional6 li0e a ban0 of clouds+ and all these things are'[D.] 8or may any one ob<ect that the middle term 4existence6 is unestablished7 for an existence consisting of practical efficiency is established by perception to belong to the blue and other momentary things7 and the exclusion of existence from that which is not momentary is established+ provided that we exclude from [$k]it the nonmomentary succession and simultaneity+ according to the rule that exclusion of the continent is exclusion of the contained' 8ow this practical efficiency 4here identified with existence6 is contained under succession and simultaneity+ and no medium is possible between succession and non-succession 4or simultaneity67 there being a manifest absurdity in thin0ing otherwise+ according to the ruleC 2In a reciprocal contradiction there exists no ulterior alternative7 28or is their unity in contradictories+ there being a repugnance in the very statement'2[DD] 5nd this succession and simultaneity being excluded from the permanent+ and also excluding from the permanent all practical efficiency+ determine existence of the alternative of momentariness'C ,'e'd' (erhaps some one may as0G 1hy may not practical efficiency reside in the non-fluxional 4or permanent6q If so+ this is wrong+ as obnoxious to the following dilemma' Has your 2permanent2 a power of past and future practical efficiency during its exertion of present practical efficiency or noq =n the former alternative 4if it has such power6+ it cannot evacuate such past and future efficiency+ because we cannot deny that it has power+ and because we infer the conse,uence+ that which can at any time do anything does not fail to do that at that time+ as+ for instance+ a

complement of causes+ and this entity is thus powerful' =n the latter alternative 4if the permanent has no such power of past and future agency6+ it will never do anything+ because practical efficiency results from power only7 what at any time does not do anything+ that at that time is unable to do it+ as+ for instance+ a piece of stone does not produce a germ7 and this entity while exerting its present practical efficiency+ does not exert its past and future practical efficiency' Such is the contradiction' ;ou will perhaps re<oinG #y assuming successive[$-] subsidiaries+ there is competent to the permanent entity a successive exertion of past and future practical efficiency' If so+ we would as0 you to explainG Ao the subsidiaries assist the entity or notq If they do not+ they are not re,uired7 for if they do nothing+ they can have nothing to do with the successive exertion' If they do assist the thing+ is this assistance 4or supplementation6 other than the thing or notq If it is other than the thing+ then this adscititious 4assistance6 is the cause+ and the non-momentary entity is not the causeG for the effect will then follow+ by concomitance and non-concomitance+ the adventitious supplementation' /hus it has been saidG 21hat have rain and shine to do with the soulq /heir effect is on the s0in of man7 2If the soul were li0e the s0in+ it would be non-permanent7 and if the s0in were li0e the soul+ there could be no effect produced upon it'2 (erhaps you will sayG /he entity produces its effect+ together with its subsidiaries' 1ell+ then 4we reply6+ let the entity not give up its subsidiaries+ but rather tie them lest they fly with a rope round their nec0+ and so produce the effect which it has to produce+ and without forfeiting its own proper nature' #esides 4we continue6+ does the additament 4or supplementation6 constituted by the subsidiaries give rise to another additament or notq In either case the afore-mentioned ob<ections will come down upon you li0e a shower of stones' =n the alternative that the additament ta0es on another additament+ you will be embarrassed by a many-sided regress in infinitum' If when the additament is to be generated another auxiliary 4or additament6 be re,uired+ there will ensue an endless series of such additamentsG this must be confessed to be one infinite regress' mor example+ let a seed be granted to be productive when an additament is given+ consisting of a complement of ob<ects such as water+ wind+ and the li0e+ as subsidiaries7 otherwise an additament would be manifested without subsidiaries' 8ow the seed in ta0ing[$%] on the additament ta0es it on with the need of 4ulterior6 subsidiaries7 otherwise+ as there would always be subsidiaries+ it would follow that a germ would always be arising from the seed' 1e shall now have to add to the seed another supplementation by subsidiaries themselves re,uiring an additament' If when this additament is given+ the seed be productive only on condition of subsidiaries as before+ there will be established an infinite regression of additaments to 4or supplementations of6 the seed+ to be afforded by the subsidiaries' 5gain+ we as0+ does the supplementation re,uired for the production of the effect produce its effect independently of the seed and the li0e+ or does it re,uire the seed and the li0eq =n the first alternative 4if the supplementation wor0s independently6+ it would ensue that the seed is in no way a cause' =n the second 4if the supplementation re,uire the seed6+ the seed+ or whatever it may be that is thus re,uired+ must ta0e on a supplementation or additament+ and thus there will be over and over again an endless series of additaments added to the additament constituted by the seed7 and thus a second infinite regression is firmly set up' In li0e manner the subsidiary which is re,uired will add another subsidiary to the seed+ or whatever it may be that is the sub<ect of the additions+ and thus there will be an endless succession of additaments added to the additaments to the seed which is supplemented by the subsidiaries7 and so a third infinite regression will add to your embarrassment' 8ow 4or the other grand alternative6+ let it be granted that a supplementation identical with the entity 4the seed+ or whatever it may be6 is ta0en on' If so+ the former entity+ that minus the supplementation+ is no more+ and a new entity identical with the supplementation+ and designated 4in the technology of #uddhism6 kurvad r"pa 4or effect-producing ob<ect6+ comes into beingG and

thus the[$r] tree of my desires 4my doctrine of a universal flux6 has borne its fruit' (ractical efficiency+ therefore+ in the non-momentary is inadmissible' 8or is practical efficiency possible apart from succession in time7 for such a possibility is redargued by the following dilemma' Is this 4permanent6 entity 4which you contend for6 able to produce all its effects simultaneously+ or does it continue to exist after production of effectsq =n the former alternative+ it will result that the entity will produce its effects <ust as much at one time as at another7 on the second alternative+ the expectation of its permanency is as reasonable as expecting seed eaten by a mouse to germinate' /hat to which contrary determinations are attributed is diverse+ as heat and cold7 but this thing is determined by contrary attributions' Such is the argumentation applied to the cloud 4to prove that it has not a permanent but a fluxional existence6' 8or is the middle term disallowable+ for possession and privation of power and impotence are allowed in regard to the permanent 4which you assert6 at different times' /he concomitance and non-concomitance already described 4viQ'+ /hat which can at any time do anything does not fail to do that at that time+ and 1hat at any time does not do anything+ that at that time is unable to do it6 are affirmed 4by us6 to prove the existence of such power' /he negative rule isG 1hat at any time is unable to produce anything+ that at that time does not produce it+ as a piece of stone+ for example+ does not produce a germ7 and this entity 4the seed+ or whatever it may be6+ while exerting a present practical efficiency+ is incapable of past and future practical efficiencies' /he contradiction violating this rule isG 1hat at any time does anything+ that at that time is able to do that thing+ as a complement of causes is able to produce its effect7 and this 4permanent6 entity exerts at time past and time future the practical efficiencies proper to those times'[.l] 4/o recapitulate'6 >xistence is restricted to the momentary7 there being observed in regard to existence a negative rule+ that in regard to permanent succession and simultaneity being excluded+ existence which contains succession and simultaneity is not cognisable7 and there being observed in regard to existence a positive rule+ in virtue of a concomitance observed 4viQ'+ that the existent is accompanied or 2pervaded2 by the momentary6+ and in virtue of a non-concomitance observed 4viQ'+ that the non-momentary is accompanied or 2pervaded2 by the non-existent6' /herefore it has been said by BO!na-r9C 21hat is is momentary+ as a cloud+ and as these existent things7 2/he power of existence is relative to practical efficiency+ and belongs to the ideal7 but this power exists not as eternal in things eternal 4ether+ Pc'67 28or is there only one form+ otherwise one thing could do the wor0 of another7 2mor two reasons+ therefore 4viQ'+ succession and simultaneity6+ a momentary flux is congruous and remains true in regard to that which we have to prove'2 8or is it to be held+ in acceptance of the hypothesis of the *aieshi0as and 8aiy!yi0as+ that existence is a participation in the universal form existence7 for were this the case+ universality+ particularity+ and co-inhesion 4which do not participate in the universal6 could have no existence' 8or is the ascription of existence to universality+ particularity+ and co-inhesion dependent on any sui generis existence of their own7 for such an hypothesis is operose+ re,uiring too many sui generis existences' oreover+ the existence of any universal is disproved by a dilemma regarding the presence or non-presence 4of the one in the many67 and there is not presented to us any one form running through all the diverse momentary things+ mustard-seeds+ mountains+ and so forth+ li0e the string running[.$] through the gems strung upon it' oreover 4we would as06+ is the universal omnipresent or present everywhere in its sub<icible sub<ectsq If it is everywhere+ all things in the universe will be confounded together 4chaos will be eternal6+ and you will be involved in a tenet you re<ect+ since (raasta-p!da has said+ 2(resent in all its sub<ects'2 5gain 4if the universal is present only in its proper sub<ects6+ does the universal 4the nature of a <ar6 residing in an already existing

<ar+ on being attached to another <ar now in ma0ing+ come from the one to attach itself to the other+ or not come from itq =n the first alternative 4if it comes6+ the universal must be a substance 4for substances alone underlie ,ualities and motions67 whereas+ if it does not come+ it cannot attach itself to the new <ar' 5gain 4we as06+ when the <ar ceases to exist+ does the universal outlast it+ or cease to exist+ or go to another placeq =n the first supposition it will exist without a sub<ect to inhere in7 on the second+ it will be improper to call it eternal 4as you do67 on the third+ it will follow that it is a substance 4or base of ,ualities and motions6' Aestroyed as it is by the malign influence of these and the li0e ob<ections+ the universal is unauthenticated' Conformably it has been saidC 2?reat is the dexterity of that which+ existing in one place+ engages without moving from that place in producing itself in another place' 2/his entity 4universality6 is not connected with that wherein it resides+ and yet pervades that which occupies that placeG great is this miracle' 2It goes not away+ nor was it there+ nor is it subse,uently divided+ it ,uits not its former repositoryG what a series of difficultiest2 If you as0G =n what does the assurance that the one exists in the many restq ;ou must be satisfied with the reply that we concede it to repose on difference from that which is different 4or exclusion of heterogeneity6' 1e dismiss further prolixity'[..] /hat all transmigratory existence is identical with pain is the common verdict of all the founders of institutes+ else they would not be found desirous to put a stop to it and engaging in the method for bringing it to an end' 1e must+ therefore+ bear in mind that all is pain+ and pain alone' If you ob<ectG 1hen it is as0ed+ li0e whatq you must ,uote an instance+Cwe replyG 8ot so+ for momentary ob<ects self-characterised being momentary+ have no common characters+ and therefore it is impossible to say that this is li0e that' 1e must therefore hold that all is li0e itself alone+ li0e itself alone' In li0e manner we must hold that all is void+ and void alone' mor we are conscious of a determinate negation' /his silver or the li0e has not been seen by me in sleeping or wa0ing' If what is seen were 4really6 existent+ then reality would pertain to the corresponding act of vision+ to the 4nacre+ Pc'6+ which is the basis of its particular nature 4or haecceity6+ to the silver+ Pc'+ illusorily superposed upon that basis+ to the connection between them+ to the co-inherence+ and so forthG a supposition not entertained by any disputant' 8or is a semi-effete existence admissible' 8o one imagines that onehalf of a fowl may be set apart for coo0ing+ and the other half for laying eggs' /he venerated #uddha+ then+ having taught that of the illusorily superposed 4silver+ Pc'6+ the basis 4nacre+ Pc'6+ the connection between them+ the act of vision+ and the videns+ if one or more be unreal it will perforce ensue that all are unreal+ all being e,ually ob<ects of the negation7 the !dhyami0as excellently wise explain as follows+ viQ'+ that the doctrine of #uddha terminates in that of a total void 4universal baselessness or nihilism6 by a slow progression li0e the intrusive steps of a mendicant+ through the position of a momentary flux+ and through the 4gradual6 negation of the illusory assurances of pleasurable sensibility+ of universality+ and of reality' /he ultimate principle+ then+ is a void emancipated from[.D] four alternatives+ viQ'+ from reality+ from unreality+ from both 4reality and unreality6+ and from neither 4reality nor unreality6' /o exemplify thisG If real existence were the nature of a water-pot and the li0e+ the activity of its ma0er 4the potter6 would be superfluous' If non-existence be its nature the same ob<ection will accrue7 as it is saidC 28ecessity of a cause befits not the existent+ ether and the li0e+ for instance7 28o cause is efficacious of a non-existent effect+ flowers of the s0y and the li0e+ for instance'2 /he two remaining alternatives+ as self-contradictory+ are inadmissible' It has accordingly been laid

down by the venerated #uddha in the 5la0!r!vat!ra[D@]C 2=f things discriminated by intellect+ no nature is ascertained7[D&] 2/hose things are therefore shown to be inexplicable and natureless'2 5nd againC 2/his matter perforce results+ which the wise declare+ 8o sooner are ob<ects thought than they are dissipated'2 /hat is to say+ the ob<ects are not determined by any one of the four alternatives' Hence it is that it has been saidC 25 religious mendicant+ an amorous man+ and a dog have three views of a woman:s person+ respectively that it is a carcass+ that it is a mistress+ and that it is a prey'2 In conse,uence+ then+ of these four points of view+ when all ideas are come to an end+ final extinction+ which is a void+ will result' 5ccordingly we have overta0en our end+ [.@]and there is nothing to be taught to us' /here conse,uently remain only two duties to the studentCinterrogation and acceptance' =f these+ interrogation is the putting of ,uestions in order to attain 0nowledge not yet attained' 5cceptance is assent to the matters stated by the sacred teacher' /hese 4#auddha nihilists6 are excellent in assenting to that which the religious teacher enounces+ and defective in interrogation+ whence their conventional designation of !dhyami0as 4or mediocre6' Certain other #uddhists are styled ;og!ch!ras+ because while they accept the four points of view proclaimed by the spiritual guide+ and the void of external things+ they ma0e the interrogationG 1hy has a void of the internal 4or baselessness of mental phenomena6 been admittedq mor their technology is as followsGCSelf-subsistent cognition must be allowed+ or it will follow that the whole universe is blind' It has conformably been proclaimed by Aharma09rtiG 2/o one who disallows perception the vision of ob<ects is not competent'2 5n external percipi!ile is not admissible in conse,uence of the following dilemma' Aoes the ob<ect cognitively apprehensible arise from an entity or notq It does not result from an entity+ for that which is generated has no permanence' 8or is it non-resultant+ for what has not come into being is non-existent' =r 4we may proceed6 do you hold that a past ob<ect is cognitively apprehensible+ as begetting cognitionq If so+ this is childish nonsense+ because it conflicts with the apparent presentness of the ob<ect+ and because on such a supposition the sense organs 4and other imperceptible things6 might be apprehended' murther 4we as06+ Is the percipi!ile a simple atom or a complex bodyq /he latter it cannot be+ this alternative being e<ected by the dilemma as to whether part or whole is perceived' /he former alternative is e,ually impossible+ an atom being supersensible+ and it not being able to combine simultaneously with six others7 as it has been said[.&]C 2If an atom could simultaneously combine with six+ it would have six surfaces7 25nd each of these being ta0en separately+ there would be a body of atomic dimension'2 Intellect+ therefore+ as having no other percipi!ile but itself+ is shown to be itself its own percipi!ile+ self-subsistent+ luminous with its own light+ li0e light' /herefore it has been saidC 2/here is naught to be ob<ectified by intellect7 there is no cognition ulterior thereto7 2/here being no distinction between percept and percipient+ intellect shines forth of itself alone'2 /he identity of percipient and percept is inferrible+ thusG /hat which is cognised by any cognition is not other than that cognition+ as soul+ for instance+ is not other than the cognition of soul7 and blue and other momentary ob<ects are cognised by cognitions' mor if there were a difference 4between percept and percipient6+ the ob<ect could not now have any connection with the cognition+ there being no identity to determine a constancy of connection+ and nothing to determine the rise of such a connection' 5s for the appearance of an interval between the ob<ect and sub<ect consciousnesses+

this is an illusion+ li0e the appearance of two moons when there is only one' /he cause of this illusion is ideation of difference in a stream without beginning and without interruption7 as it has been saidC 25s invariably cognised together+ the blue ob<ect and the cognition thereof are identical7 25nd the difference should be accounted for by illusory cognitions+ as in the example of the single moon'2 5nd againC 2/hough there is no division+ the soul or intellect+ by reason of illusory perceptions+ 25ppears to possess a duality of cognitions+ of percepts and of percipient'2 8or must it be supposed that 4on this hypothesis6 the[.k] <uice+ the energy+ and the digestion derivable from an imaginary and an actual sweetmeat will be the same7 for it cannot be ,uestioned that though the intellect be in strictness exempt from the modes of ob<ect and sub<ect+ yet there is competent to it a practical distinction in virtue of the succession of illusory ideas without beginning+ by reason of its possessing diverse modes percept and percipient+ conformably to its illusory supposition of practical agency+ <ust as to those whose eyes are dim with some morbid affection a hair and another minute ob<ect may appear either diverse or identical7 as it has been saidC 25s the intellect+ not having ob<ect and sub<ect modes+ appears+ by reason of illusory cognitions+ 2Illuded with the diverse forms of perception+ percept and percipient7 2So when the intellect has posited a diversity+ as in the example of the differences of the cognition of a hair and the li0e+ 2/hen it is not to be doubted that it is characterised as percipient and percept'2 /hus it has been evinced that intellect+ as affected by beginningless ideation+ manifests itself under diverse forms' 1hen+ therefore+ by constancy of reflection 4on the four points of view6 aforesaid+ all ideation has been interrupted+ there arises 0nowledge purged from the illusions which ta0e the form of ob<ects+ such illusions being now melted away7 and this is technically called #ahodaya 4the grand exaltation+ emancipation6' =thers again 4the Sautr!nti0as6 hold that the position that there is no external world is untenable+ as wanting evidence' 8or 4they contend6 can it be maintained that invariability of simultaneous cognition is an evidence+ for this simultaneous cognition which you accept as proof of the identity of sub<ect and ob<ect is indecisive+ being found in dubious and in contrary instances' If you re<oin 4they[.-] proceed6G Het there be a proof of this identity+ and let this proof be invariability of simultaneous cognition+Cwe refuse this+ because inasmuch as cognition must ultimately have some ob<ect+ it is manifested in duality+ and because such invariability of simultaneity as to time and place is impossible' oreover 4they continue6+ if the ob<ect+ blue or whatever it be+ were only a form of cognition+ it should be presented as $go+ not as %oc ali&uid+ because the cognition and the ob<ect would be identical' (erhaps you will sayG 5 blue form consisting of cognition is illusorily presented as external and as other than self+ and conse,uently the >go is not suggested7 and so it has been said C 2/his side of 0nowledge which appears external to the other portion+ 2/his appearance of duality in the unity of cognition is an illusion'2 5nd againC 2/he principle to be 0nown as internal also manifests itself as if it were external'2 /o this we reply 4say the Sautr!nti0as6G /his is untenable+ for if there be no external ob<ects+ there

being no genesis of such+ the comparison 2as if they were external2 is illegitimate' 8o man in his senses would say+ 2*asumitra loo0s li0e the son of a childless mother'2 5gain+ if the manifestation of identity be proved by the illusoriness of the presentment of duality+ and the presentment of duality be proved illusory by the manifestation of identity+ you are involved in a logical circle' 1ithout controversy we observe that cognitions ta0e external things+ blue or whatever they may be+ as their ob<ects+ and do not ta0e merely internal modifications as such+ and we see that men in their everyday life overloo0 their internal states' /hus this argument which you adduce to prove that there is difference between sub<ect and ob<ect+ turns out a mere absurdity+ li0e mil0y food made of cow-dung' 1hen then you say 2as if it were external+2 you must already suppose[.%] an external percipi!ile+ and your own arrow will return upon you and wound you' If any one ob<ect that the externality of an ob<ect synchronous with the cognition is inadmissible+ we 4Sautr!nti0as6 reply that this ob<ection is inadmissible+ inasmuch as the sub<ect in <uxtaposition to the sensory imposes its form upon the cognition then in production+ and the ob<ect is inferrible from the form thus imposed' /he interrogation and response on this point have been thus summarisedC 2If it be as0ed+ How can there be a past percipi!ileq /hey recognise perceptibility+ 25nd a competent inferribility of the individual thing is its imposition of its form'2 /o exemplify' 5s nourishment is inferred from a thriving loo0+ as nationality is inferred from language+ and as affection is inferred from flurried movements+ so from the form of 0nowledge a 0nowable may be inferred' /herefore it has been saidC 21ith half 4of itself6 the ob<ect moulds 4the cognition6 without losing the nature of a half7 2/he evidence+ therefore+ of the recognition of a 0nowable is the nature of the 0nowable'2 mor consciousness of the cognition cannot be the being of the cognition+ for this consciousness is everywhere ali0e+ and if indifference were to attach itself to this+ it would reduce all things to indifference' 5ccordingly the formal argument for the existence of external thingsG /hose things which while a thing exists appear only at times+ all depend upon something else than that thing7 as+ for instance+ if I do not wish to spea0 or to wal0+ presentments of spea0ing or wal0ing must suppose others desirous of spea0ing or wal0ing7 and in li0e manner the presentments of activity under discussion+ while there exists the recognition of a sub<ect of them+ are only at times manifested as blue and so forth' =f these+ the recognition of a sub<ect is the presentation of the >go+ the manifestation as blue and[.r] so forth is a presentment of activity+ as it has been saidC 2/hat is a recognition of a sub<ect which is conversant about the >goG 2/hat is a presentment of activity which manifests blue and the rest'2 =ver and above+ therefore+ the complement of sub<ect-recognitions+ let it be understood that there is an external ob<ect world perceptible+ which is the cause of presentments of activity7 and that this external world does not rise into being only from time to time on occasion of presentments resulting from ideation' 5ccording to the view of the Sensationalists 4vi'(navdin6+ ideation is a power of generating such and such sensations 4or presentments of activity6 in sub<ect-recognitions which exist as a single stream' /he maturescence of this power is its readiness to produce its effect7 of this the result is a presentment 4or sensation67 the antecedent momentary ob<ect 4sensation6 in the mental train is accepted as the cause+ no other mental train being admitted to exercise such causality' It must therefore be stated that all momentary ob<ects 4fleeting sensations6 in the sub<ect-consciousness are ali0e able to bring about that maturescence of ideation in the sub<ect-consciousness+ which maturescence is productive of presentments of activity' If any one 4of these fleeting sensations6 had not this power+ none would possess it+ all existing ali0e in the stream of sub<ect-recognitions' =n the supposition that they all have this power+ the effects cannot be diversified+ and therefore any intelligent man+ however unwilling+ if he has a clear understanding+ must decide+ without putting

out of sight the testimony of his consciousness+ that to account for the occasional nature 4of sense percepts6 the six cognitions of sound+ touch+ colour+ taste+ and smell+ of pleasure+ and so forth+ are produced on occasion of four conditions' /hese four conditions are 0nown as 4$'6 the data+ 4.'6 the suggestion+ 4D'6 the medium+ and 4@'6 the[Dl] dominant 4organ6' =f these+ the form of blue or the li0e arises from the condition of blue data in the understanding in which there is a manifestation of blue or the li0e+ which manifestation is styled a cognition' /he resuscitation of forms or cognitions arises from suggestion as a condition' /he restriction to the apprehension of this or that ob<ect arises from the medium+ light+ for instance+ as a condition+ and from the dominant+ the eye+ for example+ as another condition' /he eye+ as determinant of one particular cognition 4form6 where taste+ Pc'+ might have been e,ually cognised+ is able to become dominant7 for in everyday life he who determines is regarded as dominant' 1e must thus recognise four causes of pleasure and the rest which constitute the understanding and its modifications' So also the universe+ which consists of mind and its modifications+ is of five 0inds+ entitled 4$'6 the sensational+ 4.'6 the perceptional+ 4D'6 the affectional+ 4@'6 the verbal+ and 4&'6 the impressional' =f these+ the sensible world 4r"pa-skandha6 is the sense organs and their ob<ects+ according to the etymology+ viQ'+ that ob<ects are discriminated 4r"pyante6 by these' /he perceptional world is the stream of sub<ect-recognitions and of presentments of activity' /he affectional world is the stream of feelings of pleasure and pain generated by the two aforesaid worlds' /he verbal 4or symbolical6 world is the stream of cognitions conversant about wordsCthe words 2cow+2 and so forth' /he impressional world is the miseries+ as desire+ aversion+ Pc'+ caused by the affectional world+ the lesser miseries+ as conceit+ pride+ Pc'+ and merit and demerit' 3eflecting+ therefore+ that this universe is pain+ an abode of pain+ and an instrument of pain+ a man should ac,uire a 0nowledge of the principles+ the method of suppressing this pain' Hence it has been saidC 2/he principles sanctioned by #uddha are to the saint the four methods of suppressing the aggregate of pain'2[Dk] [D$] In these words the sense of pain is 0nown to every one7 the 2aggregate2 means the cause of pain' /his aggregate is twofold+ as 4$'6 determined by concurrence7 or 4.'6 determined by causation' =f these+ there is an aphorism comprising the aggregate determined by concurrence+ 2which other causes resort to this effect72 the condition of these causes thus proceeding is concurrence7 the concurrence of causes is the result of this only+ and not of any conscious being+Csuch is the meaning of the aphorism' /o exemplify this' 5 germ+ caused by a seed+ is generated by the concurrence of six elements' =f these+ earth as an element produces hardness and smell in the germ7 water as an element produces viscidity and moisture7 light as an element produces colour and warmth7 air as an element produces touch and motion7 ether as an element produces expansion and sound7 the season as an element produces a fitting soil+ Pc' /he aphorism comprising the aggregate determined by causation isG 21ith the /ath!gatas the nature of these conditions is fixed by production+ or by non-production7 there is continuance as a condition+ and determination by a condition+ and conformity of the production to the cause72 that is to say+ according to the doctrine of the /ath!gata #uddhas+ the nature of these conditions+ that is+ the causal relation between the cause and effect+ results from production or from non-production' /hat which comes into being+ provided that something exists+ is the effect of that as its cause7 such is the explanation of the nature 4or causal relation6' Continuance as a condition is where the effect is not found without its cause' /he 4abstract6 affix tal 4in the word sthitit)6 has the sense of the concrete' Aetermination by a condition is the determination of the effect by the cause' Here some one might interpose the remar0 that the relation of cause and effect cannot exist apart from some conscious agent' mor this reason it is added that there existing a cause+ conformity of the genesis to that cause is the nature which is fixed in conditions 4that is+ in causes and[D.] effects67 and in all this no intelligent designer is observed'[D-] /o illustrate this+ the causal determination of a genesis to be gone through is as followsGCmrom the

seed the germ+ from the germ the stal0+ from the stal0 the hollow stem+ from the hollow stem the bud+ from the bud the spicules+ from the spicules the blossom+ from the blossom the fruit' In this external aggregate neither the cause+ the seed and the rest+ nor the effect+ the germ and the rest+ has any consciousness of bringing a germ into being+ or of being brought into being by the seed' In li0e manner in mental facts two causes are to be recognised' /here is a whole ocean of scientific matter before us+ but we desist+ apprehensive of ma0ing our treatise unduly prolix' >mancipation is the suppression of these two causal aggregates+ or the rise of pure cognition subse,uent to such suppression' /he method 4path+ road6 is the mode of suppressing them' 5nd this method is the 0nowledge of the principles+ and this 0nowledge accrues from former ideas' Such is the highest mystery' /he name Sautr!nti0a arose from the fact that the venerated #uddha said to certain of his disciples who as0ed what was the ultimate purport 4anta6 of the aphorism 4s"tra6+ 25s you have in,uired the final purport of the aphorism+ be Sautr!nti0as'2 Certain #auddhas+ though there exist the external world+ consisting of odours+ Pc'+ and the internal+ consisting of colours+ Pc'+ in order to produce unbelief in these+ declared the universe to be a void' /hese the venerated #uddha styled (r!thami0a 4primary6 disciples' 5 second school+ attached to the apprehension of sensations only+ maintain that sensation is the only reality' 5 third school+ who [DD]contend that both are true 4the internal and the external6+ and maintain that sensible ob<ects are inferrible' =thers hold all this to be absurd language 4viruddh !hsh6+ and are 0nown under the designation of *aibh!shi0as' /heir technical language springs up as followsGC5ccording to the doctrine of inferrible sensibles+ there being no perceptible ob<ect+ and conse,uently no ob<ect from which a universal rule can be attained+ it will be impossible that any illation should ta0e place+ and therefore a contradiction will emerge to the consciousness of all man0ind' =b<ects+ therefore+ are of two 0inds+ sensible and cogitable' =f these apprehension is a non-discriminative instrument of 0nowledge as other than mere representation7 cognition which is discriminative is not a form of evidence+ as being a merely ideal cognition' /herefore it has been saidC 25pprehension+ exempt from ideality and not illusory+ is non-discriminative' Aiscrimination+ as resulting from the appearances of things+ is without controversy an illusion' 2/he perceptible evidence of things is perceptionG if it were aught else+ 2/here could neither be things+ nor evidence of things derived from verbal communication+ inference+ or sense'2 Here some one may sayG If discriminative cognition be unauthentic+ how is the apprehension of real ob<ects by one energising thereon and the universal consentiency of man0ind to be accounted forq Het it be repliedG /his ,uestion does not concern us+ for these may be accounted for by the possibility of an indirect apprehension of ob<ects+ <ust as if we suppose the light of a gem to be a gem 4we may yet handle the gem+ because it underlies the light+ while if we were to ta0e nacre for silver+ we could not lay hold of any silver6' /he rest has been fully discussed in describing the Sautr!nti0as 4cf' p' .-6+ and therefore need not here be further detailed' It should not be contended that a diversity of instruction[D@] according to the disciples: modes of thought is not traditional 4or orthodox67 for it is said in the gloss on the #odha-chittaC 2/he instructions of the leader of man0ind 4#uddha6 accommodating themselves to the character and disposition 4of those who are to be taught6+ 25re said to be diverse in many ways+ according to a plurality of methods' 2mor as deep or superficial+ and sometimes both deep and superficial+ 2Instructions are diverse+ and diverse is the doctrine of a universal void which is a negation of duality'2 It is well 0nown in #uddhist doctrine that the worship of the twelve inner seats 4yatana6 is conducive to felicity'

25fter ac,uiring wealth in abundance+ the twelve inner seats 25re to be thoroughly reverenced7 what use of reverencing aught else belowq 2/he five organs of 0nowledge+ the five organs of action+ 2/he common sensory and the intellect have been described by the wise as the twelve inner seats'2 /he system of the #uddhists is described as follows in the *ive0a-vil!saGC 2=f the #auddhas Sugata 4#uddha6 is the deity+ and the universe is momentarily fluxional7 2/he following four principles in order are to be 0nown by the name of the noble truthsGC 2(ain+ the inner seats+ and from them an aggregate is held+[D%] 25nd the path 4method67 of all this let the explication be heard in order' 2(ain+ and the skandhas of the embodied one+ which are declared to be five+C 2Sensation+ consciousness+ name+ impression+ and form' 2/he five organs of sense+ the five ob<ects of sense+ sound and the rest+ the common sensory+[D&] 25nd 4the intellect6 the abode of merit+Cthese are the twelve inner seats' 2/his should be the complement of desire and so forth+ when it arises in the heart of man' 2pnder the name of soul:s own nature+ it should be the aggregate' 2/he fixed idea that all impressions are momentary+ 2/his is to be 0nown as the path+ and is also styled emancipation' 2murthermore+ there are two instruments of science+ perception and inference' 2/he #auddhas are well 0nown to be divided into four sects+ the *aibh!shi0as and the rest' 2/he *aibh!shi0a highly esteems an ob<ect concomitant to the cognition7 2/he Sautr!nti0a allows no external ob<ect apprehensible by perception7 2/he ;og!ch!ra admits only intellect accompanied with forms7 2/he !dhyami0as hold mere consciousness self-subsistent' 25ll the four 4sects of6 #auddhas proclaim the same emancipation+ 25rising from the extirpation of desire+ Pc'+ the stream of cognitions and impressions' 2/he s0in garment+ the water-pot+ the tonsure+ the rags+ the single meal in the forenoon+ 2/he congregation+ and the red vesture+ are adopted by the #auddha mendicants'2[Dr] 5' >' ?'

[.r] /his lo0a is ,uoted in the 2#enares (andit+2 vol' i' p' %r+ with a commentary+ and the latter part of the second line is there read more correctly+ *darann na na darant' [Dl] Nusum!n<ali+ iii' -' [D$] /he #auddhas are thus divided intoC 4$'6 !dhyami0as or 8ihilists' 4.'6 ;og!ch!ras or Sub<ective Idealists' 4D'6 Sautr!nti0as or 3epresentationists'

4@'6 *aibh!shi0as or (resentationists' [D.] Cf' merrier:s Hectures and 3emains+ vol' i' p' $$r' 2Suppose yourself gaQing on a gorgeous sunset' /he whole western heavens are glowing with roseate hues+ but you are aware that within half an hour all these glorious tints will have faded away into a dull ashen grey' ;ou see them even now melting away before your eyes+ although your eyes cannot place before you the conclusion which your reason draws' 5nd what conclusion is thatq /hat conclusion is that you never+ even for the shortest time that can be named or conceived+ see any abiding colour+ any colour which truly is' 1ithin the millionth part of a second the whole glory of the painted heavens has undergone an incalculable series of mutations' =ne shade is supplanted by another with a rapidity which sets all measurement at defiance+ but because the process is one to which no measurement applies+''' reason refuses to lay an arrestment on any period of the passing scene+ or to declare that it is+ because in the very act of being it is not7 it has given place to something else' It is a series of fleeting colours+ no one of which is+ because each of them continually vanishes in another'2 [DD] (rincipium exclusi medii inter duo contradictoria' [D@] uuery+ Ha0!vat!raq [D&] Cf' merrier:s Institutes of etaphysic+ p' .$D' 2If every completed ob<ect of cognition must consist of ob<ect plus the sub<ect+ the ob<ect without the sub<ect must be incomplete+ that is+ inchoateCthat is+ no possible ob<ect of 0nowledge at all' /his is the distressing predicament to which matter is reduced by the tactics of speculation7 and this predicament is described not unaptly by calling it a fluxCor+ as we have depicted it elsewhere+ perhaps more philosophically+ as a neverending redemption of nonsense into sense+ and a never-ending relapse of sense into nonsense'2 [Dk] Cf' #urnouf+ +otus+ p' &.l'CShould we read samudayaq [D-] Cf' ?' H' Hewes: History of (hilosophy+ vol' i' p' %&' 21e not only see that the architect:s plan determined the arrangement of materials in the house+ but we see why it must have done so+ because the materials have no spontaneous tendency to group themselves into houses7 that not being a recognised property of bric0s+ mortar+ wood+ and glass' #ut what we 0now of organic materials is that they have this spontaneous tendency to arrange themselves in definite forms7 precisely as we see chemical substances arranging themselves in definite forms without the intervention of any extra-chemical agency'2 [D%] /hese are not the usual four :sublime truths7: cf' p' Dl' [Dr] !dhava probably derived most of his 0nowledge of #uddhist doctrines from #rahmanical wor0s7 conse,uently some of his explanations 4as+ e.g.+ that of samudya or samudaya+ Pc'6 seem to be at variance with those given in #uddhist wor0s' [Dk]


/he ?ymnosophists[@l] 4Bainas6+ re<ecting these opinions of the u0ta0achchhas+[@$] and maintaining continued existence to a certain extent+ overthrow the doctrine of the momentariness of everything' 4/hey say6G If no continuing soul is accepted+ then even the arrangement of the means for attaining worldly fruit in this life will be useless' #ut surely this can never be imagined as possibleCthat one should act and another reap the conse,uencest /herefore as this conviction+ 2I

who previously did the deed+ am the person who now reap its conse,uences+2 establishes undoubtedly the existence of a continuing soul+ which remains constant through the previous and the subse,uent period+ the discriminating Baina 5rhats re<ect as untenable the doctrine of momentary existence+ i.e.+ an existence which lasts only an instant+ and has no previous or subse,uent part' #ut the opponent may maintain+ 2/he unbro0en stream 4of momentary sensations6 has been fairly proved by argument+ so who can prevent itq In this way+ since our tenet has been demonstrated by the argument+ :whatever is+ is momentary+ Pc'+: it follows that in each parallel line of successive experiences the previous consciousness is the agent and the subse,uent one reaps the fruit' 8or may [D-]you ob<ect that+ :if this were true+ effects might extend beyond all bounds:C[i.e.+ 5 might act+ and # receive the punishment]Cbecause there is an essentially controlling relation in the very nature of cause and effect' /hus we see that when mango seeds+ after being steeped in sweet <uices+ are planted in prepared soil+ there is a definite certainty that sweetness will be found in the shoot+ the stal0+ the stem+ the branches+ the peduncle+ Pc'+ and so on by an unbro0en series to the fruit itself7 or again+ when cotton seeds have been sprin0led with lac <uice+ there will be a similar certainty of finding+ through the same series of shoot+ Pc'+ an ultimate redness in the cotton' 5s it has been saidC 2:In whatever series of successive states the original impression of the action was produced+ 2:/here verily accrues the result+ <ust li0e the redness produced in cotton' 2:1hen lac <uice+ Pc'+ are poured on the flower of the citron+ Pc'+ 2:5 certain capacity is produced in it+Cdo you not see itq:2 #ut all this is only a drowning man:s catching at a straw+ for it is overthrown by the following dilemmaGC In the example of the 2cloud+2 Pc' [supra+ p' $&]+ was your favourite 2momentariness2 proved by this very proof or by some otherq It could not be the former+ because your alleged momentariness is not always directly visible in the cloud+ and conse,uently+ as your example is not an ascertained fact+ your supposed inference falls to the ground' 8or can it be the latterCbecause you might always prove your doctrine of momentariness by this new proof 4if you had it6+ and conse,uently your argument regarding all existence [2whatever is+ is momentary+2 Pc'] would become needless' If you ta0e as your definition of 2existence2 2that which produces an effect+2 this will not hold+ as it would include even the bite of a sna0e imagined in the rope+ since this undoubtedly produces the[D%] effect [of fear]' Hence it has been said that the definition of an existence is 2that which possesses an origin+ an end+ and an [intermediate] duration'2 5s for what was said [in p' $k] that 2the momentariness of ob<ects is proved by the fact that the contrary assumption leads to contradictory attributes of capacity and want of capacity existing contemporaneously+2 that also is wrongCfor the alleged contradiction is not proved+ as the holders of the Sy!d-v!da[@.] doctrine [vide infra] willingly admit the indeterminateness of the action of causes' 5s for what was said of the example of the cotton+ that is only mere words+ since no proof is given+ and we do not accept even in that instance a separate destruction [at each moment]' 5nd again+ your supposed continued series cannot be demonstrated without some sub<ect to give it coherence+ as has been said+ 2In individual things which are of the same class or successively produced or in mutual contact+ there may be a continued series7 and this series is held to be one [throughout all2]' 8or is our ob<ection obviated by your supposed definite relation between causes and effects' mor even on your own admission it would follow that something experienced by the teacher:s mind might be remembered by that of the pupil whom he had formed+ or the latter might experience the fruits of merit which the former had ac,uired7 and thus we should have the twofold fault that the thing done passed away without result+ and that the fruit of the thing not done was en<oyed' /his has

been said by the author of the Siddhasen!v!0yaC 2/he loss of the thing done+Cthe en<oyment of the fruit of a thing not done+Cthe dissolution of all existence+Cand the abolition of memory+Cbold indeed is the #uddhist antagonist+ when+ in the teeth of these four ob<ections+ he see0s to establish his doctrine of momentary destructiont2[Dr] oreover+ 4on your supposition of momentary existence6+ as at the time of the perception 4the second moment6 the ob<ect 4of the first moment6 does not exist+ and similarly at the time of the ob<ect:s existence the perception does not exist+ there can be no such things as a perceiver and a thing perceived+ and conse,uently the whole course of the world would come to an end' 8or may you suppose that the ob<ect and the perception are simultaneous+ because this would imply that+ li0e the two horns of an animal+ they did not stand in the relation of cause and effect [as this relation necessarily involves succession]+ and conse,uently the ,lam!ana+ or the ob<ect:s data [supra+ p' .r]+ would be abolished as one of the four concurrent causes 4pratyaya6'[@D] If you say that 2the ob<ect may still be perceived+ inasmuch as it will impress its form on the perception+ even though the one may have existed in a different moment from the other+2 this too will not hold' mor if you maintain that the 0nowledge ac,uired by perception has a certain form impressed upon it+ you are met by the impossibility of explaining how a momentary perception can possess the power of impressing a form7 and if you say that it has no form impressed upon it+ you are e,ually met by the fact that+ if we are to avoid incongruity+ there must be some definite condition to determine the perception and 0nowledge in each several case' /hus by perception the abstract consciousness+ which before existed uninfluenced by the external ob<ect+ becomes modified under the form of a <ar+ Pc'+ with a definite reference to each man:s personality [i.e.+ I see the <ar]+ and it is not merely the passive recipient of a reflection li0e a mirror' oreover+ if the perception only reproduced the form of the ob<ect+ there would be an end of using such words as 2far+2 2near+2P c'+ of the ob<ects'[@@] 8or can you accept this conclusion+ 2as exactly in accordance with your own [@l]views+2 because+ in spite of all our logic+ the stubborn fact remains that we do use such phrases as 2the mountain is nearer2 or 2further+2 2long2 or 2large'2 8or may you say that 2it is the ob<ect 4which supplies the form6 that really possesses these ,ualities of being :further+: Pc'+ and they are applied by a fashion of speech to the perception [though not really belonging to it]2C because we do not find that this is the case in a mirror [i.e.+ it does not become a far reflection because it represents a far ob<ect'] 5nd again+ as the perception produced by an ob<ect follows it in assuming the form of blue+ so too+ if the ob<ect be insentient+ it ought e,ually to assume its form and so become itself insentient' 5nd thus+ according to the proverb+ 2wishing to grow+ you have destroyed your root+2 and your cause has fallen into hopeless difficulties' If+ in your wish to escape this difficulty+ you assert that 2the perception does not follow the ob<ect in being insentient+2 then there would be no perception that the ob<ect is insentient+[@&] and so it is a case of the proverb+ 21hile he loo0s for one thing which he has lost+ another drops'2 2#ut what harm will it be if there is no perception of a thing:s being insentientq2 [1e reply]+ that if its being insentient is not perceived+ while its blue form is perceived+ the two may be ,uite distinct [and as different from each other as a <ar and cloth]+ or it may be a case of 2indeterminateness2 [so that the two may be only occasionally found together+ as smo0e with fire]' 5nd again+ if insentience is not perceived contemporaneously with the blue form+ how could there then be conformity between them [so that both the blue and the insentience should together constitute the character of the thingq] 1e might <ust as well maintain that+ on perceiving a post+ the unperceived universe entered into it as also constituting its character'[@k] [@$] 5ll this collection of topics for proof has been discussed at full length by the Baina authors+ (rat!pachandra and others+ in the -rameyakamalamrtaa+ Pc'+ and is here omitted for fear of swelling the boo0 too much' /herefore those who wish for the summum !onum of man must not accept the doctrine of #uddha+

but rather honour only the "rhata doctrine' /he 5rhat:s nature has been thus described by 5rhachchandra-snri+[@-] in his ,ptanichaylakra' 2/he divine 5rhat is the supreme lord+ the omniscient one+ who has overcome all faults+ desire+ Pc'+ Cadored by the three worlds+ the declarer of things as they are'2 #ut may it not be ob<ected that no such omniscient soul can enter the path of proof+ since none of the five affirmative proofs can be found to apply+ as has been declared by /aut!tita [#haa Num!rila[@%]]q $' 28o omniscient being is seen by the sense here in this world by ourselves or others7 nor is there any part of him seen which might help us as a sign to infer his existence' .' 28or is there any in<unction 4vidhi6 of scripture which reveals an eternal omniscient one+ nor can the meaning of the explanatory passages 4arthavda6 be applied here' D' 2His existence is not declared by those passages which refer to ,uite other topics7 and it cannot be contained in any emphatic repetitions 4anuvda6+ as it had never been mentioned elsewhere before' @' 25n omniscient being who had a beginning can never be the sub<ect of the eternal *eda7 and how can he be established by a made and spurious *edaq &' 2Ao you say that this omniscient one is accepted on [@.]his own wordq How can you establish either when they thus both depend on reciprocal supportq k' 2[If you say+] :/he saying is true because it was uttered by one omniscient+ and this proves the 5rhat:s existence7: how can either point be established without some previously established foundationq -' 2#ut they who accept a [supposed] omniscient on the baseless word of a parviscient 0now nothing of the meaning of a real omniscient:s words' %' 25nd again+ if we now could see anything li0e an omniscient being+ we might have a chance of recognising him by the [well-0nown fourth] proof+ comparison 4upamna6' r' 25nd the teaching of #uddha [as well as that of Bina]+ which embraces virtue+ vice+ Pc'+ would not be established as authoritative+ if there were not in him the attribute of omniscience+[@r] and so on'2 1e reply as followsGC5s for the supposed contradiction of an 5rhat:s existence+ derived from the failure of the five affirmative proofs+Cthis is untenable+ because there are proofs+ as inference+P c'+ which do establish[&l] his existence' /hus any soul will become omniscient when+ 4its natural capacity for grasping all ob<ects remaining the same6+ the hindrances to such 0nowledge are done away' 1hatever thing has a natural capacity for 0nowing any ob<ect+ will+ when its hindrances to such 0nowledge are done away+ actually 0now it+ <ust as the sense of vision cognises form+ directly the hindrances of dar0ness+ Pc'+ are removed' 8ow there is such a soul+ which has its hindrances done away+ its natural capacity for grasping [@D]all things remaining unchanged7 therefore there is an omniscient being' 8or is the assertion unestablished that the soul has a natural capacity for grasping all things7 for otherwise the 9m!sist could not maintain that a 0nowledge of all possible cases can be produced by the authoritative in<unction of a text+[&$]Cnor could there otherwise be the 0nowledge of universal propositions+ such as that in our favourite argument+ 25ll things are indeterminate from the very fact of their existence2 [and+ of course+ a follower of the 8y!ya will grant that universal propositions can be 0nown+ though he will dispute the truth of this particular one]' 8ow it is clear that the teachers of the (nrva 9m!s! accept the thesis that the soul has a natural capacity for grasping all things7 since they allow that a 0nowledge embracing all things can be produced by the discussion of in<unctions and prohibitions+ as is said [by Eabara in his commentary on the Sntras+ i' $+ .]+ 25 precept ma0es 0nown the past+ the present+ the future+ the minute+ the obstructed+ the distant+ Pc'2 8or can you say that 2it is impossible to destroy the obstructions which hinder the soul:s 0nowing all things+2 because we [Bainas] are convinced that

there are certain special means to destroy these obstructions+ viQ'+ the three [2gems2]+ right intuition+ Pc' #y this charm also+ all inferior assaults of argument can be put to flight' #ut the 8aiy!yi0a may interpose+ 2;ou tal0 of the pure intelligence+ which+ after all hindrances are done away+ sees all ob<ects+ having sense-perception at its height7 but this is irrelevant+ because there can be no hindrance to the omniscient+ as from all eternity he has been always liberated'2 1e reply that there is no proof of your eternally liberated being' /here cannot be an omniscient who is eternally 2liberated+2 from the very fact of his being 2liberated+2 li0e other liberated persons+Csince the use of the term 2liberated2 necessarily [@@]implies the having been previously bound7 and if the latter is absent+ the former must be too+ as is seen in the case of the ether' 2#ut is not this being:s existence definitely proved by his being the ma0er of that eternal series of effects+ the earth+ Pc'q according to the well-0nown argument+ :the earth+ Pc'+ must have had a ma0er+ because they have the nature of effects+ as a <ar':2 /his argument+ however+ will not hold+ because you cannot prove that they have the nature of effects' ;ou cannot establish this from the fact of their being composed of parts+ because this supposition falls upon the horns of a dilemma' Aoes this 2being composed of parts2 mean 4i'6 the being in contact with the parts7 or 4ii'6 2the being in intimate relation to the parts7 or 4iii'6 the being produced from parts72 or 4iv'6 the being a substance in intimate relation7 or 4v'6 the being the ob<ect of an idea involving the notion of partsq 8ot the first+ because it would apply too widely+ as it would include ether [since this+ though not itself composed of parts+ is in contact with the parts of other things7] nor the second+ because it would similarly include genus+ Pc' [as this resides in a substance by intimate relation+ and yet itself is not composed of parts7] nor the third+ because this involves a term 42produced26 <ust as much disputed as the one directly in ,uestion7[&.] nor the fourth+ because its nec0 is caught in the pillory of the following alternativeGCAo you mean by your phrase used above that it is to be a substance+ and to have something else in intimate relation to itself+Cor do you mean that it must have intimate relation to something else+ in order to be valid for your argumentq If you say the former+ it will e,ually apply to ether+ since this is a substance+ and has its ,ualities resident in it by intimate relation7 if you say the latter+ your new position involves as much dispute as the original point+ since you would have to prove the existence of intimate relation in the parts+ or the so-called [@&]2intimate causes+2 which you mean by 2something else'2 1e use these terms in compliance with your terminology7 but+ of course+ from our point of view+ we do not allow such a thing as 2intimate relation+2 as there is no proof of its existence' 8or can the fifth alternative be allowed+ because this would reach too far+ as it would include soul+ Pc'+ since soul can be the ob<ect of an idea involving the notion of parts+ and yet it is ac0nowledged to be not an effect'[&D] 8or can you maintain that the soul may still be indiscerptible in itself+ but by reason of its connection with something possessing parts may itself become metaphorically the ob<ect of an idea involving the notion of parts+ because there is a mutual contradiction in the idea of that which has no parts and that which is all-pervading+ <ust as the atom [which is indiscerptible but not all-pervading]' 5nd+ moreover+ is there only one ma0erq =r+ again+ is he independentq In the former case your position will apply too far+ as it will extend erroneously to palaces+ Pc'+ where we see for ourselves the wor0 of many different men+ as carpenters+ Pc'+ and [in the second case] if all the world were produced by this one ma0er+ all other agents would be superfluous' 5s it has been said in the .targastuti+ or 2(raise of Bina2C $' 2/here is one eternal ma0er for the world+ all-pervading+ independent+ and true7 they have none of these inextricable delusions+ whose teacher art thou'2 5nd againC .' 2/here is here no ma0er acting by his own free will+ else his influence would extend to the ma0ing of a mat' 1hat would be the use of yourself or all the artisans+ if )wara fabricates the three worldsq2[@k]

/herefore it is right to hold+ as we do+ that omniscience is produced when the hindrances are removed by the three means before alluded to' 8or need the ob<ection be made that 2right intuition+2 Pc'+ are impossible+ as there is no other teacher to go to+Cbecause this universal 0nowledge can be produced by the inspired wor0s of former omniscient Binas' 8or is our doctrine liable to the imputation of such faults as Anyonyrayat+[&@] Pc'+ because we accept an eternal succession of revealed doctrines and omniscient teachers+ li0e the endless series of seed springing from shoot and shoot from seed' So much for this preliminary discussion' /he well-0nown triad called the three gems+ right intuition+ Pc'+ are thus described in the -aramgamasra 4which is devoted to the exposition of the doctrines of the 5rhats6C23ight intuition+ right 0nowledge+ right conduct are the path of liberation'2 /his has been thus explained by ;ogadevaGC 4a.6 1hen the meaning of the predicaments+ the soul+ Pc'+ has been declared by an 5rhat in exact accordance with their reality+ absolute faith in the teaching+ i.e.+ the entire absence of any contrary idea+ is 2right intuition'2 5nd to this effect runs the /attvrtha-s"tra+ 2maith in the predicaments[&&] is right :intuition':2 =r+ as another definition gives it+ 25c,uiescence in the predicaments declared by a Bina is called :right faith7: it is produced either by natural character or by the guru:s instruction'2 28atural character2 means the soul:s own nature+ independent of another:s teaching7 2instruction2 is the 0nowledge produced by the teaching of another in the form of explanation+ Pc' 4!.6 23ight 0nowledge2 is a 0nowledge of the predicaments+ soul+P c'+ according to their real nature+ undisturbed by any illusion or doubt7 as it has been saidC [@-] 2/hat 0nowledge+ which embraces concisely or in detail the predicaments as they actually are+ is called :right 0nowledge: by the wise'2 /his 0nowledge is fivefold as divided into mati+ ruta+ avadhi+ manas-paryya+ and kevala7 as it has been said+ 2#ati+ ruta+ avadhi+ manas-paryya+ and kevala+ these are 0nowledge'2 /he meaning of this is as followsGC $' #ati is that by which one cognises an ob<ect through the operation of the senses and the mind+ all obstructions of 0nowledge being abolished' .' 0ruta is the clear 0nowledge produced by mati+ all the obstructions of 0nowledge being abolished' D' Avadhi is the 0nowledge of special ob<ects caused by the abolition of hindrances+ which is effected by 2right intuition+2P c'[&k] @' #anas-paryya is the clear definite 0nowledge of another:s thoughts+ produced by the abolition of all the obstructions of 0nowledge caused by the veil of envy' &' Kevala is that pure unalloyed 0nowledge for the sa0e of which ascetics practise various 0inds of penance' /he first of these 4mati6 is not self-cognised+ the other four are' /hus it has been saidC 2/rue 0nowledge is a proof which nothing can overthrow+ and which manifests itself as well as its ob<ect7 it is both supersensuous and itself an ob<ect of cognition+ as the ob<ect is determined in two ways'2 #ut the full account of the further minute divisions must be got from the authoritative treatise above-mentioned' 4c.6 23ight conduct2 is the abstaining from all actions tending to evil courses by one who possesses faith and 0nowledge+ and who is diligent in cutting off the series of actions and their effects which

constitutes mundane existence' /his has been explained at length by the 5rhatC $' 23ight conduct is described as the entire relin,uishment [@%]of blamable impulses7 this has been sub<ected to a fivefold division+ as the :five vows+: ahis+ s"nita+ asteya+ !rahmachary+ and aparigraha'[&-] .' 2/he :vow: of ahis is the avoidance of in<uring life by any act of thoughtlessness in any movable or immovable thing' D' 25 0ind+ salutary+ and truthful speech is called the :vow: of s"nita' /hat truthful speech is not truthful+ which is un0ind to others and pre<udicial' @' 2/he not ta0ing what is not given is declared to be the :vow: of asteya7 the external life is a man:s property+ and+ when it is 0illed+ it is 0illed by some one who seiQes it' &' 2/he :vow: of !rahmachary 4chastity6 is eighteen-fold+ viQ'+ the abandonment of all desires+[&%] heavenly or earthly+ in thought+ word+ and deed+ and whether by one:s own action or by one:s consent+ or by one:s causing another to act' k' 2/he :vow: of aparigraha is the renouncing of all delusive interest in everything that exists not7 since bewilderment of thought may arise from a delusive interest even in the unreal' -' 21hen carried out by the five states of mind in a fivefold order+ these great :vows: of the world produce the eternal abode'2 /he full account of the five states of mind 4!hvan6 has been given in the following passage [of which we only ,uote one lo0a]C 2Het him carry out the :vow: of s"nita uninterruptedly by the abstinence from laughter+ greed+ fear+ and anger+ and by the deliberate avoidance of speech+2[&r]Cand so forth' /hese three+ right intuition+ right 0nowledge+ and right conduct+ when united+ produce liberation+ but not severally7 <ust as+ in the case of an elixir+ it is the 0nowledge of [@r]what it is+ faith in its virtues+ and the actual application of the medicine+[kl] united+ which produce the elixir:s effect+ but not severally' Here we may say concisely that the tattvas or predicaments are two+ 'va and a'va7 the soul+ 'va+ is pure intelligence7 the non-soul+ a'va+ is pure non-intelligence' (admanandin has thus saidC 2/he two highest predicaments are :soul: and :non-soul7: :discrimination: is the power of discriminating these two+ in one who pursues what is to be pursued+ and re<ects what is to be re<ected' /he affection+ Pc'+ of the agent are to be re<ected7 these are ob<ects for the nondiscriminating7 the supreme light [of 0nowledge] is alone to be pursued+ which is defined as upayoga'2 payoga [or 2the true employment of the soul:s activities2] ta0es place when the vision of true 0nowledge recognises the manifestation of the soul:s innate nature7 but as long as the soul+ by the bond of pradea and the mutual interpenetration of form which it produces [between the soul and the body]+ considers itself as identified with its actions [and the body which they produce]+ 0nowledge should rather be defined as 2the cause of its recognising that it is other than these'2[k$] Intelligence 4chaitanya6 is common to all souls+ and is the real nature of the soul viewed as pariata [i.e.+ as it is in itself]7 but by the influence of upaamakshaya and kshayopaama it appears in the 2mixed2 form as possessing both+[k.] or again+ by the influence of actions as they arise+ it assumes the appearance of foulness+P c'[kD] 5s has been said by *!cha0!ch!rya [in a sntra] C [&l] 2/he aupaamika+ the Kshyika+ and the :mixed: states are the nature of the soul+ and also the audayika and the -rimika'2

$' /he aupaamika state of the soul arises when all the effects of past actions have ceased+ and no new actions arise [to affect the future]+ as when water becomes temporarily pure through the defiling mud sin0ing to the bottom by the influence of the clearing nut-plant+[k@] Pc' .' /he Kshyika state arises when there is the absolute abolition of actions and their effects+ as in final liberation' D' /he 2mixed2 4mira6 state combines both these+ as when water is partly pure' @' /he audayika state is when actions arise [exerting an inherent influence on the future]' /he -rimika state is the soul:s innate condition+ as pure intelligence+ Pc'+ and disregarding its apparent states+ as 4$6+ 4.6+ 4D6+ 4@6'[k&] /his nature+ in one of the above-described varieties+ is the character of every soul whether happy or unhappy' /his is the meaning of the sntra ,uoted above' /his has been explained in the 1var"pa-sam!odhanaC 28ot different from 0nowledge+ and yet not identical with it+Cin some way both different and the same+C0nowledge is its first and last7 such is the soul described to be'2 If you say that+ 25s difference and identity are mutually exclusive+ we must have one or the other in the case of the soul+ and its being e,ually both is absurd+2 we reply+ that there is no evidence to support you when you characterise it as absurd' =nly a valid non-perception[kk] can thus preclude a suggestion as absurd7 but this is not found in the present case+ since 4in the opinion of us+ the advocates of the 1yd-vda6 it is perfectly notorious that all things present a mingled nature of many contradictory attributes' [&$] =thers lay down a different set of tattvas from the two mentioned above+ 'va and a'va7 they hold that there are five astikyas or categories+C'va+ ka+ dharma+ adharma+ and pudgala' /o all these five we can apply the idea of 2existence2 4asti6+[k-] as connected with the three divisions of time+ and we can similarly apply the idea of 2body2 4kya6+[k%] from their occupying several parts of space' /he 'vas 4souls6 are divided into two+ the 2mundane2 and the 2released'2 /he 2mundane2 pass from birth to birth7 and these are also divided into two+ as those possessing an internal sense 4samanaska6+ and those destitute of it 4amanaska6' /he former possesses sa'(+ i.e.+ the power of apprehension+ tal0ing+ acting+ and receiving instruction7 the latter are those without this power' /hese latter are also divided into two+ as 2locomotive2 4trasa6+ or 2immovable2 4sthvara6' /he 2locomotive2 are those possessing at least two senses [touch and taste]+ as shell-fish+ worms+ Pc'+ and are thus of four 0inds [as possessing two+ three+ four+ or five senses]7 the 2immovable2 are earth+ water+ fire+ air+ and trees'[kr] #ut here a distinction must be made' /he dust of the road is properly 2earth+2 but bric0s+ Pc'+ are aggregated 2bodies of earth+2 and that soul by whom this body is appropriated becomes 2earthen-bodied+2 and that soul which will hereafter appropriate it is the 2earth-soul'2 /he same four divisions must also be applied to the others+ water+ Pc' 8ow the souls which have appropriated or will appropriate the earth+ Pc'+ as their bodies+ are rec0oned as 2immovable72 but earth+ Pc'+ and the 2bodies of earth+2 Pc'+ are not so rec0oned+ because they are inanimate'[-l] /hese other immovable things+ and such as only possess [&.]the one sense of touch+ are considered as 2released+2 since they are incapable of passing into any other state of existence' 2harma+ adharma+ and ka are singular categories [and not generic]+ and they have not the attribute of 2action+2 but they are the causes of a substance:s change of place' 2harma+ 2merit+2 and adharma+ 2demerit+2 are well 0nown' /hey assist souls in progressing or remaining stationary in the universally extended[-$] s0y [or ether] characterised by light+ and also called Ho0!0!a7 hence the presence of the category 2merit2 is to be inferred from progress+ that of 2demerit2 from stationariness' /he effect of ka is seen when one thing enters into the space previously occupied by another'

-udgala+ 2body+2 possesses touch+ taste+ and colour' #odies are of two 0inds+ atomic and compound' 5toms cannot be en<oyed7[-.] the compounds are the binary and other combinations' 5toms are produced by the separation of these binary and other compounds+ while these arise from the con<unction of atoms' Compounds sometimes arise from separation and con<unction [combined]7 hence they are called pudgalas+ because they 2fill2 4p"r6+ and 2dissolve2 4gal6' 5lthough 2time2 is not properly an astikya+ because it does not occupy many separate parts of space [as mentioned in the definition]+ still it is a dravya [or tattva]+ as the definition will hold7 2substance2 4dravya6 possesses 2,ualities and action'2[-D] uualities reside [&D]in substance but do not themselves possess ,ualities+ as the general ,ualities+ 0nowledge+ Pc'+ of the 'va+ form+ Pc'+ of the body+ and the power of causing progress+ stationariness+ and motion into a place previously occupied+ in the case respectively of 2merit+2 2demerit+2 and ka' 25ction2 4paryya6 has thus been defined7 the actions 4paryy6 of a substance are+ as has been said+ its existence+ its production+ its being what it is+ its development+ its course to the end+ as+ e.g.+ in the 'va+ the 0nowledge of ob<ects+ as of a <ar+ Pc'+ happiness+ pain+ Pc'7 in the pudgala+ the lump of clay+ the <ar+ Pc'7 in merit and demerit+ the special functions of progress+ Pc' /hus there are six substances or tattvas [i.e.+ the five above mentioned and 2time2]' =thers rec0on the tattvas as seven+ as has been saidC 2/he tattvas are 'va+ a'va+ srava+ !andha+ savara+ nir'ar+ and moksha'2 3va and a'va have been already described' ,srava is described as the movement of the soul called yoga+[-@] through its participation in the movement of its various bodies+ audrika+ Pc' 5s a door opening into the water is called srava+ because it causes the stream to descend through it+[-&] so this yoga is called srava+ because by it as by a pipe actions and their conse,uences flow in upon the soul' =r+ as a wet garment collects the dust brought to it from every side by the wind+ so the soul+ wet with previous sins+ collects+ by its manifold points of contact with the body+ the actions which are brought to it by yoga' =r as+ when water is thrown on a heated lump of iron+ the iron absorbs the water altogether+ so the 'va+ heated by previous sins+ receives from every side the actions which are brought by yoga' Kashya 42sin+2 2defilement26 is so called because it 2hurts2 4kash6 the soul by leading it into evil states7 it comprises anger+ pride+ delusion+ and lust' ,srava is twofold+ as good or evil' /hus abstaining from doing in<ury is a good yoga of the [&@]body7 spea0ing what is true+ measured+ and profitable is a good yoga of the speech' /hese various subdivisions of srava have been described at length in several 1"tras' 2,srava is the impulse to action with body+ speech+ or mind+ and it is good or evil as it produces merit or demerit+2 Pc' =thers+ however+ explain it thusGC2,srava is the action of the senses which impels the soul towards external ob<ects7 the light of the soul+ coming in contact with external ob<ects by means of the senses+ becomes developed as the 0nowledge of form+P c'2[-k] 4andha+ 2bondage+2 is when the soul+ by the influence of 2false intuition+2 2non-indifference+2 2carelessness+2 and 2sin2 4kashya6+ and also by the force of yoga+ assumes various bodies occupying many parts of space+ which enter into its own subtile body+ and which are suited to the bond of its previous actions' 5s has been saidC 2/hrough the influence of sin the individual soul assumes bodies suitable to its past actions+ this is+ :bondage':2 In this ,uotation the word 2sin2 4kashya6 is used to include the other three causes of bondage as well as that properly so termed' *!cha0!ch!rya has thus enumerated the causes of bondageG 2/he causes of bondage are false intuition+ non-indifference+ carelessness+ and sin'2 4a6 2malse intuition2 is twofold+Ceither innate from one:s natural character+ as when one disbelieves Baina doctrines from the influence of former evil actions+ irrespectively of another:s teaching+Cor derived+ when learned by another:s teaching' 4!6 28on-indifference2 is the non-restraint of the five senses+ and the internal organ from the set of six+ earth+ Pc'

4c6 2Carelessness2 4pramda6 is a want of effort to practise the five 0inds of samiti+ gupti+ [&&]Pc' 4d6 2Sin2 consists of anger+ Pc' Here we must ma0e the distinction that the four things+ false intuition+ Pc'+ cause those 0inds of bondage called sthiti and anu!hva7 yoga [or srava] causes those 0inds called prakiti and pradea' 2#ondage2 is fourfold+ as has been saidG 2-rakiti+ sthiti+ anu!hva+ and pradea are its four 0inds'2 $' -rakiti means 2the natural ,ualities+2 as bitterness or sweetness in the vimba plant or molasses' /his may be subdivided into eight m"la-prakitis'[--] /hus obstructions 4varaa6[-%] cloud the 0nowledge and intuition+ as a cloud obscures the sun or a shade the lamp' /his is 4a6 'nnvaraa+ or 4!6 daranvaraa' 4c6 5n ob<ect recognised as simultaneously existing or non-existing produces mingled pleasure and pain+ as lic0ing honey from a sword:s edge+Cthis is vedanya' 4d6 5 delusion 4mohanya6 in intuition produces want of faith in the Baina categories+ li0e association with the wic0ed7 delusion in conduct produces want of selfrestraint+ li0e intoxication' 4e6 ,yus produces the bond of body+ li0e a snare'[-r] 4f6 5man+ or 2the name+2 produces various individual appellations+ as a painter paints his different pictures' 4g6 6otra produces the idea of noble and ignoble+ as the potter fashions his pots' 4h6 Antarya produces obstacles to liberality+ Pc'+ as the treasurer hinders the 0ing by considerations of economy' /hus is the prakiti-!andha eightfold+ being denominated as the eight m"la-prakitis+ with subdivisions according to the different actions of the various sub<ect-matter' 5nd thus has pm!sw!ti-v!cha0!ch!rya[%l] declaredG 2/he first 0ind of !andha consists of obstructions of the 0nowledge and the intuition+ vedanya+ mohanya+ yus+ nman+ [&k]gotra+ and antarya72 and he has also rec0oned up the respective subdivisions of each as five+ nine+ twentyeight+ four+ two+ forty+ two+ and fifteen' 5ll this has been explained at full length in the .idynanda and other wor0s+ and here is omitted through fear of prolixity' .' 1thiti. 5s the mil0 of the goat+ cow+ buffalo+ Pc'+ have continued unswerving from their sweet nature for so long a period+ so the first three m"la-prakitis+ 'nnvaraa+ Pc'+ and the last+ antarya+ have not swerved from their respective natures even through the period described in the words+ 2sthiti lasts beyonds crores of crores of periods of time measured by thirty sgaropamas'2[%$] /his continuance is sthiti' D' Anu!hva. 5s in the mil0 of goats+ cows+ buffaloes+ Pc'+ there exists+ by its rich or poor nature+ a special capacity for producing[%.] its several effects+ so in the different material bodies produced by our actions there exists a special capacity 4anu!hva6 for producing their respective effects' @' -radea. /he !andha called pradea is the entrance into the different parts of the soul by the masses+ made up of an endless number of parts+ of the various bodies which are developed by the conse,uences of actions' 1avara is the stopping of sravaCthat by which the influence of past actions 4karman6 is stopped from entering into the soul' It is divided into gupti+ samiti+ Pc' 6upti is the withdrawal of the soul from that 2impulse2 4yoga6 which causes mundane existence+Cit is threefold+ as relating to body+ speech+ or mind' 1amiti is the acting so as to avoid in<ury to all living beings' /his is divided into five 0inds+ as ry+[%D] !hsh+ Pc'+ as has been explained by Hemachandra' [&-] $' 2In a public highway+ 0issed by the sun:s rays+ to wal0 circumspectly so as to avoid in<uring living beings+ this the good call ry' .' 2Het him practise[%@] a measured utterance in his intercourse with all people7 this is called !hsh-samiti+ dear to the restrainers of speech' D' 2/he food which the sage ta0es+ ever free from the forty-two faults which may accrue to alms+ is called the esha-samiti'[%&]

@' 2Carefully loo0ing at it and carefully seating himself upon it+ let him ta0e a seat+ Pc'+ set it down+ and meditate+Cthis is called the dna-samiti' &' 2/hat the good man should carefully perform his bodily evacuations in a spot free from all living creatures+[%k]Cthis is the utsarga-samiti'[%-] Hence samvara has been etymologically analysed as that which closes 4sam v vioti6 the door of the stream of srava+[%%] as has been said by the learned+ :,srava is the cause of mundane existence+ savara is the cause of liberation7[%r] this is the "rhat doctrine in a handful7 all else is only the amplification of this':2 5ir'ar is the causing the fruit of past actions to decay by self-mortification+ Pc'7 it destroys by the body the merit and demerit of all the previously performed actions+ and the resulting happiness and misery7 2self-mortification2 means the pluc0ing out of the hair+P c' /his nir'ar is twofold+[rl] 2temporary2 4yathkla6 and ancillary 4aupakramaika6' It is 2temporary2 as when a desire is dormant in conse,uence of the action having produced its fruit+ and at that particular time+ from this completion of [&%]the ob<ect aimed at+ nir'ar arises+ being caused by the consumption of the desire+ Pc' #ut when+ by the force of asceticism+ the sage turns all actions into means for attaining his end 4liberation6+ this is the nir'ar of actions' /hus it has been saidG 2mrom the decaying of the actions which are the seeds of mundane existence+ nir'ar arises+ which is twofold+ sakm and akm' /hat called sakm belongs to ascetics+ the akm to other embodied spirits'2[r$] #oksha. Since at the moment of its attainment there is an entire absence of all future actions+ as all the causes of bondage 4false perception+ Pc'6 are stopped+[r.] and since all past actions are abolished in the presence of the causes of nir'ar+ there arises the absolute release from all actions+ Cthis is moksha7 as it has been saidG 2#oksha is the absolute release from all actions by the decay 4nir'ar6 of the causes of bondage and of existence'2 /hen the soul rises upward to the end of the world' 5s a potter:s wheel+ whirled by the stic0 and hands+ moves on even after these have stopped+ until the impulse is exhausted+ so the previous repeated contemplations of the embodied soul for the attainment of moksha exert their influence even after they have ceased+ and bear the soul onward to the end of the world7 or+ as the gourd+ encased with clay+ sin0s in the water+ but rises to the surface when freed from its encumbrance+ so the soul+ delivered from wor0s+ rises upward by its isolation+[rD] from the bursting of its bonds li0e the elastic seed of the castor-oil plant+ or by its own native tendency li0e the flame' [&r] 2#ondage2 is the condition of being unseparated+ with a mutual interpenetration of parts [between the soul and the body]7 saga is merely mutual contact' /his has been declared as followsGC 2[Hiberation] is unhindered+ from the continuance of former impulses+ from the absence of saga+ from the cutting of all bonds+ and from the natural development of the soul:s own powers of motion+ li0e the potter:s wheel+ the gourd with its clay removed+ the seed of the castor-oil plant+ or the flame of fire'2 Hence they recite a lo0aGC 2However often they go away+ the planets return+ the sun+ moon+ and the rest7 2#ut never to this day have returned any who have gone to "lo0!0!a'2 =thers hold moksha to be the abiding in the highest regions+ the soul being absorbed in bliss+ with its 0nowledge unhindered and itself untainted by any pain or impression thereof' =thers hold nine tattwas+ adding 2merit2 and 2demerit2 to the foregoing seven+Cthese two being the causes of pleasure and pain' /his has been declared in the 1iddhnta+ 23va+ a'va+ puya+ ppa+ srava+ savara+ nir'araa+ !andha+ and moksha+ are the nine tattwas'2 5s our ob<ect is only a summary+ we desist here' Here the Bainas everywhere introduce their favourite logic called the sapta-!hag-naya+[r@] or the system of the seven paralogisms+ 2may be+ it is+2 2may be+ it is not+2 2may be+ it is and it is not+2

2may be+ it is not predicable+2 2may be+ it is+ and yet not predicable+2 2may be+ it is not+ and not predicable+2 2may be+ it is and it is not+ and not predicable'2 5ll this 5nantav9rya has thus laid downGC $' 21hen you wish to establish a thing+ the proper course is to say :may be+ it is7: when you wish to deny it+ :may be+ it is not': .' 21hen you desire to establish each in turn+ let your [kl]procedure li0ewise embrace both7 when you wish to establish both at once+ let it be declared :indescribable: from the impossibility to describe it' D' 2/he fifth process is en<oined when you wish to establish the first as well as its indescribableness7 when the second as well as its indescribableness+ the occasion for the sixth process arises' @' 2/he seventh is re,uired when all three characters are to be employed simultaneously'2 1yt+ 2may be+2 is here an indeclinable particle in the form of a part of a verb+ used to convey the idea of indeterminateness7 as it has been saidC 2/his particle syt is in the form of a verb+ but+ from its being connected with the sense+ it denotes indeterminateness in sentences+ and has a ,ualifying effect on the implied meaning'2 If+ again+ the word syt denoted determinateness+ then it would be needless in the phrase+ 2may be+ it is72 but since it really denotes indeterminateness+ 2may be+ it is+2 means 2it is somehow72 syt+ 2may be+2 conveys the meaning of 2somehow+2 kathachit7 and so it is not really useless' 5s one has saidC 2/he doctrine of the syd-vda arises from our everywhere re<ecting the idea of the absolute7[r&] it depends on the sapta-!hag-naya+ and it lays down the distinction between what is to be avoided and to be accepted'2 If a thing absolutely exists+ it exists altogether+ always+ everywhere+ and with everybody+ and no one at any time or place would ever ma0e an effort to obtain or avoid it+ as it would be absurd to treat what is already present as an ob<ect to be obtained or avoided' #ut if it be relative 4or indefinite6+ the wise will concede that at certain times and in certain places any one may see0 or avoid it' oreover+ suppose that the ,uestion to be as0ed is thisG 2Is !eing or non-!eing the real nature of the thingq2 /he [k$]real nature of the thing cannot be !eing+ for then you could not properly use the phrase+ 2It is a pot2 4gha7sti6+ as the two words 2is2 and 2pot2 would be tautological7 nor ought you to say+ 2It is not a pot+2 as the words thus used would imply a direct contradiction7 and the same argument is to be used in other ,uestions'[rk] 5s it has been declaredC 2It must not be said :It is a pot+: since the word :pot: implies :is7: 28or may you say :it is not a pot+: for existence and non-existence are mutually exclusive+2 Pc' /he whole is thus to be summed up' mour classes of our opponents severally hold the doctrine of existence+ non-existence+ existence and non-existence successively+ and the doctrine that everything is inexplicable 4anirvachanyat67[r-] three other classes hold one or other of the three first theories combined with the fourth'[r%] 8ow+ when they meet us with the scornful ,uestions+ 2Aoes the thing existq2P c'+ we have an answer always possible+ 2It exists in a certain way+2P c'+ and our opponents are all abashed to silence+ and victory accrues to the holder of the 1yd-vda+ which ascertains the entire meaning of all things' /hus said the teacher in the 1ydvda-ma('arC 25 thing of an entirely indeterminate nature is the ob<ect only of the omniscient7 a thing partly determined is held to be the true ob<ect of scientific investigation'[rr] 1hen our reasonings based on one point proceed in the revealed way+ it is called the revealed 1yd-vda+ which ascertains the entire meaning of all things'2 25ll other systems are full of <ealousy from their mutual propositions and counter-propositions7 it is only the doctrine of the 5rhat which with no partiality e,ually favours all sects'2

[k.] /he Baina doctrine has thus been summed up by Binadatta-snriC 2/he hindrances belonging to vigour+ en<oyment+ sensual pleasure+ giving and receiving+Csleep+ fear+ ignorance+ aversion+ laughter+ li0ing+ disli0ing+ love+ hatred+ want of indifference+ desire+ sorrow+ deceit+ these are the eighteen :faults: 4dosha6 according to our system'[$ll] /he divine Bina is our ?uru+ who declares the true 0nowledge of the tattwas' /he path[$l$] of emancipation consists of 0nowledge+ intuition+ and conduct' /here are two means of proof 4prama6 in the 1yd-vda doctrine+Csense-perception and inference' 5ll consists of the eternal and the noneternal7 there are nine or seven tattwas' /he 'va+ the a'va+ merit and demerit+ srava+ savara+ !andha+ nir'ar+ mukti+Cwe will now explain each' 3va is defined as intelligence7 a'va is all other than it7 merit means bodies which arise from good actions+ demerit the opposite7 srava is the bondage of actions+[$l.] nir'ar is the unloosing thereof7 moksha arises from the destruction of the eight forms of karman or 2action2' #ut by some teachers 2merit2 is included in savara+[$lD] and 2demerit2 in srava' 2=f the soul which has attained the four infinite things[$l@] and is hidden from the world+ and whose eight actions are abolished+ absolute liberation is declared by Bina' /he Ewet!mbaras are the destroyers of all defilement+ they live by alms+[$l&] they pluc0 out their hair+ they practise patience+ they avoid all association+ and are called the Baina 1dhus' /he Aigambaras pluc0 out their hair+ they [kD]carry peacoc0s: tails in their hands+ they drin0 from their hands+ and they eat upright in the giver:s house+Cthese are the second class of the Baina ishis' 25 woman attains not the highest 0nowledge+ she enters not u0ti+Cso say the Aigambaras7 but there is a great division on this point between them and the Ewet!mbaras'2[$lk] >' #' C'

[@l] .ivasanas+ 2without garments'2 [@$] 2/he #uddhists are also called #uktakachchhas+ alluding to a peculiarity of dress+ apparently a habit of wearing the hem of the lower garment untuc0ed'2C8ole!rooke. [@.] In p' .k+ line D+ read 1yd-vdinm' [@D] I propose to read in p' .k+ line &+ infra+ grhyasya for agrhyasya' [@@] 5s these terms necessarily relate to the perceiver' [@&] I correct the reading tasygrahaa to tasy grahaa 4tasy being 'aaty6' [@k] I.e.+ if you say that the avayava may be not seen though the avayavin is seen+ then I may say that the post is the avayavin+ and the unperceived three worlds its avayavat [@-] I read arhatsvar"pam arhachchandra in p' .-+ line D+ infra' [@%] /he following passage occurs in some part of Num!rila:s writings in an argument against the Bainas' It is curious that in the S!0ara-digvi<aya+ chap' lv'+ it is mentioned that Num!rila had a little relenting towards the Bainas at the end of his life' He repented of having so cruelly persecuted them+ and ac0nowledged that there was some truth in their teaching' 3ainagurumukht kachid vidyleo 'ta. [@r] Num!rila tries to prove that no such being can exist+ as his existence is not established by any one of the five recognised proofs+Cthe sixth+ a!hva+ being negative+ is+ of course+ not applicable' I understand the last lo0a as showing the inapplicability of 2presumption2 or arth-patti' 5 Baina would say+ 2If the 5rhat were not omniscient+ his words would not be true and authoritative+ but we see that they are+ therefore he is omniscient'2 He answers by retorting that the same argument might

be used of #uddha by a #uddhist7 and as the Baina himself would disallow it in that case+ it cannot be convincing in his own' [&l] In p' .r+ line .+ read tatsad!hvvedakasya for tatsad!hvdekasya' [&$] In p' .r+ line r+ for nikhilrtha'(ant notpatty+ I propose to read nikhilrtha'(notpatty' [&.] 3anya is included in Krya and e,ually disputed' [&D] /hus 2I am possessed of a body2 4aham 0arr6+ 2my hand+2 Pc'+ are all sentences in which a predicate involving the notion of parts is applied to the soul 2I'2 [&@] 3easoning in a circle' I suppose the Pc' includes the Anavasthdosha or reasoning ad infinitum' He accepts the supposed fault+ and holds that it is actually borne out in a case before everybody:s eyes' [&&] In p' D$+ line &+ infra+ read tattvrthe for tattvrtham' [&k] I read in p' D.+ line r+ 1amyagdarandi for asamyagdarandi7 but the old text may mean 2caused by the abolition of hindrances produced by the ,ualities+ wrong intuition+2 Pc' [&-] Cf' the five yamas in the 9oga-s"tras+ ii' Dl' Hemachandra 4A!hidh %$6 calls them yamas' [&%] I read kmnm for kmm in p' DD+ line - 4. w D w D x $%6' [&r] mor a!hshaa+ see Hemach' $k' [kl] I propose in p' DD+ line $-+ raayana'(naraddhvachrani for rasyaa'(ana raddhnvarani' mor avachraa+ see 1uruta+ vol' ii' p' $&-+P c' If anvaraa be the true reading+ I suppose it must mean 2the absence of obstructions'2 [k$] /his is a hard passage+ but some light is thrown on it by the scholiast to Hemachandra+ A!hidh' -r' [k.] =r this may mean 2by the influence of upaamakshaya or kshayopaama+ it appears characterised by one or the other'2 [kD] I read in p' D@+ line -+ kalushdykrea for kalushnykrea' /he upaamakshaya and kshayopaama seem to correspond to the aupaamika and kshyika states about to be described' [k@] 1trychnos potatorum. [k&] Bust as in the S!n0hya philosophy+ the soul is not really bound though it seems to itself to be so' [kk] 5 valid non-perception is when an ob<ect is not seen+ and yet all the usual concurrent causes of vision are present+ such as the eye+ light+ Pc' [k-] I read in p' D&+ line &+ *stti for sthiti' [k%] Hence the term here used for 2category2Castikya' [kr] /hese 4by Hemach' A!hidh. .$6+ possess only one senseCtouch' In p' D&+ line $l+ I read akhagaolakapra!hitayas tras chaturvidh pithivyapte'o' [-l] In p' D&+ line $k+ I read teshm a'vatvt for tesh 'vatvt' If we 0eep the old reading we must translate it+ 2because the former only are animate'2 [-$] In p' D&+ line D from bottom+ I read sarvatrvasthite for sarvatrvasthiti' In the preceding line I read lokenvachchhinne for lokenvichchhinne' [-.] Cf' Siddh!nta-mu0t!vali+ p' .-' /he vishaya is upa!hoga-sdhanam+ but it begins with the dvyauka' /his category ta0es up the forms of sthvara which were excluded from 'va' [-D] It is an interesting illustration how thoroughly !dhava for the time throws himself into the Baina system which he is analysing+ when we see that he gives the Baina terminology for this definition of dravya+Ccf' .aiesh. 1"tra+ i' $+ $&' -aryya is explained as karman in Hemach'

Anek' -aryya+ in p' Dk+ line $$ 4infra+ p' &D+ line r6+ seems used in a different sense from that which it bears elsewhere' I have ta0en it doubtingly as in Hemach' A!hidh' $&lD+ paryyo *nukrama krama' [-@] 9oga seems to be here the natural impulse of the soul to act' [-&] In line $%+ read sravaakraatvd' [-k] /he 'nna is one+ but it becomes apparently manifold by its connection with the senses and external ob<ects' [--] /hese are also called the eight karmans in ?ovind!nanda:s gloss+ .ed. 1"t.+ ii' .+ DD' [-%] /he Calcutta S' reads darayasya for varayasya+ in p' D-+ last line' #ut varaya may be used for varana 4-. iii' @+ k%6' Cf' 9oga 1"t.+ ii' &.+ where *y!sa:s Comm' has varaya' [-r] 3lavatq /he printed text has 'alavat' [%l] pm!sv!mi-q [%$] mor the sgaropama+ see 1ilson:s $ssays+ vol' i' p' Dlr' In p' D%+ line $k+ I read itydyuktakld "rdhvam api for the obscure itydyukta kladurddhnavat' I also read at the end of the line prachyuti sthiti for prachyutisthiti' [%.] In p' D%+ line $%+ read svakryakarae' [%D] In p' Dr+ line . and line &+ for rshy read ry+Ca bad misreading' [%@] In p' Dr+ line k+ I read padyet for padyat' [%&] In p' Dr+ line r+ for sesha read saisha' [%k] In p' Dr+ line $.+ <oin nir'antu and 'agattale' [%-] !dhava omits the remaining divisions of savara' 1ilson+ $ssays+ vol' i' p' D$$+ gives them as parishah+ 2endurance+2 as of a vow7 yatidharma+ 2the ten duties of an ascetic+ patience+ gentleness+2 Pc'7 !hvan+ 2conviction+2 such as that worldly existences are not eternal+ Pc'7 chritra+ 2virtuous observance'2 [%%] In p' Dr+ line $@+ read sravasrotaso' [%r] mor moha+ in line $k+ read moksha' [rl] In p' Dr+ line . infra+ I read yathkla- for yath kla-' [r$] /his passage is very difficult and not improbably corrupt+ and my interpretation of it is only con<ectural' /he ordinary nir'ar is when an action attains its end 4li0e the lulling of a passion by the gratification6+ this lull is temporary' /hat nir'ar is 2ancillary2 which is rendered by asceticism a means to the attainment of the highest good' /he former is akm+ 2desireless+2 because at the moment the desire is satisfied and so dormant7 the latter is sakm+ because the ascetic con,uers the lower desire under the overpowering influence of the higher desire for liberation' [r.] I read nirodhe for nirodhah in p' @l+ line k7 cf' p' D-+ line $D' /he causes of bondage produce the assumption of bodies in which future actions are to be performed' [rD] Hiterally 2absence of sanga'2 [r@] In p' @$+ line -+ read sapta-!hag-naya+ see *ed' S' ?loss'+ ii' .+ .D' [r&] I cannot understand the words at the end of the first line+ kim vitatadvidhe+ and therefore leave them untranslated' [rk] /hus ?ovind!nanda applies it 4.ed. 1"t.+ ii' .+ DD6 to 2may be it is one+2 2may be it is many+2 Pc' [r-] :sc^U^[Za^ /his is Eriharsha:s tenet in the Khaana-khaa-khdya'

[r%] In p' @.+ line $-+ for matenmiritni read matena miritni' [rr] In p' @D+ line .+ for na yasya read nayasya' [$ll] /his list is badly printed in the Calcutta edition' It is really identical with that given in Hemachandra:s A!hidhna-chintmai+ -.+ -D7 but we must correct the readings to antarys+ rgadweshv avirati smara+ and hso for hims' /he order of the eighteen doshas in the Calcutta edition is given by Hemachandra as @+ &+ $+ .+ D+ $l+ $$+ $.+ -+ r+ $-+ $k+ $%+ %+ k+ $&+ $D+ $@' [$l$] In p' @D+ line $D+ for vartini read vartini' [$l.] /his seems corrupt+Ca line is probably lost' [$lD] In last line+ for sasrave read savare' [$l@] Aoes this mean the 0nowledge of the world+ the soul+ the liberated and liberationq /hese are called ananta' See 1eber:s 4hagavat+ pp' .&l+ .k$-.kk' [$l&] 1ara'oharah is explained by the ra'oharaadhrin 4x vratin6 of Hal!yudha+ ii' $%r' [$lk] Cf' 1ilson+ $ssays+ i' D@l' mor strm read str' [k@]


/his doctrine of the "rhatas deserves a rational condemnation+ for whereas there is only one thing really existent+ the simultaneous co-existence of existence+ non-existence and other modes in a plurality of really existing things is an impossibility' 8or should any one sayG ?ranting the impossibility of the co-existence of existence and non-existence+ which are reciprocally contradictory+ why should there not be an alternation between existence and non-existenceq there being the rule that it is action+ not $ns+ that alternates' 8or let it be supposed that the whole universe is multiform+ in reliance upon the examples of the elephant-headed ?aea and of the incarnation of *ishu as half man+ half lion7 for the elephantine and the leonine nature existing in one part+ and the human in another+ and conse,uently there being no contradiction+ those parts being different+ these examples are inapplicable to the maintenance of a nature multiform as both existent and nonexistent in one and the same part 4or place6' 5gain+ if any one urgeG Het there be existence in one form+ and non-existence in another+ and thus both will be compatible7 we re<oinG 8ot so+ for if you had said that at different times existence and non-existence may be the nature of anything+ then indeed there would have been no vice in your procedure' 8or is it to be contendedG Het the multiformity of the universe be li0e the length and shortness which pertain[k&] to the same thing 4in different relations67 for in these 4in this length and shortness6 there is no contrariety+ inasmuch as they are contrasted with different ob<ects' /herefore+ for want of evidence+ existence and nonexistence as reciprocally contradictory cannot reside at the same time in the same thing' In a li0e manner may be understood the refutation of the other !hagas 4"rhata tenets6' 5gain+ we as0+ is this doctrine of the seven !hagas+ which lies at the base of all this+ itself uniform 4as excluding one contradictory6+ or multiform 4as conciliating contradictories6' If it is uniform+ there will emerge a contradiction to your thesis that all things are multiform7 if it is multiform+ you have not proved what you wished to prove+ a multiform statement 4as both existent and nonexistent6 proving nothing'[$l-] In either case+ there is rope for a noose for the nec0 of the Sy!d*!din' 5n admirable author of institutes has the founder of the "rhata system+ dear to the gods

4unin,uiring pietist6+ proved himself to be+ when he has not ascertained whether his result is the settling of nine or of seven principles+ nor the investigator who settles them+ nor his organon+ the modes of evidence+ nor the matter to be evidenced+ whether it be ninefold or nott In li0e manner if it be admitted that the soul has 4as the "rhatas say6+ an extension e,ual to that of the body+ it will follow that in the case of the souls of ascetics+ who by the efficacy of asceticism assume a plurality of bodies+ [kk]there is a differentiation of the soul for each of those bodies' 5 soul of the siQe of a human body would not 4in the course of its transmigrations6 be able to occupy the whole body of an elephant7 and again+ when it laid aside its elephantine body to enter into that of an ant+ it would lose its capacity of filling its former frame' 5nd it cannot be supposed that the soul resides successively in the human+ elephantine+ and other bodies+ li0e the light of a lamp which is capable of contraction and expansion+ according as it occupies the interior of a little station on the road-side in which travellers are supplied with water+ or the interior of a stately mansion7 for it would follow 4from such a supposition6 that the soul being susceptible of modifications and conse,uently non-eternal+ there would be a loss of merits and a fruition of good and evil unmerited' 5s if then we had thrown their best wrestler+ the redargution of the rest of their categories may be anticipated from this exposition of the manner in which their treatment of the soul has been vitiated' /heir doctrine+ therefore+ as repugnant to the eternal+ infallible revelation+ cannot be adopted' /he venerated *y!sa accordingly propounded the aphorism 4ii' .+ DD6+ 28ay+ because it is impossible in one72 and this same aphorism has been analysed by 3!m!nu<a with the express purpose of shutting out the doctrine of the Bainas' /he tenets of 3!m!nu<a are as followsGC/hree categories are established+ as soul+ not-soul+ and Hord7 or as sub<ect+ ob<ect+ and supreme disposer' /hus it has been saidC 2Hord+ soul+ and not-soul are the triad of principlesG Hari 4*ishu6 2Is Hord7 individual spirits are souls7 and the visible world is not-soul'2 =thers+ again 4the followers of Ea0ar!ch!rya6+ maintain that pure intelligence+ exempt from all differences+ the absolute+ alone is really existent7 and that this absolute[k-] whose essence is eternal+ pure+ intelligent+ and free+ the identity of which with the individuated spirit is learnt from the 2reference to the same ob<ect2 4predication6+ 2/hat art thou+2 undergoes bondage and emancipation' /he universe of differences 4or conditions6 such as that of sub<ect and ob<ect+ is all illusorily imagined by illusion as in that 4one reality6+ as is attested by a number of textsG >xistent only+ fair sir+ was this in the beginning+ =ne only without a second+ and so forth' aintaining this+ and ac0nowledging a suppression of this beginningless illusion by 0nowledge of the unity 4and identity6 of individuated spirits and the undifferenced absolute+ in conformity with hundreds of texts from the ppanishads+ such as He that 0nows spirit passes beyond sorrow7 re<ecting also any real plurality of things+ in conformity with the text condemnatory of duality+ viQ'+ Aeath after death he undergoes who loo0s upon this as manifold7 and thin0ing themselves very wise+ the E!0aras will not tolerate this division 4viQ'+ the distribution of things into soul+ not-soul+ and Hord6' /o all this the following counterposition is laid downGC/his might be all well enough if there were any proof of such illusion' #ut there is no such ignorance 4or illusion6+ an unbeginning entity+ suppressible by 0nowledge+ testified in the perceptions+ I am ignorant+ I 0now not myself and other things' /hus it has been said 4to explain the views of the E!0ara6C 2>ntitative from everlasting+ which is dissolved by 0nowledge+ 2Such is illusion' /his definition the wise enunciate'2 /his perception 4they would further contend6 is not conversant about the absence of 0nowledge' mor who can maintain this+ and to whomq =ne who leans on the arm of (rabh!0ara+ or one to whom Num!rila-bhaa gives his handq 8ot the former+ for in the wordsC 2#y means of its own and of another:s form+ eternal in the existent and non-existent+ 2/hing is recognised something by some at certain times'[k%]

28on-entity is but another entity by some 0ind of relation' 8on-entity is but another entity+ naught else+ for naught else is observed'2 /hey deny any non-entity ulterior to entity' 8on-entity being cognisable by the sixth instrument of 0nowledge 4anupala!dhi6+ and 0nowledge being always an ob<ect of inference+ the absence of 0nowledge cannot be an ob<ect of perception' If+ again+ any one who maintains non-entity to be perceptible should employ the above argument 4from the perceptions+ I am ignorant+ I 0now not myself+ and other things67 it may be repliedG 2Is there+ or is there not+ in the consciousness+ I am ignorant+ an apprehension of self as characterised by an absence+ and of 0nowledge as the thing absent or non-existentq If there is such apprehension+ consciousness of the absence of 0nowledge will be impossible+ as involving a contradiction' If there is not+ consciousness of the absence of 0nowledge+ which consciousness presupposes a 0nowledge of the sub<ect and of the thing absent+ will not readily become possible'2 Inasmuch 4the E!0aras continue6 as the foregoing difficulties do not occur if ignorance 4or illusion6 be entitative+ this consciousness 4I am ignorant+ I 0now not myself+ and other things6 must be admitted to be conversant about an entitative ignorance' 5ll this 4the 3!m!nu<a replies6 is about as profitable as it would be for a ruminant animal to ruminate upon ether7 for an entitative ignorance is not more supposable than an absence of 0nowledge' mor 4we would as06+ is any self-conscious principle presented as an ob<ect and as a sub<ect 4of ignorance6 as distinct from cognitionq If it is presented+ how+ since ignorance of a thing is terminable by 0nowledge of its essence+ can the ignorance continueq If none such is presented+ how can we be conscious of an ignorance which has no sub<ect and no ob<ectq If you sayG 5 pure manifestation of the spiritual essence is revealed only by the cognition opposed to ignorance 4or illusion6+ and thus there is no absurdity in the consciousness of ignorance[kr] accompanied with a consciousness of its sub<ect and ob<ect7 then we re<oinGCpnfortunately for you+ this 4consciousness of sub<ect6 must arise e,ually in the absence of 0nowledge 4for such we define illusion to be6+ notwithstanding your assertion to the contrary' It must+ therefore+ be ac0nowledged that the cognition+ I am ignorant+ I 0now not myself and other things+ is conversant about an absence of cognition allowed by us both' 1ell+ then 4the E!0aras may contend6+ let the form of cognition evidentiary of illusion+ which is under disputation+ be inference+ as followsGC3ight 0nowledge must have had for its antecedent another entity 4sc. illusion6+ an entity different from mere prior non-existence of 0nowledge+ which envelops the ob<ects of 0nowledge+ which is terminable by 0nowledge+ which occupies the place of 0nowledge+ inasmuch as it 4the right 0nowledge6 illuminates an ob<ect not before illuminated+ li0e the light of a lamp springing up for the first time in the dar0ness' /his argument 4we reply6 will not stand grinding 4in the dialectic mill67 for to prove the 4antecedent6 illusion+ you will re,uire an ulterior illusion which you do not admit+ and a violation of your own tenets will ensue+ while if you do not so prove it+ it may or may not exist7 and+ moreover+ the example is incompatible with the argument+ for it cannot be the lamp that illumines the hitherto unillumined ob<ect+ since it is 0nowledge only that illumines7 and an illumination of ob<ects may be effected by 0nowledge even without the lamp+ while the light of the lamp is only ancillary to the visual organ which effectuates the cognition+ ancillary mediately through the dispulsion of the obstruent dar0ness' 1e dismiss further prolixity' /he counterposition 4of the 3!m!nu<as6 is as followsGC/he illusion under dispute does not reside in #rahman+ who is pure 0nowledge+ because it is an illusion+ li0e the illusion about nacre+ Pc' If any one as0G Has not the self-conscious entity that underlies the illusion about nacre+ Pc'+ 0nowledge only for its natureq they replyG[-l] Ao not start such difficulties7 for we suppose that consciousness by its bare existence has the nature of creating conformity to the usage about 4i.e.+ the name and notion of6 some ob<ect7 and such consciousness+ also called 0nowledge+ apprehension+ comprehension+ intelligence+ Pc'+ constitutes the soul+ or 0nowledge+ of that which acts and 0nows' If any one as0G How can the soul+ if it consists of cognition+ have cognition as a ,ualityq they replyG /his ,uestion is futile7 for as a gem+ the sun+ and other luminous things+ existing in the form of light+ are substances in which light as a ,uality inheresCfor light+ as existing elsewhere than in its

usual receptacle+ and as being a mode of things though a substance+ is still styled and accounted a ,uality derived from determination by that substance+Cso this soul+ while it exists as a selfluminous intelligence+ has also intelligence as its ,uality' 5ccordingly the *edic textsG 5 lump of salt is always within and without one entire mass of taste+ so also this soul is within and without an entire mass of 0nowledge7 Herein this person is itself a light7 =f the 0nowledge of that which 0nows there is no suspension7 He who 0nows+ smells this7 and so also+ /his is the soul which+ consisting of 0nowledge+ is the light within the heart7 mor this person is the seer+ the hearer+ the taster+ the smeller+ the thin0er+ the understander+ the doer7 /he person is 0nowledge+ and the li0e texts' It is not to be supposed that the *eda also affords evidence of the existence of the cosmical illusion+ in the text+ >nveloped in untruth 4anita67 for the word untruth 4anita6 denotes that which is other than truth 4ita6' /he word ita has a passive sense+ as appears from the words+ Arin0ing ita' ita means wor0s done without desire of fruit7 having as its reward the attainment of the bliss of the Supreme Spirit through his propitiation' In the text in ,uestion+ untruth 4anita6 designates the scanty fruit en<oyed during transmigratory existence as opposed to that 4which results from propitiation of the Supreme Spirit6+[-$] which temporal fruit is obstructive to the attainment of supreme existence 4!rahman67 the entire text 4when the context is supplied6 beingG /hey who find not this supreme sphere 4!rahma-loka6 are enveloped in untruth' In such texts+ again+ as Het him 0now illusion 4my6 to be the primary emanative cause 4prakiti6+ the term 4my6 designates the emanative cause+ consisting of the three 2cords2 4gua6+ and creative of the diversified universe' It does not designate the inexplicable illusion 4for which the E!0aras contend6' In such passages as+ #y him the defender of the body of the child+ moving rapidly+ the thousand illusions 4my6 of the barbarian were swooped upon as by a haw0+ we observe that the word 2illusion2 4my6 designates the really existent weapon of a /itan+ capable of pro<ective diversified creation' /he *eda+ then+ never sets out an inexplicable illusion' 8or 4is the cosmical illusion to be inferred from the 2grand text+2 /hat art thou6+ inasmuch as the words+ /hat art thou+ being incompetent to teach unity+ and indicating a conditionate Supreme Spirit+ we cannot understand by them the essential unity of the mutually exclusive supreme and individual spirits7 for such a supposition 4as that they are identical6 would violate the law of excluded middle' /o explain this' /he term /hat denotes the Supreme Spirit exempt from all imperfections+ of illimitable excellence+ a repository of innumerable auspicious attributes+ to whom the emanation+ sustentation+ retractation of the universe is a pastime7[$l%] such being the Supreme Spirit+ spo0en of in such texts as+ /hat desired+ let me be many+ let me bring forth' (erhaps the word /hou+ referring to the same ob<ect 4as the word /hat6+ denotes the Supreme Spirit characterised by consciousness+ having all individual spirits as his body7 for a 2reference to the same ob<ect2 designates one thing determined by two modes' Here+ perhaps+ an 5dvaita-v!din may replyG 1hy [-.]may not the purport of the reference to the same ob<ect in the words+ /hat art thou+ be undifferenced essence+ the unity of souls+ these words 4/hat and thou6 having a 4reciprocally6 implicate power by abandonment of opposite portions of their meaning7 as is the case in the phrase+ /his is that Aevadatta' In the words+ /his is that Aevadatta+ we understand by the word /hat+ a person in relation to a different time and place+ and by the word /his+ a person in relation to the present time and place' /hat both are one and the same is understood by the form of predication 42reference to the same ob<ect26' 8ow as one and the same thing cannot at the same time be 0nown as in different times and places+ the two words 4/his and /hat6 must refer to the essence 4and not to the accidents of time and place6+ and unity of essence can be understood' Similarly in the text+ /hat art thou+ there is implicated an indivisible essence by abandonment of the contradictory portions 4of the denotation6+ viQ'+ finite cognition 4which belongs to the individual soul or /hou6+ and infinite cognition 4which belongs to the real or unindividual soul6' /his suggestion 4the 3!m!nu<as reply6 is unsatisfactory+ for there is no opposition 4between /his and /hat6 in the example 4/his is that Aevadatta6+ and conse,uently not the smallest particle of 2implication2 4laksha+ both /his and /hat being used in their denotative capacity6' /he connection of one ob<ect with two times past and present involves no contradiction' 5nd any contradiction supposed to arise from relation to different places may be avoided by a supposed

difference of time+ the existence in the distant place being past+ and the existence in the near being present' >ven if we concede to you the 2implication+2 the 4supposed6 contradiction being avoidable by supposing one term 4either /hat or /hou6 to be implicative+ it is unnecessary to admit that both words are implicative' =therwise 4if we admit that both words are implicative6+ if it be granted that the one thing may be recognised+ with the concomitant assurance that it differs as this and[-D] as that+ permanence in things will be inadmissible+ and the #uddhist assertor of a momentary flux of things will be triumphant' 1e have+ therefore 4the 3!m!nu<as continue6+ laid it down in this ,uestion that there is no contradiction in the identity of the individual and the Supreme Spirit+ the individual spirits being the body and the Supreme Spirit the soul' mor the individual spirit as the body+ and therefore a form+ of the Supreme Spirit+ is identical with the Supreme Spirit+ according to another text+ 1ho abiding in the soul+ is the controller of the soul+ who 0nows the soul+ of whom soul is the body' ;our statement of the matter+ therefore+ is too narrow' 5ll words are designatory of the Supreme Spirit' /hey are not all synonymous+ a variety of media being possible7 thus as all organised bodies+ divine+ human+ Pc'+ are forms of individual spirits+ so all things 4are the body of Supreme Spirit6+ all things are identical with Supreme Spirit' HenceC ?od+ an+ ;a0sha+ (i!cha+ serpent+ 3!0shasa+ bird+ tree+ creeper+ wood+ stone+ grass+ <ar+ cloth+C these and all other words+ be they what they may+ which are current among man0ind as denotative by means of their base and its suffixes+ as denoting those things+ in denoting things of this or that apparent constitution+ really denote the individual souls which assumed to them such body+ and the whole complexus of things terminating in the Supreme Spirit ruling within' /hat ?od and all other words whatsoever ultimately denote the Supreme Spirit is stated in the /attva-mu0t!val9 and in the ChaturantaraC 2?od+ and all other words+ designate the soul+ none else than /hat+ called the established entity+ 2=f this there is much significant and undoubted exemplification in common speech and in the *eda7 2>xistence when dissociated from spirit is un0nown7 in the form of gods+ mortals+ and the rest[-@] 21hen pervading the individual spirit+ the infinite has made a diversity of names and forms in the world'2 In these words the author+ setting forth that all words+ ?od+ and the rest+ designate the body+ and showing in the words+ 28o unity in systems+2 Pc'+ the characteristic of body+ and showing in the words+ 2#y words which are substitutes for the essence of things+2 Pc'+ that it is established that nothing is different from the universal Hord+ lays down in the verses+ Significant of the essence+ Pc'+ that all words ultimately designate the Supreme Spirit' 5ll this may be ascertained from that wor0' /he same matter has been enforced by 3!m!nu<a in the *ed!rtha-sagraha+ when analysing the *edic text about names and forms' oreover+ every form of evidence having some determinate ob<ect+ there can be no evidence of an undetermined 4unconditionate6 reality' >ven in non-discriminative perception it is a determinate 4or conditioned6 thing that is cognised' >lse in discriminative perception there could not be shown to be a cognition characterised by an already presented form' 5gain+ that text+ /hat art thou+ is not sublative of the universe as rooted in illusion+ li0e a sentence declaratory that what was illusorily presented+ as a sna0e is a piece of rope7 nor does 0nowledge of the unity of the absolute and the soul bring 4this illusory universe6 to an end7 for we have already demonstrated that there is no proof of these positions' 8or is there an absurdity 4as the E!0aras would say6+ on the hypothesis enunciatory of the reality of the universe+ in affirming that by a cognition of one there is a cognition of all thingsG for it is easily evinced that the mundane egg+ consisting of the primary cause 4prakiti6+ intellect+ selfposition+ the rudimentary elements+ the gross elements+ the organs 4of sense and of action6+ and the

fourteen worlds+ and the gods+ animals+ men+ immovable things+ and so forth+ that exist within it+ constituting a complex of all forms+ is all an effect+ and that from the single cognition[-&] of absolute spirit as its 4emanative6 cause+ when we recognise that all this is absolute spirit 4there being a tautology between cause and effect6+ there arises cognition of all things+ and thus by cognition of one cognition of all' #esides+ if all else than absolute spirit were unreal+ then all being non-existent+ it would follow that by one cognition all cognition would be sublated' It is laid down 4by the 3!m!nu<as6 that retractation into the universe 4pralaya6 is when the universe+ the body whereof consists of souls and the originant 4prakiti6+ returns to its imperceptible state+ unsusceptible of division by names and forms+ existing as absolute spirit the emanative cause7 and that creation 4or emanation6 is the gross or perceptible condition of absolute spirit+ the body whereof is soul and not soul divided by diversity of names and forms+ in the condition of the 4emanative6 effect of absolute spirit' In this way the identity of cause and effect laid down in the aphorism 4of *y!sa6 treating of origination+ is easily explicable' /he statements that the Supreme Spirit is void of attributes+ are intended 4it is shown6 to deny thereof phenomenal ,ualities which are to be escaped from by those that desire emancipation' /he texts which deny plurality are explained as allowed to be employed for the denial of the real existence of things apart from the Supreme Spirit+ which is identical with all things+ it being Supreme Spirit which subsists under all forms as the soul of all+ all things sentient and unsentient being forms as being the body of absolute Spirit'[$lr] 1hat is the principle here involved+ pluralism or monism+ or a universe both one and more than oneq =f these alternatives monism is admitted in saying that Supreme Spirit alone subsists in all forms as all is its body7 both unity and plurality are admitted in saying that one only Supreme Spirit subsists under a plurality of forms diverse as soul and not-soul7 and plurality is admitted in saying [-k]that the essential natures of soul+ not-soul+ and the Hord+ are different+ and not to be confounded' =f these 4soul+ not-soul+ and the Hord6+ individual spirits+ or souls+ consisting of uncontracted and unlimited pure 0nowledge+ but enveloped in illusion+ that is+ in wor0s from all eternity+ undergo contraction and expansion of 0nowledge according to the degrees of their merits' Soul experiences fruition+ and after reaping pleasures and pains proportionate to merits and demerits+ there ensues 0nowledge of the Hord+ or attainment of the sphere of the Hord' =f things which are not-soul+ and which are ob<ects of fruition 4or experience of pleasure and pain6+ unconsciousness+ unconduciveness to the end of man+ susceptibility of modification+ and the li0e+ are the properties' =f the Supreme Hord the attributes are subsistence+ as the internal controller 4or animator6 of both the sub<ects and the ob<ects of fruition7 the boundless glory of illimitable 0nowledge+ dominion+ ma<esty+ power+ brightness+ and the li0e+ the countless multitude of auspicious ,ualities7 the generation at will of all things other than himself+ whether spiritual or non-spiritual7 various and infinite adornment with unsurpassable excellence+ singular+ uniform+ and divine' *e0aa-n!tha has given the following distribution of thingsGC 2/hose who 0now it have declared the principle to be twofold+ substance and non-substance7 2Substance is dichotomised as unsentient and sentient7 the former being the unevolved 4avyakta6+ and time' 2/he latter is the :near: 4pratyak6 and the :distant: 4park67 the :near: being twofold+ as either soul or the Hord7 2/he :distant: is eternal glory and intelligence7 the other principle some have called the unsentient primary'2 =f these[--]C 2Substance undergoes a plurality of conditions7 the originant is possessed of goodness and the other cords7 2/ime has the form of years+ Pc'7 soul is atomic and cognisant7 the other spirit is the Hord7

2>ternal bliss has been declared as transcending the three cords 4or modes of phenomenal existence6+ and also as characterised by goodness7 2/he cognisable manifestation of the cognisant is intelligence7 thus are the characteristics of substance summarily recounted'2 =f these 4soul+ not-soul+ and the Hord6+ individual spirits+ called souls+ are different from the Supreme Spirit and eternal' /hus the textG /wo birds+ companions+ friends+ Pc' 43ig-*eda+ i' $k@+ .l6' 5ccordingly it is stated 4in the aphorisms of Na!da+ iii' .+ .l6+ Souls are diverse by reason of diversity of conditions' /he eternity of souls is often spo0en of in revelationC 2/he soul is neither born+ nor dies+ nor having been shall it again cease to be7 2pnborn+ unchanging+ eternal+ this ancient of days is not 0illed when the body is 0illed2 4#hagavadg9t!+ ii' .l6' =therwise 4were the soul not eternal6 there would follow a failure of re,uital and a fruition 4of pleasures and pains6 unmerited' It has accordingly been said 4in the aphorisms of ?autaa+ iii' .&6G #ecause no birth is seen of one who is devoid of desire' /hat the soul is atomic is well 0nown from revelationC 2If the hundredth part of a hair be imagined to be divided a hundred times+ 2/he soul may be supposed a part of that+ and yet it is capable of infinity'2 5nd againC 2Soul is of the siQe of the extremity of the spo0e of a wheel' Spirit is to be recognised by the intelligence as atomic'2 [-%] /he visible+ unsentient world+ designated by the term not-soul+ is divided into three+ as the ob<ect+ the instrument+ or the site of fruition' =f this world the efficient and substantial cause is the Aeity+ 0nown under the names (urushottama 4best of spirits6+ *!sudeva 4a patronymic of Nisha6+ and the li0e' 2*!sudeva is the supreme absolute spirit+ endowed with auspicious attributes+ 2/he substantial cause+ the efficient of the worlds+ the animator of spirits'2 /his same *!sudeva+ infinitely compassionate+ tender to those devoted to him+ the Supreme Spirit+ with the purpose of bestowing various rewards apportioned to the deserts of his votaries in conse,uence of pastime+ exists under five modes+ distinguished as 2adoration2 4arch6+ 2emanation2 4vi!hava6+ 2manifestation2 4vy"ha6+ 2the subtile2 4s"kshma6+ and the 2internal controller'2 4$'6 25doration2 is images+ and so forth' 4.'6 2>manation2 is his incarnation+ as 3!ma+ and so forth' 4D'6 His 2manifestation2 is fourfold+ as *!sudeva+ Sa0arshaa+ (radyumna+ and 5niruddha' 4@'6 2/he subtile2 is the entire Supreme Spirit+ with six attributes+ called *!sudeva' His attributes are exemption from sin+ and the rest' /hat he is exempt from sin is attested in the *edic textG (assionless+ deathless+ without sorrow+ without hunger+ desiring truth+ true in purpose' 4&'6 /he 2internal controller+2 the actuator of all spirits+ according to the textG 1ho abiding in the soul+ rules the soul within' 1hen by worshipping each former embodiment a mass of sins inimical to the end of the soul 4i.e.+ emancipation6 have been destroyed+ the votary becomes entitled to practise the worship of each latter embodiment' It has+ therefore+ been saidC 2*!sudeva+ in his tenderness to his votaries+ gives+ as desired by each+ 25ccording to the merits of his ,ualified worshippers+ large recompense'[-r] 2mor that end+ in pastime he ma0es to himself his five embodiments7 2Images and the li0e are :adoration7: his incarnations are :emanations7:

25s Sa0arshaa+ *!sudeva+ (radyumna+ 5niruddha+ his manifestation is to be 0nown to be fourfold7 :the subtile: is the entire six attributes7 2/hat self-same called *!sudeva is styled the Supreme Spirit7 2/he internal controller is declared as residing in the soul+ the actuator of the soul+ 2Aescribed in a multitude of texts of the ppanishads+ such as :1ho abiding in the soul': 2#y the worship of :adoration+: a man casting off his defilement becomes a ,ualified votary7 2#y the subse,uent worship of :emanation+: he becomes ,ualified for the worship of :manifestation7: next+ 2#y the worship thereafter of :the subtile+: he becomes able to behold the :internal controller':2 /he worship of the Aeity is described in the (aOcha-r!tra as consisting of five elements+ viQ'+ 4$'6 the access+ 4.'6 the preparation+ 4D'6 oblation+ 4@'6 recitation+ 4&'6 devotion' =f these+ access is the sweeping+ smearing+ and so forth+ of the way to the temple' /he preparation is the provision of perfumes+ flowers+ and the li0e appliances of worship' =blation is worship of the deities' 3ecitation is the muttered e<aculation of sacred texts+ with attention to what they mean+ the rehearsal of hymns and lauds of *ishu+ the commemoration of his names+ and study of institutes which set forth the truth' Aevotion is meditation on the Aeity' 1hen the vision of the visible world has been brought to a close by 0nowledge accumulated by the merit of such worship+ the infinitely compassionate Supreme Spirit+ tender to his votaries+ bestows upon the votary devoted to his lord and absorbed in his lord+ his own sphere infinite and endless+ mar0ed by consciousness[%l] of being li0e him+ from which there is no future return 4to the sorrows of transmigratory existence6' So the traditionary text C 21hen they have come to me+ the high-souled no longer undergo future birth+ a receptacle of pain+ transitory+ having attained to the supreme consummation' 2*!sudeva+ having found his votary+ bestows upon him his own mansion+ blissful+ undecaying+ from whence there is no more return'2 5fter laying up all this in his heart+ leaning upon the teaching of the great ppanishad+ and finding the gloss on the *ed!nta aphorisms by the venerated #odh!yanach!rya too prolix+ 3!m!nu<a composed a commentary on the E!r9ra0am9m!ns! 4or *ed!nta theosophy6' In this the sense of the first aphorism+ 2/hen hence the absolute must be desired to be 0nown+2 is given as followsGC/he word then in this aphorism means+ after understanding the hitherto-current sacred rites' /hus the glossator writesG 25fter learning the sacred rites+2 he desires to 0now the absolute' /he word hence states the reason+ viQ'+ because one who has read the *eda and its appendages and understands its meaning is averse from sacred rites+ their recompense being perishable' /he wish to 0now the absolute springs up in one who longs for permanent liberation+ as being the means of such liberation' #y the word a!solute is designated the Supreme Spirit+ from whom are essentially excluded all imperfections+ who is of illimitable excellence+ and of innumerable auspicious attributes' Since then the 0nowledge of sacred rites and the performance of those rites is mediately through engendering dispassionateness+ and through putting away the defilement of the understanding+ an instrument of the 0nowledge of the absolute7 and 0nowledge of sacred rites and 0nowledge of the absolute being conse,uently cause and effect+ the former and the latter 9m!ns! constitute one system of institutes' =n this account the glossator has described[%$] this system as one with the sixteenfold system of Baimini' /hat the fruit of sacred rites is perishable+ and that of the 0nowledge of the absolute imperishable+ has been laid down in virtue of *edic texts+ such asG Scanning the spheres gained by rites+ let him become passionless7 8ot wrought by the rite performed+ accompanied with inference and dis<unctive reasoning' 3evelation+ by censuring each when unaccompanied by the other+ shows that it is 0nowledge together with wor0s that is efficacious of emancipation+ in the wordsG #lind dar0ness they enter who prefer illusion+ and a greater dar0ness still do they enter who delight in 0nowledge only7 0nowledge and illusion+ he who

0nows these both+ he passing beyond death together with illusion+ tastes immortality by 0nowledge' Conformably it is said in the (aOchar!tra-rahasyaC 2/hat ocean of compassion+ the Hord+ tender to his votaries+ 2mor his worshipper:s sa0e ta0es five embodiments upon him' 2/hese are styled 5doration+ >manation+ anifestation+ the Subtile+ the Internal Controller+ 23esorting whereto souls attain to successive stages of 0nowledge' 25s a man:s sins are worn away by each successive worship+ 2He becomes ,ualified for the worship of each next embodiment' 2/hus day by day+ according to religion+ revealed and traditional+ 2#y the aforesaid worship *!sudeva becomes propitious to man0ind' 2Hari+ when propitiated by devotion in the form of meditation+ 25t once brings to a close that illusion which is the aggregate of wor0s' 2/hen in souls the essential attributes+ from which transmigration has vanished+[%.] 25re manifested+ auspicious+ omniscience+ and the rest' 2/hese ,ualities are common to the emancipated spirits and the Hord+ 2pniversal efficiency alone among them is peculiar to the Aeity' 2>mancipated spirits are ulterior to the infinite absolute+ which is unsusceptible of aught ulterior7 2/hey en<oy all beatitudes together with that Spirit'2 It is therefore stated that those who suffer the three 0inds of pain must+ for the attainment of immortality+ investigate the absolute spirit 0nown under such appellations as the Highest #eing' 5ccording to the maximG /he base and the suffix convey the meaning con<ointly+ and of these the meaning of the suffix ta0es the lead+ the notion of desire is predominant 4in the word 'i'(sitavya6+ and desired 0nowledge is the predicate 4in the aphorism+ /hen hence the absolute must be desired to be 0nown6' Nnowledge is cognition designated by such terms as meditation+ devotion7 not the merely superficial 0nowledge derived from verbal communication+ such being competent to any one who hears a number of words and understands the force of each+ even without any predication7 in conformity with such *edic texts asG Self indeed it is that is to be seen+ to be heard+ to be thought+ to be pondered7 He should meditate that it is self alone7 Having 0nown+ let him ac,uire excellent wisdom7 He should 0now that which is beyond 0nowledge' In these texts 2to be heard2 is explanatory+ hearing being understood 4but not enounced6 in the text about sacred study 4viQ'+ shaagena vedo*dhyeyo '(eyacha+ the *eda+ with its six appendages+ is to be studied and 0nown67 so that a man who has studied the *eda must of his own accord+ in ac,uiring the *eda and its appendages+ engage in 2hearing+2 in order to ascertain the sense by examining it and the occasion of its enouncement' /he term 2to be thought2 4or 2to be inferred26 is also explanatory+ cogitation 4or inference6 being understood[%D] as the complementary meaning of hearing+ according to the aphorismG #efore its signification is attained the system is significant' editation is a reminiscence consisting of an unbro0en succession of reminiscences li0e a stream of oil+ it being revealed in the text+ in continuity of reminiscence there is a solution of all 0nots+Cthat it is unintermittent reminiscence that is the means of emancipation' 5nd this reminiscence is tantamount to intuition' 2Cut is his heart:s 0not+ solved are all his doubts+ 25nd exhausted are all his wor0s+ when he has seen the Highest and Howest+2 because he becomes one with that Supreme' So also in the words+ Self indeed is to be seen+ it is predicated of this reminiscence that it is an intuition' 3eminiscence becomes intuitional through the vivacity of the representations' /he author of the *!0ya has treated of all this in detail in the

passage beginning Cognition is meditation' /he characters of this meditation are laid out in the textG /his soul is not attainable by exposition+ nor by wisdom+ nor by much learning7 1hom ?od chooses by him ?od may be attained' /o him this self unfolds its own nature' mor it is that which is dearest which is choice-worthy+ and as the soul finds itself most dear+ so the Hord is of Himself most dear+ as was declared by the Hord HimselfC 2/o them always devoted+ who worship me with love+ 2I give the devotion of understanding whereby they come to me'2 5nd againC 2/hat Supreme Spirit+ 5r<una+ is attainable by faith unwavering'2 #ut devotion 4or faith6 is a 0ind of cognition which admits no other motive than the illimitable beatitude+ and is free from all other desires7 and the attainment of this devotion is by discrimination and other means' 5s is said by the author of the *!0yaG 5ttainment thereof[%@] results from discrimination 4viveka6+ exemption 4vimoka6+ practice 4a!hysa6+ observance 4kriy6+ excellence 4kalya6+ freedom from despondency 4anavasda6+ satisfaction 4anuddharsha6+ according to the e,uivalence 4of the definition6+ and the explication 4of these terms6' =f these means+ discrimination is purity of nature+ resultant from eating undefiled food+ and the explication 4of discrimination6 is mrom purity of diet+ purity of understanding+ and by purity of understanding the unintermittent reminiscence' >xemption is non-attachment to sensuous desires7 the explication being+ Het the ,uietist meditate' (ractice is reiteration7 and of this a traditionary explication is ,uoted 4from the #hagavad-g9t!6 by 43!m!nu<a6 the author of the commentaryG mor ever modified by the modes thereof' =bservance is the performance of rites en<oined in revelation and tradition according to one:s ability7 the explication being 4the *edic text6+ He who has performed rites is the best of those that 0now the supreme' /he excellences are veracity+ integrity+ clemency+ charity 4alms-giving6+ and the li0e7 the explication being+ It is attained by veracity' mreedom from despondency is the contrary of de<ection7 the explication being+ /his soul is not attained by the faint-hearted' Satisfaction is the contentment which arises from the contrary of de<ection7 the explication being+ uuiescent+ selfsubdued' It has thus been shown that by the devotion of one in whom the dar0ness has been dispelled by the grace of the Supreme Spirit+ propitiated by certain rites and observances+ which devotion is meditation transformed into a presentative manifestation of soul+ without ulterior motive+ as incessantly and illimitably desired+ the sphere of the Supreme Spirit 4*ai0uha6 is attained' /hus ;!muna saysG 5ttainable by the final and absolute devotion of faith in one internally purified by both 4wor0s and 0nowledge67 that is+ in one whose internal organ is rectified by the devotion of wor0s and 0nowledge' In anticipation of the in,uiry+ #ut what absolute is to[%&] be desired to be 0nownq the definition is given 4in the second aphorism6' mrom which the genesis+ and so forth+ of this' /he genesis+ and so forth+ the creation 4emanation6+ sustentation+ and retractation 4of the universe6' /he purport of the aphorism is that the emanation+ sustentation+ and retractation of this universe+ inconceivably multiform in its structure+ and interspersed with souls+ from #rahm! to a tuft of grass+ of determinate place+ time+ and fruition+ is from this same universal Hord+ whose essence is contrary to all ,ualities which should be escaped from+ of illimitable excellences+ such as indefeasible volition+ and of innumerable auspicious attributes+ omniscient+ and omnipotent' In anticipation of the further in,uiry+ 1hat proof is there of an absolute of this natureq It is stated that the system of institutes itself is the evidence 4in the third aphorism6G #ecause it has its source from the system' /o have its source from the system is to be that whereof the cause or evidence is the system' /he system+ then+ is the source 4or evidence6 of the absolute+ as being the cause of 0nowing the self+ which is the cause of 0nowing the absolute' 8or is the suspicion possible that the absolute may be reached by some other form of evidence' mor perception can have no conversancy about the absolute since it is supersensible' 8or can inference+ for the illation+ the ocean+ and the rest+ must have a ma0er+ because it is an effect li0e a water-pot+ is worth about as much as a rotten

pump0in' It is evinced that it is such texts as+ 1hence also these elements+ that prove the existence of the absolute thus described' /hough the absolute 4it may be ob<ected6 be unsusceptible of any other 0ind of proof+ the system+ did it not refer to activity and cessation of activity+ could not posit the absolute aforesaid' /o avoid by anticipation any ,ueries on this point+ it is stated 4in the fourth aphorism6G #ut that is from the construction' /his is intended to exclude the doubt anticipated' /he evidence+ then+ of the[%k] system is the only evidence that can be given of the absolute' 1hyq #ecause of the construction+ that is because the absolute+ that is+ the highest end for man+ is construed as the sub<ect 4of the first aphorism+ viQ'+ /hen thence the absolute is to be desired to be 0nown6' oreover+ a sentence which has nothing to do either with activity or with cessation of activity is not therefore void of purpose+ for we observe that sentences merely declaratory of the nature of things+ such as+ 5 son is born to you+ /his is not a sna0e+ convey a purpose+ viQ'+ the cessation of <oy or of fear' /hus there is nothing unaccounted for' 1e have here given only a general indication' /he details may be learnt from the original 4viQ'+ 3!m!nu<a:s #h!shya on the *ed!nta aphorisms67 we therefore decline a further treatment+ apprehensive of prolixity7 and thus all is clear'[$$l] 5' >' ?'

[$l-] Cf' 2/he argument in defence of the axim of Contradiction is that it is a postulate employed in all the particular statements as to matters of daily experience that a man understands and acts upon when heard from his neighbours7 a postulate such that+ if you deny it+ no speech is either significant or trustworthy to inform and guide those who hear it' ;ou may cite innumerable examples both of speech and action in the detail of life+ which the Hera0leitean must go through li0e other persons+ and when+ if he proceeded upon his own theory+ he could neither give nor receive information by speech+ nor ground any action upon the beliefs which he declares to co-exist in his own mind' 5ccordingly the Hera0leitean Nratylus 4so 5ristotle says6 renounced the use of affirmative speech+ and simply pointed with his finger'2C?rote:s 5ristotle+ vol' ii' pp' .r-+ .r%' [$l%] Cf' the dictum of Hera0leitusG a0ing worlds is yeus:s pastime7 and that of (lato 4Haws+ #oo0 vii' p' %lD6G an is made to be the plaything of ?od' [$lr] 21hose body nature is+ and ?od the soul'2C-ope. [$$l] mor further details respecting 3!m!nu<a and his system+ see 1ilson:s 1or0s+ vol' i' pp' D@-@k7 and #aner<ea:s Aialogues+ ix' /he /attva-muktval was printed in the -andit for September $%-$7 but the lines ,uoted in p' -D are not found there' [%-]


"nanda-t9rtha 4(nra-pra<Oa+ or adhva6 re<ected this same 3!m!nu<a system+ because+ though li0e his own views+ it teaches the atomic siQe of the soul+ the servitude of the soul+ the existence of the *eda without any personal author+ the authenticity of the *eda+ the self-evidence of the instruments of 0nowledge+ the triad of evidences+ dependency upon the (aOcha-r!tra+ the reality of plurality in the universe+ and so forth+Cyet+ in accepting three hypotheses as to reciprocally contradictory divisions+ Pc'+ it coincides with the tenets of the Bainas' Showing that He is soul+ /hat art thou+ and a number of other texts of the ppanishads bear a different import under a different explanation+ he set up a new system under the guise of a new explication of the #rahma- 9m!s! 4or *ed!nta6' mor in his doctrine ultimate principles are dichotomised into independent and dependent7 as it is stated in the /attva-vive0aGC 2Independent and dependent+ two principles are received7 2/he independent is *ishu the Hord+ exempt from imperfections+ and of inexhaustible excellences'2 Here it will be urged 4by the 5dvaita-v!dins6G 1hy predicate of the absolute these inexhaustible excellences in the teeth of the ppanishads+ which lay down that the absolute principle is void of homogeneity and heterogeneity+ and of all plurality in itselfq /o this be it[%%] repliedG 8ot so+ for these texts of the ppanishads+ as contradictory of many proofs positive of duality+ cannot afford proof of universal unity7 perception+ for example+ in the consciousness+ /his is different from that+ pronounces a difference between things+ blue and yellow+ and so forth' /he opponent will re<oinG Ao you hold that perception is cognisant of a perceptional difference+ or of a difference constituted by the thing and its oppositeq /he former alternative will not holdG for without a cognition of the thing and its opposite+ the recognition of the difference+ which presupposes such a cognition+ will be impossible' =n the latter alternative it must be as0ed+ Is the apprehension of the difference preceded by an apprehension of the thing and its contrary+ or are all the three 4the thing+ its contrary+ and the contrariety6 simultaneously apprehendedq It cannot be thus preceded+ for the operation of the intellect is without delay 4or without successive steps6+ and there would also result a logical seesaw 4apprehension of the difference presupposing apprehension of the thing and its contrary+ and apprehension of the thing and its contrary presupposing apprehension of the difference6' 8or can there be a simultaneous apprehension 4of the thing+ its contrary+ and the difference67 for cognitions related as cause and effect cannot be simultaneous+ and the cognition of the thing is the cause of the recognition of the difference7 the causal relation between the two being recognised by a concomitance and non-concomitance 4mutual exclusion6+ the difference not being cognised even when the thing is present+ without a cognition of its absent contrary' /he perception of difference+ therefore 4the opponent concludes6+ is not easily admissible' /o this let the reply be as followsGC 5re these ob<ections proclaimed against one who maintains a difference identical with the things themselves+ or against one who maintains a difference between things as the sub<ects of attributesq In the former case+ you will be+ as the saying runs+ punishing a respectable #r!hman for the offence of a thief+ the ob<ections[%r] you adduce being irrelevant' If it be urged that if it is the essence of the thing that is the difference+ then it will no longer re,uire a contrary counterpart7 but if difference presuppose a contrary counterpart+ it will exist everywhere7 this statement must be disallowed+ for while the essence of a thing is first 0nown as different from everything else+ the determinate usage 4name and notion6 may be shown to depend upon a contrary counterpart7 for example+ the essence of a thing so far as constituted by its dimensions is first cognised+ and afterwards it becomes the ob<ect of some determinate <udgment+ as long or short in relation to some particular counterpart 4or contrasted ob<ect6' 5ccordingly+ it is said in the *ishu-tattva-nirayaG 2Aifference is not proved to exist by the relation of determinant and determinate7 for this relation of determinant and determinate

4or predicate and sub<ect6 presupposes difference7 and if difference were proved to depend upon the thing and its counterpart+ and the thing and its counterpart to presuppose difference+ difference as involving a logical circle could not be accounted for7 but difference is itself a real predicament 4or ultimate entity6' mor this reason 4viQ'+ because difference is a thing6 it is that men in ,uest of a cow do not act 4as if they had found her6 when they see a gayal+ and do not recall the word cow' 8or let it be ob<ected that 4if difference be a real entity and as such perceived6 on seeing a mixture of mil0 and water+ there would be a presentation of difference7 for the absence of any manifestation of+ and <udgment about+ the difference+ may be accounted for by the force of 4the same6 obstructives 4as hinder the perception of other things6+ viQ'+ aggregation of similars and the rest'2 /hus it has been said 4in the S!0hya-0!ri0!+ v' vii'6C 2mrom too great remoteness+ from too great nearness+ from defect in the organs+ from instability of the common sensory+ 2mrom subtilty+ from interposition+ from being overpowered+ and from aggregation of similars'2 [rl] /here is no perception respectively of a tree and the li0e on the pea0 of a mountain+ because of its too great remoteness7 of collyrium applied to the eyes+ and so forth+ because of too great proximity7 of lightning and the li0e+ because of a defect in the organs7 of a <ar or the li0e in broad daylight+ by one whose common sensory is bewildered by lust and other passions+ because of instability of the common sensory7 of an atom and the li0e+ because of their subtility7 of things behind a wall+ and so forth+ because of interposition7 of the light of a lamp and the li0e+ in the day-time+ because of its being overpowered7 of mil0 and water+ because of the aggregation of similars' =r let the hypothesis of difference in ,ualities be granted+ and no harm is done7 for given the apprehension of a sub<ect of attributes and of its contrary+ the presentation of difference in their modes is possible' 8or let it be supposed that on the hypothesis of difference in the modes of things+ as each difference must be different from some ulterior difference+ there will result an embarrassing progression to infinity+ there being no occasion for the occurrence of the said ulterior difference+ inasmuch as we do not observe that men thin0 and say that two things are different as differenced from the different' 8or can an ulterior difference be inferred from the first difference+ for there being no difference to serve as the example in such inference+ there cannot but be a non-occurrence of inference' 5nd thus it must be allowed that in raising the ob<ection you have begged for a little oil-ca0e+ and have had to give us gallons of oil' If there be no difference for the example the inference cannot emerge' /he bride is not married for the destruction of the bridegroom' /here being+ then+ no fundamental difficulty+ this infinite progression presents no trouble' Aifference 4duality6 is also ascertained by inference' /hus the Supreme Hord differs from the individual soul as the ob<ect of its obedience7 and he who is to be obeyed by any person differs from that person+ a 0ing+ for instance+[r$] from his attendant' mor men+ desiring as they do the end of man+ Het me have pleasure+ let me not have the slightest pain+ if they covet the position of their lord+ do not become ob<ects of his favour+ nay+ rather+ they become recipients of all 0inds of evil' He who asserts his own inferiority and the excellence of his superior+ he it is who is to be commended7 and the gratified superior grants his eulogist his desire' /herefore it has been saidGC 2Nings destroy those who assert themselves to be 0ings+ 25nd grant to those who proclaim their 0ingly pre-eminence all that they desire'2 /hus the statement of those 45dvaita-v!dins6 in their thirst to be one with the Supreme Hord+ that the supreme excellence of *ishu is li0e a mirage+ is as if they were to cut off their tongues in trying to get a fine plantain+ since it results that through offending this supreme *ishu they must enter into the hell of blind dar0ness 4andha-tamasa6' /he same thing is laid down by adhyamandira in the ah!bh!rata-t!tparya-nirayaGC 2= Aaityas+ enemies of the eternal+ *ishu:s anger is waxed great7

2He hurls the Aaityas into the blind dar0ness+ because they decide blindly'2 /his service 4or obedience of which we have spo0en6 is trichotomised into 4$'6 stigmatisation+ 4.'6 imposition of names+ 4D'6 worship' =f these+ 4$'6 stigmatisation is 4the branding upon oneself6 of the weapons of 8!r!yaa 4or *ishu6 as a memorial of him+ and as a means of attaining the end which is needful 4emancipation6' /hus the se,uel of the S!0alya-samhit!GC 2/he man who bears branded in him the discus of the immortal *ishu+ which is the might of the gods+ 2He+ sha0ing off his guilt+ goes to the heaven 4*ai0u[r.]ha6 which ascetics+ whose desires are passed away+ enter intoG 2/he discus Sudarana by which+ uplifted in his arm+ the gods entered that heaven7 2 ar0ed wherewith the 4stamped upon them67 anus pro<ected the emanation of the world+ that weapon #r!hmans wear

2Stigmatised wherewith they go to the supreme sphere of *ishu7 2 ar0ed with the stigmas of the wide-striding 4*ishu6+ let us become beatified'2 5gain+ the /aittir9ya0a ppanishad saysG 2He whose body is not branded+ is raw+ and tastes it notG votaries bearing it attain thereto'2 /he particular parts to be branded are specified in the "gneyapur!aGC 2=n his right hand let the #r!hman wear Sudarana+ 2=n his left the conch-shellG thus have those who 0now the *eda declared'2 In another passage is given the invocation to be recited on being branded with the discusGC 2Sudarana+ brightly blaQing+ effulgent as ten million suns+ 2Show unto me+ blind with ignorance+ the everlasting way of *ishu' 2/hou aforetime sprangest from the sea+ brandished in the hand of *ishu+ 25dored by all the gods7 = (!cha<anya+ to thee be adoration'2 4.'6 Imposition of names is the appellation of sons and others by such names as Neava+ as a continual memorial of the name of the Supreme Hord' 4D'6 1orship is of ten 0inds+ viQ'+ with the voice+ 4$'6 veracity+ 4.'6 usefulness+ 4D'6 0indliness+ 4@'6 sacred study7 with the body+ 4&'6 alms-giving+ 4k'6 defence+ 4-'6 protection7 with the common sensory+ 4%'6 mercy+ 4r'6 longing+ and 4$l'6 faith' 1orship is the dedication to 8!r!yaa of each of these as it is realised' /hus it has been saidG[rD]C 2Stigmatisation+ imposition of names+ worship7 the last is of ten 0inds'2 Aifference 4or duality between the Supreme #eing and the universe6 may also be inferred from cognisability and other mar0s' So also difference 4or duality6 may be understood from revelation+ from texts setting out duality in emancipation and beatitude+ such asG 25ll re<oice over truth attained7 truthful+ and celebrating the gift of the divine Indra+ they recount his glory72 2Sarva+ among those that 0now the truth+ = #r!hman+ is in the universe+ true spirit7 true is individual spirit7 truth is duality+ truth is duality+ in me is illusion+ in me illusion+ in me illusion'2 5gainGC 25fter attaining this 0nowledge+ becoming li0e unto me+ 2In creation they are not born again+ in retractation they perish not2 4#hagavad-g9t!+ xiv' .6' 5ccording also to such aphorisms as+ 2>xcepting cosmical operation because of occasion+ and

because of non-proximity'2 8or should suggestion be made that individual spirit is ?od in virtue of the text+ He that 0nows the absolute becomes the absolute7 for this text is hyperbolically eulogistic+ li0e the text+ 1orshipping a #r!hman devoutly a Endra becomes a #r!hman+ i.e.+ becomes exalted' If any one urge that according to the textGC 2If the universe existed it would doubtless come to an end+2 this duality is merely illusory+ and in reality a unity+ and that duality is learnt to be illusorily imagined7 it may be repliedG 1hat you say is true+ but you do not understand its meaning7 for the real meaning is+ If this world had been produced+ it would+ without doubt+ come to an end7 therefore this universe is from everlasting+ a fivefold dual universe7 and it is not non-existent+ because it is mere illusion' Illusion is defined to be the will of[r@] the Hord+ in virtue of the testimony of many such passages asGC 2/he great illusion+ ignorance+ necessity+ the bewilderment+ 2/he originant+ ideation+Cthus is thy will called+ = Infinite' 2/he originant+ because it originates greatly7 ideation+ because it produces ideas7 2/he illusion of Hari+ who is called a+ is termed 4avidy6 ignoranceG 2Styled 4my6 illusion+ because it is pre-eminent+ for the name my is used of the pre-eminent7 2/he excellent 0nowledge of *ishu is called+ though one only+ by these names7 2mor Hari is excellent 0nowledge+ and this is characterised by spontaneous beatitude'2 /hat in which this excellent 0nowledge produces 0nowledge and effects sustentation thereof+ that is pure illusion+ as 0nown and sustained+ therefore by the Supreme Hord duality is not illusorily imagined' mor in the Hord illusory imagination of the universe is not possible+ illusory imagination arising from non-perception of differences 4which as an imperfection is inconsistent with the divine nature6' If it be as0ed how then that 4illusory duality6 is predicated+ the answer is that in reality there is a non-duality+ that is in reality+ *ishu being better than all else+ has no e,ual and no superior' 5ccordingly+ the grand revelationGC 25 difference between soul and the Hord+ a difference between the unsentient and the Hord+ 25 difference among souls+ and a difference of the unsentient and the soul each from the other' 25lso the difference of unsentient things from one another+ the world with its five divisions' 2/his same is real and from all eternity7 if it had had a beginning it would have an endG[r&] 21hereas it does not come to an end7 and it is not illusorily imaginedG 2mor if it were imagined it would cease+ but it never ceases' 2/hat there is no duality is therefore the doctrine of those that lac0 0nowledge7 2mor this the doctrine of those that have 0nowledge is 0nown and sustained by *ishu'2 /he purpose+ then+ of all revelations is to set out the supreme excellence of *ishu' 1ith this in view the Hord declaredGC 2/wo are these persons in the universe+ the perishable and the imperishable7 2/he perishable is all the elements+ the imperishable is the unmodified' 2/he other+ the most excellent person+ called the Supreme Spirit+ 2Is the undecaying Hord+ who pervading sustains the three worlds'

2Since transcending the perishable+ I am more excellent than the imperishable 4soul6+ 2Hence I am celebrated among men and in the *eda as the best of persons 4-urushottama67 2He who uninfatuated 0nows me thus the best of persons+ he all-0nowing worships me in every wise' 2/hus this most mysterious institute is declared+ blameless 45r<una6G 2Nnowing this a man may be wise+ and may have done what he has to do+ = #h!rata2 4#hagavadg9t!+ xv' $k-.l6' So in the ah!-var!haC 2/he primary purport of all the *edas relates to the supreme spouse of Erz7 2Its purport regarding the excellence of any other deity must be subordinate'2 It is reasonable that the primary purport should regard the supreme excellence of *ishu' mor emancipation is[rk] the highest end of all men+ according to the text of the #h!llaveya ppanishadG 1hile merit+ wealth+ and en<oyment are transitory+ emancipation is eternal7 therefore a wise man should strive unceasingly to attain thereto' 5nd emancipation is not won without the grace of *ishu+ according to the text of the 8!r!yaa ppanishadG /hrough whose grace is the highest state+ through whose essence he is liberated from transmigration+ while inferior men propitiating the divinities are not emancipated7 the supreme ob<ect of discernment to those who desire to be liberated from this snare of wor0s' 5ccording also to the words of the *ishu-pur!aC 2If he be propitiated+ what may not here be wonq >nough of all wealth and en<oyments' /hese are scanty enough' =n climbing the tree of the supreme essence+ without doubt a man attains to the fruit of emancipation'2 5nd it is declared that the grace of *ishu is won only through the 0nowledge of his excellence+ not through the 0nowledge of non-duality' 8or is there in this doctrine any confliction with texts declaratory of the identity 4of personal and impersonal spirit6 such as+ /hat art thou 4for this pretended identity6 is mere babbling from ignorance of the real purport' 2/he word /hat+ when undetermined+ designates the eternally un0nown+ 2/he word /hou designates a 0nowable entity7 how can these be oneq2 5nd this text 4/hat art thou6 indicates similarity 4not identity6 li0e the text+ /he sun is the sacrificial post' /hus the grand revelationGC 2/he ultimate unity of the individual soul is either similarity of cognition+ 2=r entrance into the same place+ or in relation to the place of the individual7 28ot essential unity+ for even when it is emancipated it is different+[r-] 2/he difference being independence and completeness 4in the Supreme Spirit6+ and smallness and dependence 4in the individual spirit6'2 =r to propose another explanation of the text+ ,tm tat tvam asi+ /hat art thou+ it may be divided+ tm tat tvam asi' He alone is soul as possessing independence and other attributes+ and thou art not-that 4atat6 as wanting those attributes7 and thus the doctrine of unity is utterly expelled' /hus it has been saidGC 2=r the division may be Atat tvam+ and thus unity will be well got rid of'2 5ccording+ therefore+ to the /attva-v!da-rahasya+ the words in the nine examples 4in the Chh!ndogya ppanishad6+ He li0e a bird tied with a string+ Pc'+ teach unity with the view of giving an example of non-duality' 5ccordingly the ahopanishadGC 2Hi0e a bird and the string7 li0e the <uices of various trees7

2Hi0e rivers and the sea7 li0e fresh and salt water7 2Hi0e a robber and the robbed7 li0e a man and his energy7 2So are soul and the Hord diverse+ for ever different' 28evertheless from subtilty 4or imperceptibility6 of form+ the supreme Hari 2Is not seen by the dim-sighted to be other than the individual spirit+ though he is its actuator7 2=n 0nowing their diversity a man is emancipatedG otherwise he is bound'2 5nd againC 2#rahm!+ Eiva+ and the greatest of the gods decay with the decay of their bodies7 2?reater than these is Hari+ undecaying+ because his body is for the sustentation of Ha0shm9' 2#y reason of all his attributes+ independence+ power+ 0nowledge+ pleasure+ and the rest+ 25ll they+ all the deities+ are in unlimited obedience to him'2 [r%] 5nd againGC 2Nnowing *ishu+ full of all excellences+ the soul+ exempted from transmigration+ 23e<oices in his presence for ever+ en<oying painless bliss' 2*ishu is the refuge of liberated souls+ and their supreme ruler' 2=bedient to him are they for ever7 he is the Hord'2 /hat by 0nowledge of one thing there is 0nowledge of all things may be evinced from its supremacy and causality+ not from the falsity of all things' mor 0nowledge of the false cannot be brought about by 0nowledge of real existence' 5s we see the current assurance and expression that by 0nowing or not 0nowing its chief men a village is 0nown or not 0nown7 and as when the father the cause is 0nown+ a man 0nows the son7 4so by 0nowing the supreme and the cause+ the inferior and the effect is 0nown6' =therwise 4on the doctrine of the 5dvaita-v!dins that the world is false and illusory6 the words one and lump in the text+ #y one lump of clay+ fair sir+ all that is made of clay is recognised+ would be used to no purpose+ for the text must be completed by supplying the words+ #y reason of clay recognised' mor the text+ ptterance with the voice+ modification+ name+ clay 4or other determinate ob<ect6+Cthese alone are real+ cannot be assumed to impart the falsity of things made7 the reality of these being admitted+ for what is meant is+ that of which utterance with the voice is a modification+ is unmodified+ eternal7 and a name such as clay+ such speech is true' =therwise it would result that the words name and alone would be otiose' /here is no proof anywhere+ then+ that the world is unreal' #esides 4we would as06 is the statement that the world is false itself true or false' If the statement is true+ there is a violation of a real non-duality' If the statement is untrue+ it follows that the world is true' (erhaps it may be ob<ected that this dilemma is a 0ind of fallacious reasoning+ li0e the dilemmaG Is transitoriness[rr] permanent or transitoryq /here is a difficulty in either case' 5s it is said by the author of the 8y!ya-nirv!aG /he proof of the permanence of the transitory+ as being both permanent and transitory+ is a paralogism' 5nd in the /!r0i0a-ra0sh!C 21hen a mode cannot be evinced to be either such and such+ or not such and such+ 2/he denial of a sub<ect characterised by such a mode is called 8itya-sama'2 1ith the implied mention of this same technical expression it is stated in the (rabodha-siddhiG >,uality of characteristic modes results from significancy' If it be said+ /his then is a valid re<oinder+ we reply+ /his is a mere scaring of the uninstructed+ for the source of fallacy has not been pointed out' /his is twofold+ general and particularG of these+ the former is self-destructive+ and the

latter is of three 0inds+ defect of a re,uisite element+ excess of an element not re,uisite+ and residence in that which is not the sub<icible sub<ect' =f these 4two forms of the fallacy6+ the general form is not suspected+ no self-pervasion being observed in the dilemma in ,uestion 4viQ'+ Is the statement that the world is unreal itself true or falseq Pc'6 So li0ewise the particular7 for if a water<ar be said to be non-existent+ the affirmation of its non-existence is e,ually applicable to the water<ar as that of its existence' If you replyG 1e accept the unreality 4or falsity6 of the world+ not its non-existence7 this reply is about as wise as the procedure of the carter who will lose his head rather than pay a hundred pieces of money+ but will at once give five score7 for falsity and non-existence are synonymous' 1e dismiss further prolixity' /he meaning of the first aphorism+ viQ'+ /hen hence the absolute is to be desired to be 0nown+ is as followsGC/he word then is allowed to purport auspiciousness+ and to designate subse,uency to the ,ualification 4of the aspirant6' /he word hence indicates a reason'[$ll] 5ccordingly it is stated in the ?!rua-pur!aGC 25ll the aphorisms begin with the words /hen and Hence regularly7 what then is the reason of thisq 25nd what is the sense of those words+ = sageq 1hy are those the most excellentq 2/ell me this+ #rahm!+ that I may 0now it truly'2 /hus addressed by 8!rada+ the most excellent #rahm! repliedGC 2/he word /hen is used of subse,uency and of competency+ and in an auspicious sense+ 25nd the word /hence is employed to indicate the reason'2 It is laid down that we must institute in,uiries about the absolute+ because emancipation is not attained without the grace of 8!r!yana+ and his grace is not attained without 0nowledge' /he absolute+ about which the in,uiry is to be instituted+ is described in the words 4of the second aphorism6G mrom which the genesis+ and so forth+ of this' /he meaning of the sentence is that the absolute is that from which result emanation+ sustentation+ and retractation7 according to the words of the S0anda-pur!aC 2He is Hari the sole ruler+ the spirit from whom are emanation+ sustentation+ retractation+ necessity+ 0nowledge+ involution 4in illusion6+ and bondage and liberation72 and according to such *edic texts+ mrom which are these' /he evidence adducible for this is described 4in the third aphorism6G #ecause it has its source from the system' /hat the absolute should be reached by way of inference is re<ected by such texts as+ He that 0nows not the *eda cogitates not that mighty one7 Him described in the ppanishads' Inference+ moreover+ is not by itself authoritative+ as is said in the Naurma-pur!aC 2Inference+ unaccompanied by revelation+ in no case 2Can definitely prove a matter+ nor can any other form of evidence7[$l$] 21hatsoever other form of evidence+ companioned by revelation and tradition+ 25c,uires the ran0 of probation+ about this there can be no hesitation'2 1hat a E!stra 4or system of sacred institutes6 is+ has been stated in the S0anda-pur!aGC 2/he 3ig-veda+ the ;a<ur-veda+ the S!ma-veda+ the 5tharva-veda+ the r!tra+ and the original 3!m!yaa+ are called E!stras' 2/hat also which is conformable to these is called E!stra' 25ny aggregate of composition other than this is a heterodoxy'2 5ccording+ then+ to the rule that the sense of the sacred institutes is not to be ta0en from other ah!bh!rata+ the (aOcha-

sources than these+ the onist view+ viQ'+ that the purport of the texts of the *eda relates not to the duality learnt from those but to non-duality+ is re<ectedG for as there is no proof of a ?od from inference+ so there is no proof of the duality between ?od and other things from inference' /herefore there can be in these texts no mere explanation of such duality+ and the texts must be understood to indicate the duality' Hence it is that it has saidGC 2I ever laud 8!r!yaa+ the one being to be 0nown from genuine revelation+ who transcends the perishable and the imperishable+ without imperfections+ and of inexhaustible excellences'2 It has thus been evinced that the sacred institutes are the evidence of 4the existence of6 this 4ultimate reality+ 4rahman6' 4/he fourth aphorism is6G #ut that is from the construction' In regard to this+ the commencement and other elements are stated to be the mar0s of the construction+ in the #ihatsahit!GC 2Commencement+ conclusion+ reiteration+ novelty+ profit+ eulogy+ and demonstration+ are the mar0s by which the purport is ascertained'2 It is thus stated that in accordance with the purport of[$l.] the ppanishads the absolute is to be apprehended only from the sacred institutes' 1e have here given merely a general indication' 1hat remains may be sought from the "nandat9rtha-bh!shya-vy!0hy!na 4or exposition of the Commentary of "nanda-t9rtha6' 1e desist for fear of giving an undue prolixity to our treatise' /his mystery was promulgated by (nra-pra<Oa adhya-mandira+ who esteemed himself the third incarnation of *!yuGC 2/he first was Hanumat+ the second #h9ma+ 2/he third (nra-pra<Oa+ the wor0er of the wor0 of the Hord'2 5fter expressing the same idea in various passages+ he has written the following stanQa at the conclusion of his wor0GC 2/hat whereof the three divine forms are declared in the text of the *eda+ sufficiently 2Has that been set forth7 this is the whole ma<esty in the splendour of the *eda7 2/he first incarnation of the 1ind-god was he that bowed to the words of 3!ma 4Hanumat67 the second was #h9ma7 2#y this adhva+ who is the third+ this boo0 has been composed in regard to Neava'2 /he import of this stanQa may be learnt by considering various *edic texts' /he purport of this is that *ishu is the principle above all others in every system of sacred institutes' /hus all is clear'[$$$] 5' >' ?'

[$$$] mor a further account of "nanda-t9rtha or adhva see 1ilson+ 1or0s+ vol' i' pp' $D%-$&l' His Commentary on the #rahma-sntras has been printed in Calcutta' [$lD]


Certain !hevaras disapprove of this doctrine of the *aishavas 0nown by its technicalities of the servitude of souls and the li0e+ inasmuch as bringing with it the pains of dependence upon another+ it cannot be a means of cessation of pain and other desired ends' /hey recognise as stringent such arguments as+ /hose depending on another and longing for independence do not become emancipated+ because they still depend upon another+ being destitute of independence li0e ourselves and others7 and+ Hiberated spirits possess the attributes of the Supreme Aeity+ because at the same time+ that they are spirits they are free from the germ of every pain as the Supreme Aeity is' 3ecognising these arguments+ these !hevaras adopt the (!upata system+ which is conversant about the exposition of five categories+ as the means to the highest end of man' In this system the first aphorism isG 8ow then we shall expound the (!upata union and rites of (aupati' /he meaning is as followsGC/he word now refers to something antecedent+ and this something antecedent is the disciple:s interrogation of the spiritual teacher' /he nature of a spiritual teacher is explicated in the ?aa0!ri0!GC 2#ut there are eight pentads to be 0nown+ and a group+ one with three factors7 2He that 0nows this ninefold aggregate is a self-purifier+ a spiritual guide'[$l@] 2/he ac,uisitions+ the impurities+ the expedients+ the localities+ the perseverance+ the purifications+ 2/he initiations+ and the powers+ are the eight pentads7 and there are three functions'2 /he employment in the above line of the neuter numeral three 4tri6+ instead of the feminine three 4tisra6+ is a *edic construction' 4a.6 5c,uisition is the fruit of an expedient while realising+ and is divided into five members+ viQ'+ 0nowledge+ penance+ permanence of the body+ constancy+ and purity' /hus Haradatt!ch!rya saysG Nnowledge+ penance+ permanence+ constancy+ and purity as the fifth' 4!.6 Impurity is an evil condition pertaining to the soul' /his is of five 0inds+ false conception and the rest' /hus Haradatta also saysGC 2malse conception+ demerit+ attachment+ interestedness+ and falling+ 2/hese five+ the root of bondage+ are in this system especially to be shunned'2 4c.6 5n expedient is a means of purifying the aspirant to liberation' /hese expedients are of five 0inds+ use of habitation+ and the rest' /hus he also saysGC 2pse of habitation+ pious muttering+ meditation+ constant recollection of 3udra+ 25nd apprehension+ are determined to be the five expedients of ac,uirements'2 4d.6 Hocality is that by which+ after studying the categories+ the aspirant attains increase of 0nowledge and austerity+ viQ'+ spiritual teachers and the rest' /hus he saysGC 2/he spiritual teachers+ a cavern+ a special place+ the burning-ground+ and 3udra only'2 4e.6 (erseverance is the endurance in one or other of these pentads until the attainment of the desired end+ and is distributed into the differenced and the rest' /hus it is saidG[$l&]C 2/he differenced+ the undifferenced+ muttering+ acceptance+ and devotion as the fifth'2 4f.6 (urification is the putting away+ once for all+ of false conception and the other four impurities' It is distributed into five species according to the five things to be put away' /hus it is saidC 2/he loss of ignorance+ of demerit+ of attachment+ of interestedness+

25nd of falling+ is declared to be the fivefold purification of the state of bondage'2 4g.6 /he five initiations are thus enumeratedGC 2/he material+ the proper time+ the rite+ the image+ and the spiritual guide as the fifth'2 4h.6 /he five powers are as followGC 2Aevotion to the spiritual guide+ clearness of intellect+ con,uest of pleasure and pain+ 2 erit and carefulness+ are declared the five heads of power'2 /he three functions are the modes of earning daily food consistent with propriety+ for the diminution of the five impurities+ viQ'+ mendicancy+ living upon alms+ and living upon what chance supplies' 5ll the rest is to be found in the standard words of this sect' In the first aphorism above recited+ the word now serves to introduce the exposition of the termination of pain 4or emancipation6+ that being the ob<ect of the interrogation about the putting away of pain personal+ physical+ and hyperphysical' #y the word pau we are to understand the effect 4or created world6+ the word designating that which is dependent on something ulterior' #y the word pati we are to understand the cause 4or principium6+ the word designating the Hord+ who is the cause of the universe+ the pati+ or ruler' /he meaning of the words sacrifices and rites every one 0nows' In this system the cessation of pain is of two 0inds+ impersonal and personal' =f these+ the impersonal consists in the absolute extirpation of all pains7 the personal[$lk] in supremacy consisting of the visual and active powers' =f these two powers the visual+ while only one power+ is+ according to its diversity of ob<ects+ indirectly describable as of five 0inds+ vision+ audition+ cogitation+ discrimination+ and omniscience' =f these five+ vision is cognition of every 0ind of visual+ tactual+ and other sensible ob<ects+ though imperceptible+ intercepted+ or remote' 5udition is cognition of principles+ conversant about all articulate sounds' Cogitation is cognition of principles+ conversant about all 0inds of thoughts' Aiscrimination is cognition of principles conversant about the whole system of institutes+ according to the text and according to its significance' =mniscience is cognition of principles ever arising and pervaded by truth+ relative to all matters declared or not declared+ summary or in detail+ classified and specialised' Such is this intellectual power' /he active power+ though one only+ is indirectly describable as of three 0inds+ the possession of the swiftness of thought+ the power of assuming forms at will+ and the faculty of expatiation' =f these+ the possession of the swiftness of thought is ability to act with unsurpassable celerity' /he power of assuming forms at will is the faculty of employing at pleasure+ and irrespective of the efficacy of wor0s+ the organs similar and dissimilar of an infinity of organisms' /he faculty of expatiation is the possession of transcendent supremacy even when such organs are not employed' Such is this active power' 5ll that is effected or educed+ depending on something ulterior+ it is threefold+ sentiency+ the insentient+ and the sentient' =f these+ sentiency is the attribute of the sentients' It is of two degrees according to its nature as cognitive or incognitive' Cognitive sentiency is dichotomised as proceeding discriminately and as proceeding indiscriminately' /he discriminate procedure+ manifestable by the instruments of 0nowledge+ is called the cogitative' mor by the cogitant organ every sentient being is[$l-] cognisant of ob<ects in general+ discriminated or not discriminated+ when irradiated by the light which is identical with the external things' /he incognitive sentiency+ again+ is either characterised or not characterised by the ob<ects of the sentient soul' /he insentient+ which while unconscious is dependent on the conscious+ is of two 0inds+ as styled the effect and as styled the cause' /he insentient+ styled the effect+ is of ten 0inds+ viQ'+ the earth and the other four elements+ and their ,ualities+ colour+ and the rest' /he insentient+ called the causal insentient+ is of thirteen 0inds+ viQ'+ the five organs of cognition+ the five organs of action+ and the three internal organs+ intellect+ the egoising principle+ and the cogitant principle+ which have for their respective functions ascertainment+ the illusive identification of self with not-self+ and

determination' /he sentient spirit+ that to which transmigratory conditions pertain+ is also of two 0inds+ the appetent and non-appetent' /he appetent is the spirit associated with an organism and organs7 the nonappetent is the spirit apart from organism and organs' /he details of all this are to be found in the (aOch!rtha-bh!shyad9pi0! and other wor0s' /he cause is that which retracts into itself and evolves the whole creation' /his though one is said to be divided according to a difference of attributes and actions 4into ahevara+ *ishu+ Pc'6 /he Hord is the possessor of infinite+ visual+ and active power' He is absolutely first as connected eternally with this lordship or supremacy+ as possessing a supremacy not adventitious or contingent' /his is expounded by the author of the "dara+ and other institutional authorities' pnion is a con<unction of the soul with ?od through the intellect+ and is of two degrees+ that characterised by action+ and that characterised by cessation of action' =f these+ union characterised by action consists of pious muttering+ meditation+ and so forth7 union characterised by cessation of action is called consciousness+ [$l%]Pc' 3ite or ritual is activity efficacious of merit as its end' It is of two orders+ the principal and the subsidiary' =f these+ the principal is the direct means of merit+ religious exercise' 3eligious exercise is of two 0inds+ acts of piety and postures' /he acts of piety are bathing with sand+ lying upon sand+ oblations+ mutterings+ and devotional perambulation' /hus the revered 8a0ul9a saysGC 2He should bathe thrice a day+ he should lie upon the dust' =blation is an observance divided into six members'2 /hus the author of the aphorisms saysGC 2He should worship with the six 0inds of oblations+ viQ'+ laughter+ song+ dance+ muttering hum+ adoration+ and pious e<aculation'2 Haughter is a loud laugh+ 5ha+ 5ha+ by dilatation of the throat and lips' Song is a celebration of the ,ualities+ glories+ Pc'+ of ahevara+ according to the conventions of the ?andharva-!stra+ or art of music' /he dance also is to be employed according to the ars saltatoria+ accompanied with gesticulations with hands and feet+ and with motions of the limbs+ and with outward indications of internal sentiment' /he e<aculation hum is a sacred utterance+ li0e the bellowing of a bull+ accomplished by a contact of the tongue with the palate+ an imitation of the sound hudung+ ascribed to a bull+ li0e the exclamation *ashat' 1here the uninitiated are+ all this should be gone through in secret' =ther details are too familiar to re,uire exposition' /he postures are snoring+ trembling+ limping+ wooing+ acting absurdly+ tal0ing nonsensically' Snoring is showing all the signs of being asleep while really awa0e' /rembling is a convulsive movement of the <oints as if under an attac0 of rheumatism' Himping is wal0ing as if the legs were disabled' 1ooing is simulating the gestures of an innamorato on seeing a young and pretty woman' 5cting absurdly is doing acts which every one disli0es+ as if bereft of all sense of what should and what should not[$lr] be done' /al0ing nonsensically is the utterance of words which contradict each other+ or which have no meaning+ and the li0e' /he subsidiary religious exercise is purificatory subse,uent ablution for putting an end to the sense of unfitness from begging+ living on bro0en food+ Pc' /hus it is said by the author of the aphorismsG #earing the mar0s of purity by after-bathing' 4It has been stated above that omniscience+ a form of the cognitive power+ is cognition of principles ever arising and pervaded by truth+ relative to all matters declared or not declared+ summary+ or in detail6' /he summary is the enouncement of the sub<ects of attributes generally' /his is accomplished in the first aphorismG 48ow then we shall expound the (!upata union and rites of (aupati6' Aetail is the fivefold enouncement of the five categories according to the instruments of true 0nowledge' /his is to be found in the 3!90ara-bh!shya' Aistribution is the distinct enouncement of these categories+ as far as possible according to definitions' It is an enumeration of

these according to their prevailing characters+ different from that of other recognised systems' mor example+ the cessation of pain 4or emancipation6 is in other systems 4as in the S{n0hya6 the mere termination of miseries+ but in this system it is the attainment of supremacy or of the divine perfections' In other systems the create is that which has become+ and that which shall become+ but in this system it is eternal+ the spirits+ and so forth+ the sentient and insentient' In other systems the principium is determined in its evolution or creative activity by the efficacy of wor0s+ whereas in this system the principium is the Hord not thus determined' In other institutes union results in isolation+ Pc'+ while in these institutes it results in cessation of pains by attainment of the divine perfections' In other systems paradise and similar spheres involve a return to metempsychosis+ but in this system they result in nearness to the Supreme #eing+ either[$$l] followed or not followed by such return to transmigratory experiences' ?reat+ indeed+ an opponent may say+ is this aggregate of illusions+ since if ?od:s causality be irrespective of the efficacy of wor0s+ then merits will be fruitless+ and all created things will be simultaneously evolved 4there being no reason why this should be created at one time+ and that at another6+ and thus there will emerge two difficulties' /hin0 not so+ replies the (!upata+ for your supposition is baseless' If the Hord+ irrespective of the efficacy of wor0s+ be the cause of all+ and thus the efficacy of wor0s be without results+ what followsq If you re<oin that an absence of motives will follow+ in whom+ we as0+ will this absence of motives followq If the efficacy of wor0s be without result+ will causality belong to the doer of the wor0s as to the Hordq It cannot belong to the doer of the wor0s+ for it is allowed that the efficacy of wor0s is fruitful only when furthered by the will of the creator+ and the efficacy so furthered may sometimes be fruitless+ as in the case of the wor0s of ;ay!ti+ and others' mrom this it will by no means follow that no one will engage in wor0s+ for they will engage in them as the husbandman engages in husbandry+ though the crop be uncertain' 5gain+ sentient creatures engage in wor0s because they depend on the will of the creator' 8or does the causality pertain to the Hord alone+ for as all his desires are already satisfied+ he cannot be actuated by motives to be realised by wor0s' 5s for your statement+ continues the (!upata+ that all things will be simultaneously evolved+ this is unreasonable+ inasmuch as we hold that causal efficiency resides in the unobstructed active power which conforms itself to the will of the Hord+ whose power is inconceivable' It has accordingly been said by those versed in sacred traditionGC 2Since he+ acting according to his will+ is not actuated by the efficacy of wor0s+ 2mor this reason is he in this system the cause of all causes'2 [$$$] Some one may urgeG In another system emancipation is attained through a 0nowledge of ?od+ where does the difference lieq Say not so+ replies the (!upata+ for you will be caught in a trilemma' Is the mere 0nowledge of ?od the cause of emancipation+ or the presentation+ or the accurate characterisation+ of ?odq 8ot the mere 0nowledge+ for then it would follow that the study of any system would be superfluous+ inasmuch as without any institutional system one might+ li0e the uninstructed+ attain emancipation by the bare cognition that ah!deva is the lord of the gods' 8or is presentation or intuition of the deity the cause of emancipation+ for no intuition of the deity is competent to sentient creatures burdened with an accumulation of various impurities+ and able to see only with the eyes of the flesh' =n the third alternative+ viQ'+ that the cause of emancipation is an accurate characterisation of the deity+ you will be obliged to consent to our doctrine+ inasmuch as such accurate characterisation cannot be realised apart from the system of the (!upatas' /herefore it is that our great teacher has saidGC 2If by mere 0nowledge+ it is not according to any system+ but intuition is unattainable7 2/here is no accurate characterisation of principles otherwise than by the five categories'2 /herefore those excellent persons who aspire to the highest end of man must adopt the system of the (!upatas+ which underta0es the exposition of the five categories'

5' >' ?' [$$.]


[/he seventh system in !dhava:s Sarva-darana-sagraha is the Eaiva-darana' /his sect is very prevalent in the South of India+ especially in the /amil country7 it is said to have arisen there about the eleventh century a'd' Several valuable contributions have been lately made to our 0nowledge of its tenets in the publications of the 3ev' H' 3' Hoisington and the 3ev' /' moul0es' /he former especially+ by his excellent articles in the 5merican =riental Society:s Bournal+ has performed a great service to the students of Hindu philosophy' He has there translated the /attuva-Naalei+ or law of the /attwas+ the Eiva-?n!napotham+ or instruction in the 0nowledge of ?od+ and the Eiva(ira0!sam+ or light of Eiva+ and the three wor0s shed immense light on the outline as given by !dhava' =ne great use of the latter is to enable us to recognise the original Sans0rit names in their /amil disguise+ no easy matter occasionally+ as aul for anugraha and tchei for dksh may testify' /he Eaivas have considerable resemblance to the /heistic S!n0hya7 they hold that ?od+ souls+ and matter are from eternity distinct entities+ and the ob<ect of philosophy is to disunite the soul from matter and gradually to unite it to ?od' Eiva is the chief deity of the system+ and the relation between the three is ,uaintly expressed by the allegory of a beast+ its fetters+ and its owner' (aupati is a well-0nown name of Eiva+ as the master or creator of all things'[$$D] /here seem to be three different sets of so-called Saiva sntras' =ne is in five boo0s+ called by Colebroo0e the (aupati-!stra+ which is probably the wor0 ,uoted by !dhava in his account of the 8a0ul9a (!upatas7 another is in three boo0s+ with a commentary by Nshemar!<a+ with its first sntra+ chatanyam tm' /he third was commented on by 5bhinava-gupta+ and opens with the lo0a given in the Sarva-Aarana-Sagraha+ p' r$+ lines $-@' /he S' which I consulted in Calcutta read the first wordsC Katha(chid sdya #ahevarasya dsyam. 8one of these wor0s+ however+ appear to be the authority of the present sect' /hey seem chiefly to have relied on the twenty-eight "gamas and some of the (ur!as' 5 list of the "gamas is given in r' moul0es: 2Catechism of the Eaiva 3eligion72 and of these the Niraa and Naraa are ,uoted in the following treatise']

Certain+ however+ of the !hevara sect receiving the system of truth authoritatively laid down in the Eaiva "gama+[$$.] re<ect the foregoing opinion that 2the Supreme #eing is a cause as independent of our actions+ Pc'+2 on the ground of its being liable to the imputation of partiality and cruelty' /hey+ on the contrary+ hold the opinion that 2the Supreme #eing is a cause in dependence on our actions+ Pc'72 and they maintain that there are three categories distinguished as the Hord+ the soul+ and the world 4or literally 2the master+2 2the cattle+2 and 2the fetter26' 5s has been said by those well versed in the /antra doctrinesC [$$@] 2/he ?uru of the world+ having first condensed in one sntra the great tantra+ possessed of three categories and four feet+ has again declared the same at full length'2

/he meaning of this is as followsGCIts three categories are the three before mentioned7 its four feet are learning+ ceremonial action+ meditation+ and morality+ hence it is called the great /antra+ possessed of three categories and four feet' 8ow the 2souls2 are not independent+ and the 2fetters2 are unintelligent+ hence the Hord+ as being different from these+ is first declared7 next follows the account of the souls as they agree with him in possessing intelligence7 lastly follow the 2fetters2 or matter+ such is the order of the arrangement'[$$D] Since the ceremony of initiation is the means to the highest human end+ and this cannot be accomplished without 0nowledge which establishes the undoubted greatness of the hymns+ the Hords of the hymns+ Pc'+ and is a means for the ascertainment of the real nature of the 2cattle+2 the 2fetter+2 and the 2master+2 we place as first the 2foot2 of knowledge 4'(na6 which ma0es 0nown all this unto us'[$$@] 8ext follows the 2foot2 of ceremonial action 4kriy6 which declares the various rules of initiation with the divers component parts thereof' 1ithout meditation the end cannot be attained+ hence the 2foot2 of meditation 4yoga6 follows next+ which declares the various 0inds of yoga with their several parts' 5nd as meditation is worthless without practice+ i.e.+ the fulfilling what is en<oined and the abstaining from what is [$$&]forbidden+ lastly follows the fourth 2foot2 of practical duty 4chary6+ which includes all this' 8ow Eiva is held to be the Hord 4or master6' 5lthough participation in the divine nature of Eiva belongs to liberated souls and to such beings as *idyevara+ Pc'+ yet these are not independent+ since they depend on the Supreme #eing7 and the nature of an effect is recognised to belong to the worlds+ Pc'+ which resemble him+ from the very fact of the orderly arrangement of their parts' 5nd from their thus being effects we infer that they must have been caused by an intelligent being' #y the strength of this inference is the universal ac0nowledgment of a Supreme #eing confirmed' 2#ut may we not ob<ect that it is not proved that the body is thus an effectq for certainly none has ever+ at any time or place+ seen a body being made by any one'2 1e grant itG yet it is not proper to deny that a body has some ma0er on the ground that its being made has not been seen by any one+ since this can be established from inference [if not from actual perception]' #odies+ Pc'+ must be effects+ because they possess an orderly arrangement of parts+ or because they are destructible+ as <ars+ Pc'7 and from their being effects it is easy to infer that they must have been caused by an intelligent being' /hus the sub<ect in the argument [sc' bodies+ Pc'] must have had a ma0er+ from the fact that it is an effect+ li0e <ars+ Pc'7 that which has the afore-mentioned middle term 4sdhana6 must have the afore-mentioned ma<or 4sdhya67 and that which has not the former will not have the latter+ as the soul+ Pc'[$$&] /he argument which establishes the authority of the original inference to prove a Supreme #eing has been given elsewhere+ so we refrain from giving it at length here' In fact+ that ?od is the universal agent+ but not irrespective of the actions done by living beings+ is proved by the current verse[$$k]C [$$k] 2/his ignorant 'vtman+ incapable of its own true pleasures or pains+ if it were only under ?od:s direction [and its own merits not ta0en into account]+ would always go to heaven or always to hell'2[$$-] 8or can you ob<ect that this opinion violates ?od:s independence+ since it does not really violate an agent:s independence to allow that he does not act irrespectively of means7 <ust as we say that the 0ing:s bounty shows itself in gifts+ but these are not irrespective of his treasurer' 5s has been said by the Siddha ?uruC 2It belongs to independence to be uncontrolled and itself to employ means+ Pc'7 2/his is an agent:s true independence+ and not the acting irrespectively of wor0s+ Pc'2 5nd thus we conclude that inference 4as well as Eruti6 establishes the existence of an agent who 0nows the various fruits [of action]+ their means+ material causes+ Pc'+ according to the laws of the various individual merits' /his has been thus declared by the venerable #ihaspatiC 2He who 0nows the fruits to be en<oyed+ their means and material causes+C

25part from him this world 0nows not how the desert that resides in accumulated actions should ripen'2C 2/he universe is the sub<ect of our argument+ and it must have had an intelligent ma0er+ 2/his we maintain from its being an effect+ <ust as we see in any other effect+ as <ars+ Pc'2 ?od:s omniscience also is proved from his being identical with everything+ and also from the fact that an ignorant being cannot produce a thing'[$$%] /his has been said by the illustrious igendra[$$r]C [$$-] 2He is omniscient from his being the ma0er of all thingsG for it is an established principle 2/hat he only can ma0e a thing who 0nows it with its means+ parts+ and end'2 21ell+2 our opponents may say+ 2we concede that ?od is an independent ma0er+ but then he has no body'[$.l] 8ow experience shows that all effects+ as <ars+ Pc'+ are produced by beings possessed of bodies+ as potters+ Pc'7 but if ?od were possessed of a body+ then he would be li0e us sub<ect to trouble+ and no longer be omniscient or omnipotent'2 1e+ however+ deny this+ for we see that the incorporeal soul does still produce motion+ Pc'+ in its associated body7 moreover+ even though we conceded that ?od did possess a body+ we should still maintain that the alleged defects would not necessarily ensue' /he Supreme #eing+ as he has no possible connection with the fetters of matter+ such as mala+[$.$] action+ Pc'+ cannot have a material body+ but only a body of pure energy 4S!0ta6+ [$..] since we 0now that his body is composed of the five hymns which are forms of Ea0ti+ according to the well-0nown textG 2/he Supreme has the Ina as his head+ the /atpurusha as his mouth+ the Aghora as his heart+ the .medeva as his secret parts+ and the 1adyo'ta as his feet'2[$.D] 5nd this body+ created according to his own will+ is not li0e our bodies+ but is the cause of the five operations of the Supreme+ which are respectively grace+ obscuration+ destruction+ preservation+ and production'[$.@] /his has been said in the Er9mat igendraC [$$%] 2mrom the impossibility of its possessing mala+ Pc'+ the body of the Supreme is of pure energy+ and not li0e ours'2 5nd it has also been said elsewhereC 2His body is composed of the five mantras which are subservient to the five operations+ 25nd his head+ Pc'+ are formed out of the )sa+ /atpurusha+ 5ghora+ *!ma+ and other hymns'2 If you ob<ect to this view that 2such passages in the "gamas as :He is five-faced and fifteen-eyed+: assert prominently the fact that the Supreme #eing is endowed with a body+ organs+ Pc'+2 we concede what you say+ but we maintain that there is no contradiction in his assuming such forms to show his mercy to his devoted servants+ since meditation+ worship+ Pc'+ are impossible towards a #eing entirely destitute of form' /his has been said in the (aush0araC 2/his form of his is mentioned for the preservation of the devotee'2 5nd similarly elsewhereC 2/hou art to be worshipped according to rule as possessed of form7 2mor the understanding cannot reach to a formless ob<ect'2 #ho<ar!<a[$.&] has thus detailed the five operationsC 2mivefold are his operations+ creation+ preservation+ destruction+ and obscuration+ 25nd to these must be added the active grace of him who is eternally exalted'2 8ow these five operations+ in the view of the pure (ath+ are held to be performed directly by Eiva+

but in that of the toilsome (ath they are ascribed to 5nanta+[$.k] as is declared in the Er9mat Naraa[$.-]C [$$r] 2In the (ure (ath Eiva is declared to be the only agent+ but 5nanta in that which is opposed to the =ne Supreme'2 It must here be understood that the word Eiva includes in its proper meaning 2the Hord+2 all those who have attained to the state of Eiva+ as the Hords of the antras+ ahewara+ the emancipated souls who have become Eivas+ and the inspired teachers 4vchakas6+ together with all the various means+ as initiation+ Pc'+ for obtaining the state of Eiva' /hus has been explained the first category+ the Hord 4pati6' 1e now proceed to explain the second category+ the soul 4pau6' /he individual soul which is also 0nown by such synonyms as the non-atomic+[$.%] the Kshetra'(a+ or 0nower of the body+[$.r] Pc'+ is the -au' mor we must not say with the Ch!rv!0as that it is the same as the body+ since on this view we could not account for memory+ as there is a proverb that one man cannot remember what another has seen' 8or may we say with the 8aiy!yi0as that it is cognisable by perception+[$Dl] as this would involve an ad infinitum regressus' 5s has been saidC 2If the soul were cognisable+ there would need to be again a second 0nower7[$D$] 25nd this would re,uire another still+ if the second were itself to be 0nown'2 8or must we hold it non-pervading with the Bainas+ nor momentary with the #auddhas+ since it is not limited by space or time' 5s has been saidC 2/hat ob<ect which is unlimited in its nature by space or time+ 2/hey hold to be eternal and pervading+Chence the soul:s all-pervadingness and eternity'2 [$.l] 8or may we say with the *ed!ntin that it is only one+ since the apportionment of different fruits proves that there are many individual souls7 nor with the S!n0hyas that it is devoid of action+ since+ when all the various 2fetters2 are removed+ Eruti informs us of a state of identity with Eiva+ which consists in intelligence in the form of an eternal and infinite vision and action'[$D.] /his has been declared in the Er9mat igendraC 2It is revealed that identity with Eiva results when all fetters are removed'2 5nd againC 2Intelligence consists in vision and action+ and since in his soul 2/his exists always and on every side+ therefore+ after liberation+ Eruti calls it that which faces every way'2 It is also said in the /attva-pra0!aC 2/he liberated souls are themselves Eivas+ but these are liberated by his favour7 2He is to be 0nown as the one eternally liberated+ whose body is the five antras'2 8ow the souls are threefold+ as denominated vi'(nkal+ pralaykal+ and sakal'[$DD] 4a.6 /he first are those who are under the influence of mala only+ since their actions are cancelled by receiving their proper fruits+ or [$.$]by abstraction+ contemplation+ and 0nowledge+ and since they have no 2fetters2 in the form of en<oyments+ such as kal+ Pc' 4which fetters would+ however+ be the cause of cancelling actions by bringing about their proper fruit6' 4!.6 /he second are those who are under the influence of mala and karman+ since in their case kal+ Pc'+ are destroyed by mundane destructions+ hence their name pralaykala' 4c.6 /he third are those who are bound in the three fetters of mala+ my+ and karman+ hence their name sakala' /he first class are again subdivided

into sampta-kalush and asampta-kalush+ according as their inherent corruption is perfectly exhausted or not' /he former+Chaving received the mature penalties of their corruptions+Care now+ as foremost of men and worthy of the privilege+ raised by Eiva:s favour to the ran0 of the Hords of Nnowledge 4the *idyevaras6+ 5nanta+ and the rest' /his ogdoad of the Hords of Nnowledge is described in the #ahudaivatyaC 25nanta+ and Sn0shma+ and Eivottama+ 2>0anetra+ and again >0arudra and /rimnrtti0a+ 2Er90aha and Ei0hain+Cthese are declared to be the *idyevaras'2 /he latter Eiva+ in his mercy+ raises to the ran0 of the seventy million antras'[$D@] 5ll this is explained in the /attva-pra0!a'[$D&] Similarly Soma-Eambhu has saidC 2=ne class is named vi'(nkala+ the second pralaykala+ 2/he third sakala+Cthese are the three whom the E!stra regards as ob<ects of mercy' 2/he first is united to mala alone+ the second to mala and karma+ 2/he third are united to all the tattvas beginning with kal and ending with :earth':2[$Dk] [$..] /he -ralaykal are also twofold+ as being pakvapadvaya or not+ i.e.+ those in whom the two remaining fetters are matured+ and those in whom they are not' /he former attain liberation+ but the latter+ by the power of karman+ are endowed with the puryashaka[$D-] body+ and pass through various births' 5s has been said in the /attva-pra0!aC 2/hose among the (ralay!0alas whose karman and mala are immature+ 2?o+ united with the puryashaka body+ into many births by the power of karman'2 /he puryashaka is also thus described in the same wor0C 2/he puryashaka is composed of the internal organ+ thought 4dh6+ karman+ and the instruments'2 /his is thus explained by 5ghora Eiva "ch!rya+ 2the puryashaka is a subtile body apportioned to each individual soul+ which continues from the creation until the close of the 0alpa+ or until liberationG it is composed of the thirty[$D%] tattvas beginning with :earth: and ending with kal'2 5s has been said in the /attva-sangrahaC 2/his set of tattvas+ commencing with :earth: and ending with kal+ is assigned to each soul+ 25nd wanders by the law of karman through all the bodies produced by the world'2 /he following is the full meaning of this passageGC/he word 2internal organ+2 which properly includes 2mind+2 2intelligence+2 2egoism+2 and 2reason+2[$Dr] includes also the seven tattvas which enter into the production of en<oyment [or experience]+ viQ'+ those called kal+ time+ fate+ 0nowledge+ concupiscence+ nature+ and ,uality7[$@l] the [$.D]words 2thought2 4dh6 and karman signify the five cognisable gross elements+ and their originators+ the subtile rudiments' #y the word 2instruments2 are comprehended the ten organs of sense and action' 2#ut is it not declared in the Er9mat N!lottara that :/he set of five+ sound+ touch+ form+ taste and smell+ intelligence+ mind and egoism+ these constitute the puryashakaq:2 How+ then+ can any different account be maintainedq 1e grant this+ and hence the venerable 3!ma Naha has explained that sntra in its literal meaning [i. e'+ as puryashaka+ is derived from asha+ 2eight2]+ so why should we be prolix in the discussionq Still+ if you as0 how we can reconcile our account with the strict nominal definition of puryashaka+ we reply that there is really no contradiction+ as we maintain that it is composed of a set of eight in the following mannerGC4$'6 /he five elements7 4.'6 the five rudiments7 4D'6 the five organs of 0nowledge7 4@'6 those of action7 4&'6 the fourfold internal organ7 4k'6 their instrument7[$@$] 4-'6 nature [pra0iti]7 and 4%'6 the class

composed of the five+ beginning with kal+ which form a 0ind of case'[$@.] 8ow in the case of some of those souls who are <oined to the puryashaka body+ ahevara 5nanta having compassionated them as possessed of peculiar merit+ constitutes them here as lords of the world7 as has been saidC 2 ahevara pities some and grants them to be lords of the world'2 /he class called sakala is also divided into two+ as pakvakalusha and apakvakalusha' 5s for the former+ the Supreme #eing+ in conformity with their maturity 4paripka6+ [$.@]puts forth a power agreeable thereto+ and transfers them to the position of the hundred and eighteen Hords of the antras+ signified by the words aal9+P c'+ as has been saidC 2/he rest are denominated sakala+ from their connection with Kal+ Pc'+ seiQed by time whose mouths are days7 2/he Supreme of his own will ma0es one hundred and eighteen of these the Hords of the 2>ight of these are called #aalins7 eight again are Nrodha+ Pc'7 2*9rea+ Er90aha+ and the hundred 3udras+Cthese together are the hundred and eighteen'2 In their case again+ the Supreme+ having assumed the form of a teacher+ stops the continued accession of maturity and contracts his manifested power+ and ultimately grants to them liberation by the process of initiation7 as has been saidC 2/hese creatures whose mala is matured+ by putting forth a healing power+ 2He+ assuming the form of a teacher+ unites by initiation to the highest principle'2 It is also said in the Sr9mad igendraC 2He removes from that infinitesimal soul all the bonds which previously exerted a contrary influence over it'2[$@D] 5ll this has been explained at great length by 8!r!yaa-Naha+ and there it is to be studied7 but we are obliged to pass on through fear of prolixity' #ut as for the second class+ or those called apakvakalusha+ the Supreme #eing+ as impelled by the desert of their respective actions+ appoints them+ as bound and endued with infinitesimal bodies+ to en<oy the rewards of their previous actions'[$@@] 5s has been saidC [$.&] 2/he other souls+ bound [in their material bonds] he appoints to en<oy their various deserts+ 25ccording to their respective actionsG such are the various 0inds of souls'2 1e now proceed to describe the third category+ matter 4or pa6' /his is fourfold+ mala+[$] karman+ my+ and rodha-akti'[$@&] #ut it may be ob<ected+ 2Is it not said in the Eaiva "gamas that the chief things are the Hord+ souls+ and matterq 8ow the Hord has been shown to mean Eiva+ :souls: mean atoms 4or beings endowed with atomic bodies6+ and matter 4or :bond:6 is said to be the pentad+ [$@k] hence matter will be fivefold' How then is it now rec0oned to be only fourfoldq2 /o this we reply as followsGC5lthough the vindu or nasal dot+ which is the germinal atom of my+ and is called a Eiva-tattva+ may be well regarded as material in comparison with the highest liberation as defined by the attainment of the state of Eiva+ still it cannot really be considered as matter when we remember that it is a secondary 0ind of liberation as causing the attainment of the state of such deities as *idyevara+ Pc' /hus we see [$.k]there is no contradiction' Hence it has been said in the /attva-pra0!aC 2/he bonds of matter will be fourfold'2 5nd again in the Sr9mad igendraC antras'

2/he enveloper-controller 4mala6+ the overpowerer 4rodha6+ action+ and the wor0 of 2/hese are the four :bonds+: and they are collectively called by the name of :merit':2 /he following is the meaning of this coupletGC


4$'6 2>nveloping+2 because mala exceedingly obscures and veils the soul:s powers of vision and action7 2controlling+2 because mala+ a natural impurity+ controls the soul by its independent influence' 5s has been saidC 2#ala+ though itself one+ by manifold influence interrupts the soul:s vision and action7 2It is to be regarded as the hus0 in rice or rust on copper'2[$@-] 4.'6 /he 2overpowerer2 is the obscuring power7 this is called a 2bond2 [or matter] in a metaphorical sense+ since this energy of Eiva obscures the soul by superintending matter [rather than by itself parta0ing of the nature of matter]' /hus it has been saidC 2=f these I am the chief energy+ and the gracious friend of all+ 2I am metaphorically called pa+[$@%] because I follow desert'2 4D'6 5ction [or rather its conse,uences+ karman] as being performed by those who desire the fruit' It is in the form of merit or demerit+ li0e the seed and shoot+ and it is eternal in a never-beginning series' 5s has been said in the Er9mat NiraaC 25s #ala has no beginning+ its least actions are beginninglessG 2If an eternal character is thus established+ then what cause could produce any change thereinq2 [$.-] 4@'6 2#y+2 because herein as an energy of the Aivine #eing all the world is potentially contained 4mti6 at a mundane destruction+ and again at a creation it all comes 4yti6 into manifestation+ hence the derivation of the name' /his has been said in the Er9mat SaurabheyaC 2/he effects+ as a form of the Aivine energy+ are absorbed therein at a mundane destruction+ 25nd again at a renovation it is manifested anew in the form of effects as kal+ Pc'2[$@r] 5lthough much more might be added on this topic+ yet we stop here through fear of extending this treatise too far' /hus have the three categories been declared+Cthe Hord+ the soul+ and matter' 5 different mode of treating the sub<ect is found in the BO!naratn!val9+ Pc'+ in such lines asC 2/he Hord+ 0nowledge+ ignorance+ the soul+ matter+ and the cause 2=f the cessation thereof+Cthese are collectively the six categories'2 #ut our readers must see0 for full information from the wor0 itself' /hus our account of the system is complete' >' #' C'

[$$.] Colebroo0e spea0s of the -aupati-sstra 4#ahevara-siddhnta or 1ivgama6+ as the textboo0 of the (!upata sect' /he "gamas are said to be twenty-eight 4see their names in the 3ev' /' moul0es: 2Catechism of the Eaiva 3eligion26' [$$D] 2/here must be three eternal entities+ Aeity+ soul+ matter72 2as the water is co-eternal with the sea and the salt with the water+ so soul is co-eternal with the Aeity+ and pa is eternally co-existent with soul2 4B' 5' =' S' iv' pp' k-+ %&6' In p' &% we find the advaita of the *ed!nta attac0ed' In p' k. it

is said that the soul is eternally entangled in matter+ and ?od carries on his five operations 4see infra6 to disentangle it+ bringing out all that is re,uired for previous desert' [$$@] /hese four feet are the four stages of religious life 4see B' 5' =' S' iv' pp' $D&+ $%l6+ called in /amil sarithei+ kirikei+ yokam+ and gnnam' /he first is the stage of practical piety and performance of the prescribed duties and rites7 the second is that of the 2confirmatory sacrament2 and the five purifications involved in true p"'7 the third is that of the eight observances of the yogin7 the fourth is that of 0nowledge which prepares the soul for intimate union with ?od' [$$&] Cf' Colebroo0e+ $ssays 4.d ed'6+ vol' i' p' D$&' [$$k] 5yyena may here mean 2argument'2 [$$-] 1cil. if there were only one cause there would be only one invariable effect' /he very existence of various effects proves that there must be other concurrent causes 4as human actions6 necessary' /he argument seems to me to re,uire here this unnatural stress to be laid on eva+ but this is certainly not the original meaning of the passage7 it occurs ah!bh!rata+ iii' $$@@ 4cf' ?auap!da+ S' N!r' k$6' [$$%] In p' %.+ line D+ infra+ I read Karasam!havchcha' [$$r] /his may be the same with the called the #igendra4q6' [$.$] I retain this word+ see infra. [$..] 2#y 4or (ra0iti6 is the material+ Ea0ti the instrumental+ and Aeity the efficient cause2 4B' 5' =' S' iv' p' &&6' [$.D] /hese are the five first names of the eleven mantras which are included in the five kals 4B' 5' =' S' iv' pp' .D%-.@D6' /he Eivalinga 4the visible ob<ect of worship for the enlightened6 is composed of mantras+ and is to be regarded as the body of Eiva 4see B' 5' =' S' iv' p' $l$6' /hese five mantras are given in the inverse order in /aitt' "raya0a+ x' @D-@- 4cf' 5yy-mlvist. p' D6' [$.@] /hese are the operations of the five manifestations of Eiva 4see B' 5' =' S' iv' %+ $%6 which in their descending order are 1thkkiyam 4i.e.+ 1adkshaya:6 or 1ad-0iva+ who is Eiva and Ea0ti combined+ and the source of grace to all souls7 Ichchuran or #ayesuran+ the obscure7 1utta-vittei 40uddhavidy6 which is properly the Hindu triad+ ;udra+ .ishu+ and 4rahma' /hey are respectively symbolised by the nda+ vindu+ m+ u+ and a of =m' [$.&] In 1ilson:s ac0enQie Cat' i' p' $D%+ we find a /!ntri0 wor0+ the 5arapati-'aya-chary+ ascribed to #ho<a the 0ing of Ah!r' [$.k] 5nanta is a name of Eiva in the 5tharva-iras ppanishad 4see Indische Stud' i' D%&6' [$.-] /his is the fourth of the twenty-eight "gamas 4see moul0es: Catechism6' [$.%] Au: 2/he soul+ when clothed with these primary things 4desire+ 0nowledge+ action+ Pc'6+ is an exceedingly small body2 4moul0es6' 5nau is used as an epithet of #rahman in #ihad 5r' pp' iii' %' %' [$.r] See Ind' Studien+ i' Dl$' [$Dl] /he mind or internal sense perceives soul 4see #h!sh! (arichchheda+ lo0a @r6' [$D$] Aelete the iti in p' %@+ line &+ infra' [$D.] Cf' the 8a0ul9a (!upatas+ p' -k+ @ 4supra+ p' $lD6' [$DD] mor these three classes see B' 5' =' S' iv' pp' %-+ $D-' /hey are there described as being respectively under the influence of avam malam only+ or this with kanmam malam+ or these with mayei malam' /he avam is described as original sin+ or that source of evil which was always ey0!a of the /amil wor0 in B' 5' =' S' His poem was

[$.l] Should we read tvad anaarra in p' %D+ line .q

attached to the soul7 kanmam is that fate which inheres in the soul:s organism and metes out its deserts7 mayei is matter in its obscuring or entangling power+ the source of the senses' !dhava uses 2kal+2 Pc'+ for my' /he reason is to be found in B' 5' =' S' p' -l+ where it is said that the five vidytattvas 4kal+ vidy+ rga+ niyati+ and kal6 and the twenty-four tmatattvas 4sc. the gross and subtile elements+ and organs of sense and action+ with the intellectual faculties manas+ !uddhi+ ahakra+ and chitta6+ are all developed from my' /his exactly agrees with the ,uotation from Soma Eambhu+ infra' 1e may compare with it what !dhava says+ p' --+ in his account of the 8a0ul9a (!upatas+ where he describes kal as unintelligent+ and composed of the five elements+ the five tanmtras+ and the ten organs+ with !uddhi+ ahakra and manas' [$D@] See B' 5' =' S' iv' p' $D-' I read anugrahakarat in p' %k+ line D' [$D&] I omit the ,uotation+ as it only repeats the preceding' It+ however+ names the three classes as vi'(na-kevala+ pralaya-kevala+ and sakala' [$Dk] I.e.+ thus including five of the vidytattvas and all the twenty-four tmatattvas' [$D-] /his term seems to be derived from pur+ 2body2 4cf' puriaya for purusha+ #ihad "r' pp' ii' &+ $%6+ and ashaka 4cf' also the S!n0hya (ravachana #h!shya+ p' $D&6' [$D%] =r rather thirty-oneq [$Dr] #anas+ !uddhi+ ahakra+ chitta' [$@l] /hese are the seven viy-tattvas+ kal+ kla+ niyati 4fate6+ vidy+ rga+ prakiti+ and gua' Hoisington+ however+ puts purushan 2the principle of life+2 instead of gua+ which seems better+ as the three guas are included in prakiti' He translates kal by 2continency+2 and describes it as 2the power by which the senses are subdued and the carnal self brought into sub<ection'2 [$@$] /his 2instrument2 4karaa6 seems to mean what Hoisington calls purushan or 2the principle of life which establishes or supports the whole system in its operation72 he ma0es it one of the seven vidytattvas' 5ccording to !dhava+ it should be what he calls gua' [$@.] /he thirty-one tattvas are as followGC/wenty-four tmatattvas+ five elements+ five tanmtras+ ten organs of sense and action+ four organs of the antakaraa+ and seven vidytattvas as enumerated above' 4See B' 5' =' S' iv' pp' $k-$-'6 [$@D] I ta0e au in this verse as the soul+ but it may mean the second 0ind of mala mentioned by Hoisington' /he first 0ind of mala is the my-mala+ the second ava-mala+ the third kanma-mala 4karman6' [$@@] 2/he soul+ when clothed with these primary things 4desire+ 0nowledge+ action+ the kaldipanchaka+ Pc'6+ is an exceedingly small body2 4moul0es6' =ne of the three malas is called ava+ and is described as the source of sin and suffering to souls' [$@&] /he first three are the three 0inds of mala in the B' 5' =' S'+ viQ'+ avam+ kanmam+ and myei+ the last is the 2obscuring2 power of !yesuran 4cf' vol' iv' pp' $D+ $@6' /he Eaivas hold that (!a+ li0e the S!n0hya (ra0iti+ is in itself eternal+ although its connection with any particular soul is temporary 4see B' 5' =' S' iv' p' ..%6' [$@k] /hese are the five+ vindu+ mala+ karman+ my+ and rodhaakti' .indu is described in moul0es: translation of the Eiva-pra0!a-patalaiG 25 sound proceeds out of the mystical syllable om7''' and in that sound a rudimentary atom of matter is developed' mrom this atom are developed the four sounds+ the fifty-one Sans0rit letters+ the *edas+ antras+ Pc'+ the bodily+ intellectual+ and external en<oyments of the soul that have not attained to spiritual 0nowledge at the end of each period of the world:s existence+ and have been swept away by the waters of the world-destroying deluge7 after these the three stages of heavenly happiness are developed+ to be en<oyed by the souls that have a favourable balance of meritorious deeds+ or have devoted themselves to the service of ?od or the abstract contemplation of the Aeity+ viQ'+ 4$'6 the en<oyment of the abode of Eiva7 4.'6 that of near approach to him7 4D'6 that of union with him'2 .indu is similarly described+ B' 5' =' S' iv' pp' $&.+

$&D 4cf' also 1eber+ ;matpanya p' pp' D$.-D$&6' [$@-] See the same illustrations in B' 5' =' S' iv' p' $&l' [$@%] Some forced derivation seems here intended as of pa from pacht' [$@r] In p' rl+ line .+ read s kryea' [$.%]


=ther !hevaras are dissatisfied with the views set out in the Eaiva system as erroneous in attributing to motiveless and insentient things causality 4in regard to the bondage and liberation of transmigrating spirits6' /hey therefore see0 another system+ and proclaim that the construction of the world 4or series of environments of those spirits6 is by the mere will of the Supreme Hord' /hey pronounce that this Supreme Hord+ who is at once other than and the same with the several cognitions and cognita+ who is identical with the transcendent self posited by one:s own consciousness+ by rational proof+ and by revelation+ and who possesses independence+ that is+ the power of witnessing all things without reference to aught ulterior+ gives manifestation+ in the mirror of one:s own soul+ to all entities[$&l] as if they were images reflected upon it' /hus loo0ing upon recognition as a new method for the attainment of ends and of the highest end+ available to all men ali0e+ without any the slightest trouble and exertion+ such as external and internal worship+ suppression of the breath+ and the li0e+ these !hevaras set forth the system of recognition 4pratya!hi'(6' /he extent of this system is thus described by one of their authoritiesC 2/he aphorisms+ the commentary+ the gloss+ the two explications+ the greater and the less+[$.r] 2/he five topics+ and the expositions+Csuch is the system of recognition'2 /he first aphorism in their text-boo0 is as follows[$&$]GC 2Having reached somehow or other the condition of a slave of man0ind+ 2I set forth the recognition of [/his aphorism may be developed as follows]GC 2Somehow or other+2 by a propitiation+ effected by ?od+ of the lotus feet of a spiritual director identical with ?od+ 2having reached+2 having fully attained+ this condition+ having made it the unintercepted ob<ect of fruition to myself' /hus 0nowing that which has to be 0nown+ he is ,ualified to construct a system for othersG otherwise the system would be a mere imposture' ahevara is the reality of unintermitted self-luminousness+ beatitude+ and independence+ by portions of whose divine essence *ishu+ *iriOchi+ and other deities are deities+ who+ though they transcend the fictitious world+ are yet implicated in the infinite illusion' /he condition of being a slave to ahevara is the being a recipient of that independence or absoluteness which is the essence of the divine nature+ a slave being one to whom his lord grants all things according to his will and pleasure 4i.e.+ dsya+ from d6' /he word mankind imports that there is no restriction of the doctrine to previously ,ualified students' 1hoever he may be to whom this exposition of the divine nature is made+ he reaps its ahevara+ and wishing also to help

ahevara+ as the method of attaining all felicity'2

highest reward+ the emanatory principium itself operating to the highest end of the transmigrating souls' It has been accordingly laid down in the Eiva-dishi by that supreme guide the revered Som!nandan!thaC 21hen once the nature of Eiva that resides in all things [$Dl]has been 0nown with tenacious recognition+ whether by proof or by instruction in the words of a spiritual director+ 2/here is no further need of doing aught+ or of any further reflection' 1hen he 0nows Suvara 4or Eiva6 a man may cease to act and to reflect'2 /he word also excludes the supposition that there is room in self which has recognised the nature of ahevara+ and which manifests to itself its own identity with him+ and is therefore fully satisfied+ for any other motive than felicity for others' /he well-being of others is a motive+ whatever may be said+ for the definition of a motive applies to itG for there is no such divine curse laid upon man that self-regard should be his sole motive to the exclusion of a regard for others' /hus 50shap!da 4i' .@6 defines a motiveG 5 motive is that ob<ect towards which a man energises' /he preposition upa in upapdayami 4I set forth6 indicates proximityG the result is the bringing of man0ind near unto ?od' Hence the word all in the phrase the method of attaining all felicities' mor when the nature of the Supreme #eing is attained+ all felicities+ which are but the efflux thereof+ are overta0en+ as if a man ac,uired the mountain 3ohaa 45dam:s (ea06+ he would ac,uire all the treasures it contains' If a man ac,uire the divine nature+ what else is there that he can as0 forq 5ccordingly ptpal!ch!rya says C 21hat more can they as0 who are rich in the wealth of devotionq 1hat else can they as0 who are poor in thisq2 1e have thus explained the motive expressed in the words the method of attaining all felicities+ on the supposition that the compound term is a /atpurusha genitively constructed' Het it be ta0en as a #ahuvr9hi or relative compound' /hen the recognition of ahevara+ the 0nowing him through vicarious idols+ has for its motive the full attainment+ the manifestation+ of all felicities+ of every[$D$] external and internal permanent happiness in their proper nature' In the language of everyday life+ recognition is a cognition relative to an ob<ect represented in memoryG for example+ /his 4perceived6 is the same 4as the remembered6 Chaitra' In the recognition propounded in this system+Cthere being a ?od whose omnipotence is learnt from the accredited legendaries+ from accepted revelation+ and from argumentation+Cthere arises in relation to my presented personal self the cognition that I am that very ?od+Cin virtue of my recollection of the powers of that ?od' /his same recognition I set forth' /o set forth is to enforce' I establish this recognition by a stringent process which renders it convincing' [Such is the articulate development of the first aphorism of the 3ecognitive Institutes'] Here it may be as0edG If soul is manifested only as consubstantial with ?od+ why this laboured effort to exhibit the recognitionq /he answer is thisGC/he recognition is thus exhibited+ because though the soul is+ as you contend+ continually manifested as self-luminous 4and therefore identical with ?od6+ it is nevertheless under the influence of the cosmothetic illusion manifested as partial+ and therefore the recognition must be exhibited by an expansion of the cognitive and active powers in order to achieve the manifestation of the soul as total 4the self being to the natural man a part+ to the man of insight the whole+ of the divine pleroma6' /hus+ then+ the syllogismG /his self must be ?od+ because it possesses cognitive and active powers7 for so far forth as any one is cognitive and active+ to that extent he is a lord+ li0e a lord in the world of everyday life+ or li0e a 0ing+ therefore the soul is ?od' /he five-membered syllogism is here employed+ because so long as we deal with the illusory order of things+ the teaching of the 8aiy!yi0as may be accepted' It has thus been said by the son of pday!0araC 21hat self-luminous self can affirm or deny that self-[$D.]active and cognitive is ahevara the

primal beingq 2Such recognition must be effected by an expansion of the powers+ the self being cognised under illusion+ and imperfectly discerned'2 5nd againC 2/he continuance of all living creatures in this transmigratory world lasts as long as their respiratory involucrum7 0nowledge and action are accounted the life of living creatures' 2=f these+ 0nowledge is spontaneously developed+ and action 4or ritual6+ which is best at N!i+ 2Is indicated by others alsoG different from these is real 0nowledge'2 5nd alsoC 2/he 0nowledge of these things follows the se,uence of those thingsG 2/he 0nower+ whose essence is beatitude and 0nowledge without succession+ is Som!nandan!tha also saysC 2He always 0nows by identity with EivaG he always 0nows by identity with the real'2 5gain at the end of the section on 0nowledgeC 2pnless there were this unity with Eiva+ cognitions could not exist as facts of daily lifeG 2pnity with ?od is proved by the unity of light' He is the one 0nower 4or illuminator of cognitions6' 2He is ahevara+ the great Hord+ by reason of the unbro0en continuity of ob<ectsG 2(ure 0nowledge and action are the playful activity of the deity'2 /he following is an explanation of 5bhinava-guptaGC/he text+ 25fter that as it shines shines the all of things+ by the light of that shines diversely this 5ll+2 teaches that ?od illumines the whole round of things by the glory of His luminous intelligence+ and that the diversity or plurality of the ob<ect world+ whereby the light[$DD] which irradiates ob<ects is a blue+ a yellow light+ and the li0e+ arises from diversity of tint cast upon the light by the ob<ect' In reality+ ?od is without plurality or difference+ as transcending all limitations of space+ time+ and figure' He is pure intelligence+ selfluminousness+ the manifester7 and thus we may read in the Eaiva aphorisms+ 2Self is intelligence'2 His synonymous titles are Intelligential >ssence+ pnintermitted Cognition+ Irrespective Intuition+ >xistence as a mass of #eatitude+ Supreme Aomination' /his self-same existing self is 0nowledge' #y pure 0nowledge and action 4in the passage of Som!nandan!tha cited above6 are meant real or transcendent cognition and activity' =f these+ the cognition is self-luminousness+ the activity is energy constructive of the world or series of spheres of transmigratory experience' /his is described in the section on activityC 2He by his power of bliss gives light unto these ob<ects+ through the efficacy of his willG this activity is creativeness'2 5nd at the close of the same sectionC 2/he mere will of ?od+ when he wills to become the world under its forms of <ar+ of cloth+ and other ob<ects+ is his activity wor0ed out by motive and agent' 2/his process of essence into emanation+ whereby if this be that comes to be+ cannot be attributed to motiveless+ insentient things'2 5ccording to these principles+ causality not pertaining either to the insentient or to the non-divine intelligence+ the mere will of ahevara+ the absolute Hord+ when he wills to emanate into thousands of forms+ as this or that difference+ this or that action+ this or that modification of entity+ of birth+ continuance+ and the li0e+ in the series of transmigratory environments+Chis mere will is his progressively higher and higher activity+ that is to say+ his universal creativeness'[$D@] ahevara'2

How he creates the world by his will alone is clearly exhibited in the following illustrationC 2/he tree or <ar produced by the mere will of thaumaturgists+ without clay+ without seed+ continues to serve its proper purpose as tree or <ar'2 If clay and similar materials were really the substantial cause of the <ar and the rest+ how could they be produced by the mere volition of the thaumaturgistq If you sayG Some <ars and some plants are made of clay+ and spring from seeds+ while others arise from the bare volition of the thaumaturgist7 then we should inform you that it is a fact notorious to all the world that different things must emanate from different materials' 5s for those who say that a <ar or the li0e cannot be made without materials to ma0e it of+ and that when a thaumaturgist ma0es one he does so by putting atoms in motion by his will+ and so composing itG they may be informed that unless there is to be a palpable violation of the causal relation+ all the co-efficients+ without exception+ must be desiderated7 to ma0e the <ar there must be the clay+ the potter:s staff+ the potter:s wheel+ and all the rest of it7 to ma0e a body there must be the congress of the male and female+ and the successive results of that congress' 8ow+ if that be the case+ the genesis of a <ar+ a body+ or the li0e+ upon the mere volition of the thaumaturgist+ would be hardly possible' =n the other hand+ there is no difficulty in supposing that ah!deva+ amply free to remain within or to over-step any limit whatever+ the Hord+ manifold in his operancy+ the intelligent principle+ thus operates' /hus it is that *asugupt!ch!rya saysC 2/o him that painted this world-picture without materials+ without appliances+ without a wall to paint it on+Cto him be glory+ to him resplendent with the lunar digit+ to him that bears the trident'2 It may be as0edG If the supersensible self be no other[$D&] than ?od+ how comes this implication in successive transmigratory conditionsq /he answer is given in the section treating of accredited institutionC 2/his agent of cognition+ blinded by illusion+ transmigrates through the fatality of wor0sG 2/aught his divine nature by science+ as pure intelligence+ he is enfranchised'2 It may be as0edG If the sub<ect and the ob<ect are identical+ what difference can there be between the self bound and the self liberated in regard to the ob<ects cognisable by eachq /he answer to this ,uestion is given in a section of the /attv!rtha-SagrahaC 2Self liberated cognises all that is cognisable as identical with itself+ li0e bondageG the other 4or unliberated6 self has in it infinite plurality'2 ahevara free from

5n ob<ection may be raisedG If the divine nature is essential to the soul+ there can be no occasion to see0 for this recognition7 for if all re,uisites be supplied+ the seed does not fail to germinate because it is unrecognised' 1hy+ then+ this toilsome effort for the recognition of the soulq /o such an ob<ection we replyG =nly listen to the secret we shall tell you' 5ll activity about ob<ects is of two degrees+ being either external+ as the activity of the seed in developing the plant+ or internal+ as the activity which determines felicity+ which consists in an intuition which terminates in the conscious self' /he first degree of activity presupposes no such recognition as the system proposes+ the second does presuppose it' In the 3ecognitive System the peculiar activity is the exertion of the power of unifying personal and impersonal spirit+ a power which is the attainment of the highest and of mediate ends+ the activity consisting in the intuition I am ?od' /o this activity a recognition of the essential nature of the soul is a pre-re,uisite' It may be urged that peculiar activity terminating in the conscious self is observed independent of recognition'[$Dk] /o this it is repliedG 5 certain damsel+ hearing of the many good ,ualities of a particular gallant+ fell in love with him before she had seen him+ and agitated by her passion and unable to suffer the pain of not seeing him+ wrote to him a love-letter descriptive of her condition' He at once came to her+ but when she saw him she did not recognise in him the ,ualities she had

heard about7 he appeared much the same as any other man+ and she found no gratification in his society' So soon+ however+ as she recognised those ,ualities in him as her companions now pointed them out+ she was fully gratified' In li0e manner+ though the personal self be manifested as identical with the universal soul+ its manifestation effects no complete satisfaction so long as there is no recognition of those attributes7 but as soon as it is taught by a spiritual director to recognise in itself the perfections of ahevara+ his omniscience+ omnipotence+ and other attributes+ it attains the whole pleroma of being' It is therefore said in the fourth sectionC 25s the gallant standing before the damsel is disdained as li0e all other men+ so long as he is unrecognised+ though he humble himself before her with all manner of importunitiesG In li0e manner the personal self of man0ind+ though it be the universal soul+ in which there is no perfection unrealised+ attains not its own glorious nature7 and therefore this recognition thereof must come into play'2 /his system has been treated in detail by 5bhinava-gupta and other teachers+ but as we have in hand a summary exposition of systems+ we cannot extend the discussion of it any further lest our wor0 become too prolix' /his then may suffice'[$&.] 5' >' ?'

[$&l] 3ead !hvn for !hvt' [$&$] Cf' supra+ p' $$D' !dhava here condenses 5bhinava ?upta:s commentary' 5bhinava ?upta lived in the beginning of the eleventh century 4see #|hler:s /our in Cashmere+ pp' kk+ %l6' [$&.] I have seen in Calcutta a short Comm' on the Eiva sntras by ptpala+ the son of pday!0ara 4cf' pp' $Dl+ $D$6'C>' #' C' [$D-]


=ther !hevaras there are who+ while they hold the identity of self with ?od+ insist upon the tenet that the liberation in this life taught in all the systems depends upon the stability of the bodily frame+ and therefore celebrate the virtues of mercury or ,uic0silver as a means of strengthening the system' ercury is called prada+ because it is a means of conveyance beyond the series of transmigratory states' /hus it has been saidC 2It gives the farther shore of metempsychosisG it is called prada'2 5nd again in the 3as!ravaC 2It is styled prada because it is employed for the highest end by the best votaries' 2Since this in sleep identical with me+ goddess+ arises from my members+ and is the exudation of my body+ it is called rasa'2 It may be urged that the literal interpretation of these words is incorrect+ the liberation in this life being explicable in another manner' /his ob<ection is not allowable+ liberation being set out in the

six systems as subse,uent to the death of the body+ and upon this there can be no reliance+ and conse,uently no activity to attain to it free from misgivings' /his is also laid down in the same treatise[$D%]C 2Hiberation is declared in the six systems to follow the death of the body' 2Such liberation is not cognised in perception li0e an emblic myrobalan fruit in the hand' 2/herefore a man should preserve that body by means of mercury and of medicaments'2 ?ovinda-bhagavat also saysC 2Holding that the en<oyments of wealth and of the body are not permanent+ one should strive 25fter emancipation7 but emancipation results from 0nowledge+ 0nowledge from study+ and study is only possible in a healthy body'2 /he body+ some one may say+ is seen to be perishable+ how can its permanency be effectedq /hin0 not so+ it is replied+ for though the body+ as a complexus of six sheaths or wrappers of the soul+ is dissoluble+ yet the body+ as created by Hara and ?aur9 under the names of mercury and mica+ may be perdurable' /hus it is said in the 3asahidayaC 2/hey who+ without ,uitting the body+ have attained to a new body+ the creation of Hara and ?aur9+ 2/hey are to be lauded+ perfected by mercury+ at whose service is the aggregate of magic texts'2 /he ascetic+ therefore+ who aspires to liberation in this life should first ma0e to himself a glorified body' 5nd inasmuch as mercury is produced by the creative con<unction of Hara and ?aur9+ and mica is produced from ?aur9+ mercury and mica are severally identified with Hara and ?aur9 in the verseC 2 ica is thy seed+ and mercury is my seed7 2/he combination of the two+ = goddess+ is destructive of death and poverty'2 /his is very little to say about the matter' In the 3asevara-siddh!nta many among the gods+ the Aaityas+ the unis+ and man0ind+ are declared to have attained to liberation in this life by ac,uiring a divine body through the efficacy of ,uic0silver'[$Dr] 2Certain of the gods+ 2Certain ahea and others7 certain Aaityas+ Eu0ra and others7 unis+ the #!la0hilyas and others7 certain 0ings+ Somevara and others7

2?ovinda-bhagavat+ ?ovinda-n!ya0a+ 2Charvai+ Napila+ *y!li+ N!p!li+ Nandal!yana+ 2/hese and many others proceed perfected+ liberated while alive+ 2Having attained to a mercurial body+ and therewith identified'2 /he meaning of this+ as explicated by (aramevara to (aramevar9+ is as followsGC 2#y the method of wor0s is attained+ = supreme of goddesses+ the preservation of the body7 25nd the method of wor0s is said to be twofold+ mercury and air+ 2 ercury and air swooning carry off diseases+ dead they restore to life+ 2#ound they give the power of flying about'2 /he swooning state of mercury is thus describedC 2/hey say ,uic0silver to be swooning when it is perceived+ as characterised thusC 2=f various colours+ and free from excessive volatility' 25 man should regard that ,uic0silver as dead+ in which the following mar0s are seenC

21etness+ thic0ness+ brightness+ heaviness+ mobility'2 /he bound condition is described in another place as followsGC 2/he character of bound ,uic0silver is that it isC 2Continuous+ fluent+ luminous+ pure+ heavy+ and that it parts asunder under friction'2 Some one may urgeG If the creation of mercury by Hara and ?aur9 were proved+ it might be allowed that the body could be made permanent7 but how can that be provedq /he ob<ection is not allowable+ inasmuch as that can be proved by the eighteen modes of elaboration' /hus it is stated by the authorities[$@l]C 2>ighteen modes of elaboration are to be carefully discriminated+ 2In the first place+ as pure in every process+ for perfecting the adepts'2 5nd these modes of elaboration are enumerated thusC 2Sweating+ rubbing+ swooning+ fixing+ dropping+ coercion+ restraining+ 2Nindling+ going+ falling into globules+ pulverising+ covering+ 2Internal flux+ external flux+ burning+ colouring+ and pouring+ 25nd eating it by parting and piercing it+Care the eighteen modes of treating ,uic0silver'2 /hese treatments have been described at length by ?ovinda-bhagavat+ Sarva<Oa-r!mevara and the other ancient authorities+ and are here omitted to avoid prolixity' /he mercurial system is not to be loo0ed upon as merely eulogistic of the metal+ it being immediately+ through the conservation of the body+ a means to the highest end+ liberation' /hus it is said in the 3as!ravaC 2Aeclare to me+ = god+ that supremely efficacious destruction of the blood+ that destruction of the body+ imparted by thee+ whereby it attained the power of flying about in the s0y' ?oddess 4he replied6+ ,uic0silver is to be applied both to the blood and to the body' /his ma0es the appearance of body and blood ali0e' 5 man should first try it upon the blood+ and then apply it to the body'2 It will be as0edG 1hy should we ma0e this effort to ac,uire a celestial body+ seeing that liberation is effected by the self-manifestation of the supreme principle+ existence+ intelligence+ and beatitudeq 1e replyG /his is no ob<ection+ such liberation being inaccessible unless we ac,uire a healthy body' /hus it is said in the 3asahidayaC [$@$] 2/hat intelligence and bliss set forth in all the systems in which a multitude of uncertainties are melted away+ 2/hough it manifest itself+ what can it effect for beings whose bodies are unglorifiedq 2He who is worn out with decrepitude+ though he be free from cough+ from asthma+ and similar infirmities+ 2He is not ,ualified for meditation in whom the activities of the cognitive organs are obstructed' 25 youth of sixteen addicted to the last degree to the en<oyment of sensual pleasures+ 25n old man in his dotage+ how should either of these attain to emancipationq2 Some one will ob<ectG It is the nature of the personal soul to pass through a series of embodiments+ and to be liberated is to be extricated from that series of embodiments7 how+ then+ can these two mutually exclusive conditions pertain to the same bodily tenementq /he ob<ection is invalid+ as unable to stand before the following dilemmatic argumentGCIs this extrication+ as to the nature of which all the founders of institutes are at one+ to be held as cognisable or as incognisableq If it is

incognisable+ it is a pure chimera7 if it is cognisable+ we cannot dispense with life+ for that which is not alive cannot be cognisant of it' /hus it is said in the 3asasiddh!ntaC 2/he liberation of the personal soul is declared in the mercurial system+ = subtile thin0er' 2In the tenets of other schools which repose on a diversity of argument+ 2Nnow that this 0nowledge and 0nowable is allowed in all sacred texts7 2=ne not living cannot 0now the 0nowable+ and therefore there is and must be life'2 5nd this is not to be supposed to be unprecedented+ for the adherents of the doctrine of *ishusv!min maintain the eternity of the body of *ishu half-man and half-lion' /hus it is said in the S!0!ra-siddhi[$@.]C 2I glorify the man-lion set forth by *ishu-sv!min+ 21hose only body is existence+ intelligence+ and eternal and inconceivably perfect beatitude'2 If the ob<ection be raised that the body of the man-lion+ which appears as composite and as coloured+ is incompatible with real existence+ it may be repliedG How can the body of the man-lion be otherwise than really existent+ proved as it is by three 0inds of proofG 4$'6 by the intuition of Eana0a and others7 4.'6 by *edic texts such as+ 5 thousand heads has (urusha7 and 4D'6 by (ur!ic texts such as+ /hat wondrous child+ lotus-eyed+ four-armed+ armed with the conch-shell+ the club+ and other weaponsq 3eal existence and other li0e predicates are affirmed also by Er90!nta-mira+ the devoted adherent of *ishu-sv!min' Het+ then+ those who aspire to the highest end of personal souls be assured that the eternity of the body which we are setting forth is by no means a mere innovation' It has thus been saidC 21hat higher beatitude is there than a body undecaying+ immortal+ 2/he repository of sciences+ the root of merit+ riches+ pleasure+ liberationq2 It is mercury alone that can ma0e the body undecaying and immortal+ as it is saidC 2=nly this supreme medicament can ma0e the body undecaying and imperishable'2 1hy describe the efficacy of this metalq Its value is proved even by seeing it+ and by touching it+ as it is said in the 3as!ravaC 2mrom seeing it+ from touching it+ from eating it+ from merely remembering it+ 2mrom worshipping it+ from tasting it+ from imparting it+ appear its six virtues' 2>,ual merit accrues from seeing mercury as accrues from seeing all the phallic emblems 2=n earth+ those at Ned!ra+ and all others whatsoever'2 [$@D] In another place we readC 2/he adoration of the sacred ,uic0silver is more beatific than the worship of all the phallic emblems at N!i and elsewhere+ 2Inasmuch as there is attained thereby en<oyment+ health+ exemption from decay+ and immortality'2 /he sin of disparaging mercury is also set outC 2/he adept on hearing ,uic0silver heedlessly disparaged should recall ,uic0silver to mind' 2He should at once shun the blasphemer+ who is by his blasphemy for ever filled with sin'2 /he attainment+ then+ of the highest end of the personal soul ta0es place by an intuition of the highest principle by means of the practice of union 4WhYST after the ac,uisition of a divine body in the manner we have described' /hereafterC

2/he light of pure intelligence shines forth unto certain men of holy vision+ 21hich+ seated between the two eyebrows+ illumines the universe+ li0e fire+ or lightning+ or the sunG 2(erfect beatitude+ unalloyed+ absolute+ the essence whereof is luminousness+ undifferenced+ 2mrom which all troubles are fallen away+ 0nowable+ tran,uil+ self-recognisedG 2mixing the internal organ upon that+ seeing the whole universe manifested+ made of pure intelligence+ 2/he aspirant even in this life attains to the absolute+ his bondage to wor0s annulled'2 5 *edic text also declaresG /hat is 3asa 4mercury6+ having obtained this he becomes beatitude' /hus+ then+ it has been shown that mercury alone is the means of passing beyond the burden of transmigratory pains' 5nd conformably we have a verse which sets forth the identity between mercury and the supreme selfC 2 ay that mercury+ which is the very self+ preserve us from de<ection and from the terrors of metempsychosis+[$@@] 21hich is naturally to be applied again and again by those that aspire to liberation from the enveloping illusion+ 21hich perfected endures+ which plays not again when the soul awa0es+ 21hich+ when it arises+ pains no other soul+ which shines forth by itself from itself'2 5' >' ?'

[$&D] Cf' arco (olo:s account of the Indian yog9s in Colonel ;ule:s edit' vol' ii' p' Dll' -radapna is one of the practices of the Siddhop!sa0as in the Ea0ara-digvi<aya+ } @r+ to obviate apamityu+ aklamityu+ Pc' [$@&]


1hoso wishes to escape the reality of pain+ which is established by the consciousness of every soul through its being felt to be essentially contrary to every rational being+ and wishes therefore to 0now the means of such escape+Clearns that the 0nowledge of the Supreme #eing is the true means thereof+ from the authority of such passages as these 40vetvatara pan' vi' .l6C 21hen men shall roll up the s0y as a piece of leather+ 2/hen shall there be an end of pain without the 0nowledge of Eiva'2 8ow the 0nowledge of the Supreme is to be gained by hearing 4ravaa6+ thought 4manana6+ and reflection 4!hvan6+ as it has been saidC 2#y scripture+ by inference+ and by the force of repeated meditation+C 2#y these three methods producing 0nowledge+ he gains the highest union 4yoga6'2 Here thought depends on inference+ and inference depends on the 0nowledge of the vypti 4or

universal proposition6+ and the 0nowledge of the vypti follows the right understanding of the categories+Chence the saint Na!da[$&&] establishes the six categories in his tenfold [$@k]treatise+ commencing with the words+ 28ow+ therefore+ we shall explain duty'2 In the first boo0+ consisting of two daily lessons+ he describes all the categories which are capable of intimate relation' In the first hnika he defines those which possess 2genus2 4'ti6+ in the second 2genus2 4or 2generality26 itself and 2particularity'2 In the similarly divided second boo0 he discusses 2substance+2 giving in the first hnika the characteristics of the five elements+ and in the second he establishes the existence of space and time' In the third boo0 he defines the soul and the internal sense+ the former in the first hnika+ the latter in the second' In the fourth boo0 he discusses the body and its ad<uncts+ the latter in the first hnika+ and the former in the second' In the fifth boo0 he investigates action7 in the first hnika he considers action as connected with the body+ in the second as belonging to the mind' In the sixth boo0 he examines merit and demerit as revealed in Eruti7 in the first hnika he discusses the merit of giving+ receiving gifts+ Pc'+ in the second the duties of the four periods of religious life' In the seventh boo0 he discusses ,uality and intimate relation7 in the first hnika he considers the ,ualities independent of thought+ in the second those ,ualities which are related to it+ and also intimate relation' In the eighth boo0 he examines 2indeterminate2 and 2determinate2 perception+ and means of proof' In the ninth boo0 he discusses the characteristics of intellect' In the tenth boo0 he establishes the different 0inds of inference'[$&k] /he method of this system is said to be threefold+ 2enunciation+2 2definition+2 and 2investigation'2[$&-] 2#ut+2 it may be ob<ected+ 2ought we not to include :division+: [$@-]and so ma0e the method fourfold+ not threefoldq2 1e demur to this+ because 2division2 is really included in a particular 0ind of enunciation' /hus when we declare that substance+ ,uality+ action+ generality+ particularity+ and intimate relation are the only six positive categories+Cthis is an example of enunciation' If you as0 21hat is the reason for this definite order of the categoriesq2 we answer as followsGCSince 2substance2 is the chief+ as being the substratum of all the categories+ we enounce this first7 next 2,uality+2 since it resides in its generic character in all substances [though different substances have different ,ualities]7 then 2action+2 as it agrees with 2substance2 and 2,uality2 in possessing 2generality72[$&%] then 2generality+2 as residing in these three7 then 2particularity+2 inasmuch as it possesses 2intimate relation72[$&r] lastly+ 2intimate relation2 itself7 such is the principle of arrangement' If you as0+ 21hy do you say that there are only six categories since :non-existence: is also oneq2 we answerG #ecause we wish to spea0 of the six as positive categories+ i.e.+ as being the ob<ects of conceptions which do not involve a negative idea' 2Still+2 the ob<ector may retort+ 2how do you establish this definite number :only six:q for either horn of the alternative fails' mor+ we as0+ is the thing to be thus excluded already thoroughly ascertained or notq If it is thoroughly ascertained+ why do you exclude itq and still more so+ if it is not thoroughly ascertainedq 1hat sensible man+ pray+ spends his strength in denying that a mouse has hornsq /hus your definite number :only six: fails as being inapplicable'2 /his+ however+ we cannot admit7 if dar0ness+ Pc'+ are allowed to form certainly a seventh category 4as 2non-existence26+ we thus 4by our definite number6 deny it to be one of the six positive categories+Cand if others attempt to include [$@%]2capacity+2 2number+2 Pc'+ which we allow to be certainly positive existences+ we thus deny that they ma0e a seventh category' #ut enough of this long discussion' Substantiality+ Pc' 4dravyatvdi6+ i.e.+ the genera of substance+ ,uality+ and action+ are the definition of the triad substance+ ,uality+ and action respectively' /he genus of substance 4dravyatva6 is that which+ while it ali0e exists with intimate relation in the 4eternal6 s0y and the 4transitory6 lotus+ is itself eternal+[$kl] and does not exist with intimate relation in smell'[$k$] /he genus of ,uality 4guatva6 is that which is immediately subordinate to the genus existence+ and exists with intimate relation in whatever is not an intimate or mediate cause'[$k.] /he genus of action 4karmatva6 is that which is immediately subordinate to the genus existence+ and is not found with intimate relation in anything eternal'[$kD] ?enerality 4or genus+ smnya6 is that which is

found in many things with intimate relation+ and can never be the counter-entity to emergent nonexistence'[$k@] (articularity[$k&] 4viesha6 exists with intimate relation+ but it is destitute [$@r]of generality+ which stops mutual non-existence'[$kk] Intimate relation 4samavya6 is that connection which itself has not intimate relation'[$k-] Such are the definitions of the six categories' Substance is ninefold+Cearth+ water+ fire+ air+ ether+ time+ space+ soul+ and mind' /he genera of earth+ Pc' 4pithivtva6+ are the definitions of the first four' /he genus of earth is that generality which is immediately subordinate to substance+ and resides in the same sub<ect with colour produced by ba0ing'[$k%] /he genus of water is that generality which is found with intimate relation in water+ being also found in intimate relation in river and sea' /he genus of fire is that generality which is found with intimate relation in fire+ being also found with intimate relation in the moon and gold' /he genus of air is that which is immediately subordinate to substance+ and is found with intimate relation in the organ of the s0in'[$kr] 5s ether+ space+ and time+ from their being single+ cannot be subordinate genera+ their several names stand respectively for their technical appellations' >ther is the abode of particularity+ and is found in the same sub<ect with the non-eternal 4'anya6 special ,uality which is not produced by contact'[$-l] /ime is that which+ being a pervading substance+ is the abode of the mediate cause[$-$] of that idea of remoteness [$&l]4paratva6 which is not found with intimate relation in space7[$-.] while space is that pervading substance which possesses no special ,ualities and yet is not time'[$-D] /he general terms tmatva and manastva are the respective definitions of soul 4tman6 and mind 4manas6' /he general idea of soul is that which is subordinate to substance+ being also found with intimate relation in that which is without form[$-@] 4am"rtta6' /he general idea of mind is that which is subordinate to substance+ being also found existing with intimate relation in an atom+ but [unli0e other atoms] not the intimate cause of any substance' /here are twenty-four ,ualities7 seventeen are mentioned directly in Na!da:s Sntras 4i' $+ k6+ 2colour+ taste+ smell+ touch+ number+ ,uantity+ severalty+ con<unction+ dis<unction+ remoteness+ proximity+ intelligence+ pleasure+ pain+ desire+ aversion+ and effort72 and+ besides these+ seven others are understood in the word 2and+2 viQ'+ gravity+ fluidity+ viscidity+ faculty+ merit+ demerit+ and sound' /heir respective genera 4r"patva+ Pc'6 are their several definitions' /he class or genus of 2colour2 is that which is subordinate to ,uality and exists with intimate relation in blue' In the same way may be formed the definitions of the rest' 25ction2 is fivefold+ according to the distinction of throwing upwards+ throwing downwards+ contracting+ expanding+ and goingG revolution+ evacuating+ Pc'+ being included under 2going'2 /he genus of throwing upwards+ Pc'+ will be their respective definitions' /he genus of throwing upwards is a subordinate genus to action7 it exists with intimate relation+ and is to be 0nown as the mediate cause of con<unction with a higher place' In the same manner are to be made the definitions of throwing downwards+ Pc' ?enerality 4or genus6 is twofold+ extensive and non-extensive7 existence is extensive as found with intimate connection in substance and ,uality+ [$&$]or in ,uality and action7 substance+ Pc'+ are non-extensive' /he definition of generality has been given before' (articularity and intimate relation cannot be divided+Cin the former case in conse,uence of the infinite number of separate particularities+ in the latter from intimate relation being but one7 their definitions have been given before' /here is a popular proverbC 2Auality+ change produced by ba0ing+ and dis<unction produced by dis<unction+Che whose mind vacillates not in these three is the true *aieshi0a72 and therefore we will now show the manner of the production of duality+ Pc' /here is here first the contact of the organ of sense with the ob<ect7 thence there arises the 0nowledge of the genus unity7 then the distinguishing perception apeksh!uddhi [by which we apprehend 2this is one+2 2this is one+2 Pc']7 then the production of duality+ dvitva 4in the ob<ect67 [$-&] then the 0nowledge of the abstract genus of duality 4dvitvatva67 then the 0nowledge of the

,uality duality as it exists in the two things7 then imagination[$-k] 4saskra6'[$--] #ut it may here be as0ed what is the proof of duality+ Pc'+ being thus produced from apeksh!uddhiq /he great doctor 4pdayana6 maintained that apeksh!uddhi must be the producer of duality+ Pc'+ because duality is never found separated from it+ while+ at the same time+ we cannot hold apeksh!uddhi as the cause only of its being 0nown [and therefore it follows that it must be the cause of its being produced[$-%]]+ <ust as contact is with regard to sound' 1e+ however+ maintain the same opinion by a [$&.]different argument7 duality+ Pc'+ cannot be held to be made 0nown 4'(pya6 by that non-eternal apprehension whose ob<ect is two or more individual unities 4i.e.+ apeksh!uddhi6+ because these are ,ualities which reside in a plurality of sub<ects [and not in any one individual[$-r]] <ust as 2severalty2 does [and+ therefore+ as apeksh!uddhi is not their '(paka+ it must be their 'anaka]' 8ext we will describe the order of the successive destructions' mrom apeksh!uddhi arises+ simultaneously with the production of duality 4dvitva6+ the destruction of the 0nowledge of the genus of unity7 next from the 0nowledge of the genus of duality 4dvitvatva6 arises+ simultaneously with the 0nowledge of the ,uality duality+ the destruction of apeksh!uddhi7 next from the destruction of apeksh!uddhi arises+ simultaneously with the 0nowledge of the two substances+ the destruction of the duality7 next from the 0nowledge of the two substances arises+ simultaneously with the production of imagination 4saskra6+ the destruction of the 0nowledge of the ,uality7 and next from imagination arises the destruction of the 0nowledge of the substances' /he evidence for the destruction of one 0ind of 0nowledge by another+ and for the destruction of another 0nowledge by imagination+ is to be found in the following argument7 these 0nowledges themselves which are the sub<ects of the discussion are successively destroyed by the rise of others produced from them+ because 0nowledge+ li0e sound+ is a special ,uality of an all-pervading substance+ and of momentary duration'[$%l] I may briefly add+ that when you have the 0nowledge of the genus of unity simultaneously with an action in one of the two things themselves+ producing that separation which is the opposite [$&D]to the con<unction that produced the whole+ in that case you have the subse,uent destruction of duality produced by the destruction of its abiding-place 4the two things67 but where you have this separate action ta0ing place simultaneously with the rise of apeksh!uddhi+ there you have the destruction of duality produced by the united influence of both' [$%$] Apeksh!uddhi is to be considered as that operation of the mind which is the counter-entity to that emergent non-existence 4i.e.+ destruction6 which itself causes a subse,uent destruction'[$%.] [$&@] 8ext we will in,uire in how many moments+ commencing with the destruction of the compound of two atoms 4the dvyauka6+ another compound of two atoms is produced+ having colour+ Pc' In the course of this investigation the mode of production will be explained' mirst+ the compound of two atoms is gradually destroyed by the series of steps commencing with the contact of fire7[$%D] secondly+ from the con<unction of fire arises the destruction of the ,ualities blac0+P c'+ in the single atom7 thirdly+ from another con<unction of fire arises the production of red+ Pc'+ in the atom7 fourthly+ from con<unction with a soul possessing merit arises an action[$%@] in the atom for the production of a substance7 fifthly+ by that action is produced a separation of that atom from its former place7 sixthly+ there is produced thereby the destruction of its con<unction with that former place7 seventhly+ is produced the con<unction with another atom7 eighthly+ from these two atoms arises the compound of two atoms7 ninthly+ from the ,ualities+ Pc'+ of the causes 4i.e.+ the atoms6 are produced colour+ Pc'+ the ,ualities of the effect 4i.e.+ the dvyauka6' Such is the order of the series of nine moments' /he other two series+[$%&] that of the ten and that of the eleven moments+ are omitted for fear of prolixity' Such is the mode of production+ if we hold 4with the *aieshi0as6 that the ba0ing process ta0es place in the [$&&]atoms of the <ar'[$%k] /he 8aiy!yi0as+ however+ maintain that the ba0ing process ta0es place in the <ar'

2Ais<unction produced by dis<unction2 is twofold+Cthat produced by the dis<unction of the intimate [or material] causes only+ and that produced by the dis<unction of the intimate cause and the noncause [i.e.+ the place]' 1e will first describe the former 0ind' It is a fixed rule that when the action of brea0ing arises in the [material] cause which is inseparably connected with the effect [i.e.+ in one of the two halves of the pot]+ and produces a dis<unction from the other half+ there is not produced at that time a dis<unction from the place or point of space occupied by the pot7 and+ again+ when there is a dis<unction from that point of space occupied by the pot+ the dis<unction from the other half is not contemporary with it+ but has already ta0en place' mor <ust as we never see smo0e without its cause+ fire+ so we never see that effect of the brea0ing in the pot which we call the dis<unction from the point of space+[$%-] without there having previously been the origination of that dis<unction of the halves which stops the con<unction whereby the pot was brought into being' /herefore the action of brea0ing in the parts produces the dis<unction of one part from another+ but not the dis<unction from the point of space7 next+ this dis<unction of one part from another produces the destruction of that con<unction which had brought the pot into existence7 and thence arises the destruction of the pot+ according to the principle+ cessante caus< cessat effectus' /he pot being thus destroyed+ that dis<unction+ which [$&k]resides in both the halves 4which are the material or intimate causes of the pot6 during the time that is mar0ed by the destruction of the pot or perhaps having reference only to one independent half+ initiates+ in the case of that half where the brea0ing began+ a dis<unction from the point of space which had been connected with the pot7 but not in the case of the other half+ as there is no cause to produce it'[$%%] #ut the second 0ind is as followsGC5s action which arises in the hand+ and causes a dis<unction from that with which it was in contact+ initiates a dis<unction[$%r] from the points of space in which the original con<unction too0 place7 and this is 2the dis<unction of the intimate cause and the noncause'2 1hen the action in the hand produces an effect in relation to any points of space+ it initiates also in the same direction a dis<unction of the intimate effect and the non-effect7 thus the dis<unction of the body [the intimate effect] and the points of space arises from the dis<unction of the hand and the points of space [the hand being an intimate or material cause of the body+ but the points of space being not a cause]' /his second dis<unction is not produced by the action of the body+ because the body is supposed to be at the time inactive7 nor is it produced by the action of the hand+ because it is impossible that an action residing in some other place [as the hand] should produce the effect of dis<unction [in the body]' /herefore we conclude by exhaustion that we must accept the viewCthat it is the dis<unction of the intimate cause and the [$&-]non-cause[$rl] which causes the second dis<unction of the body and the points of space' #ut an opponent may here ob<ect that 2what you formerly stated 4p' $@-6 as to existence being denied of dar0ness+ Pc'+ is surely unreasonable7 for+ in fact+ there are no less than four different opinions maintained on this point+Cthus 4a.6 the #h!a 9m!sa0as and the *ed!ntins hold that dar0ness is a substance7 4!.6 Er9dhara "ch!rya[$r$] holds that the colour of dar0 blue is imposed [and thus dar0ness will be a ,uality]7 4c.6 some of the (r!bh!0ara 9m!sa0as hold that it is the absence of the cognition of light7 4d.6 the 8aiy!yi0as+ Pc'+ hold that it is the absence of light'2 In reply+ we assert that as for the first alleged opinion 4a.6 it is ,uite out of the ,uestion+ as it is consistent with neither of the two possible alternatives7 for if dar0ness is a substance+ it must either be one of the nine well-0nown substances+ earth+ Pc'+[$r.] or some different one' #ut it cannot be any one of the nine+ since+ under whichever one you would place it+ all the ,ualities of that substance should certainly be found in it7 nor can you+ on the other hand+ assert that it is some substance different from these nine+ since+ being in itself destitute of ,ualities+ it cannot properly be a substance at all [the very definition of substance being 2that which is the substratum of ,ualities2]+ and therefore+ of course+ it cannot be a different substance from the nine' #ut you may as0+ 2How can you say that dar0ness is destitute of ,ualities+ when it is perceived as possessed of the dar0 blue of the tam!la blossomq2 1e reply+ that this is merely an error+ as when men say that the [colourless] s0y is blue' #ut enough of this onslaught on ancient sages'[$rD] 4!.6 Hence it follows that dar0ness cannot have its colour imposed upon it+ since you cannot have an imposition of colour without

supposing some substratum [$&%]to receive it7[$r@] and again+ we cannot conceive the eye as capable of imposing a colour when deprived of the concurrent cause+ the external light' 8or can we accept that it is an impression independent of the eye [i.e.+ produced by the internal sense+ mind]+ because the concurrence of the eye is not a superfluous but an indispensable condition to its being produced' 8or can you maintain that 2absence or non-existence 4a!hva[$r&]6 is incapable of being expressed by affirmative tense affixes [and+ therefore+ as we do use such phrases as tene!r= oriuntur+ dar0ness cannot be a mere non-existence2]7 because your assertion is too broad+ as it would include such cases of non-existence as a mundane collapse+ destruction+ inattention+[$rk] Pc' [and yet we all 0now that men do spea0 of any of these things as past+ present+ or future+ and yet all are cases of a!hva]' 4c.6 Hence dar0ness cannot be the absence of the cognition of light+ since+ by the well-0nown rule that that organ which perceives a certain ob<ect can also perceive its absence+ it would follow that dar0ness would be perceived by the mind [since it is the mind which perceives cognitions]'[$r-] Hence we conclude that the fourth or remaining opinion must be the true one+ viQ'+ that dar0ness is only the absence of light' 5nd it need not be ob<ected that it is very difficult to account for the attribution to non-existence of the ,ualities of existence+ for we all see that the ,uality happiness is attributed to the absence of pain+ and the idea of separation is connected with the absence of con<unction' 5nd you need not assert that 2this absence of light must be the ob<ect of a cognition produced by the eye in dependence on light+ since it is the absence of an ob<ect possessing colour+[$r%] as we see in the case of a <ar:s [$&r]absence+2 because by the very rule on which you rely+ viQ'+ that that on which the eye depends to perceive an ob<ect+ it must also depend on to perceive that ob<ect:s absence+ it follows that as there is no dependence of the eye on light to perceive light+ it need not depend thereon to perceive this light:s absence' 8or need our opponent retort that 2the cognition of dar0ness [as the absence of light] necessitates the cognition of the place where the absence resides [and this will re,uire light]+2 as such an assertion is ,uite untenable+ for we cannot admit that in order to have a conception of absence it is necessary to have a conception of the place where the absence resides+ else we could not have the perception of the cessation of sound+ as is implied in such an expression as 2the tumult has ceased'2[$rr] Hence+ having all these difficulties in his mind+ the venerable Na!da uttered his aphorism [as an ipse dixit to settle the ,uestion]G 22ravya-gua-karma-nish-patti-vaidharmyd a!hvas tamas2 1"t. v' .+ $r6+ 2Aar0ness is really non-existence+ since it is dissimilar to the production of substances+ ,ualities+ or actions'2 /he same thing has been also established by the argument that dar0ness is perceived by the eye[.ll] [without light+ whereas all substances+ if perceptible at all+ re,uire the presence of light as well as of the eye to be visible]' 8on-existence 4a!hva6 is considered to be the seventh category+ as established by negative proofs' It may be concisely defined as that which+ itself not having intimate relation+ is not intimate relation7[.l$] and this is twofold+ 2relative non-existence2[.l.] and 2reciprocal non-existence'2 [$kl] /he former is again divided into 2antecedent+2 2emergent+2 and 2absolute'2 25ntecedent2 is that non-existence which+ though without any beginning+ is not everlasting7 2emergent2 is that which+ though having a beginning+ is everlasting7 2absolute2 is that non-existence which abides in its own counter-entity7[.lD] 2reciprocal non-existence2 is that which+ being different from 2absolute+2 has yet no defined limit [i.e.+ no terminus ad &uem nor terminus a &uo+ as 2antecedent2 and 2emergent2 have]' If you raise the ob<ection that 2:reciprocal non-existence: is really the same as :absolute nonexistence+:2 we reply that this is indeed to lose one:s way in the 0ing:s highroad7 for 2reciprocal nonexistence2 is that negation whose opposite is held to be identity+ as 2a <ar is not cloth72 but 2absolute non-existence2 is that negation whose opposite is connection+ as 2there is no colour in the air'2[.l@] 8or need you here raise the ob<ection that 2a!hva can never be a means of producing any good to man+2 for we maintain that it is his summum !onum+ in the form of final beatitude+ which is only another term for the absolute abolition of all pain [and therefore comes under the category of a!hva]'

>' #' C'

[$&@] /he *aieshi0as are called 5uln0y! in Hemachandra:s A!hidhna-chintmai7 in the *!yupur!a 4,uoted in 5ufrecht:s 8atal' p' &D b+ l' .D6+ 50shap!da+ Na!da+ pln0a+ and *atsa are called the sons of Eiva' [$&&] He is here called by his synonym Naabha0sha' [$&k] It is singular that this is inaccurate' /he ninth boo0 treats of that perception which arises from supersensible contact+P c'+ and inference' /he tenth treats of the mutual difference of the ,ualities of the soul+ and the three causes' [$&-] mor this extract from the old !hshya of *!tsy!yana+ see Colebroo0e:s $ssays 4new edition6+ vol' i' p' .%&' [$&%] Cf' 4hsh-parichchheda+ lo0a $@' [$&r] 2(articularity2 4viesha6 resides by 2intimate relation2 in the eternal atoms+ Pc' [$kl] /his clause is added+ as otherwise the definition would apply to 2duality2 and 2con<unction'2 [$k$] /his is added+ as otherwise the definition would apply to 2existence2 4satt6+ which is the summum genus+ to which substance+ ,uality+ and action are immediately subordinate' [$k.] >xistence 4satt6 is the genus of dravya+ gua+ and kriy<' 2ravya alone can be the intimate cause of anything7 and all actions are the mediate 4or non-intimate6 cause of con<unction and dis<unction' 1ome ,ualities 4as sayoga+ r"pa+ Pc'6 may be mediate causes+ but this is accidental and does not belong to the essence of gua+ as many gunas can never be mediate causes' [$kD] 5s all 0armas are transitory+ karmatva is only found in the anitya' I correct in p' $l&+ line .l+ nity-samavetatva7 this is the reading of the S' in the Calcutta Sans0rit College Hibrary' [$k@] I.e.+ it can never be destroyed' Indestructibility+ however+ is found in time+ space+ Pc'7 to exclude these+ therefore+ the former clause of the definition is added' [$k&] 2(articularity2 4whence the name *aieshi0a6 is not 2individuality+ as of this particular flash of lightning+2Cbut it is the individuality either of those eternal substances which+ being single+ have no genus+ as ether+ time+ and space7 or of the different atomic minds7 or of the atoms of the four remaining substances+ earth+ water+ fire+ and air+ these atoms being supposed to be the ne plus ultra+ and as they have no parts+ they are what they are by their own indivisible nature' #allantyne translated viesha as 2ultimate difference'2 I am not sure whether the individual soul has viesha' [$kk] utual non-existence 4anyony!hva6 exists between two notions which have no property in common+ as a 2pot is not cloth72 but the genus is the same in two pots+ both ali0e being pots' [$k-] 21amavyasam!and!hvt samavyo na 'ti+2 Siddh' guatva existing in it with intimate relation6' u0t' 41ayoga being a gua has

[$k%] /he feel or touch of earth is said to be 2neither hot nor cold+ and its colour+ taste+ smell+ and touch are changed by union with fire2 4#h!sh!-parichchheda+ sl. $lD+ $l@6' [$kr] /he organ of touch is an a~rial integument'C8ole!rooke. [$-l] Sound is twofold+C2produced from contact+2 as the first sound+ and 2produced from sound+2 as the second' 3anya is added to exclude ?od:s 0nowledge+ while sayog'anya excludes the soul:s+ which is produced by contact+ as of the soul and mind+ mind and the senses+ Pc' [$-$] /he mediate cause itself is the con<unction of time with some body+ Pc'+ existing in time+C this latter is the intimate cause+ while the 0nowledge of the revolutions of the sun is the instrumental cause' In p' $lk+ line $.+ read adhikaraa'

[$-.] -aratva being of two 0inds+ daiika and klika' [$-D] /ime+ space+ and mind have no special ,ualities7 the last+ however+ is not pervading but atomic' [$-@] /he three other padrthas+ beside soul+ which are am"rtta+Ctime+ ether+ and space+Care not genera' [$-&] 5ll numbers+ from duality upwards+ are artificial+ i.e.+ they are made by our minds7 unity alone exists in things themselvesCeach being one7 and they only become two+ Pc'+ by our choosing to regard them so+ and thus <oining them in thought' [$-k] 1askra is here the idea conceived by the mindCcreated+ in fact+ by its own energies out of the material previously supplied to it by the senses and the internal organ or mind' 4Cf' the tables in p' $&D'6 [$--] Here and elsewhere I omit the metrical summary of the original+ as it adds nothing new to the previous prose' [$-%] >very cause must be either '(paka or 'anaka7 apeksh!uddhi+ not being the former+ must be the latter' [$-r] Apeksh!uddhi apprehends 2this is one+2 2this is one+2 Pc'7 but duality+ for instance+ does not reside in either of these+ but in !oth together' [$%l] /he *aieshi0as held that the <9v!tman and space are each an all-pervading substance+ but the individual portions of each have different special ,ualities7 hence one man 0nows what another is ignorant of+ and one portion of ether has sound when another portion has not' Ar' 3er+ in his version of the #h!sh!-(arichchheda+ has mistranslated an important Sntra which bears on this point' It is said in Sntra .kC CCathkaarriam> avypyavitti kshaiko viesha-gua ishyate> which does not mean 2the special ,ualities of ether and soul are limitation to space and momentary duration+2 but 2the special ,ualities of ether and soul 4i.e.+ sound+ 0nowledge+ Pc'6 are limited to different portions and of momentary duration'2 [$%$] /he author here mentions two other causes of the destruction of dvitva besides that already given in p' $&.+ l' $@ 4apeksh!uddhi-na6+ viQ'+ rayana+ and the united action of !othGC $' >0atva-<O!na .' 5pe0sh!buddhi Avitvotpatti and a0atva-<O!naD' n!a @' Avitvatva<O!na &' 5vayava-0riy! 5vayava-vibh!ga 5vayava-sayoga-n!a Avitv!dh!rasya 4i.e.+ avayavina6 n!a ''''''' 5vayava-0riy!' 5vayava-vibh!ga' 5vayava-sayoga-n!a'

Avitvagua-buddhi "dh!ra-n!a 4of Avitva-n!a 4i.e.+ of avayavin6' and ape0sh!buddhi-n!a avayavin6' k' Avitva-n!a and dravya-buddhi ''''''' Avitva-n!a' /he second and third columns represent what ta0es place when+ in the course of the six steps of ekatva'(na+ Pc'+ one of the two parts is itself divided either at the first or the second moment' In the first case+ the dvitva of the whole is destroyed in the fifth moment+ and therefore its only cause is its immediately preceding dvitvdhra-na+ or+ as !dhava calls it+ rayanivitti' In the second case+ the na arrives at the same moment simultaneously by both columns 4$6 and 4D6+ and hence it may be ascribed to the united action of two causes+ apeksh!uddhi-na and dhra-na' 5ny kriy which arose in one of the parts after the second moment would be unimportant+ as the na of the dvitva of the whole would ta0e place by the original se,uence in column 4$6 in the sixth moment7 and in this way it would be too late to affect that result'

[$%.] I.e.+ from the destruction of apeksh!uddhi follows the destruction of dvitva7 but the other destructions previously described were followed by some production+Cthus the 0nowledge of dvitvatva arose from the destruction of ekatva'(na+ Pc' 4cf' Siddh' u0t'+ p' $l-6' I may remind the reader that in Hindu logic the counter-entity to the non-existence of a thing is the thing itself' [$%D] mrom the con<unction of fire is produced an action in the atoms of the <ar7 thence a separation of one atom from another7 thence a destruction of the con<unction of atoms which made the blac0 4or unba0ed6 <ar7 thence the destruction of the compound of two atoms' [$%@] I.e.+ a 0ind of initiative tendency' [$%&] /hese are explained at full length in the Siddh!nta u0t!val9+ pp' $l@+ $l&' In the first series we haveC$' the destruction of the dvyauka and simultaneously a dis<unction from the old place produced by the dis<unction 4of the parts67 .' the destruction of the blac0 colour in the dvyauka+ and the simultaneous destruction of the con<unction of the dvyauka with that place7 D' the production of the red colour in the atoms+ and the simultaneous con<unction with another place7 @' the cessation of the action in the atom produced by the original con<unction of fire' /he remaining &-$l agree with the @-r above' [$%k] /he *aieshi0as hold that when a <ar is ba0ed+ the old blac0 <ar is destroyed+ its several compounds of two atoms+ Pc'+ being destroyed7 the action of the fire then produces the red colour in the separate atoms+ and+ <oining these into new compounds+ eventually produces a new red <ar' /he exceeding rapidity of the steps prevents the eye:s detecting the change of the <ars' /he followers of the 8y!ya maintain that the fire penetrates into the different compounds of two or more atoms+ and+ without any destruction of the old <ar+ produces its effects on these compounds+ and thereby changes not the <ar but its colour+ Pc'+Cit is still the same <ar+ only it is red+ not blac0' [$%-] In p' $lr+ line $@+ I read gagaavi!hgakartitvasya' [$%%] /he Siddh!nta u0t!val9+ p' $$.+ describes the series of stepsGC$' 5n action+ as of brea0ing+ in one of the halves7 .' the dis<unction of the two halves7 D' the destruction of the con<unction which originally produced the pot7 @' the destruction of the pot7 &' by the dis<unction of the two halves is produced a dis<unction of the severed half from the old place7 k' the destruction of the con<unction with that old place7 -' the con<unction with the new place7 %' the cessation of the original impulse of fracture' Here the second dis<unction 4viQ'+ of the half of the pot and the place6 is produced by the previous dis<unction of the halves+ the intimate causes of the pot' [$%r] /he original has a plural vi!hgn+ i.e.+ dis<unctions from the several points' [$rl] I.e.+ the dis<unction of the hand and the points of space' [$r$] /he author of a commentary on the #hagavad ?9t!' [$r.] mor dravydi read pithivydi' [$rD] I am not sure that it would not be better to read viddhavevidhay+ rewounding the wounded+ instead of viddhavvadhay' [$r@] pnless you see the rope you cannot mista0e it for a serpent' [$r&] In p' $$l+ last line+ read *!hve' [$rk] 3ead in p' $$l+ last line+ anavadhndishu' .idhipratyaya properly means an imperative or potential affix implying 2command72 but the pandit ta0es vidhi here as !hva!odhaka-kriy' It has that meaning in N!vya-pra0!a+ *' 4p' $$@+ l' $6' [$r-] /he mind perceives loka-'(na+ therefore it would perceive its absence+ i.e.+ dar0ness+ but this last is perceived by the eye' [$r%] I.e.+ light possesses colour+ and we cannot see a <ar:s absence in the dar0' [$rr] Sound resides in the imperceptible ether+ and cessation is the dhvas!hva+ or 2emergent

non-existence'2 [.ll] /he reading pratyayavedyatvena seems supported by p' $$l+ last line+ but it is difficult to trace the argument7 I have+ therefore+ ventured hesitatingly to read pratyakshavedyatvena+ and would refer to the commentary 4*ai' Snt' p' .&l6+ 2yadi hi nla-r"pavan nla r"pam eva v tama syt> vhylokapragraham antarea chakshush na gihyeta'2 [.l$] Intimate relation has also no intimate relation' [.l.] 23elative non-existence2 4sasarg!hva6 is the negation of a relation7 thus 2the <ar is not in the house2 is 2absolute non-existence+2 2it was not in the house2 is 2antecedent+2 and 2it will not be in the house2 is 2emergent+2 non-existence' [.lD] I.e.+ the absolute absence of the <ar is found in the <ar+ as+ of course+ the <ar does not reside in the <ar+ but in the spot of ground+Cit is the 'ti ghaatva which resides in the <ar' [.l@] /he opposite is 2there is colour in the air'2 [$k$]


/he principle that final bliss+ i.e.+ the absolute abolition of pain+ arises from the 0nowledge of the truth [though in a certain sense universally accepted]+ is established in a special sense as a particular tenet[.l&] of the 8y!ya school+ as is declared by the author of the aphorisms in the words 2proof+ that which is to be proved+ Pc'+Cfrom 0nowledge of the truth as to these things there is the attainment of final bliss'2 /his is the first aphorism of the 8y!ya E!stra' 8ow the 8y!ya E!stra consists of five boo0s+ and each boo0 contains two 2daily portions'2 In the first daily portion of the first boo0 the venerable ?otama discusses the definitions of nine categories+ beginning with 2proof+2 and in the second those of the remaining seven+ beginning with 2discussion2 4vda6' In the first daily portion of the second boo0 he examines 2doubt+2 discusses the four 0inds of 2proof+2 and refutes the suggested ob<ections to their being instruments of right 0nowledge7 and in the second he shows that 2presumption+2 Pc'+ are really included in the four 0inds of 2proof2 already given [and therefore need not be added by the 9m!sa0as as separate ones]' In the first daily portion of the third boo0 he examines the soul+ the body+ the senses+ and their ob<ects7 in the second+ 2understanding2 4!uddhi6+ and 2mind2 4manas6' In the first daily portion of the fourth boo0 he examines 2volition2 4pravitti6+ the 2faults+2 [$k.]2transmigration+2 2fruit2 [of actions]+ 2pain+2 and 2final liberation72 in the second he investigates the truth[.lk] as to the causes of the 2faults+2 and also 2wholes2 and 2parts'2 In the first daily portion of the fifth boo0 he discusses the various 0inds of futility 4'ti6+ and in the second the various 0inds of 2occasion for rebu0e2 4nigrahasthna+ or 2unfitness to be argued with26' In accordance with the principle that 2to 0now the thing to be measured you must first 0now the measure+2 2proof2 4prama6 is first enunciated+ and as this must be done by defining it+ we have first a definition of 2proof'2 2(roof2 is that which is always accompanied by right 0nowledge+ and is at the same time not dis<oined from the proper instruments [as the eye+ Pc']+ and from the site of 0nowledge [i.e.+ the soul]7[.l-] and this definition thus includes the peculiar tenet of the 8y!ya School that ?od is a source of right 0nowledge+[.l%] as the author of the aphorisms has expressly declared 4ii' k%6+ 2and the fact of the *eda:s being a cause of right 0nowledge+ li0e spells and the medical science+ follows from the fact that the fit one who gave the *eda was a source of right 0nowledge'2 5nd thus too hath the universally renowned teacher pdayana+ who saw to the farthest shore of the ocean of logic+ declared in the fourth chapter of the Nusum!O<aliG

23ight 0nowledge is accurate comprehension+ and right 0nowing is the possession thereof7 authoritativeness is+ according to ?otama:s school+ the being separated from all absence thereof' 2He in whose intuitive unerring perception+ inseparably united to Him and dependent on no foreign inlets+ the succession of all the various existing ob<ects is contained+Call the chaff of our suspicion being swept away [$kD]by the removal of all possible faults as caused by the slightest want of observation in Him+CHe+ Eiva+ is my authority7 what have I to do with others+ dar0ened as their authority must ever be with rising doubtsq2 2(roof2 is fourfold+ as being divided into perception+ inference+ analogy+ and testimony' /he 2thing to be proved2 [or the 2ob<ect of right notion2] is of twelve 0inds+ viQ'+ soul+ body+ the senses+ their ob<ects+ understanding+ mind+ volition+ faults+ transmigrations+ fruit+ pain+ and final liberation' 2Aoubt2 is a 0nowledge whose nature is uncertainty7 and this is threefold+ as being caused by the ob<ect:s possessing only ,ualities which are common to other things also+ and therefore not distinctive+Cor by its possessing only irrelevant ,ualities of its own+ which do not help us in determining the particular point in ,uestion+[.lr]Cor by conflicting testimony' /he thing which one proposes to one:s self before proceeding to act+ is 2a motive2 4prayo'ana67 this is twofold+ i.e.+ visible and invisible' 25n example2 is a fact brought forward as a ground for establishing a general principle+ and it may be either affirmative or negative'[.$l] 5 2tenet2 4siddhnta6 is something which is accepted as being authoritatively settled as true7 it is of four 0inds+ as being 2common to all the schools+2 2peculiar to one school+2 2a pregnant assumption2 [leading+ if conceded+ to a further conclusion]+ and 2an implied dogma2 4i' .k-D$6' /he 2member2 4of a demonstration6 is a part of the sentence containing an inference for the sa0e of another7 and these are five+ the proposition+ the reason+ the example+ the application+ and the conclusion 4i' D.-D%6' 2Confutation2 4tarka+ i' Dr6 is the showing that the admission of a false minor necessitates the admission of a false ma<or[.$$] 4cf' Snt' i' Dr+ and [$k@]iv' D67 and this is of eleven 0inds+ as vyghta+ tmraya+ itaretarraya+ Pc' 25scertainment2 4niraya+ i' @l6 is right 0nowledge or a perception of the real state of the case' It is of four 0inds as produced by perception+ inference+ analogy+ or testimony' 2Aiscussion2 4vda6 is a particular 0ind of conversation+ having as its end the ascertainment of truth 4i' @$6' 21rangling2 4'alpa6 is the tal0 of a man only wishing for victory+ who is ready to employ arguments for either side of the ,uestion 4i' @.6' 2Cavilling2 4vitad6 is the tal0 of a man who does not attempt to establish his own side of the ,uestion 4i' @D6' 2Aialogue2 4kath6 is the ta0ing of two opposite sides by two disputants' 5 2fallacy2 is an inconclusive reason which is supposed to prove something+ and this may be of five 0inds+ the 2erratic+2 the 2contradictory+2 the 2uncertain+2 the 2unproved+2 and the 2precluded2 or 2mistimed2 4Snt' i' @@-@r6' 2pnfairness2 4chhala6 is the bringing forward a contrary argument by using a term wilfully in an ambiguous sense7 this is of three 0inds+ as there may be fraud in respect of a term+ the meaning+ or a metaphorical phrase 4i' &l-&@6' 2mutility2 4'ti6 is a selfdestructive argument 4i' &%6' /his is of twenty-four 0inds 4as described in the fifth boo0 of the 8y!ya aphorisms6 4$-D%6' 2=ccasion for rebu0e2 is where the disputant loses his cause [by stupidity]+ and this is of twenty-two 0inds 4as described in the fifth boo0 of the aphorisms+ @@-k-6' 1e do not insert here all the minute subdivisions through fear of being too prolix+Cthey are fully explained in the aphorisms' #ut here an ob<ector may say+ 2If these sixteen topics+ proof+ Pc'+ are all thus fully discussed+ how is it that it has received the name of the 8y!ya E!stra+ [as reasoning+ i.e.+ 5yya+ or logic+ properly forms only a small part of the topics which it treats ofq]2 1e allow the force of the ob<ection7 still as names are proverbially said to be given for some special reason+ we maintain that the name 8y!ya was[$k&] rightly applied to ?otama:s system+ since 2reasoning+2 or inference for the sa0e of another+ is <ustly held to be a predominant feature from its usefulness in all 0inds of 0nowledge+ and from its being a necessary means for every 0ind of pursuit' So it has been said by Sarva<Oa+ 2/his is the preeminent science of 8y!ya from its establishing our doctrines against opponents+ and from its producing action72[.$.] and by (a0shila Sw!min+ 2/his is the science of reasoning 4nvkshik6 divided into the different categories+ :proof+: Pc'7 the lamp of all sciences+ the means for aiding all actions+ the ultimate appeal of all religious duties+ well proved in the declarations of science'2[.$D]

#ut here an ob<ector may say+ 21hen you declare that final liberation arises from the 0nowledge of the truth+ do you mean that liberation ensues immediately upon this 0nowledge being attainedq2 1e reply+ 28o+2 for it is said in the second 8y!ya aphorism+ 2(ain+ birth+ activity+ faults+ false notions+ Con the successive annihilation of these in turn+ there is the annihilation of the one next before it+2 by means of this 0nowledge of the truth' 8ow false notions are the thin0ing the body+ Pc'+ which are not the soul+ to be the soul7 2faults2 are a desire for those things which seem agreeable to the soul+ and a disli0e to those things which seem disagreeable to it+[.$@] though in reality nothing is either agreeable or disagreeable to the soul' 5nd through the mutual reaction of these different 2faults2 the stupid man desires and the desiring man is stupid7 the stupid man is angry+ and the angry man is stupid' oreover the man+ impelled by these faults+ does those things which are forbiddenG thus by the body he does in<ury+ theft+ Pc'7 by the voice+ falsehood+ Pc'7 by the mind+ malevolence+ Pc'7 and this same sinful 2activity2 produces demerit' =r+ again+ he may do laudable actions by [$kk]his body+ as alms+ saving others+ Pc'+ truthful spea0ing+ upright counsel+ Pc'+ by his voice+ and guilelessness+ Pc'+ by his mind7 and this same right activity produces merit' #ut both are forms of activity+ and each leads to a similar laudable or blamable birth or bodily manifestation7 and while this birth lasts there arises the impression of 2pain+2 which we are conscious of as of something that <ars against us' 8ow this series+ beginning with 2false notions2 and ending with 2pain+2 is continually going on+ and is what we mean by the words 2mundane existence+2 which rolls on ceaselessly+ li0e a waterwheel' 5nd whenever some pre-eminent man+ by the force of his previous good deeds+ obtains through the teaching of a great teacher the 0nowledge that all this present life is only a scene of pain and bound up with pain+ he recognises that it is all to be avoided+ and desires to abolish the ignorance+ Pc'+ which are the causes that produced it'[.$&] /hen he learns that the one means to abolish it is the 0nowledge of the truth7 and as he meditates on the ob<ects of right 0nowledge divided into the four sciences+[.$k] there arises in his mind the 0nowledge of the truth+ or+ in other words+ a right view of things as they are7 and from this 0nowledge of the truth false notions disappear' 1hen false notions disappear+ the 2faults2 pass away7 with them ceases 2activity72 and with it ceases 2birth72 and with the cessation of 2birth2 comes the entire abolition of 2pain+2 and this absolute abolition is final bliss' Its absoluteness consists in this+ that nothing similar to that which is thus abolished can ever revive+ as is expressly said in the second aphorism of the 8y!ya SntrasG 2(ain+ birth+ activity+ faults+ false notions+Csince+ on the successive annihilation of these in turn+ there is the annihilation of [$k-]the one next before it+ there is [on the annihilation of the last of them] final beatitude'2 2#ut is not your definition of the summum !onum+ liberation+ i.e.+ :the absolute abolition of pain+: after all as much beyond our reach as treacle on the elbow is to the tongue7[.$-] why then is this continually put forth as if it were established beyond all disputeq2 1e reply that as all those who maintain liberation in any form do include therein the absolute abolition of pain+ our definition+ as being thus a tenet accepted in all the schools+ may well be called the royal highway[.$%] of philosophy' 8o one+ in fact+ maintains that pain is possible without the individual:s activity' /hus even the !dhyami0a:s opinion that 2liberation consists in the abolition of soul+2 does not controvert our point+ so far at any rate as that it is the abolition of pain' #ut if you proceed to argue that the soul+ as being the cause of pain+ is to be abolished <ust li0e the body+ Pc'+ we reply that this does not hold+ since it fails under either alternative' mor do you mean by 2the soul+2 4a.6 the continued succession of cognitions+ or 4!.6 something different therefromq 4a.6 If the former+ we ma0e no ob<ection+ [since we 8aiy!yi0as allow that cognition is evanescent+[.$r] and we do desire to abolish cognition as a cause of pravitti or action[..l]]+ for who would oppose a view which ma0es for his own sideq 4!.6 #ut if the latter+ then+ since it must be eternal+[..$] its abolition is impossible7 and+ again+ a second ob<ection would be that no one would try to gain your supposed 2summum !onum72 for surely no sensible person would strive to annihilate the soul+ which is always the dearest of all+ on the [$k%]principle that 2everything else is dear for the soul:s pleasure72 and+ again+ everybody uses such a phrase as 2liberated+2 [and this very term refutes the idea of annihilation or abolition]'

2#ut why not say with those #auddhas who hold the doctrine of pure intelligence [i.e.+ the ;og!ch!ras and the Sautr!nti0as[...]]+ that :the summum !onum: is the rising of pure intelligence conse,uent on the cessation of the conscious sub<ectq2 /o this view we ob<ect that there is an absence of means7 and also it cannot be established that the locus [or sub<ect] of the two states is the same' mor the former+ if it is replied that the well-0nown fourfold set of #auddha contemplations[..D] are to be accepted as the cause+ we answer that+ as [according to the #auddha tenet of the momentary existence of all things] there cannot be one abiding sub<ect of these contemplations+ they will necessarily exercise a languid power li0e studies pursued at irregular intervals+ and be thus ineffectual to produce any distinct recognition of the real nature of things' 5nd for the latter+ since the continued series of cognitions when accompanied by the natural obstacles[..@] is said to be 2bound+2 and when freed from those obstacles is said to be 2liberated+2 you cannot establish an identity of the sub<ect in the two states so as to be able to say that the very same being which was bound is now liberated' 8or do we find the path of the Bainas+ viQ'+ that 2Hiberation is the releasing from all :obstructions+:2 a path entirely free from bars to impede the wayfarer' (ray+ will our Baina friend 0indly inform us what he means by 2obstruction2q[..&] If he answers 2merit+ demerit+ and error+2 we readily grant what he says' #ut if he maintains that 2the body is the true obstruction+ and hence Hiberation is the continual upspringing of the soul conse,uent on the [$kr]body:s annihilation+ as of a parrot released from its cage+2 then we must in,uire whether this said soul possesses form or not' If it possesses form+ then has it parts or notq If it has no parts+ then+ since the well-0nown definition of an atom will apply here as 2that which has form without parts+2 it will follow that the attributes of the soul are+ li0e those of an atom+ imperceptible to the senses'[..k] If you say that it has parts+ then the general maxim that 2whatever has parts is non-eternal+2 would necessitate that the soul is noneternal7 and if this were conceded+ then two grand difficulties [against the (rovidential course of the world] would burst in unopposed+ viQ'+ that what the soul has done would+ at its cessation+ perish with it [and thus fail of producing the proper fruit]+ while it would have reaped during life the effects of what it had not done [as the good and evil which happened to it would not be the conse,uences of its actions in a former birth]' If+ on the other hand+ the Baina maintains that the soul does not possess form at all+ then how can he tal0 of the soul:s 2upspringing+2 since all such actions as motion necessarily involve an agent possessing formq[..-] 5gain+ if we ta0e the Ch!rv!0a:s view 2that the only bondage is dependence on another+ and therefore independence is the true liberation+2Cif by 2independence2 he means the cessation of pain+ we have no need to controvert it' #ut if he means autocratic power+ then no sensible man can concede it+ as the very idea of earthly power involves the idea of a capability of being increased and of being e,ualled'[..%] 5gain+ the S!n0hya opinion+ which first lays down that nature and soul are utterly distinct+ and then holds that [$-l]2liberation is the soul:s remaining as it is in itself after nature [on being 0nown] has withdrawn+2Ceven this opinion accepts our tenet of the abolition of pain7 but there is left a difficulty as to whether this cognition of the distinction between nature and soul resides in the soul or in nature' It is not consistent to say that it resides in the soul+ since the soul is held to be unchangeable+ and this would seem to involve that previously it had been hampered by ignorance7 nor can we say that it resides in nature+ since nature is always held to be unintelligent' oreover+ is nature spontaneously active or inactiveq If the former+ then it follows that there can be no liberation at all+ since the spontaneous actions of things cannot be set aside7 and if the latter+ the course of mundane existence would at once cease to go on' 5gain+ we have the same recognition of our 2abolition of pain2 in the doctrine of #haa Sarva<Oa and his followers+ that 2Hiberation is the manifestation of an eternal happiness incapable of being increased72 but here we have the difficulty that an eternal happiness does not come within the range of definite proof' If you allege Eruti as the proof+ we reply that Eruti has no place when the thing itself is precluded by a valid non-perception7[..r] or if you allow its authority+ then you will have to

concede the existence of such things as floating stones'[.Dl] 2#ut if you give up the view that :liberation is the manifestation of happiness+: and then accept such a view as that which holds it to be only the cessation of pain+ does not your conduct resemble that of the dyspeptic patient who refused sweet mil0 and preferred sour rice-gruelq2 ;our satire+ however+ falls powerless+ as fitter for some speech in a play [rather than for a grave philosophical argument]' /he truth is that all happiness must [$-$]be included under the category of pain+ since+ li0e honey mixed with poison+ it is always accompanied by pain+ either as admitting of increase+[.D$] or as being an ob<ect of perception+ or as being exposed to many hostile influences+ or as involving an ir0some necessity of see0ing all 0inds of instruments for its production' 8or may you retort on us that we have fulfilled the proverb of 2see0ing one thing and dropping another in the search+2 since we have abolished happiness as being ever tainted by some incidental pain+ and+ at the same time+ our own favourite alternative is one which no one can consider desirable' mor the truth is that any attempt to establish happiness as the summum !onum+ since it is inevitably accompanied by various causes of pain+ is only li0e the man who would try to grasp a red-hot ball of iron under the delusion that it was gold' In the case of ob<ects of en<oyment got together by rightful means+ we may find many firefly-li0e pleasures7 but then how many are the rainy days to drown themq 5nd in the case of those got together by wrong means+ the mind cannot even conceive the future issue which will be brought about' Het our intelligent readers consider all this+ and not attempt to disguise their own conscious experience' /herefore it is that we hold it as indisputable that for him+ pre-eminent among his fellows+ who+ through the favour of the Supreme #eing+ has+ by the regular method of listening to the revealed Eruti+ Pc'+ attained unto the 0nowledge of the real nature of the soul+ for him the absolute abolition of pain is the true Hiberation' #ut it may be ob<ected+ 2Is there any proof at all for the existence of a Supreme #eing+ i.e.+ perception+ inference+ or Erutiq Certainly perception cannot apply here+ since the Aeity+ as devoid of form+ Pc'+ must be beyond the senses' 8or can inference hold+ since there is no universal proposition or true middle term which can apply'[.D.] 8or can Eruti+ since neither of the resulting [$-.]alternatives can be sustained7 for is it supposed to reveal+ as being itself eternal+ or as noneternalq pnder the former view an established tenet of our school would be contradicted [viQ'+ that the *eda is non-eternal]7 under the latter+ we should be only arguing in a circle'[.DD] 5s for comparison and any other proof which might be adduced [as that sometimes called presumption+ Pc']+ they need not be thought of for a moment+ as their ob<ect matter is definitely limited+ and cannot apply to the present case'[.D@] /herefore the Supreme #eing seems to be as unreal as a hare:s horn'2 #ut all this elaborate disputation need excite no flurry in the breast of the intelligent+ as it can be at once met by the old argument+ 2/he mountain+ seas+ Pc'+ must have had a ma0er from their possessing the nature of effects <ust li0e a <ar'2 4a.6 8or can our middle term [possessing the nature of effects] be re<ected as unproved 4asiddha6+ since it can be established beyond a doubt by the fact of the sub<ect:s possessing parts' 2#ut what are we to understand by this :possessing parts:q Is it :existing in contact with parts+: or :in intimate relation with parts:q It cannot be the first+ since this would e,ually apply to such eternal things as ether+[.D&] Pc'7 nor can it be the second+ since this would prove too much+ as applying to such cases as the [eternal] species+ thread+ which abides in intimate relation with the individual threads' It therefore fails as a middle term for your argument'2 1e reply+ that it holds if we explain the 2possessing parts2 as 2belonging to the class of those substances which exist in intimate relation'2[.Dk] =r we may adopt another view and [$-D]maintain that it is easy to infer the 2possessing the nature of effects2 from the consideration of their possessing intermediate magnitude'[.D-] 4!.6 8or can our middle term be re<ected as 2contradictory2 4viruddha6+[.D%] since there is no such ac0nowledged universal proposition connected with it as would establish the opposite ma<or term to that in our syllogism [i.e.+ that they must have had no ma0er]' 4c.6 8or is our middle term too general 4anaiknta6+ since it is never found in opposite instances [such as the la0e+ which is the vipaksha in the argument+ 2/he mountain has fire because it has smo0e2]' 4d.6 8or again is it precluded 4!dhita or kltyayopadisha6+ for there is no superior evidence to exercise such a

precluding power' 4e.6 8or is it counter-balanced 4sat-pratipakshita6+ for there does not appear to be any such e,ually valid antagonist' If you bring forward as an antagonistic syllogism+ 2/he mountains+P c'+ cannot have had a ma0er+ from the fact that they were not produced by a body+ <ust as is the case with the eternal ether+2Cthis pretended inference will no more stand examination than the young fawn can stand the attac0 of the full-grown lion7 for the additional words 2by a body2 are useless+ since 2from the fact that they were not produced2 would be a sufficient middle term by itself [and the argument thus involves the fallacy called vypyatvsiddhi]'[.Dr] 8or can you retort+ 21ell+ let this then be our middle term72 for you cannot establish it as a real fact' 8or again is it possible to raise the [$-@]smallest shadow of a fear lest our middle term should be liable to limitation by any suggested condition 4updhi6+[.@l] [such as 2the being produced by a corporeal agent+2 to limit our old reason 2from having the nature of effects2]+ because we have on our side a valid line of argument to establish our view+ viQ'+ 2If the mountains+P c'+ had no ma0er+ then they would not be effects2 [but all do ac0nowledge that they have the nature of effects]+ for in this world that is not an effect which can attain its proper nature independently of any series of concurrent causes' 5nd this series inevitably involves the idea of some sort of ma0er7 and I mean by 2being a ma0er2 the being possessed of that combination of volition+ desire to act+ and 0nowledge of the proper means+ which sets in motion all other causes+ but is itself set in motion by none' 5nd hence we hold that if the necessity of a ma0er were overthrown+ the necessity of the action of all the other causes would be simultaneously overthrown+ since these are dependent thereon7 and this would lead to the monstrous doctrine that effects could be produced without any cause at all' /here is a rule laid down by Ea0ara-0i0ara which applies directly to the present caseC 21hen a middle term is accompanied by a sound argument to establish its validity+ 2/hen you cannot attempt to supply a limiting condition on account of the [supposed] noninvariable concomitance of the ma<or term'2 If you maintain that there are many sound counter-arguments+ such as 2If the Supreme #eing were a ma0er+ He would be possessed of a body+2P c'+ we reply+ that all such reasoning is e,ually inconsistent+ whether we allow that Supreme #eing:s existence to be established or not'[.@$] [$-&] 5s has been said by pdayana "ch!rya [in the Nusum!O<ali+ iii' &]C 2If Eruti+ Pc'+ have any authority+ your negative argument fails from being precluded7 if they are fallacious+ our old ob<ection of a :baseless inference: returns stronger than ever'2 8or need we fear the possibility of any other contradiction to our argument+ since it would be overthrown by either alternative of ?od:s being 0nown or un0nown'[.@.] 21ell+ let all this be granted7 but the activity of ?od in creating the world+ what end did it have in viewq His own advantage or some other being:sq If it was for the former end+ was it in order to attain something desired+ or to avoid something not desiredq It could not be the first+ because this would be ,uite incongruous in a being who possesses every possible desire gratified7 and for the same reason too it could not be the second' If it was for the latter end [the advantage of another] it would be e,ually incongruous7 for who would call that being 2wise2 who busied himself in acting for anotherq If you replied that His activity was <ustified by compassion+ any one would at once retort that this feeling of compassion should have rather induced Him to create all living beings happy+ and not chec0ered with misery+ since this militates against His compassion7 for we define compassion as the disinterested wish to avoid causing another pain' Hence we conclude that it is not befitting for ?od to create the world'2 /his has been said by #ha!ch!ryaC 28ot even a fool acts without some ob<ect in view7 2Suppose that ?od did not create the world+ what end would be left undone by Himq2C

1e reply+ = thou crest-<ewel of the atheistic school+ be [$-k]pleased for a moment to close thy envy-dimmed eyes+ and to consider the following suggestions' His action in creation is indeed solely caused by compassion7 but the idea of a creation which shall consist only of happiness is inconsistent with the nature of things+ since there cannot but arise eventual differences from the different results which will ripen from the good or evil actions of the beings who are to be created' 8or need you ob<ect that this would interfere with ?od:s own independence [as He would thus seem to depend on others: actions]+ since there is the well-0nown saying+ 2=ne:s own body does not hinder one72 nay rather it helps to carry out one:s aims7[.@D] and for this there is authority in such passages of the *eda as that 4in the Evet!vatara ppanishad+ iii' .6+ 2/here is one 3udra only7 he admits[.@@] not of a second+2 Pc' 2#ut then how will you remedy your deadly sic0ness of reasoning in a circleq [for you have to prove the *eda by the authority of ?od+ and then again you have to prove ?od:s existence by the *eda2]' 1e reply+ that we defy you to point out any reasoning in a circle in our argument' Ao you suspect this 2reciprocal dependence of each+2 which you call 2reasoning in a circle+2 in regard to their being produced or in regard to their being 0nownq[.@&] It cannot be the former+ for though the production of the *eda is dependent on ?od+ still as ?od Himself is eternal+ there is no possibility of %is being produced7 nor can it be in regard to their being 0nown+ for even if our 0nowledge of ?od were dependent on the *eda+ the *eda might be learned from some other source7 nor+ again+ can it be in regard to the 0nowledge of the non-eternity of the *eda+ for the non-eternity of the *eda is easily perceived by [$--]any yogin endowed with the transcendent faculties 4tvra+[.@k] Pc'6 /herefore+ when ?od has been rendered propitious by the performance of duties which produce His favour+ the desired end+ Hiberation+ is obtained7 thus everything is clear' >' #' C' 8=/> =8 (5?>S $-.+ $-D' 1e have here an exemplification of the five fallacies or hetv!hsas of the modern Hindu logic 4cf' 1iddhntamukt.+ } -$+ /arkasagr.+ &&-k-6+ viQ'+ anaiknta+ viruddha+ asiddha+ kltyayopadisha or !dhita+ and pratipakshita or sat-pratipaksha' /he four first of these generally correspond to the savya!hichra or 2erratic+2 viruddha or 2contradictory+2 sdhyasama or 2unproved+2 and attakla or 2mistimed+2 i.e.+ 2precluded+2 as given in the list of fallacies of the older logic in p' $k@7 but pratipakshita corresponds imperfectly to prakaraasama' /he prakaraasama or 2uncertain2 reason is properly that reason which is e,ually available for both sides+ as+ e.g.+ the argument+ 2Sound is eternal because it is audible+2 which could be met by the e,ually plausible argument+ 2Sound is non-eternal because it is audible72 or+ according to other authorities+ it is that reason which itself raises the same difficulties as the original ,uestion+ as+ e.g.+ 2sound is non-eternal because eternal ,ualities are not perceived in it72 here this alleged reason is as much the sub<ect of dispute as the old ,uestion+ 2Is sound eternalq2 #ut the pratipakshita reason is one which is counterbalanced by an e,ually valid reason+ as 2Sound is eternal because it is audible+2 and 2Sound is noneternal because it is a product'2

[.l&] Cf' 8y!ya Sntras+ i' .r' [.lk] In p' $$.+ line $k+ of the Calcutta edition+ I read doshanimitta-tattva for doshanimittakatva 4compare 8y!ya Snt' iv' k%6' [.l-] 1ithout this last clause the definition might include the ob<ects 4vishaya6+ as these are+ of course+ connected with right 0nowledge' [.l%] )vara is a cause of right 0nowledge 4prama6 according to the definition+ because he is pramy raya'

[.lr] =n this compare Siddh!nta- u0t!vali+ p' $$&' [.$l] =n these compare my note to Colebroo0e:s >ssays+ vol' i' p' D$&' [.$$] 2=ur coming to the conclusion that there can be no smo0e in the hill if there be no fire+ while we see the smo0e+ is the confutation of there being no fire in the hill2 44allantyne6' =r+ in other words+ 2the mountain must have the absence-of-smo0e 4vypaka6 if it has the absence-of-fire 4the false vypya26' [.$.] 5ction 4pravitti6 follows after the ascertainment of the truth by nyya' [.$D] Cp' *!tsy!yana:s Comment'+ p' k' /he Calcutta edition reads prakrtit for parkshit' [.$@] /he printed text omits the third fault+ 2a stupid indifference+ moha+2 which is however referred to presently' [.$&] In p' $$k+ line D+ I would read tannirvartakam for tannivartakam' [.$k] /his refers to the couplet so often ,uoted in Hindu authors+ 2Hogic+ the three *edas+ trade and agriculture+ and the eternal doctrine of polity+Cthese four sciences are the causes of the stability of the world2 4cf' anu+ vii' @D6' It occurs in N!manda0i:s 5tisra+ ii' .+ and seems to be referred to in *!tsy!yana:s Com' p' D+ from which !dhava is here borrowing' [.$-] Compare the >nglish proverb+ 25s soon as the cat can lic0 her ear'2 [.$%] Hiterally the 2bell-road+2 i.e.+ 2the chief road through a village+ or that by which elephants+ Pc'+ decorated with tin0ling ornaments+ proceed'2C?ilson*s 2ict. [.$r] /he cognition is produced in the first moment+ remains during the second+ and ceases in the third' [..l] See 8y!ya Snt' i' .' [..$] 5s otherwise why should we re,uire liberation at allq =r rather the author probably assumes that other 8aiy!yi0as have sufficiently established this point against its opponents+ cf' p' $k-+ line $$' [...] See supra+ pp' .@-D.' [..D] 5ll is momentary+ all is pain+ all is sui generis+ all is unreal' [..@] In the form of the various kleas or 2afflictions'2 [..&] ,varaa+ cf' pp' &&+ &%' [..k] #ut the 8y!ya holds that the attributes of the soul+ as happiness+ desire+ aversion+ Pc'+ are perceived by the internal sense+ mind 4#h!sh! (' } %D6' [..-] /he reading m"rtaprati!andht is difficult+ but I believe that prati!andha means here vypti+ as it does in S!n0hya Sntras+ i' $ll' [..%] /he true summum !onum must be niratiaya+Cincapable of being added to' [..r] 9ogynupala!dhi is when an ob<ect is not seen+ and yet all the usual concurrent causes of vision are present+ as the eye+ light+ Pc' [.Dl] 5lluding to the *edic phrase+ 2grvna plavanti+2 see pttara 8aishadha+ xvii' D-' /he phrase amna plavanti occurs in Shav' #r' &+ $.' [.D$] =r perhaps 2capable of being surpassed'2 [.D.] Since the Supreme #eing is a single instance' [.DD] Since the *eda+ if non-eternal+ must [to be authoritative] have been created by ?od+ and yet it is brought forward to reveal the existence of ?od'

[.D@] /he 8y!ya holds presumption to be included under inference+ and comparison is declared to be the ascertaining the relation of a name to the thing named' [.D&] Since ether is connected by contact with the parts of everything+ as e.g.+ a <ar' [.Dk] /he whole 4as the <ar6 resides by intimate relation in its parts 4as the <ar:s two halves6' #ut the eternal substances+ ether+ time+ the soul+ mind+ and the atoms of earth+ water+ fire+ and air+ do not thus reside in anything+ although+ of course+ the category viesha does reside in them by intimate relation' /he word 2substances2 excludes tantutva+ and 2existing in intimate relation2 excludes ether+ Pc' [.D-] Intermediate between infinite and infinitesimal+ all eternal substances being the one or the other' [.D%] /he viruddha-hetu is that which is never found where the ma<or term is' [.Dr] /his and much more of the whole discussion is ta0en from the Nusum!O<ali+ v' .+ and I extract my note on the passage there' 2/he older 8aiy!yi0as maintained that the argument :the mountain has fire because it has blue smo0e+: involved the fallacy of vy!pyatv!siddhi+ because the alleged middle term was unnecessarily restricted 4see Siddh!nta u0t!v' p' --6' /he moderns+ however+ more wisely consider it as a harmless error+ and they would rather meet the ob<ection by asserting that there is no proof to establish the validity of the assumed middle term'2 [.@l] mor the updhi cf' pp' -+ %' [.@$] 5s in the former case it would be clear that it is a sub<ect for separate discussion7 and in the latter you would be liable to the fault of raysiddhi+ a 2baseless inference+2 since your sub<ect 4or minor term6+ being itself non-existent+ cannot be the locus or sub<ect of a negation 4cf' Nusum!O<ali+ iii' .6' 2Bust as that sub<ect from which a given attribute is excluded cannot be unreal+ so neither can an unreal thing be the sub<ect of a negation'2 [.@.] If ?od is 0nown+ then His existence must be granted7 if He is not 0nown+ how can we argue about Himq I read lines $&+ $k+ in p' $.l of the Calcutta edition+ vikalpaparhatatvt+ and then begin the next clause with syd etat' /he printed text+ vikalpaparhata syt tad etat+ seems unintelligible' [.@D] /he aggregate of the various subtile bodies constitutes Hirayagarbha+ or the supreme soul viewed in His relation to the world as creator+ while the aggregate of the gross bodies similarly constitutes his gross body 4vir!<6' [.@@] /he usual reading is tasthur for tasthe' [.@&] mor these divisions of the anyonyraya fallacy+ see 5yyas"tra vitti+ i' Dr 4p' DD6' [.@k] mor tvra cf' 9oga s"tras+ i' .$+ ..' [$-%]


5n ob<ector may here as0+ 25re you not continually repeating that merit 4dharma6 comes from the practice of duty 4dharma6+ but how is duty to be defined or provedq2 Histen attentively to my answer' 5 reply to this ,uestion has been given in the older[.@-] 9m!s! by the holy sage Baimini' 8ow the 9m!s! consists of twelve boo0s'[.@%] In the first boo0 is discussed the authoritativeness of those collections of words which are severally meant by the terms in<unction

4vidhi6+ 2explanatory passage2 4arthavda6+ hymn 4mantra6+ tradition 4smiti6+ and 2name'2 In the second+ certain subsidiary discussions [as e.g.+ on ap"rva] relating to the difference of various rites+ refutation of 4erroneously alleged6 proofs+ and difference of performance [as in 2constant2 and 2voluntary2 offerings]' In the third+ 0ruti+ 2sign2 or 2sense of the passage2 4liga6+ 2context2 4vkya6+ Pc'+ and their respective weight when in apparent opposition to one another+ the ceremonies called pratipatti-karmi+ things mentioned incidentally 4anra!hydhta6+ things accessory to several main ob<ects+ as pray'as+ Pc'+ and the duties of the sacrificer' In the fourth+ the influence on other rites of the principal and subordinate rites+ the fruit caused by the 'uh" being made of the !utea frondosa+ Pc'+ and the dice-playing+ Pc'+ which form subordinate parts of the r'as"ya sacrifice' In the fifth+ the relative order of different [$-r]passages of 0ruti+ Pc'+ the order of different parts of a sacrifice [as the seventeen animals at the v'apeya]+ the multiplication and non-multiplication of rites+ and the respective force of the words of 0ruti+ order of mention+ Pc'+ in determining the order of performance' In the sixth+ the persons ,ualified to offer sacrifices+ their obligations+ the substitutes for en<oined materials+ supplies for lost or in<ured offerings+ expiatory rites+ the sattra offerings+ things proper to be given+ and the different sacrificial fires' In the seventh+ transference of the ceremonies of one sacrifice to another by direct command in the *aidic text+ and then as inferred by 2name2 or 2sign'2 In the eighth+ transference by virtue of the clearly expressed or obscurely expressed 2sign+2 or by the predominant 2sign+2 and cases where no transference ta0es place' In the ninth+ the beginning of the discussion on the adaptation of hymns when ,uoted in a new connection 4"ha6+ the adaptation of smans and mantras+ and collateral ,uestions connected therewith' In the tenth+ the discussion of occasions where the non-performance of the primary rite involves the 2preclusion2 and non-performance of the dependent rites+ and of occasions where rites are precluded because other rites produce their special result+ discussions connected with the graha offerings+ certain smans+ and various other things+ and a discussion on the different 0inds of negation' In the eleventh+ the incidental mention and subse,uently the fuller discussion of tantra[.@r] [where several acts are combined into one]+ and vpa [or the performing an act more than once]' In the twelfth+ a discussion on prasaga [where the rite is performed for one chief purpose+ but with an incidental further reference]+ tantra+ cumulation of concurrent rites 4samuchchaya6 and option' 8ow the first topic which introduces the discussions of [$%l]the (nrva- 9m!s! arises from the aphorism+ 28ow therefore a desire to 0now duty [is to be entertained by thee2]' 8ow the learned describe a 2topic2 as consisting of five members+ and these are 4a.6 the sub<ect+ 4!.6 the doubt+ 4c.6 the prim< facie argument+ 4d.6 the demonstrated conclusion+ and 4e.6 the connection 4sagati6' /he topic is discussed according to the doctrines held by the great teachers of the system' /hus the 2sub<ect2 to be discussed is the sentence+ 2/he *eda is to be read'2 8ow the 2doubt2 which arises is whether the study of Baimini:s stra concerning duty+ beginning with the aphorism+ 2Auty is a thing which is to be recognised by an instigatory passage+2 and ending with 2and from seeing it in the anvhrya+2 is to be commenced or not' /he prim< facie argument is that it is not to be commenced+ whether the in<unction to read the *eda be held to have a visible and present or an invisible and future fruit' 4a.6 If you say that this in<unction must have a visible fruit+ and this can be no other[.&l] than the 0nowledge of the meaning of what is read+ we must next as0 you whether this said reading is en<oined as something which otherwise would not have been thought of+ or whether as something which otherwise would have been optional+ as we see in the rule for shelling rice' [.&$] It cannot be the former+ for the reading of the *eda is a means of 0nowing the sense thereof from its very nature as reading+ <ust as in the parallel instance of reading the ah!bh!rata7 and we see by this argument that it would present itself as an obvious means ,uite independently of the in<unction' 1ell+ then+ let it be the latter alternative7 <ust as the ba0ed flour ca0e called purosa is made only of rice prepared by being unhus0ed in a mortar+ when+ but for the in<unction+ it might have been unhus0ed by the finger-nails' /here+ however+ the new moon and full moon sacrifices only produce their unseen effect+ which is [$%$]the principal ap"rva+ by means of the various minor effects or subordinate ap"rvas+ produced by the various subordinate parts of the whole ceremony7 and conse,uently the minor ap"rva of the unhus0ing is the reason there for the restricting

in<unction' #ut in the case which we are discussing+ there is no such reason for any such restriction+ as the rites can be e,ually well performed by gaining the 0nowledge of the *eda:s meaning by reading a written boo0+ or by studying under an authorised teacher' Hence we conclude that there is no in<unction to study the (nrva 9m!s! as a means of 0nowing the sense of the *eda' 4!.6 21hat+ then+ becomes of the *edic in<unction+ :/he *eda is to be read:q2 1ell+ you must be content with the fact that the in<unction will have heaven as its [future] fruit+ although it merely en<oins the ma0ing oneself master of the literal words of the *edic text [without any care to understand the meaning which they may convey]+ since heaven+ though not expressly mentioned+ is to be assumed as the fruit+ according to the analogy of the *iva<it offering' Bust as Baimini+ in his aphorism 4iv' D+ $&6+ 2Het that fruit be heaven+ since it e,ually applies to all+2 establishes that those who are not expressly mentioned are still ,ualified to offer the *iva<it sacrifice+ and infers by argument that its characteristic fruit is heaven+ so let us assume it to be in the present case also' 5s it has been saidC 2Since the visible fruit would be e,ually obtained without the in<unction+ this cannot be its sole ob<ect7 we must rather suppose heaven to be the fruit from the in<unction:s significance+ after the analogy of the *iva<it+ Pc'2 /hus+ too+ we shall 0eep the Smiti rule from being violatedG 2Having read the *eda+ let him bathe'2 mor this rule clearly implies that no long interval is to ta0e place between reading the *eda and the student:s return to his home7 while+ according to your opinion+ after he had read the *eda+ he would still have to remain in his preceptor:s house to read the 9m!s! discussions+ and thus the idea of no interval between would be contradicted' /herefore[$%.] for these three reasons+ 4a.6 that the study of 9m!s! is not en<oined+ 4!.6 that heaven can be obtained by the simple reading of the text+ and 4c.6 that the rule for the student:s return to his home is thus fulfilled+ we maintain that the study of the 9m!s! discussions on duty is not to be commenced' /he 2authoritative conclusion2 4siddhnta6+ however+ is as followsGC 1e grant that it cannot be a case of vidhi+ for it might have been adopted on other grounds7 but not even Indra with his thunderbolt could ma0e us lose our hold of the other alternative that it is a case of niyama' In the sentence+ 2/he *eda is to be read+2 the affix tavya expresses an enforcing power in the word+[.&.] which is to be rendered visible by a corresponding action in man+ bringing a certain effect into existence7 and this enforcing power see0s some corresponding end which is connected with the man:s creative effort' 8ow it cannot be the act itself of reading+ as suggested by the whole word adhyetavya+ which it thus see0s as an end7 for this act of reading+ thus expressed by the word+ could never be regarded as an end+ since it is a laborious operation of the voice and mind+ consisting in the articulate utterance of the portion read' 8or could the portion read+ as suggested by the whole sentence+ be regarded as the end' mor the mass of words called 2*eda+2 which is what we really mean by the words 2portion read+2 being eternal and omnipresent+ could never fulfil the conditions of the four 2fruits of action+2 production+ Pc'[.&D] /herefore the only true end which remains to us is the [$%D]0nowledge of the meaning+ as obtained by carrying out the sense of the words of the in<unction' 5ccording to the old rule+ 2He has the right who has the want+ the power+ and the wit+2 those who are aiming to understand certain things+ as the new and full moon sacrifices+ use their daily reading to learn the truth about them' 5nd the in<unction for reading+ since it virtually excludes the reading of written boo0s+ Pc' [from the well-0nown technical sense of the word 2read2 when used in this connection]+ conveys the idea that the reading the *eda en<oined has a consecrated character [as taught by a duly authorised teacher]' /herefore+ as the principal ap"rva+ produced by the great new and full moon sacrifices+ necessitates and establishes the subordinate ap"rvas produced by the inferior sacrificial acts+ as unhus0ing the rice+ Pc'+ so the mass of ap"rva produced by all the sacrifices necessitates and establishes a previous ap"rva produced by the restricting in<unction 4niyama6+ which prescribes reading the *eda as the means to 0now how to perform these sacrifices' If you hesitate to concede that a niyama could have this future influence called ap"rva+ the same doubt might e,ually invalidate the efficacy of a vidhi [as the two stand on the same level as to their en<oining power]' 8or is the supposition a valid one that heaven is the fruit+ according to the analogy of the .iva'it offering+ since+ if there is a present and visible fruit in

the form of a 0nowledge of the meaning of the sacred text+ it is improper to suppose any other future and unseen fruit' /hus it has been saidC 21here a seen fruit is obtained+ you must not suppose an unseen one7 but if a vidhi has the restricting meaning of a niyama+ it does not thereby become meaningless'2 [$%@] #ut an ob<ector may say+ 25lthough a man who reads the simple text of the *eda may not attain to a 0nowledge of its meaning+ still+ as he who reads the *eda with its agas+ grammar+ Pc'+ may attain to this 0nowledge+ the study of 9m!s! will be useless'2 #ut this is not trueG for even though he may attain to a simple 0nowledge of the literal meaning+ all deeper investigation must depend on this 0ind of discussion' mor instance+ when it is said+ 2He offers anointed gravel+2 neither grammar nor nigama[.&@] nor nirukta will determine the true meaning that it is to be anointed with ghee and not with oil+ Pc'7 it is only by a 9m!s! discussion that the true meaning is unravelled from the rest of the passage+ 2*erily+ ghee is brightness'2[.&&] It is therefore established that the study of 9m!s! is en<oined' 8or need it be supposed that this contradicts the passage of Smiti+ 2Having read the *eda+ let him bathe+2 which implies that he should now leave his teacher:s house+ and prohibits any further delay7 as the words do not necessarily imply that the return to the paternal roof is to follow immediately on his having read the *eda+ but only that it is to follow it at some time+ and that both actions are to be done by the same person+ <ust as we see in the common phrase+ 2Having bathed+ he eats'2 /herefore from the purport of the in<unction we conclude that the study of the (nrva 9m!s! E!stra+ consisting of a thousand 2topics+2[.&k] is to be commenced' /his topic is connected with the main sub<ect of the E!stra as being a subsidiary digression+ as it is said+ 2/hey call that a subsidiary digression which helps to establish the main sub<ect'2[.&-] I now proceed to give a s0etch of the discussion of the same 2topic2 in accordance with the teaching of the ?uru (rabh!0ara' In the Smiti rule+[.&%] 2Het him admit as a pupil the #rahman lad when eight years old 4by investing him with [$%&]the sacred cord6+ let him instruct him+2 the ob<ect of the direction appears to be the pupil:s instruction' 8ow a direction must have reference to somebody to be directed7 and if you as0 who is here to be directed+ I reply+ 2He who desires to be a teacher+2 since+ by (!ini:s rule 4i' D+ Dk6+ the root n is used in the tmanepada when honour+ Pc'+ are implied+ i.e.+ here the duty which a teacher performs to his pupils' He who is to be directed as to admitting a pupil is the same person who is to be directed as to teaching him+ since both are the ob<ect of one and the same command' Hence the inspired sage anu has said 4ii' $@l6+ 2/he #r!hman who girds his pupil with the sacrificial cord and then instructs him in the *eda+ with its subsidiary agas and mystic doctrines+ they call a spiritual teacher 4chrya6'2 8ow the teaching which is the function of the teacher cannot be fulfilled without the learning which is the function of the pupil+ and therefore the very in<unction to teach implies and establishes a corresponding obligation to learn+ since the influencer:s efforts fail without those of one to be influenced' If you ob<ect that this view does not ma0e reading the *eda the ob<ect of definite in<unction+ I reply+ 1hat matters it to us if it is notq mor even if there is no reason for us to admit a separate in<unction for reading the *eda+ it will still remain perpetually en<oined as a duty+ because the passage which mentions it is a perpetual anuvda or 2supplementary repetition'2[.&r] /herefore the former prim< facie argument and its answer+ which were given before under the idea that there was a definite in<unction to read the *eda+ must now be discussed in another way to suit this new view' 8ow the prim< facie argument was that the study of 9m!s!+ not being authoritatively en<oined+ is not to be commenced7 the 2conclusion2 was that it is to be commenced as being thus authoritatively en<oined'[$%k] 8ow the upholders of the former or prim< facie view argue as followsGC21e put to the advocates of the conclusion the following dilemmaG Aoes the in<unction to teach imply that the pupil is to understand the meaning of what is read+ or does it only refer to the bare readingq It cannot be the

former+ for obviously the act of teaching cannot depend for its fulfilment on the pupil:s understanding what is taught [as this will depend on his ability as a recipient]7 and the latter will not help you+ as+ if the bare reading is sufficient+ the 9m!s! discussions in ,uestion will have no sub<ect or use' mor their proper sub<ect is a point in the *eda+ which is doubted about from having been only loo0ed at in a rough and impromptu way7 now if there is no need of understanding the meaning at all+ why should we tal0 of doubts and still more of any hope of ascertaining the true meaning by means of laborious discussionq 5nd therefore in accordance with the well-0nown principle+ :/hat which is a thing of use and not a matter of doubt is an ob<ect of attainment to an intelligent man+ as+ for instance+ a <ar which is in broad light and in contact with the external and internal senses+: as there is in the present case no such thing as a sub<ect to exercise it upon+ or a useful end to be attained by it+ we maintain that the study of 9m!s! is not to be commenced'2 1e grant+ in reply+ that the in<unction to teach does not imply a corresponding necessity that the student must understand the meaning7 still when a man has read the *eda with its subsidiary agas+ and has comprehended the general connection of the words with their respective meanings+ this will imply an understanding of the meaning of the *eda+ <ust as it would in any ordinary human compositions' 2#ut may we not say that+ <ust as in the case of the mother who said to her son+ :>at poison+: the meaning literally expressed by the words was not what she wished to convey+ since she really intended to forbid his eating anything at all in such and such a house7 so if the literal meaning of the *eda does not express its[$%-] real purport+ the old ob<ection will recur with full force that the study of 9m!s! will have neither sub<ect nor end [as there will be no use in understanding the literal meaning+ since+ as in the mother:s case+ it may only lead astray+ and so common sense must be the ultimate <udge2]' 1e reply+ that your supposed illustration and the case in ,uestion are not really parallel' In the supposed illustration the primary meaning of the words would be obviously precluded+ because a direction to eat poison would be inconceivable in the mouth of an authoritative and trustworthy spea0er li0e a mother+ and you would 0now at once that this could not be what she wished to say7 but in the case of the *eda+ which is underived from any personal author+ why should not the literal meaning be the one actually intendedq 5nd it is <ust the doubts that arise+ as they occasionally will do+ in reference to this intended meaning+ which will be the proper 2sub<ect2 of 9m!s! discussion7 and the settlement of these doubts will be its proper 2end'2 /herefore+ whenever the true meaning of the *eda is not obtained[.kl] by that reading which is virtually prescribed by the authoritative in<unction to a #rahman to teach+ it will be a proper sub<ect for systematic discussion7 and hence we hold that the study of 9m!s! is en<oined+ and should be commenced' 21ell+[.k$] be it so2 [say the followers of the 8y!ya]+ 2but how can the *edas be said to be underived from any personal author+ when there is no evidence to establish thisq 1ould you maintain that they have no personal author because+ although there is an unbro0en line of tradition+ there is no remembrance of any author+ <ust as is the case with the soul2q[.k.] /his argument is wea0+ because the alleged characteristics [unbro0en tradition+ Pc'] are not proved7 for those who hold the human origin of the *edas maintain [$%%]that the line of tradition was interrupted at the time of the dissolution of the universe' 5nd+ again+ what is meant by this assertion that the author is not rememberedq Is it 4$'6 that no author is believed+ or 4.'6 that no author is rememberedq /he first alternative cannot be accepted+ since we hold that ?od is proved to have been the author' 8or can the second+ because it cannot stand the test of the following dilemma+ viQ'+ is it meant 4a.6 that no author of the *eda is remembered by some one person+ or 4!.6 by any person whateverq /he former supposition brea0s down+ as it would prove too much+ since it would apply to such an isolated stanQa as 2He who is religious and has overcome pride and anger+2 Pc'[.kD] 5nd the latter supposition is inadmissible+ since it would be impossible for any person who was not omniscient to 0now that no author of the *eda was recollected by any person whatever' oreover+ there is actual proof that the *eda had a personal author+ for we argue as followsGC/he sentences of the *eda must have originated from a personal author+ since they have the character of sentences li0e those of N!lid!sa and other writers' 5nd+ again+ the sentences of the *eda have been composed by a

competent person+ since+ while they possess authority+ they have+ at the same time+ the character of sentences+ li0e those of anu and other sages' #ut [as0 the 9m!sa0as] may it not be assumed that 2all study of the *eda was preceded by an earlier study of it by the pupil:s preceptor+ since the study of the *eda must always have had one common character which was the same in former times as now72 and therefore this uninterrupted succession has force to prove the eternity of the *edaq /his reasoning+ however [the 8aiy!yi0as [$%r]answer]+ cannot rise to the height of proof+ for it has no more validity than such obviously illusory reasoning+ as 25ll study of the ah!bh!rata was preceded by an earlier study of it by the pupil:s preceptor+ since it is the study of the ah!bh!rata+ which must have been the same in former times as now'2 #ut [the 9m!sa0as will as0 whether there is not a difference between these two cases+ since] the Smiti declares that [*ishu incarnate as] *y!sa was the author of the ah!bh!rata+ in accordance with the line+ 21ho else than the lotus-eyed *ishu could be the ma0er of the ah!bh!rataq2 [while nothing of this sort is recorded in any Smiti in regard to the *eda]' /his argument+ however+ is pithless+ since those words of the (urushasn0ta 43ig *'+ x' rl6+ 2mrom him sprang the ich and S!man verses7 from him sprang the etres7 from him the ;a<us arose72 prove that the *eda had a ma0er' murther [proceed the 8aiy!yi0as] we hold that sound is non-eternal[.k@] because it has genus+ and is also perceptible to the external organs of beings such as ourselves+ <ust as a <ar is'[.k&] 2#ut+2 you may ob<ect+ 2is not this argument refuted by the proof arising from the fact that we recognise the letter g 4for example6 as the same we have heard beforeq2 /his ob<ection+ however+ is extremely wea0+ for the recognition in ,uestion is powerless to refute our argument+ since it has reference only to identity of species+ as in the case of a man whose hair has been cut and has grown again+ or of a <asmine which has blossomed afresh' 2#ut [as0s the 9m!sa0a] how can the *eda have been uttered by the incorporeal (aramevara+ who has no palate or other organs of speech+ and therefore cannot have pronounced the lettersq2 2/his ob<ection [$rl][answers the 8aiy!yi0a] is not happy+ because+ though (aramevara is by nature incorporeal+ he can yet assume a body in sport+ in order to show 0indness to his worshippers' Conse,uently the arguments in favour of the doctrine that the *eda had no personal author are inconclusive'2 I shall now [says the 9m!sa0a] clear up the whole ,uestion' 1hat is meant by this paurusheyatva [2derivation from a personal author2] which it is sought to proveq Is it 4$'6 mere procession 4utpannatva6 from a person+ li0e the procession of the *eda from persons such as ourselves+ when we daily utter itq or 4.'6 is it the arrangementCwith a view to its manifestationCof 0nowledge ac,uired by other modes of proof+ as in the case of treatises composed by persons li0e ourselvesq If the first meaning be intended+ there will be no dispute between us'[.kk] If the second sense be meant+ I as0 whether it is established 4a.6 by inference+[.k-] or 4!.6 by supernatural testimonyq 4a.6 /he former alternative cannot be correct+ because your argument would e,ually apply to the sentences in dramas such as the !lat9m!dhava [which+ of course+ being a wor0 of fiction+ has no authoritative character]' If you ,ualify your argument by inserting the saving clause+ 2while they possess authority+2[.k%] [as supra+ p' $%%+ line .$]+ even this explanation will fail to satisfy a philosopher' mor the sentences of the *eda are universally defined to be sentences which prove things that are not provable by other evidence' #ut if you could establish that these *edic sentences only prove what is provable by other evidence+ this definition would be at once [$r$]contradicted+ <ust as if a man were to say that his mother was a barren woman' 5nd even if we granted that (aramevara might assume a body in sport+ in order to show 0indness to his worshippers+ it would not at all follow that he would perceive things beyond the reach of the senses+ from the want of any means of apprehending ob<ects removed from him in place+ in time+ and in nature'[.kr] 8or is it to be assumed that his eyes and other senses alone would have the power of producing such 0nowledge+ for we can only draw upon our imagination in accordance with our past experience' /his has been declared by the ?uru [(rabh!0ara] when he refutes the supposition of an omniscient authorC 21herever we do find the power of an organ intensified+[.-l] it is done without its going beyond its

own proper ob<ects7 thus it may appear in the power of seeing the very distant or the very minute+ but not in the ear:s becoming cognisant of form'2 Hence 4!.6 we also maintain that your position cannot be established by any supposed supernatural testimony [as that ,uoted above from the 3ig-*eda+ 2from him sprang the ich and S!man verses2]' mor the rule of (!ini 4iv' D+ $l$6 will still remain inviolate+ that the grammatical affixes with which such names as N!ha0a+ N!l!pa+ and /aittir9ya are formed+ impart to those derivatives the sense of 2uttered by2 Naha+ Nal!pin+ Pc'+ though we maintain that these names have reference [not to those parts of the *eda as first composed by these sages+ but] to the fact that these sages instituted certain schools of traditional study' 5nd in the same way we hold [in reference to this verse from the 3ig*eda] that it only refers to the institution of certain schools of traditional study of these *edas' 8or will any supposed inference establish the non-eternity [$r.]of sound+ because [as we said before] it is opposed to the evidence of our consciousness+ [since we certainly recognise the letter now heard as the one heard before]' 8or is it reasonable to reply that+ although the letters are not the same+ they seem to be so on account of their identity of species' mor here we as0 our opponents a ,uestionCIs this idea that 2the apparent sameness arises from identity of species2 put forward from a wish to preclude entirely any idea of the letters being the same+ or only [from an imagined fear of error] because experience shows that the recognition will sometimes be erroneous [as in the cases of the hair and <asmine mentioned above]q 4a.6 If it arises from the latter reason+ we 9m!sa0as+ who hold that the *eda is its own evidence+ have said in reference to this timid imaginationC 2He who foolishly imagines that something as yet un0nown to him will come hereafter to stop his present conclusion+ will go to utter ruin in every transaction of life+ his mind a mass of doubts'2 4!.6 2#ut [the 8aiy!yi0as will as0] does not this recognition of g and other letters [as the same which we heard before] refer to the species which exists the same in each+ and not to the several individual letters+ since+ in fact+ we perceive that they are different as uttered by different persons+ otherwise we could not ma0e such distinctions as we do when we say :Somaarman is reading:q2 /his ob<ection+ however+ has as little brilliancy as its predecessors+ for as there is no proof of any distinction between the individual g:s+ there is no proof that we ought to assume any such thing as a species g7 and we maintain that+ <ust as to the man who does not understand [the 8aiy!yi0a doctrine of] the species g+ the one species [in the 8aiy!yi0a view] will by the influence of distinction of place+ magnitude+ form+ and individual sounds+ appear as if it were variously modified as itself distinct in place+ as small+ as great+ as long+ as short7 so to the man who does not understand our [ 9m!sa0a doctrine of] one individual[$rD] g+ the one g 4in our view6 will by the diversity of 2manifesters+2[.-$] appear to him associated with their respective peculiarities7 and as contrary characters are in this way ascribed [to the letter g]+ there is a fallacious appearance of distinction [between different g:s]' #ut does this ascription of contrary characters+ which is thus regarded as creating a difference [between the g:s]+ result 4$'6 from the nature of the thing+ or 4.'6 from our imaginationq /here is no proof of the former alternative7 for+ if it were true+ as an inherent difference would have to be admitted between different g:s+ we should have to say+ 2Chaitra has uttered ten g*s+2 and not 2Chaitra has uttered the same g ten times'2 =n the latter supposition+ there is no proof of any inherent distinction between g:s+ for inherent oneness is not destroyed by a difference of external disguises' /hus we must not conceive+ from the apparent distinction caused by such external disguises as <ars+ Pc'+ that there is any inherent distinction+ as of parts+ in the one indivisible ether' /he current use of the re<ected phrase [i.e.+ 2different2 as applied to the g:s] is really caused by the noise+ which in each case is different' /his has been said by the great teacherC 2/he ob<ect which the 8aiy!yi0as see0 by supposing a species is+ in fact+ gained from the letter itself7 and the ob<ect which they aim at by supposing an individuality in letters+ is attained from audible noises7[.-.] so that the assumption of species is useless'2 5nd againC 2Since in regard to sounds such an irresistible instinct of recognition is always awa0e within us+ it

precludes by its superior evidence all the inferences to prove sound:s non-eternity'2 /his at once refutes the argument given in the [8aiy!yi0a] [$r@]treatise by *!g9wara+ entitled #na-manohara+ 2sound is non-eternal from the fact of its being a special ,uality belonging to an organ of sense[.-D] 4sc. the ear6+ <ust as colour is to the eye'2 1e can also refute it in the following waysG 4a.6 If we follow the [S!0hya and *ed!nta] view that sound is a substance+ it is evidently overthrown[.-@] [as in that case sound cannot be a ,uality]7 4!.6 if we ta0e it as referring to the noise+ not the sound+ we have no dispute+ as it only establishes what we ourselves allow7 and 4c.6 the inference is overthrown by the 2limiting condition2 [updhi] of arvaatva+ or 2the not causing audition'2[.-&] So pdayana tries at great length to establish that+ although ether+ the site of sound+ is imperceptible+ the non-existence of that which abides in this site is perceptible7 and he then brings forward as an evidence for the non-eternity of sound+ that sense perception which causes the use of such common expressions as 2/he tumult is stopped+2 2/he sound has arisen'2[.-k] #ut he is sufficiently answered[.--] by our old reply [in p' $rD]+ that the fallacious appearance of [$r&]distinction arises from contrary characters being erroneously ascribed+ <ust as+ in the story+ the demon /!la went away [as well as #et!la] when the offering of blood was given to the latter'[.-%] 5nd as for the ob<ection raised by the author of the 5yya!h"shaa+[.-r] that+ if sound were eternal+ the conclusion must follow that it would be either always perceptible or always imperceptible+ this also is obviated by our allowing that we only perceive that sound which is manifested by our articulate noise'[.%l] 5nd as for the 48aiy!yi0a6 argument against the existence[.%$] of such a constant relation as this which is supposed between the manifested 2sound2 and the manifesting 2noise+2 since they both come simultaneously in contact with the sense of hearing+ this is invalid+ as it will indisputably apply with e,ual force in the case of the soul'[.%.] /herefore as the *eda is thus proved to have not originated from any personal author+ and as the minutest germ of suspicion against it is thus absolutely destroyed+ we hold it as satisfactorily demonstrated that it has a self-established authority in all matters relating to duty' 21ell2[.%D] [say our opponents]+ 2let this ,uestion rest7 [$rk]but how about another well-0nown controversyq It is saidC 2:/he S!0hyas hold that both authoritativeness and non-authoritativeness are self-proved7 the followers of the 8y!ya hold that both are proved by something else [as inference+ Pc']7 the #uddhists hold that the latter is self-proved and the former proved by something else7 the teachers of the *eda maintain that authoritativeness is self-proved and non-authoritativeness proved by something else': 8ow we as0+ amidst all this discussion+ how do the 9m!sa0as accept as established their tenet that the authoritativeness of duty is self-provedq 5nd what is the meaning of this so-called self-proved authoritativenessq Is it 4a.6 that authoritativeness springs from itselfq or 4!.6 that it springs from the right 0nowledge in which it residesq or 4c.6 that it springs from the instrumental causes [as the eye+ Pc'] which produced the right 0nowledge in which it residesq or 4d.6 that it resides in a particular 0nowledge produced by the instrumental causes which produced the right 0nowledgeq[.%@] or 4e.6 that it resides in a particular 0nowledge produced by the instrumental causes only which produced the right 0nowledgeq 24a.6 It cannot be the first+ because wherever the relation of cause and effect is found there must be a difference+ and therefore these two cannot reside in the same sub<ect [i.e.+ authoritativeness cannot cause itself]' 4!.6 It cannot be the second+ because if 0nowledge+ which is a ,uality+ were the cause of authoritativeness+ it would have to be a substance+ as being an intimate cause'[.%&] 4c.6 It cannot be the third+ because :authoritativeness: cannot properly be [$r-]:produced: at all+[.%k] whether we call it a general characteristic 4updhi6 or a species 4'ti67[.%-] for if we call it an updhi+ it is defined as the absolute non-existence of any contradiction to a certain 0ind of 0nowledge which does not possess the nature of recollection7[.%%] and this cannot be produced+ for we all allow that absolute non-existence is eternal7 and still less can we spea0 of its being produced+ if we regard it as a species' 4d.6 8or can it be the fourth+ for wrong 0nowledge [as well as right 0nowledge] is a

particular 0ind of 0nowledge+ and the instrumental causes which produce the general are included in those which produce the particular+[.%r] <ust as the general idea :seed+: as applied to :tree+: is included in the particular seed of any special tree+ as+ e.g.+ the Aalbergia Sisu7 otherwise we might suppose that the particular had no instrumental cause at all' ;our definition would therefore extend too far [and include erroneous as well as true 0nowledge]7 for non-authoritativeness+ which *edantists and most 9m!sa0as allow to be produced by something external+ must also be considered as residing in a particular 0nowledge [i.e.+ a wrong 0nowledge] produced [in part] by the instrumental causes which produced the right 0nowledge' 4e.6 5s for your fifth view+ we as0 whether by being produced by the instrumental causes only which produced right 0nowledge+ you mean to include or exclude the absence of a :defect:q It cannot be the former alternative7 because the followers of the 8y!ya who hold that authoritativeness is proved by something external [as inference+ Pc']+ would at once grant that authoritativeness is produced by the instrumental causes of 0nowledge combined with the absence of a :defect': [$r%]8either can it be the latter alternative7 for+ inasmuch as it is certain that the absence of a :defect: is found combined with the various instrumental causes+ this absence of a :defect: is fixed as by adamantine glue to be a cause of right 0nowledge+ since right 0nowledge will always accompany its presence+ and be absent if it is absent+ [.rl] and it will at the same time be not an unimportant condition'[.r$] If you ob<ect that nonexistence 4or absence6 cannot be a cause+ we reply by as0ing you whether non-existence can be an effect or notq If it cannot+ then we should have to allow that cloth is eternal+ as its 2emergent nonexistence2 or destruction would be impossible' If it can be an effect+ then why should it not be a cause alsoq So this rope binds you at both ends' /his has also been said by pdayana [in his Nusum!O<ali+ i' $l]C 2:5s existence+ so too non-existence is held to be a cause as well as an effect': 2/he argument+ in my opinion+ runs as followsGC3ight 0nowledge depends on some cause[.r.] other than the common causes of 0nowledge+ from the very fact that+ while it is an effect+ it is also 0nowledge+ <ust as wrong 0nowledge does'[.rD] 5uthoritativeness is 0nown through something external to itself [e.g.+ inference]+ because doubt arises in regard to it in an unfamiliar case+ as we also see in non-authoritativeness' 2/herefore+ as we can prove that authoritativeness is both produced and recognised by means of something external+ the 9m!s! tenet that :authoritativeness is self-proved: is li0e a gourd overripe and rotten'2 /his long harangue of our opponent+ however+ is but a vain attempt to stri0e the s0y with his fist7 for 4a.6 we mean by our phrase 2self-proved2 that while right 0nowledge is produced by the instrumental causes of [$rr]0nowledge+ it is not produced by any other cause 4as 2defect+2 Pc'6 /he following is our argument as drawn out in fullGC3ight 0nowledge is not produced by any other instrumental causes than those of 0nowledge+ while+ at the same time+ it is produced by these+ because it is not the site of wrongness of 0nowledge+C<ust li0e a <ar'[.r@] 8or can pdayana:s[.r&] argument be brought forward as establishing the dependence of authoritativeness on something external+ for it is swallowed up by the dragon of the e,ually potent contradictory argument' 23ight 0nowledge is not produced by any cause which is other than the causes of 0nowledge and is also other than :defect+:[.rk] from the very fact of its being 0nowledgeCli0e wrong 0nowledge'2 5gain+ since right 0nowledge can arise from the causes of 0nowledge per se+ it would be a needless complexity to suppose that anything else is a cause+ whether you call it a gua or the absence of a 2defect2 4dosha6'[.r-] 2#ut surely if the presence of a defect is the cause of wrong 0nowledge+ it is difficult to deny that its absence must be a cause of right 0nowledgeq2 1e meet this+ however+ by maintaining that the absence of defect is only an indirect and remote cause+ as it only acts negatively by preventing wrong 0nowledge' 5s it has been saidC [.ll]

2/herefore we reasonably conclude from the presence of guas the absence of :defects+:[.r%] from their absence the non-existence of the two 0inds of non-authoritativeness+[.rr] and from this the general conclusion'2[Dll] 4!.6 1e maintain that the recognition of right 0nowledge is produced by the same causes only which ma0e us perceive the first 0nowledge[Dl$] [sc. the eye+ mind+ Pc'] 8or can you ob<ect that this view is precluded+ because it would imply that there could be no such thing as doubt7 for we answer that doubt arises in cases where+ although all the causes which produce 0nowledge are present+ there is also the simultaneous presence of some opposing cause+ as a 2defect+2P c' 5s for your argument [= 8aiy!yi0at given supra+ in p' $r%+ lines $--.@]+ I as0+ Is your own argument an authoritative proof by itself or notq If it is+ it proves too much [for it would properly apply to itself and lead us to infer its own dependence on external proof+ whereas you hold it to be independent of such]7 and if it is not+ we should have a case of regressus in infinitum+ for it will want some other proof to confirm its authoritativeness+ and this too in its turn will want some fresh proof+ and so on for ever' 5s for the argument urged by pdayana[Dl.] in the Nusum!O<ali+ when he tries to establish that immediate and vehement action does not depend on the agent:s certainty as to the authoritativeness of the speech which sets him actingG 25ction depends on wish+ its vehemence on that [.l$]of the wish+[DlD] wish on the 0nowledge that the thing wished for is a means to attain some wished-for end+ and this is only ascertained by an inference based on some :sign: which proves that the thing is closely connected with the wished-for end+ and this inference depends on the things being in direct contact with the agent:s senses7 but throughout the whole series of antecedent steps the 9m!s! idea of the perception of authoritativeness is never once found as a cause of action'2 5ll this appears to us simple bluster+ li0e that of the thief who ostentatiously throws open all his limbs before me+ when I had actually found the gold under his armpit' It is only the 0nowledge that the thing is a means to attain the desired end+ and this 0nowledge recognised as authoritative and right 0nowledge+ which causes the definite volition to arise at all7 and in this we can distinctly trace the influence of that very perception of authoritativeness [whose existence he so vehemently pretended to deny]' If unhesitating action ever arose in any case from doubt+ then+ as it might always arise so in every given case+ all ascertainment of authoritativeness would be useless7 and as the very existence of what is unascertained is rendered uncertain+ poor authoritativeness would have to be considered as dead and buriedt #ut enough of this prolix controversy7 since it has been saidC 2/herefore the authoritativeness of a cognition+ which 4authoritativeness6 presented itself as representing a real fact+ may be overthrown by the perception of a :defect+: which perception is produced by some sign that proves the discrepancy between the cognition and the fact'2[Dl@] 8ow with regard to the *eda+ which is the self-proved and authoritative criterion in regard to duty+ [we have the following divergency between the two great 9m!s! [.l.]schools]GC/he *eda is composed of three portions+ respectively called 2hymns2 4mantra6+ 2explanatory passages2 4arthavda6+ and 2in<unctions2 4vidhi67 and by 2in<unction2 we mean such sentences as 2Het him who desires heaven sacrifice with the <yotishoma'2 Here ta+ the affix of the third person singular+ denotes an en<oining power+ which is 2coloured2 [or rendered definite] by the meaning of the root+ according to the opinion of the followers of #haa Num!rila+ who maintain that words signify[Dl&] something definite by themselves [apart from the sentence]' /he followers of ?uru (rabh!0ara+ on the contrary+ hold that the whole sentence is a command relating to the sacrifice+ as they maintain that words only signify an action or something to be done'[Dlk] /hus all has been made plain' >' #' C'

[.@-] !dhava here calls it the prch #ms'

[.@%] Cf' 3. 5yyamlvist+ pp' &-r' [.@r] /hus it is said that he who desires to be a family priest should offer a blac0-nec0ed animal to 5gni+ a parti-coloured one to Soma+ and a blac0-nec0ed one to 5gni' Should this be a case for tantra or notq #y tantra one offering to 5gni would do for both7 but as the offering to Soma comes between+ they cannot be united+ and thus it must be a case of vpa+ i.e.+ offering the two separately 43. 5yyaml+ xi' $+ $D6' [.&l] In p' $.D+ line @+ I read vilakshaa-dishaphala' [.&$] In the former case it would be a vidhi+ in the latter a niyama' Cf' the lines vidhir atyantam aprpto niyama pkshike sati> tatra chnyatra cha prptau parisakhy vidhyate' [.&.] /he 9m!s! holds that the potential and similar affixes+ which constitute a vidhi+ have a twofold power7 by the one they express an active volition of the agent+ corresponding to the rootmeaning 4artha-!hvan67 by the other an enforcing power in the word 4a!da-!hvan6' /hus in svargakmo ya'eta+ the eta implies 2let him produce heaven by means of certain acts which together ma0e up a sacrifice possessing a certain mystic influence72 next it implies an enforcing power residing in itself 4as it is the word of the self-existent *eda and not of ?od6 which sets the hearer upon this course of action' [.&D] /hese four 2fruits of action2 are obscure+ and I do not remember to have seen them alluded to elsewhere' I was told in India that they were a thing:s coming into being+ growing+ declining+ and perishing' If so+ they are the second+ third+ fifth+ and sixth of the six vikras mentioned in Ea0ara:s *a<rasnchi+ .+ i.e.+ asti+ 'yate+ vardhate+ vipariamate+ apakshyate+ nayati' I do not see how there could be any reference to the four 0inds of ap"rva+ sc' phala+ samudya+ utpatti+ and aga+ described in 8y!ya ' *' ii' $+ .' [.&@] /he nigamas are the *edic ,uotations in ;!s0a:s nirukta' [.&&] See 8y!ya-m!l!-vistara+ i' @+ $r' [.&k] /he exact number is r$&' [.&-] /his is to explain the last of the five members+ the sagati' [.&%] Cf' 5val!yana:s ?ihya Sntras+ i' $r+ $' [.&r] /he anuvda+ of course+ implies a previous vidhi+ which it thus repeats and supplements+ and so carries with it an e,ual authority' /he anuvda in the present case is the passage which mentions that the *eda is to be read+ as it enforces the previous vidhi as to teaching' [.kl] I read in p' $.-+ line $.+ anava-gamyamnasya+ and so the recension given in the 8y!ya *' p' $@+ na !udhyamnasya' [.k$] In the next two or three pages I have fre,uently borrowed from Ar' 1anskrit /exts+ vol' iii' p' %%' '

uir:s translation in his

[.k.] /he soul may be traced bac0 through successive transmigrations+ but you never get bac0 to its beginning' [.kD] !dhava means that the author of this stanQa+ though un0nown to many people+ was not necessarily un0nown to all+ as his contemporaries+ no doubt+ 0new who wrote it+ and his descendants might perhaps still be aware of the fact' In this case+ therefore+ we have an instance of a composition of which some persons did not 0now the origin+ but which+ nevertheless+ had a human author' /he stanQa in ,uestion is ,uoted in full in #htling0:s Indische Spr|che+ 8o' &&r%+ from the S' anthology called the 1u!hshitrava' mor muktaka+ see 1h. 2arp.+ } &&%' [.k@] /he eternity of the *eda depends on this tenet of the 9m!s! that sound is eternal' [.k&] >ternal things 4as the atoms of earth+ fire+ water+ and air+ minds+ time+ space+ ether+ and soul6 have viesha+ not smnya or genus+ and they are all imperceptible to the senses' ?enera are

themselves eternal 4though the individuals in which they reside are not6+ but they have not themselves genus' #oth these arguments belong rather to the 8y!ya-vaieshi0a school than to the 8y!ya' [.kk] /he 9m!sa0a allows that the uchchraa or utterance is non-eternal' [.k-] /he inference will be as followsG 2/he *edas were arranged after being ac,uired by other modes of proof+ with a view to their manifestation+ from the very fact of their having the nature of sentences+ <ust li0e the compositions of anu+ Pc'2 [.k%] /he argument will now run+ 2/he *edas were arranged after being ac,uired by other modes of proof+ because+ while they possess authority+ they still have the nature of sentences+ li0e the composition of anu+ Pc'2 [.kr] In assuming a material body+ he would be sub<ect to material limitations' [.-l] /he Bainas allow thirty-four such superhuman developments 4atiay6 in their saints' [.-$] Baimini maintains that the vibrations of the air 2manifest2 the always existing sound' [.-.] 21hat is meant by :noise: 4nda6 is these :con<unctions: and :dis<unctions+: occasioned by the vibrations of the air'2C4allantyne+ #ms Aphorisms+ i' $-' [.-D] /he 8y!ya holds that colour and sound are respectively special ,ualities of the elements light and ether7 and as the organs of seeing and hearing are composed of light and ether+ each will+ of course+ have its corresponding special ,uality' [.-@] In p' $D$+ line -+ I read pratyakshsiddhe' [.-&] Cf' my note pp' -+ %+ 4on the Ch!rv!0a-darana6 for the updhi' /he updhi or 2condition2 limits a too general middle term7 it is defined as 2that which always accompanies the ma<or term+ but does not always accompany the middle'2 /hus if the condition 2produced from wet fuel2 is added to 2fire+2 the argument 2the mountain has smo0e because it has fire2 is no longer a false one' Here+ in answer to the 8y!ya argument in the text+ our author ob<ects that its middle term 42from the fact of its being a special ,uality belonging to an organ of sense26 is too wide+ i.e.+ it is sometimes found where the ma<or term 2non-eternal2 is not found+ as+ e.g.+ in sound itself+ according to the 9m!s! doctrine' /o obviate this he proposes to add the 2condition+2 2not causing audition+2 as he will readily concede that all those things are non-eternal which+ while not causing audition+ are special ,ualities belonging to an organ of sense+ as+ e.g.+ colour' #ut I need scarcely add that this addition would ma0e the whole argument nugatory' In fact+ the (nrva 9m!s! and the 8y!ya can never argue together on this ,uestion of the eternity of sound+ as their points of view are so totally different' [.-k] In the former case we have the dhwasa of sound+ in the latter its prga!hva' [.--] In p' $D$+ line $.+ I read samapauhi for sampohi+ i.e.+ the passive aorist of sam v apa v "h' [.-%] I do not 0now this legend' /!la and #et!la are the two demons who carry *i0ram!ditya on their shoulders in the Sih!san-batt9s9' It appears to be referred to here as illustrating how one answer can suffice for two opponents' [.-r] /his is probably a wor0 by #h!sarva<Oa 4see Ar' Hall:s 4i!l. Index+ p' .k6' [.%l] 2hvani+ or our 2articulate noise+2 produces the vibrations of air which render manifest the ever-existing sound' /here is always an eternal but inaudible hum going on+ which we modify into a definite speech by our various articulations' I ta0e saskita here as e,uivalent to a!hivyakta' [.%$] I read in p' $D$+ line $&+ saskrakasaskrya!hv!hvnumnam' [.%.] It would be a case of vya!hichra' /he 8aiy!yi0a argument would seem to be something as followsGCSound is not thus manifested by noise+ since both are simultaneously perceived by the senses+ <ust as we see in the parallel case of the individual and its species7 these are both perceived

together+ but the individual is not manifested by the species' #ut the 9m!s! re<oins that this would e,ually apply to the soul and 0nowledge7 as the internal sense perceives both simultaneously+ and therefore 0nowledge ought not to be manifested by the soul+ which is contrary to experience' #ut I am not sure that I rightly understand the argument' [.%D] Here begins a long p"rva-paksha+ from p' $D$+ line $%+ down to p' $DD+ line r7 see p' $r% infra' [.%@] /his is (rabh!0ara:s view 4see Siddh' u0t!v'+ p' $$%6' /he first 0nowledge is in the form 2/his is a <ar72 the second 0nowledge is the cognition of this perception in the form 2I perceive the <ar72 and this latter produces authoritativeness 4prmya6+ which resides in it as its characteristic' [.%&] Substances are 2intimate causes2 to their ,ualities+ and only substances have ,ualities7 now if authoritativeness+ which is a characteristic of right 0nowledge+ were caused by it+ it would be a ,uality of it+ that is+ right 0nowledge would be its intimate cause and therefore a substance' [.%k] /he eye+ Pc'+ would be its instrumental causes' [.%-] /he first three categories 2substance+2 2,uality+2 and 2action+2 are called 'tis or species7 the last four+ 2genus+2 2viesha+2 2intimate relation+2 and 2non-existence+2 are called updhis or 2general characteristics'2 [.%%] /he (nrva 9m!s! denies that recollection is right 0nowledge' [.%r] 1rong 0nowledge is produced by the same instrumental causes 4as the eye+ Pc'6 which produced right 0nowledge+ but by these together with a @defect>@ as biliousness+ distance Pc' [.rl] 1cil. if there be dosh!hva there is pram7 if not+ not' In p' $D.+ line .l+ I read dosh!hvatvena for dosh!hvasahakitatvena' [.r$] Anyathsiddhatvam means niyatap"rvavartitve sati anvayakatvam' [.r.] 1cil. or the absence of 2defect+2 dosh!hva' [.rD] 1rong 0nowledge has dosh!hva or the presence of a 2defect2 as its cause+ in addition to the common causes' [.r@] 1rongness of 0nowledge 4apramtva6 can only reside in 0nowledge as a characteristic or ,uality thereof7 it cannot reside in a <ar' /he <ar is+ of course+ produced by other instrumental causes than those of 0nowledge 4as+ e.g.+ the potter:s stic0+ Pc'6+ but it is not produced by these other causes in com!ination with being also produced by the instrumental causes of 0nowledge 4with which it has nothing directly to do67 and so by a ,uibble+ which is less obvious in Sans0rit than in >nglish+ this wretched sophism is allowed to pass muster' /he <ar is not produced-by-any-otherinstrumental-causes-than-those-of-0nowledge+-while-at-the-same-time-it-is-produced-by-these' [.r&] I suppose this is the argument given at the close of the previous long pnrva-pa0sha' [.rk] /hese words 2and is other than defect2 4dosha-vyatirikta6 are+ of course+ meaningless as far as right 0nowledge is concerned7 they are simply added to enable the author to bring in 2wrong 0nowledge2 as an example' 1rong 0nowledge is caused by the causes of 0nowledge plus 2defect72 right 0nowledge by the former alone' [.r-] /he 8y!ya holds that wrong 0nowledge is produced by a 2defect+2 as <aundice+ Pc'+ in the eye+ and right 0nowledge by a gua or 2virtue2 4as the direct contact of the healthy organ with a true ob<ect6+ or by the absence of a 2defect'2 [.r%] /he gua 4or f][UYUZ ST of an organ is not properly a cause of pram but rather dosh!hva-!odhaka' [.rr] 1cil. 2doubtful2 4sandigdha6 and 2ascertained non-authoritativeness2 4nichitprmya6' [Dll] tsarga is a general conclusion which is not necessarily true in every particular case7 but here

it means the conclusion that 2right 0nowledge has no special causes but the common causes of 0nowledge+ the eye+2 Pc' [Dl$] /he first 0nowledge is 2/his is a <ar+2 the second 0nowledge is the cognition of this perception in the form 2I perceive the <ar72 and simultaneously with it arises the cognition of the truth of the perception+ i.e.+ its authoritativeness or prmya' [Dl.] /his seems to be a ,uotation of pdayana:s own words+ and no doubt is ta0en from his very rare prose commentary on the Nusum!O<ali+ a specimen of which I printed in the preface to my edition' /his passage must come from the fifth boo0 4v' kq6' [DlD] I read tat-prchuryam for tatprchurye in p' $D@+ line -' [Dl@] /his stanQa affirms that according to the 9m!s! school+ while authoritativeness is selfproved+ non-authoritativeness is proved from something else 4as inference+ Pc'6 [Dl&] I ta0e vyutpatti here as used for akti7 siddhe means ghadau' [Dlk] /hese are the two great 9m!s! schools' /he former+ called a!hihitnvaya-vdina+ hold 4li0e the 8aiy!yi0a school6 that words by themselves can express their separate meaning by the function a!hidh or 2denotation72 these are subse,uently combined into a sentence expressing one connected idea' /he latter+ called anvit!hidhna-vdina+ hold that words only express a meaning as parts of a sentence and grammatically connected with each other7 they only mean an action or something connected with an action' In gm naya+ gm does not properly mean gotva+ but nayannvita-gotva+ i.e.+ the bovine genus as connected with 2bringing'2 1e cannot have a case of a noun without some governing verb+ and vice vers<' Cf' 1aitQ+ as ,uoted by (rofessor Sayce 48omparative -hilology+ page $Dk6G 21e do not thin0 in words but in sentences7 hence we may assert that a living language consists of sentences+ not of words' #ut a sentence is formed not of single independent words+ but of words which refer to one another in a particular manner+ li0e the corresponding thought+ which does not consist of single independent ideas+ but of such as+ connected+ form a whole+ and determine one another mutually'2 [.lD]


If any one as0s+ 21here are we to learn how to separate a root and an affix so as to be able to say+ :/his part is the original root and this is an affix+:2 may we not reply that to those who have drun0 the waters of (ataO<ali this ,uestion produces no confusion+ since it is notorious that the rules of grammar have reference to this very point of the separation of the original roots and affixesq /hus the very first sentence of the venerable (ataO<ali+ the author of the 2?reat Commentary+2 is 2atha a!dnusanam+2 28ow comes the exposition of words'2 /he particle atha 42now26 is used here as implying a new topic or a commencement7 and by the phrase+ 2exposition of words+2 is meant the system of grammar put forth by (!ini' 8ow a doubt might here arise as to whether this phrase implies that the exposition of words is to be the main topic or not7 and it is to obviate any such doubt that he employed the particle atha+ since this particle implies that what follows is to be treated as the main topic to the exclusion of everything else' /he word 2exposition2 4anusana6+ as here used+ implies that thereby *aidic words+ such as those in the line a no devr a!hishaye+[Dl%]P c'+ and secular words as ancillary to these+ as the common words for 2cow+2 2horse+2 2man+2 [.l@]2elephant+2 2bird+2 Pc'+ are made the sub<ect of the exposition+ i.e.+ are deduced from their original roots and properly formed+ or+ in other words+ are

explained as divided into root and affix' 1e must consider that the compound in this phrase represents a genitive of the ob<ect [a!dnusanam standing for a!dasynusanam]+ and as there is a rule of (!ini 4karmai cha+ ii' .+ $@6+ which prohibits composition in such a construction+ we are forced to concede that the phrase a!dnusanam does not come before us as a duly authorised compound' Here+ however+ arises a discussion [as to the true application of the alleged rule of (!ini]+ for we hold that+ by ii' D+ kk+ wherever an ob<ect and an agent are both expressed in one and the same sentence in connection with a word ending with a kit affix+ there the ob<ect alone can be put in the genitive and not the agent7[Dlr] this limitation arising from our ta0ing u!hayaprpti in the sntra as a !ahuvrhi compound'[D$l] /hus we must say+ 21onderful is the mil0ing of cows by an unpractised cowherd'2 1e may+ however+ remar0 in passing that some authors do maintain that the agent may in such cases be put in the genitive 4as well as the ob<ect67 hence we find it stated in the N!i0! CommentaryG 2Some authors maintain that there should be an option in such cases without any distinction+ and thus they would e,ually allow such a construction as :the exposition of words of the teacher: or :!y the teacher':2 Inasmuch+ however+ as the words of the phrase in ,uestion really mean that the 2exposition2 intended relates to words and not to things+ and since this can be at once understood without any mention of the [.l&]agent+ i.e.+ the teacher+ any such mention would be plainly superfluous7 and therefore as the ob<ect and the agent are not both expressed in one and the same sentence+ this is not an instance of the genitive of the ob<ect 4coming under ii' D+ kk+ and ii' .+ $@6+ but rather an instance of ,uite another rule+ viQ'+ ii' D+ k&+ which directs that an agent or an ob<ect+ in connection with a word ending with a 0it affix+ is to be put in the genitive [which in this instance is expressed by the tatpurusha compound]7 and the compound in ,uestion will be strictly analogous to such recognised forms as idhma-pravrachana+ pala-tana+P c'[D$$] =r we might argue that the genitive case implied in this shashhtatpurusha is one of the class called 2residual+2 in accordance with (!ini:s rule 4ii' D+ &l6+ 2Het the genitive be used in the residuum+2 [i.e.+ in the other constructions not provided for by special rules]7[D$.] and in this way we might defend the phrase against the opponent:s attac0' 2#ut+2 it might be replied+ 2your alleged :residual genitive: could be assumed everywhere+ and we should thus find all the prohibitions of composition in constructions with a genitive case rendered utterly nugatory'2 /his we readily grant+ and hence #hartihari in his .kyapadya has shown that these rules are mainly useful where the ,uestion relates to the accent'[D$D] /o this effect are the words of the great doctor *ardham!naC 2In secular utterances men may proceed as they will+ 2#ut in *aidic paths let minute accuracy of speech be employed' 2/hus have they explained the meaning of (!ini:s sntras+ since 2He himself uses such phrases as 'anikartu and tatprayo'aka'2[D$@] [.lk] Hence it follows that the full meaning of the sentence in ,uestion 4of the #ah!hshya6 is that 2it is to be understood that the rules of grammar which may be ta0en as a synonym for :the exposition concerning words: are now commenced'2 21ell+ then+ for the sa0e of directly understanding this intended meaning+ it would have been better to have said :now comes grammar+: as the words :now comes the exposition of words: involve a useless excess of letters'2 /his ob<ection cannot+ however+ be allowed+ since the employment of such a word as a!dnusanam+ the sense of which can be so readily inferred from its etymology+ proves that the author intends to imply an end which shall establish that grammar is a subordinate study 4aga6 to the *eda'[D$&] =therwise+ if there were no such end set forth+ there would be no conse,uent application of the readers to the study of grammar' 8or may you say that this application will be sufficiently enforced by the in<unction for study+ 2the *eda with its six subordinate parts must be read as a duty without any 4special6 end+2[D$k] because+ even though there be such an in<unction+ it will not follow that students will apply to this study+ if no end is

mentioned which will establish that it is an aga of the *eda' /hus in old times the students+ after reading the *eda+ used to be in haste to sayC 25re not *aidic words established by the *eda and secular by common life+ 25nd therefore grammar is uselessq2 /herefore it was only when they understood it to be an aga of the *eda that they applied themselves to its study' So in the same way the students of the present day would not be li0ely to apply themselves to it either' It is to obviate this danger that it becomes necessary to set forth some end which shall+ at the same time+ establish [.l-]that grammar is an aga of the *eda' If+ when the end is explained+ they should still not apply themselves+ then+ being destitute of all 0nowledge of the true formation of secular words+ they would become involved in sin in the course of sacrificial acts+ and would conse,uently lose their religious merit' Hence the followers of sacrifice read+ 2=ne who 0eeps up a sacrificial fire+ on using an incorrect word+ should offer an expiatory offering to Saraswat9'2 8ow it is to declare this end which establishes that it is an aga of the *eda that he uses the words atha a!dnusanam and not atha vykaraam' 8ow the rules of grammar must have an end+ and a thing:s end is determined by men:s pursuit of it with a view thereto' Bust as in a sacrifice underta0en with a view to heaven+ heaven is the end7 in the same way the end of the exposition of words is instruction concerning words+ i.e.+ propriety of speech' 2#ut+2 an ob<ector may say+ 2will not the desired end be still unattained for want of the true means to itq 8or can it be said that reading the *eda word by word is the true means7 for this cannot be a means for the understanding of words+ since their number is infinite+ as divided into proper and improper words' [D$-] /hus there is a tradition that #ihaspati for a thousand divine years taught to Indra the study of words as used in their individual forms when the *eda is read word by word+[D$%] and still he came not to the end' Here the teacher was #ihaspati+ the pupil was Indra+ and the time of study a thousand years of the gods7 and yet the termination was not reached+Chow much less+ then+ in our day+ let a man live ever so longq Hearning is rendered efficient by four appropriate means+C reading+ understanding+ practising+ and handing it on to others7 but in the proposed way life would only suffice for the bare time of reading7 therefore the reading word by word is not a means for the 0nowledge of words+ and conse,uently+ [.l%]as we said at first+ the desired end is not established'2 1e reply+ however+ that it was never conceded that the 0nowledge of words was to be attained by this reading word by word' 5nd again+ since general and special rules apply at once to many examples+ when these are divided into the artificial parts called roots+ Pc' 4<ust as one cloud rains over many spots of ground6+ in this way we can easily comprehend an exposition of many words' /hus+ for instance+ by the general rule 4iii' .+ $6+ karmai+ the affix a is en<oined after a root when the ob<ect is in composition with it7 and by this rule we learn many words+ as kum!hakra+ 2a potter+2 kalva+ 2a cutter of stems+2 Pc' #ut the supplementary special rule 4iii' .+ D6+ to *nupasarge ka+ directing that the affix ka is to be used after a root that ends in long when there is no upasarga+ shows how impracticable this reading word by word would be [since it would never teach us how to distinguish an upasarga]' 2#ut since there are other agas+ why do you single out grammar as the one ob<ect of honourq2 1e reply+ that among the six agas the principal one is grammar+ and labour devoted to what is the principal is sure to bear fruit' /hus it has been saidC 28igh unto #rahman himself+ the highest of all religious austerities+ 2/he wise have called grammar the first aga of the *eda'2 Hence we conclude that the exposition of words is the direct end of the rules of grammar+ but its indirect end is the preservation+ Pc'+ of the *eda' Hence it has been said by the worshipful author of the great Commentary [,uoting a *!rtti0a]+ 2the end 4or motive6 is preservation+ inference+ scripture+ facility+ and assurance'2[D$r] oreover prosperity arises from the employment of a correct word7 thus N!ty!yana has said+ 2/here is prosperity in the employment of a word according to the stra7 it is e,ual to the words of the *eda itself'2 =thers also have said [.lr]that 2a single word thoroughly understood and rightly used becomes in Swarga the desire-mil0ing cow'2 /hus 4they say6C

2/hey proceed to heaven+ with every desired happiness+ in well-yo0ed chariots of harnessed speech7 2#ut those who use such false forms as achkramata must trudge thither on foot'2[D.l] 8or need you as0 2how can an irrational word possess such powerq2 since we have revelation declaring that it is li0e to the great god' mor the Eruti says+ 2mour are its horns+ three its feet+ two its heads+ and seven its hands+Croars loudly the threefold-bound bull+ the great god enters mortals2 43ig-*eda+ iv' &%+ D6' /he great commentator thus explains itGC/he 2four horns2 are the four 0inds of wordsCnouns+ verbs+ prepositions+ and particles7 its 2three feet2 mean the three times+ past+ present+ and future+ expressed by the tense-affixes+ la+ Pc'7 the 2two heads+2 the eternal and temporary 4or produced6 words+ distinguished as the 2manifested2 and the 2manifester72 its 2seven hands2 are the seven case affixes+ including the con<ugational terminations7 2threefold bound+2 as enclosed in the three organsCthe chest+ the throat+ and the head' /he metaphor 2bull2 4visha!ha6 is applied from its pouring forth 4varshaa6+ i.e.+ from its giving fruit when used with 0nowledge' 2Houdly roars+2 i.e.+ utters sound+ for the root ru means 2sound72 here by the word 2sound2 developed speech 4or language6[D.$] is implied7 2the great god enters mortals+2Cthe 2great god+2 i.e.+ speech+Centers mortals+ i.e.+ men endowed with the attribute of mortality' /hus is declared the li0eness [of speech][D..] to the supreme #rahman' /he eternal word+ called sphoa+ without parts+ and the cause of the world+ is verily #rahman7 thus it has been [.$l]declared by #hartihari in the part of his boo0 called the #rahma0!aC 2#rahman+ without beginning or end+ the indestructible essence of speech+ 21hich is developed in the form of things+ and whence springs the creation of the world'2 2#ut since there is a well-0nown twofold division of words into nouns and verbs+ how comes this fourfold divisionq2 1e reply+ because this+ too+ is well 0nown' /hus it has been said in the (ra09ra0aC 2Some ma0e a twofold division of words+ some a fourfold or a fivefold+ 2Arawing them up from the sentences as root+ affix+ and the li0e'2 Hel!r!<a interprets the fivefold division as including karmapravachanyas'[D.D] #ut the fourfold division+ mentioned by the great commentator+ is proper+ since karmapravachanyas distinguish a connection produced by a particular 0ind of verb+ and thus+ as mar0ing out a particular 0ind of connection and so mar0ing out a particular 0ind of verb+ they are really included in compounded prepositions 4upasargas6'[D.@] 2#ut+2 say some+ 2why do you tal0 so much of an eternal sound called sphoaq /his we do not concede+ since there is no proof that there is such a thing'2 1e reply that our own perception is the proof' /hus there is one word 2cow+2 since all men have the cognition of a word distinct from the various letters composing it' ;ou cannot say+ in the absence of any manifest contradiction+ that this perception of the word is a false perception' [.$$] Hence you must concede that there is such a thing as sphoa+ as otherwise you cannot account for the cognition of the meaning of the word' mor the answer that its cognition arises from the letters cannot bear examination+ since it brea0s down before either horn of the following dilemmaGC5re the letters supposed to produce this cognition of the meaning in their united or their individual capacityq 8ot the first+ for the letters singly exist only for a moment+ and therefore cannot form a united whole at all7 and not the second+ since the single letters have no power to produce the cognition of the meaning [which the word is to convey]' /here is no conceivable alternative other than their single or united capacity7 and therefore it follows 4say the wise in these matters6 that+ as the letters cannot cause the cognition of the meaning+ there must be a sphoa by means of which arises the 0nowledge of the meaning7 and this sphoa is an eternal sound+ distinct from the letters and revealed by them+ which causes the cognition of the meaning' 2It is disclosed 4sphuyate6 or

revealed by the letters+2 hence it is called sphoa+ as revealed by the letters7 or 2from it is disclosed the meaning+2 hence it is called sphoa as causing the 0nowledge of the meaning+Cthese are the two etymologies to explain the meaning of the word' 5nd thus it hath been said by the worshipful (ataO<ali in the great Commentary+ 28ow what is the word :cow: gauq It is that word by which+ when pronounced+ there is produced the simultaneous cognition of dewlap+ tail+ hump+ hoofs+ and horns'2 /his is expounded by Naiyaa in the passage commencing+ 2?rammarians maintain that it is the word+ as distinct from the letters+ which expresses the meaning+ since+ if the letters expressed it+ there would be no use in pronouncing the second and following ones [as the first would have already conveyed all we wished]+2 and ending+ 2/he .kyapadya has established at length that it is the sphoa which+ distinct from the letters and revealed by the sound+ expresses the meaning'2[D.&] [.$.] Here+ however+ an ob<ector may urge+ 2#ut should we not rather say that the sphoa has no power to convey the meaning+ as it fails under either of the following alternatives+ for is it supposed to convey the meaning when itself manifested or unmanifestedq 8ot the latter+ because it would then follow that we should find the effect of conveying the meaning always produced+ since+ as sphoa is supposed to be eternal+ and there would thus be an ever-present cause independent of all subsidiary aids+ the effect could not possibly fail to appear' /herefore+ to avoid this fault+ we must allow the other alternative+ viQ'+ that sphoa conveys the meaning when it is itself manifested' 1ell+ then+ do the manifesting letters exercise this manifesting power separately or combinedq 1hichever alternative you adopt+ the very same faults which you alleged against the hypothesis of the letters expressing the meaning+ will have to be met in your hypothesis that they have this power to manifest sphoa'2 /his has been said by #haa in his 9m!s!-lo0a-v!rtti0aC 2/he grammarian who holds that sphoa is manifested by the letters as they are severally apprehended+ though itself one and indivisible+ does not thereby escape from a single difficulty'2 [.$D] /he truth is+ that+ as (!ini 4i' @+ $@6 and ?otama 4Snt' ii' $.D6 both lay it down that letters only then form a word when they have an affix at the end+ it is the letters which convey the word:s meaning through the apprehension of the conventional association of ideas which they help'[D.k] If you ob<ect that as there are the same letters in rasa as in sara+ in nava as in vana+ in dn as in nad+ in mra as in rma+ in r'a as in 'ra+ Pc'+ these several pairs of words would not convey a different meaning+ we reply that the difference in the order of the letters will produce a difference in the meaning' /his has been said by /aut!titaC 25s are the letters in number and 0ind+ whose power is perceived in conveying any given meaning of a word+ so will be the meaning which they convey'2 /herefore+ as there is a well-0nown rule that when the same fault attaches to both sides of an argument it cannot be urged against one alone+ we maintain that the hypothesis of the existence of a separate thing called sphoa is unnecessary+ as we have proved that it is the letters which express the word:s meaning [your arguments against our view having been shown to be irrelevant]' 5ll this long oration is really only li0e a drowning man:s catching at a straw7[D.-] for either of the alternatives is impossible+ whether you hold that it is the single letters or their aggregation which conveys the meaning of the word' It cannot be the former+ because a collection of separate letters+ without any one pervading cause+[D.%] could never produce the idea of a word any more than a collection of separate flowers would form a garland without a string' 8or can it be the latter+ because the letters+ being separately pronounced and done with+ cannot combine into an aggregate' mor we use the term 2aggregate2 where a number of ob<ects are perceived to be united together in one place7 thus we apply it to a ?rislea tomentosa+ an 5cacia catechu+ a #utea frondosa+ Pc'+ or to an elephant+ a man+ a horse+ Pc'+ seen together in one place7 but these letters are not perceived thus united together+ as they are severally produced and pass away7 and even on the hypothesis of their having a 2manifesting2 power+ they can have no power to form an aggregate+ as they can only

manifest a meaning successively and not simultaneously' 8or can you imagine an artificial aggregate in the letters+ because this would involve a 2mutual dependence2 4or reasoning in a circle67 for+ on the one hand+ the letters would only become a word when their power to convey [.$@]one meaning had been established7 and+ on the other hand+ their power to convey one meaning would only follow when the fact of their being a word was settled' /herefore+ since it is impossible that letters should express the meaning+ we must accept the hypothesis of sphoa' 2#ut even on your own hypothesis that there is a certain thing called sphoa which expresses the meaning+ the same untenable alternative will recur which we discussed before7 and therefore it will only be a case of the proverb that :the dawn finds the smuggler with the revenue-officer:s house close by':2[D.r] /his+ however+ is only the inflation of the world of fancy from the wide difference between the two cases' mor the first letter+ in its manifesting power+ reveals the invisible sphoa+ and each successive letter ma0es this sphoa more and more manifest+ <ust as the *eda+ after one reading+ is not retained+ but is made sure by repetition7 or as the real nature of a <ewel is not clearly seen at the first glance+ but is definitely manifested at the final examination' /his is in accordance with the authoritative saying 4of the teacher6G 2/he seed is implanted by the sounds+ and+ when the idea is ripened by the successive repetition+ the word is finally ascertained simultaneously with the last uttered letter'2 /herefore+ since #hartihari has shown in his first boo0 that the letters of a word [being many and successive] cannot manifest the meaning of the word+ as is implied by the very phrase+ 21e gain such and such a meaning from such and such a word+2 we are forced to assume the existence[DDl] of an indivisible sphoa as a distinct category+ which has the power to manifest the word:s meaning' 5ll this has been established in the discussion 4in the ah!bh!shya6 on 2genus2 4'ti6+ which aims at proving that the meaning of all words is ultimately that summum genus+ i.e.+ that [.$&]existence whose characteristic is perfect 0nowledge of the supreme reality[DD$] 4#rahman6' 2#ut if all words mean only that supreme existence+ then all words will be synonyms+ having all the same meaning7 and your grand logical ingenuity would produce an astonishing result in demonstrating the uselessness of human language as laboriously using several words to no purpose at the same timet2 /hus it has been saidC 2/he employment of synonymous terms at the same time is to be condemned7 for they only express their meaning in turn and not by combination'2 2/herefore this opinion of yours is really hardly worth the trouble of refuting'2 5ll this is only the ruminating of empty ether7 for <ust as the colourless crystal is affected by different ob<ects which colour it as blue+ red+ yellow+ Pc'+ so+ since the summum genus+ #rahman+ is variously cognised through its connection with different things+ as severally identified with each+ we thus account for the use of the various conventional words which arise from the different species+[DD.] as cow+ Pc'+ these being 2existence2 4the summum genus6 as found in the individual cow+ Pc' /o this purport we have the following authoritative testimonyC 2Bust as crystal+ that colourless substance+ when severally <oined with blue+ red+ or yellow ob<ects+ is seen as possessing that colour'2 5nd so it has been said by Hari+ 2>xistence [pure and simple] being divided+ when found in cows+ Pc'+ by reason of its connection with different sub<ects+ is called this or that species+ and on it all words depend' /his they call the meaning of the stem and of the root' /his is existence+ this the great soul7 and it is this which the affixed tva+ tal+ Pc'+ express2 4(!ini v' $+ $$r6' [.$k] 2>xistence2 is that great summum genus which is found in cows+ horses+ Pc'+ differentiated by the various sub<ects in which it resides7 and the inferior species+ 2cow+2 2horse+2 Pc'+ are not really different from it7 for the species 2cow2 and 2horse2 4gotva and avatva6 are not really new sub<ects+ but each is 2existence2 as residing in the sub<ect 2cow2 and 2horse'2 /herefore all words+ as expressing definite meanings+ ultimately rest on that one summum genus existence+ which is differentiated by the various sub<ects+ cows+ Pc'+ in which it resides7 and hence 2existence2 is the

meaning of the stem-word 4prtipadika6' 5 2root2 is sometimes defined as that which expresses !hva7[DDD] now+ as !hva is 2existence+2 the meaning of a root is really existence'[DD@] =thers say that a root should be defined as that which expresses 2action2 4kriy67 but here again the meaning of a root will really be 2existence+2 since this 2action2 will be a genus+ as it is declared to reside in many sub<ects+ in accordance with the common definition of a genus+ in the lineC 2=thers say that action 4kriy6 is a genus+ residing in many individuals'2 So+ too+ if we accept (!ini:s definition 4v' $+ $$r6+ 2Het the affixes tva and tal come after a word [denoting anything]+ when we spea0 of the nature 4!hva6 thereof+2 it is clear from the very fact that abstract terms ending in tva or t [as avatva and avat] are used in the sense of !hva+ that they do express 2existence'2 2/his is pure existence2 from its being free from all coming into being or ceasing to be7 it is eternal+ since+ as all phenomena are developments thereof+ it is devoid of any limit in space+ time+ or substanceG this existence is called 2the great soul'2 Such is the meaning of Hari:s two kriks ,uoted above' So+ too+ it is laid down in the discussion on sam!andha [in Hari:s verses] that the ultimate meaning of all [.$-]words is that something whose characteristic is perfect 0nowledge of the real meaning of the word Substance' 2/he true 3eality is ascertained by its illusory forms7 the true substance is declared by words through illusory disguises7 as the ob<ect+ :Aevadatta:s house+: is apprehended by a transitory cause of discrimination+[DD&] but by the word :house: itself+ the pure idea [without owners] is expressed'2[DDk] So+ too+ the author of the ah!bh!shya+ when explaining the *!rtti0a+[DD-] 2a word+ its meaning+ and its connection being fixed+2 in the passage beginning 2substance is eternal+2 has shown that the meaning of all words is #rahman+ expressed by the word 2substance2 and determined by various unreal[DD%] conditions [as 2the nature of horse+2 Pc'] 5ccording to the opinion of *!<apy!yana+ who maintains that all words mean a genus+ words li0e 2cow+2 Pc'+[DDr] denote a genus which resides by intimate relation in different substances7 and when this genus is apprehended+ through its connection with it we apprehend the particular substance in which it resides' 1ords li0e 2white+2 Pc'+ denote a genus which similarly resides in ,ualities7 through the connection with genus we apprehend the ,uality+ and through the connection with the ,uality we apprehend the individual substance' So in the case of words expressing particular names+ in conse,uence of the recognition that 2this is the same person from his first coming into existence to his final destruction+ in spite of the difference produced by the various states of childhood+ youth+ adolescence+ Pc'+2 we must accept a fixed genus as Aevadatta-hood+ [D@l] Pc' [as directly denoted by them]' So+ too+ in words expressing 2action2 a genus is denoted7 this is the root-meaning+ as in pahati+ 2he reads+2 Pc'+ since we find here a meaning common to all who read' [.$%] In the doctrine of *y!i+ who maintained that words meant individual things [and not classes or genera]+ the individual thing is put forward as that which is primarily denoted+ while the genus is implied [as a characteristic mar0]7 and he thus avoids the alleged faults of 2indefiniteness+2 and 2wandering away from its proper sub<ect'2[D@$] #oth views are allowed by the great teacher (!ini7 since in i' .+ &%+ he accepts the theory that a word means the genus+ where he says that 2when the singular is used to express the class the plural may be optionally used2 [as in the sentence+ 25 #r!hman is to be honoured+2 which may e,ually run+ 2#r!hmans are to be honoured2]7 while in i' .+ k@+ he accepts the theory that a word means the individual thing+ where he says+ 2In any individual case there is but one retained of things similar in form2 [i.e.+ the dual means 3!ma and 3!ma+ and the plural means 3!ma+ and 3!ma and 3!ma7 but we retain only one+ adding a dual or plural affix]' ?rammar+ in fact+ being adapted to all assemblies+ can accept both theories without being compromised' /herefore both theories are in a sense true7 [D@.] but the real fact is that all words ultimately mean the Supreme #rahman'

5s it has been saidC 2/herefore under the divisions of the meanings of words+ one true universal meaning+ identical with the one existent+ shines out in many forms as the thing denoted'2 Hari also+ in his chapter discussing sam!andha+ thus describes the nature of this true meaningC [.$r] 2/hat meaning in which the sub<ect+ the ob<ect+ and the perception [which unites them] are insusceptible of doubt+[D@D] that only is called the truth by those who 0now the end of the three *edas'2 So too in his description of substance+ he saysC 2/hat which remains as the 3eal during the presence of modification+ as the gold remains under the form of the earring+Cthat wherein change comes and goes+ that they call the Supreme 8ature'2 /he essential unity of the word and its meaning is maintained in order to preserve inviolate the nonduality of all things which is a cardinal doctrine of our philosophy' 2/his [Supreme 8ature] is the thing denoted by all words+ and it is identical with the word7 but the relation of the two+ while they are thus ultimately identical+ varies as does the relation of the two souls'2[D@@] /he meaning of this N!ri0! is that #rahman is the one ob<ect denoted by all words7 and this one ob<ect has various differences imposed upon it according to each particular form7 but the conventional variety of the differences produced by these illusory conditions is only the result of ignorance' 8on-duality is the true state7 but through the power of 2concealment2[D@&] [exercised by illusion] at the time of the conventional use of words a manifold expansion ta0es place+ <ust as is the case during sleep' /hus those s0illed in *ed!nta lore tell usC 25s all the extended world of dreams is only the development of illusion in me+ so all this extended wa0ing world is a development of illusion li0ewise'2 1hen the unchangeable Supreme #rahman is thus 0nown as the existent <oy-thought and identical with the individual soul+ and when primeval ignorance is abolished+ [..l]final bliss is accomplished+ which is best defined as the abiding in identity with this #rahman+ according to the text+ 2He who is well versed in the 1ord-#rahman attains to the Supreme #rahman'2[D@k] 5nd thus we establish the fact that the 2exposition of words2 is the means to final bliss' /hus it has been saidC 2/hey call it the door of emancipation+ the medicine of the diseases of speech+ the purifier of all sciences+ the science of sciences'2[D@-] 5nd so againC 2/his is the first foot-round of the stages of the ladder of final bliss+ this is the straight royal road of the travellers to emancipation'2 /herefore our final conclusion is that the E!stra of grammar should be studied as being the means for attaining the chief end of man' >' #' C'

[Dl-] !dhava uses this peculiar term because the grammarians adopted and fully developed the idea of the (nrva- 9m!s! school that sound is eternal' He therefore treats of sphoa here+ and not in his Baimini chapter' [Dl%] 3ig-*eda+ x' r+ @'

[Dlr] 0a!dnusana+ if <udged by the apparent sense of (!ini+ ii' .+ $@+ would be a wrong compound7 but it is not so+ because ii' .+ $@ must be interpreted in the sense of ii' D+ kk+ whence it follows that the compound would only be wrong if there were an agent expressed as well as an ob<ect+ i.e.+ if such a word as chryea followed' In the example given+ we cannot say charyo godoho ikshitena goplena 4as it would violate ii' .+ $@6+ neither can we say charyo gav doho* ikshitasya goplasya 4as it would violate ii' D+ kk6' [D$l] /hat is+ the u!hayaprpti of ii' D+ kk+ is a !ahuvrhi agreeing with kiti in ii' D+ k&' /hese points are all discussed at some length in the Commentaries on (!ini' [D$$] /hese actually occur in the Commentaries to (!ini+ ii' .+ %7 iii' D+ $$-+ Pc' [D$.] /his ta0es in all cases of relation+ sam!andha 4i.e.+ shashh-sam!andha6' [D$D] 5s in such rules as vi' .+ $Dr' [D$@] /hese compounds occur in (!ini:s own sntras 4i' @+ Dl+ and i' @+ &&6+ and would violate his own rule in ii' .+ $&+ if we were to interpret the latter without some such saving modification as shashh eshe' [D$&] /he very word a!da in a!dnusanam implies the *eda+ since this is pre-eminently a!da' [D$k] Compare ax |ller+ 1ansk. +iter.+ p' $$D' It is ,uoted as from the *eda in the ah!bh!shya' [D$-] In the Calcutta text+ p' $D%+ dele daa in line D after !havet+ and insert it in line @ after a!dnm' [D$%] 5s in the so-called pada text' [D$r] See #allantyne:s #ah!hshya+ pp' $.+ k@' [D.l] Achkramata seems put here as a purposely false form of the fre,uentative of kram for achakramyata' [D.$] =r it may mean 2the developed universe'2 Compare the lines of #hartihari which immediately follow' [D..] =ne would naturally supply a!dasya after smyam+ but the 4see #allantyne:s ed'+ p' .-6' ah!bh!shya has na smyam

[D.D] I.e.+ prepositions used separately as governing cases of their own+ and not 4as usually in Sans0rit6 in composition' [D.@] /he karmapravachanyas imply a verb other than the one expressed+ and they are said to determine the relation which is produced by this understood verb' /hus in the example+ 0kalyasahitm anu prvarshat+ 2he rained after the E!0alya hymns+2 anu implies an understood verb niamya+ 2having heard+2 and this verb shows that there is a relation of cause and effect between the hymns and the rain' /his anu is said to determine this relation' [D.&] See #allantyne:s ed'+ p' $l' [D.k] /his is not very clear+ the anu in anugraha might mean kramea+ and so imply the successive order of the letters' [D.-] In the Calcutta edition+ p' $@.+ line $$+ I read kalpam for kalpanam' [D.%] In p' $@.+ line D+ I add vin after nimittam' [D.r] /he ghaa is the place where dues and taxes are collected' Some one anxious to evade payment is going by a private way by night+ but he arrives at the tax-collector:s house <ust as day dawns and is thus caught' Hence the proverb means uddeysiddhi' [DDl] In p' $@D+ line $D+ I read sphoaka!hvam for spho!hvam' [DD$] Cf' #allantyne:s /ransl' of the ah!bh!shya+ pp' r+ D.'

[DD.] /he 9m!s holds that a word means the genus 4'ti6 and not the individual 4vyakti67 the 8y!ya holds that a word means an individual as distinguished by such and such a genus 4or species6' [DDD] Cf' 3ig-*eda (r!ti' xii' &' [DD@] He here is trying to show that his view is confirmed by the commonly received definitions of some grammatical terms' [DD&] Since Aevadatta is only its transient owner' [DDk] So by the words 2horse+2 2cow+2 Pc'+ #rahman is really meant+ the one abiding existence' [DD-] Cf' #allantyne:s ah!bh!shya+ pp' @@+ &l' [DD%] In p' $@&+ line %+ read asatya for avattha' [DDr] 1e have here the well-0nown four grammatical categories+ 'ti+ guna+ dravya or sa'n+ and kriy' [D@l] #ut cf' Siddh' u0t!v'+ p' k+ line $.' [D@$] /hus we read in the Siddh!nta u0t!vali+ p' %.+ that the 9m!s! holds that a word means the genus and not the individual+ since otherwise there would be vya!hichra and nantya 4cf' also aheachandra 8y!yaratna:s note+ N!vya-pra0!a+ p' $l6' If a word is held to mean only one individual+ there will be the first fault+ as it will 2wander away2 and e,ually express others which it should not include7 if it is held to mean many individuals+ it will have an endless variety of meanings and be 2indefinite'2 [D@.] /his seems the meaning of the text as printed tasmt dvaya satyam+ but I should prefer to read con<ecturally tasmd advaya satyam+ 2therefore non-duality is the truth'2 [D@D] 1cil. they can only be the absolute #rahman who alone exists' [D@@] 1cil. the individual soul 4'va6 and #rahman' [D@&] /he 1aviti of the text seems to correspond to the varaa so fre,uent in *ed!nta boo0s' [D@k] /his passage is ,uoted in the aitr9 ppanishad+ vi' ..' [D@-] Adhividyam occurs in /aitt' ppanishad+ i' D+ $+ where it is explained by [:]Sa0ara as vidysv adhi yad darA*Bsana tad adhividyam' [..$]


2#ut how can we accept the doctrine of illusory emanation [thus held by the grammarians+ following the guidance of the p"rva and uttara 9m!s! schools]+ when the system of development propounded by the S!0hyas is still alive to oppose itq2 Such is their loud vaunt' 8ow the E!stra of this school may be concisely said to maintain four several 0inds of existences+ viQ'+ that which is evolvent[D@%] only+ that which is evolute only+ that which is both evolute and evolvent+ and that which is neither' 4a.6 =f these the first is that which is only evolvent+ called the root-evolvent or the primary7 it is not itself the evolute of anything else' It evolves+ hence it is called the evolvent 4prakiti6 since it denotes in itself the e,uilibrium of the three ,ualities+ goodness+ activity+ and dar0ness' /his is expressed [in the S!0hya N!ri0!]+ 2the root-evolvent is no evolute'2 It is called the root-evolvent+ as being both root and evolvent7 it is the root of all the various effects+

as the so-called 2great one+2P c'+ but of it+ as the primary+ there is no root+ as otherwise we should have a regressus ad infinitum' 8or can you reply that such a regressus ad infinitum is no ob<ection+ if+ li0e the continued series of seed and shoot+ it can be proved by the evidence of our senses+[D@r] Cbecause here there is no evidence to establish the hypothesis' 4!.6 /he 2evolutes and evolvents2 are the great one+ egoism+ and the subtile elements+Cthus the [...]S!0hya N!ri0! 4} D6+ 2the seven+ the great one+ Pc'+ are evolute-evolvents'2 /he seven are the seven principles+ called the great one+ Pc' 5mong these the great principle+ called also the intellect+[D&l] Pc'+ is itself the evolute of nature and the evolvent of egoism7 in the same manner the principle egoism+ called also 2self-consciousness2 4a!himna6+ is the evolute of the great one+ intellect7 but this same principle+ as affected by the ,uality of dar0ness+ is the evolvent of the five rudiments called subtile elements7 and+ as affected by the ,uality of goodness+ it is the evolvent of the eleven organs+ viQ'+ the five organs of perception+ the eye+ ear+ nose+ tongue+ and s0in7 the five organs of action+ the voice+ hands+ feet+ anus+ and generative organ7 and the mind+ parta0ing of the character of both7 nor can you ob<ect that in our arrangement the third ,uality+ activity+ is idle+ as it acts as a cause by producing action in the others' /his has been thus declared by )vara Nisha in his N!ri0!s[D&$] 4} .@-.-6+ 2Self-consciousness is egoism' /hence proceeds a twofold creation+ the elevenfold set and the five elemental rudiments' mrom modified[D&.] egoism originates the class of eleven imbued with goodness7 from egoism as the source of the elements originate the rudimentary elements+ and these are affected by dar0ness7 but it is only from egoism as affected by activity that the one and the other rise' /he intellectual organs are the eyes+ the ears+ the nose+ the tongue+ and the s0in7 those of action are the voice+ feet+ hands+ anus+ and organ of generation' In this set is mind+ which has the character of each7 it determines+ and it is an organ 4li0e the other ten6 from having a common [..D]property with them'2[D&D] 5ll this has been explained at length by the teacher *!chaspati ira in the S!0hya-tattva-0aumud9' 4c.6 /he 2evolute only2 means the five gross elements+ ether+ Pc'+ and the eleven organs+ as said in the N!ri0!+ 2/he evolute consists of sixteen72 that is+ the set of sixteen is evolute only+ and not evolvent' 5lthough it may be said that earth+ Pc'+ are the evolvents of such productions as cows+ <ars+ Pc'+ yet these are not a different 2principle2 4tattva6 from earth+ Pc'+ and therefore earth+ Pc'+ are not what we term 2evolvents72 as the accepted idea of an evolvent is that which is the material cause of a separate principle7 and in cows+ <ars+ Pc'+ there is the absence of being any such first principle+ in conse,uence of their being all ali0e gross [i.e.+ possessed of dimensions] and perceptible to the senses' /he five gross elements+ ether+ Pc'+ are respectively produced from sound+ touch+ form+ taste+ and smell+ each subtile element being accompanied by all those which precede it+ and thus the gross elements will have respectively one+ two+ three+ four+ and five ,ualities'[D&@] /he creation of the organs has been previously described' /his is thus propounded in the S!0hya N!ri0! 4} ..6C 2mrom nature springs the great one+ from this egoism+ from this the set of sixteen+ and from five among the sixteen proceed the five gross elements'2 4d.6 /he soul is neither+Cas is said in the N!ri0!+ 2/he soul is neither evolvent nor evolute'2 /hat is+ the soul+ being absolute+ eternal+ and sub<ect to no development+ is itself neither the evolvent nor the evolute of aught beside' /hree 0inds of proof are accepted as establishing these twenty-five principles7 and thus the N!ri0! 4} @6' 2(erception+ inference+ and the testimony of worthy persons are ac0nowledged to be the threefold proof+ for [..@]they comprise every mode of demonstration' It is from proof that there results belief of that which is to be proven'2 Here a fourfold discussion arises as to the true nature of cause and effect' /he Saugatas[D&&] maintain that the existent is produced from the non-existent7 the 8aiy!yi0as+ Pc'+ that the 4as yet6 non-existent is produced from the existent7 the *ed!ntins+ that all effects are an illusory emanation from the existent and not themselves really existent7 while the S!0hyas hold that the existent is produced from the existent'

4a.6 8ow the first opinion is clearly untenable+ since that which is itself non-existent and unsubstantial can never be a cause any more than the hare:s horn7 and+ again+ the real and unreal can never be identical' 4!.6 8or can the non-existent be produced from the existent7 since it is impossible that that which+ previous to the operation of the originating cause+ was as non-existent as a hare:s horn should ever be produced+ i.e.+ become connected with existence7 for not even the cleverest man living can ma0e blue yellow'[D&k] If you say+ 2#ut are not existence and non-existence attributes of the same <arq2 this is incorrect+ since we cannot use such an expression as 2its ,uality2 in regard to a non-existent sub<ect+ for it would certainly imply that the sub<ect itself did exist' Hence we conclude that the effect is existent even previously to the operation of the cause+ which only produces the manifestation of this already existent thing+ <ust li0e the manifestation of the oil in sesame seed by pressing+ or of the mil0 in cows by mil0ing' 5gain+ there is no example whatever to prove the production of a thing previously non-existent' oreover+ the cause must produce its effect as being either connected with it or not connected7 in the former [..&]alternative the effect:s existence is settled by the rule that connection can only be between two existent things7 in the latter+ any and every effect might arise from any and every cause+ as there is nothing to determine the action of an unconnected thing' /his has been thus put by the S!0hya teacherGC2mrom the supposed non-existence of the effect+ it can have no connection with causes which always accompany existence7 and to him who holds the production of a nonconnected thing there arises an utter want of determinateness'2 If you re<oin that 2the cause+ though not connected with its effect+ can yet produce it+ where it has a capacity of so doing+ and this capacity of producing is to be inferred from seeing the effect actually produced+2 still this cannot be allowed+ since in such a case as 2there is a capacity for producing oil in sesame seeds+2 you cannot determine+ while the oil is non-existent+ that there is this capacity in the sesame seeds+ whichever alternative you may accept as to their being connected or not with the oil [since our beforementioned dilemma will e,ually apply here]' mrom our tenet that the cause and effect are identical+ it follows that the effect does not exist distinct from the cause7 thus the cloth is not something distinct from the threads+ as it abides in the latter [as its material cause]7 but where this identity is not found+ there we do not find the relation of cause and effect7 thus a horse and a cow are distinct from each other [for one is not produced from the other+ and therefore their ,ualities are not the same]7 but the cloth is an ac0nowledged effect+ and therefore not anything different from its cause'[D&-] If you ob<ect that+ if this were true+ the separate threads ought to fulfil the office of clothing+ we reply+ that the office of clothing is fulfilled by the threads manifesting the nature of cloth when they are placed in a particular arrangement' 5s the limbs of a tortoise when they retire within its shell are concealed+ [..k]and+ when they come forth+ are revealed+ so the particular effects+ as cloth+ Pc'+ of a cause+ as threads+ Pc'+ when they come forth and are revealed+ are said to be produced7 and when they retire and are concealed+ they are said to be destroyed7 but there is no such thing as the production of the non-existent or the destruction of the existent' 5s has been said in the #hagavad ?9t! 4ii' $k6C 2/here is no existence for the non-existent+ nor non-existence for the existent'2 5nd+ in fact+ it is by inference from its effects that we establish the existence of the great evolvent+ 8ature 4prakiti6' /his has been said [in the N!ri0!+ } r]C 2>ffect exists+ for what exists not can by no operation of cause be brought into existence7 materials+ too+ are selected which are fit for the purpose7 everything is not by every means possible7 what is capable does that to which it is competent7 and li0e is produced from li0e'2[D&%] 8or can we say [with the *ed!ntin] that the world is an illusory emanation from the one existent #rahman+ because we have no contradictory evidence to preclude by its superior validity the prim< facie belief that the external world is real [as we have in the case of mista0ing a rope for a sna0e+ where a closer inspection will discover the error]7 and again+ where the sub<ect and the attributed

nature are so dissimilar as the pure intelligent #rahman and the unintelligent creation+ we can no more allow the supposed attribution to be possible than in the case of gold and silver [which no one mista0es for each other]' Hence we conclude that an effect which is composed of happiness+ misery+ and stupidity+ must imply a cause similarly composed7 and our argument is as followsGC/he sub<ect of the argument+ viQ'+ the external world+ must have a material cause composed of happiness+ misery+ and stupidity+ because it is itself endued therewith7 whatever is endued with certain attributes must have a cause endued [..-]with the same+Cthus a ring has gold for its material cause+ because it has the attributes of gold7 our sub<ect is a similar case+ therefore we may draw a similar conclusion' 1hat we call 2being composed of happiness2 in the external world is the ,uality of goodness7 the 2being composed of misery2 is the ,uality of activity7[D&r] the 2being composed of stupidity2 is the ,uality of dar0ness7 hence we establish our cause composed of the three ,ualities 4i.e.+ prakiti+ 8ature6' 5nd we see that individual ob<ects are found by experience to have these three ,ualities7 thus aitra:s happiness is found in his wife Satyavat9+ because the ,uality of 2goodness2 in her is manifested towards him7 but she is the misery of her fellow-wives+ because the ,uality of 2activity2 is manifested towards them7 while she causes indifference to Chaitra who does not possess her+ because towards him the ,uality of 2dar0ness2 is manifested' So+ too+ in other cases also7 thus a <ar+ when obtained+ causes us pleasure7 when seiQed by others it causes us pain7 but it is viewed with indifference by one who has no interest in it' 8ow this being regarded with no interest is what we mean by 2stupidity+2 since the word moha is derived from the root muh+ 2to be confused+2 since no direct action of the mind arises towards those ob<ects to which it is indifferent' /herefore we hold that all things+ being composed of pleasure+ pain+ and stupidity+ must have as their cause 8ature+ which consists of the three ,ualities' 5nd so it is declared in the Evet!vatara ppanishad 4iv' &6C 2/he one unborn+ for his en<oyment+ approaches the one unborn 48ature6 which is red+ white+ and blac0+ and produces a manifold and similar offspring7 the other unborn abandons her when once she has been en<oyed'2 Here the words 2red+2 2white+2 and 2blac0+2 express the ,ualities 2activity+2 2goodness+2 and 2dar0ness+2 from [..%]their severally possessing the same attributes of colouring+ manifesting+ and concealing' Here+ however+ it may be ob<ected+ 2#ut will not your unintelligent 8ature+ without the superintendence of something intelligent+ fail to produce these effects+ intellect+ Pc'q therefore there must be some intelligent superintendent7 and hence we must assume an all-seeing+ supreme Hord'2 1e reply that this does not follow+ since even unintelligent 8ature will act under the force of an impulse7 and experience shows us that an unintelligent thing+ without any intelligent superintendent+ does act for the good of the soul+ <ust as the unintelligent mil0 acts for the growth of the calf+ or <ust as the unintelligent rain acts for the welfare of living creatures7 and so unintelligent 8ature will act for the liberation of the soul' 5s it has been said in the N!ri0! 4} &-6C 25s the unintelligent mil0 acts for the nourishment of the calf+ so 8ature acts for the liberation of soul'2 #ut as for the doctrine of 2a Supreme #eing who acts from compassion+2 which has been proclaimed by beat of drum by the advocates of his existence+ this has well-nigh passed away out of hearing+ since the hypothesis fails to meet either of the two alternatives' mor does he act thus !efore or after creationq If you say 2before+2 we reply that as pain cannot arise in the absence of bodies+ Pc'+ there will be no need+ as long as there is no creation+ for his desire to free living beings from pain [which is the main characteristic of compassion]7 and if you adopt the second alternative+ you will be reasoning in a circle+ as on the one hand you will hold that ?od created the world through compassion [as this is His motive in acting at all]+ and on the other hand[Dkl] that He compassionated after He had created' /herefore we hold that the development of unintelligent 8ature [even without any intelligent [..r]superintendent]Cin the order of the series intellect+ selfconsciousness+ Pc'+Cis caused by the union of 8ature and Soul+ and the moving impulse is the

good of Soul' Bust as there ta0es place a movement in the iron in the proximity of the unmoved magnet+ so there ta0es place a movement in 8ature in the proximity of the unmoved Soul7 and this union of 8ature and Soul is caused by mutual dependence+ li0e the union of the lame man and the blind man' 8ature+ as the thing to be experienced+ depends on Soul the experiencer7 and Soul loo0s to final bliss+ as it see0s to throw off the three 0inds of pain+ which+ though really apart from it+ have fallen upon it by its coming under the shadow of intellect through not recognising its own distinction therefrom'[Dk$] /his final bliss [or absolute isolation] is produced by the discrimination of 8ature and Soul+ nor is this end possible without it7 therefore Soul depends on 8ature for its final bliss' Bust as a lame man and a blind man+[Dk.] travelling along with a caravan+ by some accident having become separated from their companions+ wandered slowly about in great dismay+ till by good luc0 they met each other+ and then the lame man mounted on the blind man:s bac0+ and the blind man+ following the path indicated by the lame man+ reached his desired goal+ as did the lame man also+ mounted on the other:s shoulders7 so+ too+ creation is effected by 8ature and the soul+ which are li0ewise mutually dependent' /his has been said in the N!ri0! 4} .$6C 2mor the soul:s contemplation of 8ature and for its final separation the union of both ta0es place+ as of the lame man and the blind man' #y that union a creation is formed'2 21ell+ I grant that 8ature:s activity may ta0e place for the good of the soul+ but how do you account for its [.Dl]ceasing to actq2 I reply+ that as a wilful woman whose faults have once been seen by her husband does not return to him+ or as an actress+ having performed her part+ retires from the stage+ so too does 8ature desist' /hus it is said in the N!ri0! 4} &r6C 25s an actress+ having exhibited herself to the spectators+ desists from the dance+ so does 8ature desist+ having manifested herself to Soul'2 mor this end has the doctrine of those who follow Napila+ the founder of the atheistic S!0hya School+ been propounded' >' #' C'

[D@%] I borrow this term from Ar' Hall' [D@r] Compare Nusum!O<ali+ i' @' [D&l] =ne great defect in the S!0hya nomenclature is the ambiguity between the terms for intellect 4!uddh6 and those for mind 4manas6' !dhava here applies to the former the term antakaraa or 2internal organ+2 the proper term for the latter' I have ventured to alter it in the translation' [D&$] It is singular that this is !dhava:s principal S!0hya authority+ and not the S!0hya Sntras' [D&.] .aikita is here a technical term meaning that goodness predominates over dar0ness and activity' =n this N!ri0!+ comp' Ar' Hall:s preface to the S!0hya-s!ra+ pp' Dl-D&' [D&D] 5s produced+ li0e them+ from modified egoism' /he reading sakalpavikalptmakam must be corrected by the S!0hya N!ri0!' [D&@] Cf' Colebroo0e >ssays+ vol' i' p' .&k' /he tanmtras will reproduce themselves as the respective ,ualities of the gross elements' [D&&] 5 name of the #uddhists' [D&k] I.e.+ the nature of a thing 41va!hva6 cannot be alteredCa man cannot be made a cow+ nor a woman a man' [D&-] I ta0e arthntaram here as simply !hinnam 4cf' /!r!n!tha /ar0av!chaspati:s note+ /attva Kaumud+ p' @-6' [D&%] Colebroo0e:s translation'

[D&r] =r 2passion+2 ra'as' [Dkl] In other wordsCon the one hand the existing misery of beings induced ?od to create a world in order to relieve their misery+ and on the other hand it was the existence of a created world which caused their misery at all' [Dk$] #ondage+ Pc'+ reside in the intellect+ and are only reflected upon soul through its proximity 4cf' 1khyapravachana!hshya+ i' &%6' [Dk.] /his apologue is a widely spread piece of fol0-lore' It is found in the #abylonian /almud+ 1anhedrim+ fol' r$+ !+ and in the ?esta 3omanorum' [.D$]


1e now set forth the doctrine of that school which professes the opinions of such unis as (ataO<ali and others+ who originated the system of the /heistic S!0hya philosophy' /his school follows the so-called ;oga E!stra promulgated by (ataO<ali+ and consisting of four chapters+ which also bears the name of the 2S!0hya (ravachana+2 or detailed explanation of the S!0hya'[DkD] In the first chapter thereof the venerable (ataO<ali+ having in the opening aphorism+ 28ow is the exposition of Concentration2 4yoga6+ avowed his commencement of the ;oga E!stra+ proceeds in the second aphorism to give a definition of his sub<ect+ 2Concentration is the hindering of the modifications of the thin0ing principle+2 and then he expounds at length the nature of editation 4samdhi6' In the second chapter+ in the series of aphorisms commencing+ 2/he practical part of Concentration is mortification+ muttering+ and resignation to the Supreme+2 he expounds the practical part of yoga proper to him whose mind is not yet thoroughly abstracted 4iii' r6+ viQ'+ the five external subservients or means+ 2forbearance+2 and the rest' In the third chapter+ in the series commencing 25ttention is the fastening [of the mind] on some spot+2 he expounds the three internal subservientsCattention+ contemplation+ and meditation+ collectively called by the name 2sub<ugation2 4sayama6+ and also the various superhuman powers which [.D.]are their subordinate fruit' In the fourth chapter+ in the series commencing+ 2(erfections spring from birth+ plants+ spells+ mortification+ and meditation+2 he expounds the highest end+ >mancipation+ together with a detailed account of the five so-called 2perfections2 4siddhis6' /his school accepts the old twenty-five principles [of the S!0hya]+ 28ature+2 Pc'7 only adding the Supreme #eing as the twenty-sixthCa Soul untouched by affliction+ action+ fruit+ or stoc0 of desert+ who of His own will assumed a body in order to create+ and originated all secular or *aidic traditions+[Dk@] and is gracious towards those living beings who are burned in the charcoal of mundane existence' 2#ut how can such an essence as soul+ undefiled as the [glossy] leaf of a lotus+ be said to be burned+ that we should need to accept any Supreme #eing as gracious to itq2 /o this we reply+ that the ,uality ?oodness develops itself as the understanding+ and it is this which is+ as it were+ burned by the ,uality 5ctivity7 and the soul+ by the influence of Aar0ness+ blindly identifying itself with this suffering ,uality+ is also said itself to suffer' /hus the teachers have declaredC 2It is ?oodness which suffers under the form of the understanding and the substances belonging to 5ctivity which torment+[Dk&] 5nd it is through the modification of Aar0ness+ as wrongly identifying+ that the Soul is spo0en of as suffering'2 It has been also said by (ataO<ali+[Dkk] 2/he power of the en<oyer+ which is itself incapable of

development or of transference+ in an ob<ect which is developed and transferred experiences the modifications thereof'2 8ow the 2power of the en<oyer2 is the power of intelligence+ and this is the soul7 and in an ob<ect which is [.DD]2developed2 and 2transferred+2 or reflected+Ci.e.+ in the thin0ing principle or the understanding+Cit experiences the modifications thereof+ i.e.+ the power of intelligence+ being reflected in the understanding+ receives itself the shadow of the understanding+ and imitates the modifications of it' /hus the soul+ though in itself pure+ sees according to the idea produced by the understanding7 and+ while thus seeing at second-hand+ though really it is different from the understanding+ it appears identical therewith' It is while the soul is thus suffering+ that+ by the practice of the eight subservient means+ forbearance+ religious observance+ Pc'+ earnestly+ uninterruptedly+ and for a long period+ and by continued resignation to the Supreme #eing+ at length there is produced an unclouded recognition of the distinction between the ,uality ?oodness and the Soul7 and the five 2afflictions+2 ignorance+ Pc'+ are radically destroyed+ and the various 2stoc0s of desert+2 fortunate or unfortunate+ are utterly abolished+ and+ the undefiled soul abiding emancipated+ perfect >mancipation is accomplished' /he words of the first aphorism+ 28ow is the exposition of concentration+2 establish the four preliminaries which lead to the intelligent reader:s carrying the doctrine into practice+ viQ'+ the ob<ect-matter+ the end proposed+ the connection [between the treatise and the ob<ect]+ and the person properly ,ualified to study it' /he word 2now2 4atha6 is accepted as having here an inceptive meaning+ [as intimating that a distinct topic is now commenced]' 2#ut+2 it may be ob<ected+ 2there are several possible significations of this word atha7 why+ then+ should you show an unwarranted partiality for this particular :inceptive: meaningq /he great Canon for nouns and their gender [the 5mara Nosha Aictionary] gives many such meanings' :Atha is used in the sense of an auspicious particle+Cafter+Cnow 4inceptive6+Cwhatq 4interrogatively6+Cand all 4comprehensively6': 8ow we willingly surrender such senses as interrogation or comprehensiveness7[.D@] but since there are four senses certainly suitable+ i.e.+ :after+: :an auspicious particle+: :reference to a previous topic+: and :the inceptive now+: there is no reason for singling out the last'2 /his ob<ection+ however+ will not stand+ for it cannot bear the following alternative' If you maintain the sense of 2after+2 then do you hold that it implies following after anything whatever+ or only after some definite cause as comprehended under the general definition of causation+[Dk-] i.e.+ 2previous existence [relatively to the effect]2q It cannot be the former+ for+ in accordance with the proverb that 28o one stands for a single moment inactive+2 everybody must always do everything after previously doing something else7 and since this is at once understood without any direct mention at all+ there could be no use in employing the particle atha to convey this meaning' 8or can it be the latter alternative7 because+ although we fully grant that the practice of concentration does in point of fact follow after previous tran,uillity+ Pc'+ yet these are rather the necessary preliminaries to the wor0 of exposition+ and conse,uently cannot have that avowed predominance [which the presumed cause should have]' 2#ut why should we not hold that the word atha implies that this very exposition is avowedly the predominant ob<ect+ and does follow after previous tran,uillity of mind+ Pc'q2 1e reply+ that the aphorism uses the term 2exposition2 4anusana6+ and this word+ etymologically analysed+ implies that by which the yoga is explained+ accompanied with definitions+ divisions+ and detailed means and results7 and there is no rule that such an exposition must follow previous tran,uillity of mind+ Pc'+ the rule rather being that+ as far as the teacher is concerned+ it must follow a profound 0nowledge of the truth and a desire to impart it to others7 for it is rather the student:s desire to 0now and his derived 0nowledge+ which should have ,uiet of mind+ Pc'+ as their precursors+ in accordance with the words of ErutiG 2/herefore [.D&]having become tran,uil+ self-subdued+ loftily indifferent+ patient+ full of faith and intent+ let him see the soul in the soul'2[Dk%] 8or can the word atha imply the necessary precedence+ in the teacher+ of a profound 0nowledge of the truth and a desire to impart it to others7 because+ even granting that both these are present+ they need not to be mentioned thus prominently+ as they are powerless in themselves to produce the necessary intelligence and effort in the student' Still [however we may settle these points] the ,uestion arises+ Is the exposition of the yoga

ascertained to be a cause of final beatitude or notq If it is+ then it is still a desirable ob<ect+ even if certain presupposed conditions should be absent7 and if it is not+ then it must be undesirable+ whatever conditions may be present'[Dkr] #ut it is clear that the exposition in ,uestion is such a cause+ since we have such a passage of the Eruti as that [in the Naha ppanishad+ ii' $.]G 2#y the ac,uirement of yoga or intense concentration on the Supreme Soul+ the wise man having meditated leaves behind <oy and sorrow72 and again+ such a passage of the Smiti as that [in the #hagavad ?9t!+ ii' &D]G 2/he intellect unwavering in contemplation will then attain yoga'2 Hence we conclude that it is untenable to interpret atha as implying that the exposition must follow 2after2 a previous in,uiry on the part of the student+ or 2after2 a previous course of ascetic training and use of elixirs+ Pc' [to render the body strong]' #ut in the case of the *ed!nta Sntras+ which open with the aphorism+ 28ow+ therefore+ there is the wish to 0now #rahman+2 Ea0ara "ch!rya has declared that the inceptive meaning of atha must be left out of the ,uestion+ as the wish to 0now #rahman is not to be underta0en [at will]7 and therefore it must be there interpreted to mean 2after+2 i.e.+ that this desire must follow a previous [.Dk]course of tran,uillity+ Pc'+ as laid down by the well-0nown rule which en<oins the practice of tran,uillity+ self-control+ indifference+ endurance+ contemplation+ and faith+ the ob<ect being to communicate the teaching to a proper student as distinguished by the possession of the four so-called 2means'2[D-l] 21ell+ then+ let us grant that atha cannot mean :after7: but why should it not be simply an auspicious particleq2 #ut this it cannot be+ from the absence of any connection between the context and such auspicious meaning' 5uspiciousness implies the obtaining of an unimpeached and desired good+ and what is desired is so desired as being the attainment of pleasure or the avoidance of pain7 but this auspiciousness cannot belong to the exposition of yoga+ since it is in itself neither pleasure nor the cessation of pain'[D-$] /herefore it cannot be at all established that the meaning of the aphorism is that 2the exposition of the yoga is auspicious72 for auspiciousness cannot be either the primary meaning of atha or its secondary meaning by metonymy+ since it is its very sound which is in itself auspicious [without any reference to the meaning]+ li0e that of a drum' 2#ut why not say that <ust as an implied meaning may enter into the direct meaning of a sentence+ so an effect [li0e this of auspiciousness] may also be included+ since both are e,ually unexpressed so far as the actual words are concernedq2[D-.] 1e reply+ that in the meaning of a sentence the connection must be between the meaning of one word and that of another7 otherwise we should be guilty of brea0ing the seal which the rule of the grammarians has set+ that 2verbal expectancy[D-D] can be fulfilled by words alone'2 [.D-] 2#ut ought not a prayer for an auspicious commencement to be put at the beginning of a E!stra+ in order to lay the hosts of obstacles that would hinder the completion of the wor0 which the author desires to begin+ and also to observe the immemorial practice of the good+ since it has been said by the wise+ :/hose !stras become widely famous which have auspicious commencements+ auspicious middles+ and auspicious endings+ and their students have long lives and are invincible in disputation:q[D-@] 8ow the word atha implies :auspiciousness+: since there is a Smiti which says+ 2:/he word Cm and the word atha+Cthese two in the ancient time+ 2:Cleaving the throat of #rahman+ came forth7 therefore they are both auspicious': 2/herefore let the word atha stand here as signifying :auspiciousness+: li0e the word :viddhi: used by (!ini in his opening sntra :viddhir d aich':2[D-&] /his view+ however+ is untenable7 since the very word atha+ when heard+ has an auspicious influence+ even though it be employed to convey some other special signification+ <ust as the hearing the sound of lutes+ flutes+ Pc' [is auspicious for one starting on a <ourney]' If you still ob<ect+ 2How can the particle atha have any other effect+ if it is specially used here to produce the idea that the meaning of the sentence is that a new topic is commencedq2 we reply that it certainly can have such other additional effect+ <ust as we see that <ars of water brought for some other purpose are auspicious omens at the commencement of a <ourney'

[D-k] 8or does this contradict the smiti+ [.D%]since the smiti will still hold good+ as the words 2they are both auspicious2 mean only that they produce an auspicious effect' 8or can the particle atha have here the meaning of 2reference to a previous topic+2 since the previously mentioned faults will all e,ually apply here+ as this meaning really involves that of 2after2 [which we have already discussed and re<ected]' 5nd again+ in such discussions as this+ as to whether this particular atha means 2the inceptive now2 or 2after+2 if another topic had been previously suggested+ then 2reference thereto2 would be a possible meaning7 but in the present case [where no other topic has been previously suggested] it is not a possible meaning' /herefore+ by exhaustion+ the commentator finally adopts+ for the atha of the sntra+ the remaining meaning of 2the inceptive now'2 So+ when it is said [in the /!ya #r!hmaa+ xvi' %+ $7 xvi' $l+ $]+ 28ow this is the Byotis+2 28ow this is the *iva<yotis+2[D--] the particle atha is accepted as signifying the commencement of the description of a particular sacrifice+ <ust as the atha in the commencement of the ah!bh!shya+ 2now comes the exposition of words+2 signifies the commencement of the Institutes of ?rammar' /his has been declared by *y!sa in his Commentary on the ;oga 5phorisms+ 2the atha in this opening aphorism indicates a commencement72 and *!chaspati has similarly explained it in his gloss7 therefore it may be considered as settled that the atha here indicates a commencement and also signifies auspiciousness' /herefore+ accepting the view [.Dr]that this atha implies a commencement+ let the student be left in peace to strive after a successful understanding of the !stra through the attainment of the yoga+ which is its proposed sub<ect+ by means of the teacher:s explanation of its entire purport' #ut here some one may say+ 2Aoes not the smiti of ;!<Oaval0ya say+ :Hirayagarbha is the promulgator of the ;oga+ and no other ancient sageq: how then is (ataO<ali the teacher thereofq2 1e reply that it was for this reason that the venerable (ataO<ali+[D-%] that ocean of compassion+ considering how difficult it was to grasp all the different forms of ;oga scattered up and down in the (ur!as+ Pc'+ and wishing to collect together their essence+ commenced his anusana+Cthe preposition anu implying that it was a teaching which followed a primary revelation and was not itself the immediate origin of the system' Since this atha in the aphorism signifies 2commencement+2 the full meaning of the sentence comes out as followsG 2be it 0nown that the institute for the exposition of the yoga is now commenced'2 In this institute the 2ob<ect-matter+2 as being that which is produced by it+ is yoga [or the 2concentration of the mind2]+ with its means and its fruit7 the producing this is its inferior 2end72 supreme absorption 4kaivalya6 is the highest 2end2 of the yoga when it is produced' /he 2connection2 between the institute and yoga is that of the producer and the thing to be produced7 the 2connection2 between yoga and supreme absorption is that of the means and the end7 and this is well 0nown from Eruti and Smiti+ as I have before shown' 5nd it is established by the general context that those who aim at liberation are the duly ,ualified persons to hear this institute' 8or need any one be alarmed lest a similar course should be adopted with the opening aphorism of the *ed!nta sntras+ 28ow+ therefore+ there is a wish to 0now #rahman72 and [.@l]lest here+ too+ we should see0 to establish by the general context that all persons who aim at liberation are duly ,ualified students of the *ed!nta' mor the word atha+ as there used+ signifies 2succession2 [or 2after2]7 and it is a settled point that the doctrine can only be transmitted through a regular channel to duly ,ualified students+ and conse,uently the ,uestion cannot arise as to whether any other meaning is suggested by the context' Hence it has been said+ 21hen Eruti comes [as the determining authority] :the sub<ect-matter: and the rest have no place'2[D-r] /he full meaning of this is as followsG 1here a thing is not apprehended from the *eda itself+ there the 2sub<ect-matter2 and the rest can establish the true meaning+ not otherwise7 but wherever we can attain the meaning by a direct text+ there the other modes of interpretation are irrelevant' mor when a thing is declared by a text of the *eda which ma0es its meaning obvious at once+ the 2sub<ect-matter2 and the rest either establish a contrary conclusion or one not contrary' 8ow+ in the former case+ the authority which would establish this contrary conclusion is [by the very nature of 2ruti2] already precluded from having any force7 and in the latter it is useless' /his is all declared in Baimini:s aphorism [iii' D+ $@]7 25 definite text+ a :sign+: the :sentence+: the :sub<ect-matter+: the :relative position+: or :the title+:C

when any of these come into collision+ the later in order is the wea0er because its meaning is more remote2[D%l] [and therefore less obvious]' It has been thus summed upC [.@$] 25 text always precludes the rest7 the :title: is always precluded by any of the preceding modes7 2#ut whether any intervening one is precluded+ or itself precludes+ depends on circumstances'2 /herefore [after all this long discussion] it may be now considered as settled that+ since it has an 2ob<ect+2 as well as the other preliminaries+ the study of the E!stra+ which teaches the ;oga+ is to be commenced li0e that of the *ed!nta+ which discusses the nature of #rahman' 2#ut+2 it may be ob<ected+ 2it is the ;oga which was said to be the ob<ect-matter+ since it is this which is to be produced+ not the E!stra'2 1e grant that the ;oga is the principal ob<ect+ as that which is to be produced7 but since it is produced by the E!stra+ especially directed thereto+ this E!stra is the means for its production+ and+ as a general rule+ the agent:s activity is directly concerned with the means rather than with the end' Bust as the operations of Aevadatta the woodcutter+ i.e.+ his lifting his arm up and down+ Pc'+ relate rather to the instrument+ i.e.+ the axe+ than to the ob<ect+ i.e.+ the tree+ so here the spea0er+ (ataO<ali+ in his immediate action of spea0ing+ means the ;oga-E!stra as his primary ob<ect+ while he intends the ;oga itself in his ultimate action of 2denotation'2 In conse,uence of this distinction+ the real meaning is that the commencing the ;oga!stra is that which primarily [.@.]claims our attention7 while the 2yoga+2 or the restraint of the modifications of the mind+ is what is to be expounded in this S!tra' 2#ut as we read in the lists of roots that the root yu' is used in the sense of :<oining+: should not the word yoga+ its derivative+ mean :con<unction+: and not :restraint:q 5nd indeed this has been said by ;!<Oaval0yaG[D%$]C :/he con<unction of the individual and the supreme souls is called yoga':2 /his+ however+ is untenable+ since there is no possibility of any such action+[D%.] Pc'+ in either as would produce this con<unction of the two souls' [8or+ again+ is such an explanation needed in order to remove the opposition of other philosophical schools]7 for the notion of the con<unction of two eternal things is opposed to the doctrines of the *aieshi0a and 8y!ya schools [and therefore they would still oppose our theory]' 5nd even if we accepted the explanation in accordance with the 9m!s! [or *ed!nta]+ our ;oga!stra would be rendered nugatory by this concession [and the very ground cut from under our feet]7 because the identity of the individual and supreme souls being in that school something already accomplished+ it could not be regarded as something to be produced by our E!stra' 5nd lastly+ as it is notorious that roots are used in many different senses+ the root yu' may very well be used here in the sense of 2contemplation'2[D%D] /hus it has been saidC 2(articles+ prepositions+ and rootsCthese three are all held to be of manifold meaning7 instances found in reading are their evidence'2 /herefore some authors expressly give yu' in this sense+ and insert in their lists 2yu' in the sense of samdhi'2 8or does this contradict ;!<Oaval0ya:s declaration+ as the word yoga+ used by him+ may bear this meaning7 and he has himself saidC [.@D] 21amdhi is the state of identity of the individual and supreme souls7 this abiding absolutely in #rahman is the samdhi of the individual soul'2 It has been also said by the venerable *y!sa [in his Commentary on the ;oga-sntras+ i' $]+ 29oga is samdhi'2 5n ob<ection however+ may be here raised that 2the term samdhi is used by (ataO<ali [in ii' .r] in the sense of one of the eight ancillary parts[D%@] of the eightfold concentration 4or yoga67 and the whole cannot be thus itself a part as well as a whole+ since the principal and the ancillary must be completely different from each other+ as all their attendant circumstances must be different+ <ust as we see in the darap"ramsa sacrifices and their ancillary rites the pray'as+ and therefore

samdhi cannot be the meaning of yoga'2 1e however reply that this ob<ection is incorrect7 for although the term samdhi is used for etymological reasons[D%&] to express the ancillary part which is really defined [in iii' D] as 2the contemplation which assumes the form of the ob<ect+ and is apparently devoid of any nature of its own72 still the further use of this term to describe the principal state is <ustified by the author:s wish to declare the ultimate oneness of the two states [as the inferior ultimately merges into the superior]' 8or can you hold that etymology alone can decide where a word can be used7 because if so+ as the word go+ 2a bull+2 is derived by all grammarians from the root gam+ 2to go+2 we ought never to use the phrase 2a standing bull2 [as the two words would be contradictory]+ and the man Aevadatta+ when going+ would properly be called go+ 2a bull72 and+ moreover+ the Sntra+ i' .+ distinctly gives us a definite <ustification for employing the word in this sense when it declares that 2concentration 4yoga6 is the suppression of the modifications of the thin0ing principle'2 [/he second or principal sense of samdhi will therefore be ,uite distinct from the first or inferior'] [.@@] 2#ut surely if yoga is held to be the suppression of the modifications of the thin0ing principle+ then as these modifications abide in the soul as themselves parta0ing of the nature of 0nowledge+ their suppression+ or in other words their :destruction+: would also abide in the soul+ since it is a principle in logic that the antecedent non-existence and destruction abide in the same sub<ect as the counterentity to these negations7[D%k] and conse,uently in accordance with the maxim+ :/his newly produced character will affect the sub<ect in which it resides+: the absolute independence of the soul itself would be destroyed'2 /his+ however+ we do not allow7 because we maintain that these various modifications which are to be hindered+[D%-] such as 2right notion+2 2misconception+2 2fancy+2 2sleep+2 and 2memory2 4i' k6+ are attributes of the internal organ 4chitta6+ since the power of pure intelligence+ which is unchangeable+ cannot become the site of this discriminative perception' 8or can you ob<ect that this unchangeable nature of the intelligent soul[D%%] has not been proved+ since there is an argument to establish it7 for the intelligent soul must be unchangeable from the fact that it always 0nows+ while that which is not always 0nowing is not unchangeable+ as the internal organ+ Pc' 5nd so again+ if this soul were susceptible of change+ then+ as this change would be occasional+ we could not predicate its always 0nowing these modifications' #ut the true view is+ that while the intelligent soul always remains as the presiding witness+ there is another essentially pure substance[D%r] which abides always the same7 and as it is this which is affected by any given ob<ect+ so it is this perceptible substance which is reflected as a shadow on the soul+ and so produces an [.@&]impression7[Drl] and thus Soul itself is preserved in its own proper independence+ and it is maintained to be the always 0nowing+ and no suspicion of change alights upon it' /hat ob<ect by which the understanding becomes affected is 0nown7 that ob<ect by which it is not affected is not 0nown7 for the understanding is called 2susceptible of change+2 because it resembles the iron+ as it is susceptible of being affected or not by the influence or want of influence of the ob<ect which resembles the magnet+Cthis influence or want of influence producing respectively 0nowledge or the want of 0nowledge' 2#ut inasmuch as the understanding and the senses which spring from egoism are all-pervading+ are they not always connected with all ob<ects+ and thus would it not follow that there should be a 0nowledge everywhere and always of all thingsq2 1e reply that even although we grant that they are all-pervading+ it is only where a given understanding has certain modifications in a given body+ and certain ob<ects are in a connection with that body+ that the 0nowledge of these ob<ects only+ and none other+ is produced to that understanding7 and therefore+ as this limitation is absolute+ we hold that ob<ects are <ust li0e magnets+ and affect the understanding <ust as these do iron+Ccoming in contact with it through the channels of the senses' /herefore+ the 2modifications2 belong to the understanding+ not to the soul7 and so says the Eruti+ 2Aesire+ volition+ doubt+ faith+ want of faith+ firmness+ want of firmness+Call this is only the mind'2 oreover+ the sage (aOchai0ha declared the unchangeable nature of the intelligent soul+ 2/he power that en<oys is unchangeable72 and so (ataO<ali also 4iv' $%6+ 2/he modifications of the understanding are always 0nown+Cthis arises from the unchangeableness of the 3uling Soul'2 /he following is the argument

drawn out formally to establish the [.@k]changeableness of the understanding' /he understanding is susceptible of change because its various ob<ects are now 0nown and now not 0nown+ <ust li0e the organ of hearing and the other organs of sense' 8ow+ this change is notoriously threefold+ i.e.+ a change of 2property+2 of 2aspect+2[Dr$] and of 2condition'2 1hen the sub<ect+ the understanding+ perceives the colour 2blue+2 Pc'+ there is a change of 2property2 <ust as when the substance 2gold2 becomes a bracelet+ a diadem+ or an armlet7 there is a change of 2aspect2 when the property becomes present+ past+ or future7 and there is a change of 2condition2 when there is a manifestation or non-manifestation[Dr.] of the perception+ as of blue+ Pc'7 or+ in the case of gold+ the [relative] newness or oldness [at two different moments] would be its change of condition' /hese three 0inds of change must be traced out by the reader for himself in different other cases' 5nd thus we conclude that there is nothing inconsistent in our thesis that+ since 2right notion2 and the other modifications are attributes of the understanding+ their 2suppression2 will also have its site in the same organ' [=ur opponent now urges a fresh and long ob<ection to what we have said above'] 2#ut if we accept your definition that :yoga is the suppression of the modifications of the chitta+: this will apply also to :sound sleep+: since there too we may find the suppression [or suspension] of the modifications found in kshipta+ vikshipta+ m"ha+[DrD] Pc'7 but this would be wrong+ because it is impossible for the :afflictions: to be abolished so long as those states called kshipta+ Pc'+ remain at all+ and because they only hinder the attainment of the summum !onum' Het us examine this more closely' mor the understanding is called kshipta+ :restless+: when it is restless [with [.@-]an excess of the ,uality ra'as]+ as being tossed about amidst various ob<ects which engage it' It is called m"ha+ :blinded+: when it is possessed by the modification :sleep: and is sun0 in a sea of dar0ness [owing to an excess of the ,uality tamas]' It is called vikshipta+ :unrestless+: when it is different from the first state[Dr@] [as filled with the ,uality sattva]'2 1e must here+ however+ note a distinction7 for+ in accordance with the line of the #hagavad ?9t! 4vi' D@6+ :/he mind+ = Nisha+ is fic0le+ turbulent+ violent+ and obstinate+: the mind+ though naturally restless+ may occasionally become fixed by the transient fixedness of its ob<ects7 but restlessness is innate to it+ or it is produced in it by sic0ness+P c'+ or other conse,uences of former actions7 as it is said [in the ;oga Sntras+ i' Dl]+ :Sic0ness+ languor+ doubt+ carelessness+ laQiness+ addiction to ob<ects+ erroneous perception+ failure to attain some stage+ and instability+Cthese distractions of the mind are called 2obstacles2': Here :sic0ness: means fever+ Pc'+ caused by the want of e,uilibrium between the three humours7 :languor: is the mind:s want of activity7 :doubt: is a sort of notion which embraces two opposite alternatives7 :carelessness: is a negligence of using the means for producing meditation7 :laQiness: is a want of exertion from heaviness of body+ speech+ or mind7 :addiction to ob<ects: is an attachment to ob<ects of sense7 :erroneous perception: is a mista0en notion of one thing for another7 :failure to attain some stage: is the failing for some reason or other to arrive at the state of abstract meditation7 :instability: is the mind:s failure to continue there+ even when the state of abstract meditation has been reached' /herefore we maintain that the suppression of the mind:s modifications cannot be laid down as the definition of yoga' 1e reply+ that even although we allow that+ so far as regards the three conditions of the mind called kshipta+ [.@%]m"ha+ and vikshipta+ which [as being connected with the three ,ualities] are all to be avoided as faulty states+ the suppression of the modifications in these conditions is itself something to be avoided [and so cannot be called yoga]+ this does not apply to the other two conditions called ekgra and niruddha+ which are to be pursued and attained7 and therefore the suppression of the modifications in these two praiseworthy conditions is rightly to be considered as yoga' 8ow by ekgra we mean that state when the mind+ entirely filled with the sattva ,uality+ is devoted to the one ob<ect of meditation7 and by niruddha we mean that state when all its developments are stopped+ and only their latent impressions [or potentialities] remain' 8ow this samdhi+ 2meditation2 [in the highest sense]+ is twofoldG 2that in which there is distinct recognition2 4sapra'(ta6+ and 2that in which distinct recognition is lost2 4asapra'(ta6 [;oga S'+ i' $-+ $%]'[Dr&] /he former is defined as that meditation where the thought is intent on its own

ob<ect+ and all the 2modifications+2 such as 2right notion+2 Pc'+ so far as they depend on external things+ are suppressed+ or+ according to the etymology of the term+ it is where the intellect[Drk] is thoroughly recognised 4samyak pra'(yate6 as distinct from 8ature' It has a fourfold division+ as savitarka+ savichra+ snanda+ and ssmita' 8ow this 2meditation2 is a 0ind of 2pondering2 4!hvan6+ which is the ta0ing into the mind again and again+ to the exclusion of all other ob<ects+ that which is to be pondered' 5nd that which is thus to be pondered is of two 0inds+ being either )wara or the twenty-five principles' 5nd these principles also are of two 0indsCsenseless and not senseless' /wenty-four+ including nature+ intellect+ egoism+ Pc'+ are senseless7 that which is not senseless is Soul' 8ow among these ob<ects which are to be pondered+ when+ having ta0en as the ob<ect the gross elements+ as earth+ [.@r]Pc'+ pondering is pursued in the form of an investigation as to which is antecedent and which conse,uent+[Dr-] or in the form of a union of the word+ its meaning+ and the idea which is to be produced [cf' i' @.]7 then the meditation is called 2argumentative2 4savitarka6' 1hen+ having ta0en as its ob<ect something subtile+ as the five subtile elements and the internal organ+ pondering is pursued in relation to space+ time+ Pc'+ then the meditation is called 2deliberative2 4savichra6' 1hen the mind+ commingled with some 2passion2 and 2dar0ness+2 is pondered+ then the meditation is called 2beatific2 4snanda6+ because 2goodness2 is then predominant+ which consists in the manifestation of <oy'[Dr%] 1hen pondering is pursued+ having as its ob<ect the pure element of 2goodness+2 unaffected by even a little of 2passion2 or 2dar0ness+2 then that meditation is called 2egoistical2 4ssmita6+ because here personal existence[Drr] only remains+ since the intellectual faculty becomes now predominant+ and the ,uality of 2goodness2 has become ,uite subordinate [as a mere stepping-stone to higher things]' #ut the 2meditation+ where distinct recognition is lost+2 consists in the suppression of all 2modifications2 whatever' 2#ut2 [it may be as0ed] 2was not :concentration: defined as the suppression of all the modificationsq How+ then+ can the :meditation where there is distinct recognition: be included in it at all+ since we still find active in it that modification of the mind+ with the ,uality of goodness predominant+ which views the soul and the ,uality of goodness as distinct from each otherq2 /his+ however+ is untenable+ because we maintain that concentration is the suppression of the 2modifications2 of the thin0ing power+ as especially stopping the operation of the 2afflictions+2 the 2actions+2 the 2fructifications+2 and the 2stoc0 of deserts'2[@ll] [.&l] /he 2afflictions2 4klea6 are well 0nown as five+ viQ'+ ignorance+ egoism+ desire+ aversion+ and tenacity of mundane existence' #ut here a ,uestion is at once raised+ In what sense is the word avidy+ 2ignorance+2 used hereq Is it to be considered as an avyay!hva compound+ where the former portion is predominant+ as in the word 2above-board2q[@l$] or is it a tatpurusha [or karmadhraya] compound+ where the latter portion is predominant+ as in the word 2town-cler02q or is it a !ahuvrhi compound+ where both portions are dependent on something external to the compound+ as 2blue-eyed2q It cannot be the first7 for if the former portion of the compound were predominant+ then we should have the negation the emphatic part in avidy 4i.e.+ it would be an instance of what is called the express negation+ or prasa'ya-pratishedha67[@l.] and conse,uently+ as avidy would be thus emphatically a negation+ it would be unable to produce positive results+ as the 2afflictions+2 Pc'+ and the very form of the word should not be feminine+ but neuter' It cannot be the second7 for any 0nowledge+ whatever thing:s absence it may be characterised by 4a v vidy6+ opposes the 2afflictions+2 Pc'+ and cannot therefore be their source' 8or can it be the third7 for then+ Cin accordance with the words of the author of the *itti+[@lD] 2there is a !ahuvrhi compound which is formed with some word meaning :existence: used after :not+: with the optional elision of this subse,uent word2[@l@]Cwe must explain this supposed !ahuvrhi compound avidy as followsG 2/hat !uddhi is to be characterised as avidy 4sc. an ad<ective6+ [.&$]of which there is not a vidy existing'2 #ut this explanation is untenable7 for such an avidy could not become the source of the 2afflictions72[@l&] and yet+ on the other hand+ it ought to be their source+[@lk] even though it were associated with the suppression of all the 2modifications+2[@l-] and were also accompanied by

that discriminative 0nowledge of the soul and the ,uality of goodness [which is found in the ssmita meditation]' 8ow it is said [in the ;oga Sntras+ ii' @]+ 2Ignorance is the field [or place of origin+ i.e.+ source] of the others+ whether they be dormant+ extenuated+ intercepted+ or simple'2 /hey are said to be 2dormant2 when they are not manifested for want of something to wa0e them up7 they are called 2extenuated2 when+ through one:s meditating on something that is opposed to them+ they are rendered inert7 they are called 2intercepted2 when they are overpowered by some other strong 2affliction72 they are called 2simple2 when they produce their several effects in the direct vicinity of what co-operates with them' /his has been expressed by *!chaspati ira+ in his ?loss on *y!sa:s Commentary+ in the following memorial stanQaGC 2/he dormant :afflictions: are found in those souls which are absorbed in the tattvas [i.e.+ not embodied+ but existing in an interval of mundane destruction]7 the :extenuated:[@l%] are found in yogins7 but the :intercepted: and the :simple: in those who are in contact with worldly ob<ects'2 28o one proposes the fourth solution of the compound avidy as a dvandva compound+[@lr] where both portions are e,ually predominant+ because we cannot recognise here two e,ually independent sub<ects' /herefore under any [.&.]one of these three admissible alternatives[@$l] the common notion of ignorance as being the cause of the :afflictions: would be overthrown'2 [1e do not+ however+ concede this ob<ector:s view]+ because we may have recourse to the other 0ind of negation called paryudsa [where the affirmative part is emphatic]+ and maintain that avidy means a contradictory [or wrong] 0ind of 0nowledge+ the reverse of vidy7 and so it has been accepted by ancient writers' /hus it has been saidC 2/he particle implying :negation: does not signify :absence: [or :non-existence:] when connected with a noun or a root7 thus the words a!rhmaa and adharma respectively signify+ :what is other than a #r!hman: and :what is contrary to <ustice':2 5nd againC 21e are to learn all the uses of words from the custom of the ancient writers7 therefore a word must not be wrested from the use in which it has been already employed'2 *!chaspati also says+[@$$] 2/he connection of words and their meanings depends on general consent for its certainty7 and since we occasionally see that a tatpurusha negation+ where the latter portion is properly predominant+ may overpower the direct meaning of this latter portion by its contradiction of it+ we conclude that even here too [in avidy] the real meaning is something contrary to vidy2 [i.e.+ the negative 2non-0nowledge2 becomes ultimately the positive 2ignorance2[@$.]]' It is with a view to this that it is said in the ;oga 5phorisms [ii' &]+ 2Ignorance is the notion that the non-eternal+ the impure+ pain+ and the non-soul are 4severally6 eternal+ pure+ pleasure+ and soul'2 .iparyaya+ 2misconception+2 is defined as [.&D]2the imagining of a thing in what is not that thing+2[@$D] [i.e.+ in its opposite]7 as+ for instance+ the imagining the 2eternal2 in a 2non-eternal2 thing+ i.e.+ a <ar+ or the imagining the 2pure2 in the 2impure2 body+[@$@] when it has been declared by a proverbial couplet[@$&]C 2/he wise recognise the body as impure+ from its original place [the womb]+Cfrom its primal seed+ Cfrom its composition [of humours+ Pc']+Cfrom perspiration+Cfrom death [as even a #r!hman:s body defiles]+Cand from the fact that it has to be made pure by rites'2 So+Cin accordance with the principle enounced in the aphorism 4ii' $&6+ 2/o the discriminating everything is simply pain+ through the pain which arises in the ultimate issue of everything+[@$k] or through the anxiety to secure it [while it is en<oyed]+ or through the latent impressions which it leaves behind+ and also from the mutual opposition of the influences of the three ,ualities2 [in the form of pleasure+ pain+ and stupid indifference]+Cignorance transfers the idea of 2pleasure2 to what is really 2pain+2 as+ e.g.+ garlands+ sandal-wood+ women+ Pc'7 and similarly it conceives the 2nonsoul+2 e.g.+ the body+ Pc'+ as the 2soul'2 5s it has been saidC

2#ut ignorance is when living beings transfer the notion of :soul: to the :non-soul+: as the body+ Pc'7 2/his causes bondage7 but in the abolition thereof is liberation'2 /hus this ignorance consists of four 0inds'[@$-] #ut [it may be ob<ected] in these four special 0inds of ignorance should there not be given some general definition applying to them all+ as otherwise their special [.&@]characteristics cannot be establishedq mor thus it has been said by #haa Num!rilaC 2:1ithout some general definition+ a more special definition cannot be given by itself7 therefore it must not be even mentioned here':2 /his+ however+ must not be urged here+ as it is sufficiently met by the general definition of misconception+ already adduced above+ as 2the imagining of a thing in its opposite'2 2>goism2 4asmit6 is the notion that the two separate things+ the soul and the ,uality of purity+[@$%] are one and the same+ as is said 4ii' k6+ 2>goism is the identifying of the seer with the power of sight'2 2Aesire2 4rga6 is a longing+ in the shape of a thirst+ for the means of en<oyment+ preceded by the remembrance of en<oyment+ on the part of one who has 0nown <oy' 25version2 4dvesha6 is the feeling of blame felt towards the means of pain+ similarly preceded by the remembrance of pain+ on the part of one who has 0nown it' /his is expressed in the two aphorisms+ 2Aesire is what dwells on pleasure72 25version is what dwells on pain2 4ii' -+ %6' Here a grammatical ,uestion may be raised+ 25re we to consider this word anuayin 4:dwelling:6 as formed by the kit affix ini in the sense of :what is habitual+: or the taddhita affix ini in the sense of matupq It cannot be the former+ since the affix ini cannot be used after a root compounded with a preposition as anu7 for+ as the word supi has already occurred in the Sntra+ iii' .+ @+ and has been exerting its influence in the following sntras+ this word must have been introduced a second time in the Sntra+ iii' .+ -%+ supy a'tau inis tchchhlye+[@$r] on purpose to exclude prepositions+ as these have no case terminations7 and even if we did strain a point to allow them+ still it would follow by the Sntra+ vii' .+ $$&+ acho (iti+[@.l] that [.&&]the radical vowel must be sub<ect to viddhi+ and so the word must be anuyin+ in accordance with the analogy of such words as atiyin+ Pc' 8or is the latter view tenable 4i.e.+ that it is the taddhita affix ini[@.$]6+ since ini is forbidden by the technical verseC :/hese two affixes[@..] are not used after a monosyllable nor a kit formation+ nor a word meaning :genus+: nor with a word in the locative case7: and the word anuaya is clearly a kit formation as it ends with the affix ach[@.D] [which brings it under this prohibition+ and so renders it insusceptible of the affix ini]' Conse,uently+ the word anuayin in the ;oga aphorism is one the formation of which it is very hard to <ustify'2[@.@] /his cavil+ however+ is not to be admitted7 since the rule is only to be understood as applying generally+ not absolutely+ as it does not refer to something of essential importance' Hence the author of the *itti has saidC 2/he word iti+ as implying the idea of popular acceptation+ is everywhere connected with the examples of this rule[@.&] [i.e.+ it is not an absolute law]'2 /herefore+ sometimes the prohibited cases are found+ as kryin+ kryika [where the affixes are added after a kit formation]+ taulin+ taulika [where they are added after a word meaning 2genus2]' Hence the prohibition is only general+ not absolute+ after kit formations and words meaning 2genus+2 and therefore the use of the affix ini is <ustified+ although the word anuaya is formed by a kit affix' /his doubt therefore is settled' [.&k] /he fifth 2affliction+2 called 2tenacity of mundane existence2 4a!hinivea6+ is what prevails in the case of all living beings+ from the worm up to the philosopher+ springing up daily+ without any immediate cause+ in the form of a dread+ 2 ay I not be separated from the body+ things sensible+

Pc'+2 through the force of the impression left by the experience of the pain of the deaths which were suffered in previous lives+ this is proved by universal experience+ since every individual has the wish+ 2 ay I not cease to be+2 2 ay I be'2 /his is declared in the aphorism+ 2/enacity of mundane existence+ flowing on through its own nature+ is notorious even in the case of the philosopher2 [ii' r]' /hese five+ 2ignorance+2 Pc'+ are well 0nown as the 2afflictions2 4klea6+ since they afflict the soul+ as bringing upon it various mundane troubles' [1e next describe the karmaya of ii' $.+ the 2stoc0 of wor0s2 or 2merits2 in the mind'] 21or0s2 4karman6 consist of en<oined or forbidden actions+ as the 'yotishoma sacrifice+ br!hmanicide+ Pc' 2Stoc02 4aya6 is the balance of the fruits of previous wor0s+ which lie stored up in the mind in the form of 2mental deposits2 of merit or demerit+ until they ripen in the individual soul:s own experience as 2ran0+2 2years+2 and 2en<oyment2 [ii' $D]' 8ow 2concentration2 [yoga] consists [by i' .] in 2the suppression of the modifications of the thin0ing principle+2 which stops the operation of the 2afflictions+2 Pc'7 and this 2suppression2 is not considered to be merely the non-existence of the modifications [i.e.+ a mere negation]+ because+ if it were a mere negation+ it could not produce positive impressions on the mind7 but it is rather the site of this non-existence+[@.k]Ca particular state of the thin0ing principle+ called by the four names [which will be fully described hereafter]+ madhumat+ madhupratk+ viok+ and saskraeshat' /he word nirodha thus corresponds to its etymological explanation as 2that in which the modifications of the thin0ing principle+ right notion+ misconception+ [.&-]Pc'+ are suppressed 4nirudhyante6' /his suppression of the modifications is produced by 2exercise2 and 2dispassion2 [i' $.]' 2>xercise is the repeated effort that the internal organ shall remain in its proper state2 [i' $D]' /his 2remaining in its proper state2 is a particular 0ind of development+ whereby the thin0ing principle remains in its natural state+ unaffected by those modifications which at different times assume the form of revealing+ energising+ and controlling'[@.-] 2>xercise2 is an effort directed to this+ an endeavour again and again to reduce the internal organ to such a condition' /he locative case+ sthitau+ in the aphorism is intended to express the ob<ect or aim+ as in the well-0nown phrase+ 2He 0ills the elephant for its s0in'2[@.%] 2Aispassion is the consciousness of having overcome desire in him who thirsts after neither the ob<ects that are seen nor those that are heard of in revelation2 [i' $&]' 2Aispassion2 is thus the reflection+ 2/hese ob<ects are sub<ect to me+ not I to them+2 in one who feels no interest in the things of this world or the next+ from perceiving the imperfections attached to them' 8ow+ in order to reduce the 2afflictions2 which hinder meditation and to attain meditation+ the yogin must first direct his attention to practical concentration+ and 2exercise2 and 2dispassion2 are of especial use in its attainment' /his has been said by Nisha in the #hagavad ?9t! [vi' D]C 25ction is the means to the sage who wishes to rise to yoga7 #ut to him who has risen to it+ tran,uillity is said to be the means'2 (ataO<ali has thus defined the practical yogaG 2(ractical concentration is mortification+ recitation of texts+ and resignation to the Hord2 [ii' $]' ;!<Oaval0ya has described 2mortification2C [.&%] 2#y the way prescribed in sacred rule+ by the difficult ch!ndr!yaa fast+ Pc'+ 2/hus to dry up the body they call the highest of all mortifications'2[@.r] 23ecitation of texts2 is the repetition of the syllable =m+ the gyatr+ Pc' 8ow these mantras are of two 0inds+ *aidi0 and /!ntri0' /he *aidi0 are also of two 0inds+ those chanted and those not chanted' /hose chanted are the smans7 those not chanted are either in metre+ i.e.+ the ichas+ or in prose+ i.e.+ the ya'"shi+ as has been said by Baimini+[@Dl] 2=f these+ that is a ich in which by the force of the sense there is a definite division into pdas [or portions of a verse]7 the name sman is applied to chanted portions7 the word ya'us is applied to the rest'2 /hose mantras are called /!ntri0 which are set forth in sacred boo0s that are directed to topics of voluntary devotion7[@D$] and these

are again threefold+ as female+ male+ and neuter7 as it has been saidC 2/he mantras are of three 0inds+ as female+ male+ and neuterG 2/he female are those which end in the wife of fire 4i.e.+ the exclamation svh67 the neuter those which end in namas7 2/he rest are male+ and considered the best' /hey are all-powerful in mesmerising another:s will+ Pc'2 /hey are called 2all-powerful2 4siddha6 because they counteract all defects in their performance+ and produce their effect even when the ordinary consecrating ceremonies+ as bathing+ Pc'+ have been omitted' 8ow the peculiar 2consecrating ceremonies2 4saskra6 are ten+ and they have been thus described in the 0rad-tilakaC 2/here are said to be ten preliminary ceremonies which give to mantras efficacyG[.&r] 2/hese mantras are thus made complete7 they are thoroughly consecrated' 2/he :begetting+: the :vivifying+: the :smiting+: the :awa0ening+: 2/he :sprin0ling+: the :purifying+: the :fattening+: 2/he :satisfying+: the :illumining+: the :concealing+:Cthese are the ten consecrations of mantras' 2/he :begetting: 4'anana6 is the extracting of the mantra from its vowels and consonants' 2/he wise man should mutter the several letters of the mantra+ each united to =m+ 25ccording to the number of the letters' /his they call the :vivifying: 4'vana6' 2Having written the letters of the mantra+ let him smite each with sandal-water+ 2pttering at each the mystic :seed: of air'[@D.] /his is called the :smiting: 4tana6' 2Having written the letters of the mantra+ let him stri0e them with oleander flowers+ 2>ach enumerated with a letter' /his is called the :awa0ening: 4!odhana6' 2Het the adept+ according to the ritual prescribed in his own special tantra+ 2Sprin0le the letters+ according to their number+ with leaves of the micus religiosa' /his is the :sprin0ling: 4a!hisheka6' 2Having meditated on the mantra in his mind+ let him consume by the 'yotir-mantra 2/he threefold impurity of the mantra' /his is the :purification: 4vimal-karaa6' 2/he utterance of the 'yotir-mantra+ together with =m+ and the mantras of *yoman and 5gni+ 25nd the sprin0ling of every letter with water from a bunch of 0ua grass+ 21ith the mystical seed of water[@DD] duly muttered+Cthis is held to be the :fattening: 4pyyana6' [.kl] 2/he satiating libation over the mantra with mantra-hallowed water is the :satisfying: 4tarpaa6' 2/he <oining of the mantra with =m and the :seeds: of :illumining: 4dpana6' !y![@D@] and 3am![@D&] is called its

2/he non-publication of the mantra which is being mutteredCthis is its :concealing: 4gopana6' 2/hese ten consecrating ceremonies are 0ept close in all tantras7 25nd the adept who practises them according to the tradition obtains his desire7 25nd ruddha+ klita+ vichhinna+ supta+ apta+ and the rest+

25ll these faults in the mantra rites are abolished by these excellent consecrations'2 #ut enough of this venturing to ma0e public the tantra mysteries connected with mantras+ which has suddenly led us astray li0e an unexpected #acchanalian dance'[@Dk] /he third form of practical yoga+ 2resignation to the Hord2 4vara-praidhna6+ is the consigning all one:s wor0s+ whether mentioned or not+ without regard to fruit+ to the Supreme Hord+ the Supremely *enerable' 5s it has been saidC 21hatever I do+ good or bad+ voluntary or involuntary+ 2/hat is all made over to thee7 I act as impelled by thee'2 /his self-resignation is also sometimes defined as 2the surrender of the fruits of one:s actions+2 and is thus a peculiar 0ind of faith+ since most men act only with a selfish regard to the fruit' /hus it is sung in the #hagavad ?9t! [ii' @-]C 2Het thy sole concern be with action and never with the fruits7 2#e not attracted by the fruit of the action+ nor be thou attached to inaction'2 /he harmfulness of aiming at the fruit of an action has been declared by the venerable 89la0ahabh!rat9C [.k$] 2>ven a penance accomplished by great effort+ but vitiated by desire+ 2(roduces only disgust in the ?reat Hord+ li0e mil0 which has been lic0ed by a dog'2 8ow this prescribed practice of mortification+ recitation+ and resignation is itself called yoga+ because it is a means for producing yoga+ this being an instance of the function of words called 2superimponent pure Indication+2 as in the well-0nown example+ 2#utter is longevity'2 2Indication2 is the establishing of another meaning of a word from the incompatibility of its principal meaning with the rest of the sentence+ and from the connection of this new meaning with the former7 it is twofold+ as founded on notoriety or on a motive' /his has been declared in the Kvya-praka [ii' r] C 21hen+ in conse,uence of the incompatibility of the principal meaning of a word+ and yet in connection with it+ another meaning is indicated through notoriety or a motive+ this is :Indication+: the superadded function of the word'2 8ow the word 2this2 [i.e.+ tat in the neuter+ which the neuter yat in the extract would have naturally led us to expect instead of the feminine s] would have signified some neuter word+ li0e 2implying+2 which is involved as a subordinate part of the verb 2is indicated'2 #ut s is used in the feminine [by attraction to agree with laksha]+ 2this is indication+2 i.e.+ the neuter 2this2 is put in the feminine through its dependence on the predicate' /his has been explained by Naiyaa+ 2=f those pronouns which imply the identity of the sub<ect and the predicate+ the former ta0es the gender of the former+ the latter of the latter'2[@D-] 8ow 2expert 4kuala6 in business2 is an example of Indication from notoriety7 for the word kuala+ which is [.k.]significant in its parts by being analysed etymologically as kua v lti+ 2one who gathers 0ua grass for the sacrifice+2 is here employed to mean 2expert2 through the relation of a similarity in character+ as both are persons of discernment7 and this does not need a motive any more than Aenotation does+ since each is the using a word in its recognised conventional sense in accordance with the immemorial tradition of the elders' Hence it has been saidC 2Some instances of :indication: are 0nown by notoriety from their immediate significance+ <ust as is the case in :denotation: [the primary power of a word]'2 /herefore indication based on notoriety has no regard to any motive' 5lthough a word+ when it is employed+ first establishes its principal meaning+ and then by that meaning a second meaning is

subse,uently indicated+ and so indication belongs properly to the principal meaning and not to the word7 still+ since it is superadded to the word which originally established the primary meaning+ it is called [improperly by metonymy] a function of the word' It was with a view to this that the author of the N!vya-pra0!a used the expression+ 2/his is :Indication+: the superadded function of the word'2 #ut the indication based on a motive is of six 0indsG $' inclusive indication+[@D%] as 2the lances enter2 [where we really mean 2men with the lances2]7 .' indicative indication+ as 2the benches shout2 [where the spectators are meant without the benches]7 D' ,ualified[@Dr] superimponent indication+ as 2the man of the (an<!b is an ox2 [here the ob<ect is not swallowed up in the simile]7 @' ,ualified introsusceptive indication+ as 2that ox2 [here the man is swallowed up in the simile]7 &' pure superimponent indication+ as 2gh is life72 k' pure [.kD]introsusceptive indication+ as 2verily this is life'2 /his has been all explained in the N!vya-pra0!a [ii' $l-$.]' #ut enough of this churning of the depths of rhetorical discussions' /his yoga has been declared to have eight things ancillary to it 4aga67 these are the forbearances+ religious observances+ postures+ suppression of the breath+ restraint+ attention+ contemplation+ and meditation [ii' .r]' (ataO<ali says+ 2morbearance consists in not wishing to 0ill+ veracity+ not stealing+ continence+ not coveting2 [ii' Dl]' 23eligious observances are purifications+ contentment+ mortification+ recitation of texts+ and resignation to the Hord2 [ii' D.]7 and these are described in the *ishu (ur!a [vi' -+ Dk-D%]C 2/he sage who brings his mind into a fit state for attaining #rahman+ practises+ void of all desire+ 2Continence+ abstinence from in<ury+ truth+ non-stealing+ and non-coveting7 2Self-controlled+ he should practise recitation of texts+ purification+ contentment+ and austerity+ 25nd then he should ma0e his mind intent on the Supreme #rahman' 2/hese are respectively called the five :forbearances: and the five :religious observances7: 2/hey bestow excellent rewards when done through desire of reward+ and eternal liberation to those void of desire'2 25 :posture: is what is steady and pleasant2 [ii' @k]7 it is of ten 0inds+ as the padma+ !hadra+ vra+ svastika+ daaka+ sopraya+ paryaka+ krau(chanishadana+ ushranishadana+ samasasthna' ;!<Oaval0ya has described each of them in the passage which commencesC 2Het him hold fast his two great toes with his two hands+ but in reverse order+ 2Having placed the soles of his feet+ = chief of #r!hmans+ on his thighs7 2/his will be the padma posture+ held in honour by all'2 [.k@] /he descriptions of the others must be sought in that wor0'C1hen this steadiness of posture has been attained+ 2regulation of the breath2 is practised+ and this consists in 2a cutting short of the motion of inspiration and expiration2 [ii' @r]' Inspiration is the drawing in of the external air7 expiration is the expelling of the air within the body7 and 2regulation of the breath2 is the cessation of activity in both movements' 2#ut [it may be ob<ected] this cannot be accepted as a general definition of :regulation of breath+: since it fails to apply to the special 0inds+ as rechaka+ p"raka+ and kum!haka'2 1e reply that there is here no fault in the definition+ since the 2cutting short of the motion of inspiration and expiration2 is found in all these special 0inds' /hus rechaka+ which is the expulsion of the air within the body+ is only that regulation of the breath+ which has been mentioned before as 2expiration72 and p"raka+ which is the [regulated] retention of the external air within the body+ is the 2inspiration72 and kum!haka is the internal suspension of breathing+ when the vital air+ called pra+ remains motionless li0e water in a <ar 4kum!ha6' /hus the 2cutting short of the motion of inspiration and expiration2 applies to all+ and conse,uently the ob<ector:s doubt is needless' 8ow this air+ beginning from sunrise+ remains two ghaiks and a half[@@l] in each artery[@@$]

4ni6+ li0e the revolving buc0ets on a waterwheel'[@@.] /hus in the course of a day and night there are produced .$+kll inspirations [.k&]and expirations' Hence it has been said by those who 0now the secret of transmitting the mantras+ concerning the transmission of the a'apmantra[@@D]C 2Six hundred to ?aea+ six thousand to the self-existent #rahman+ 2Six thousand to *ishu+ six thousand to Eiva+ 2=ne thousand to the ?uru 4#ihaspati6+ one thousand to the Supreme Soul+ 25nd one thousand to the soulG thus I ma0e over the performed muttering'2 So at the time of the passing of the air through the arteries+ the elements+ earth+ Pc'+ must be understood+ according to their different colours+ by those who wish to obtain the highest good' /his has been thus explained by the wiseC 2Het each artery convey the air two ghas and a half from sunrise' 2/here is a continual resemblance of the two arteries[@@@] to the buc0ets on a revolving waterwheel' 28ine hundred inspirations and expirations of the air ta0e place [in the hour]+ 25nd all combined produce the total of twenty-one thousand six hundred in a day and night' 2/he time that is spent in uttering thirty-six gua letters+[@@&] 2/hat time elapses while the air passes along in the interval between two arteries' 2/here are five elements in each of the two conducting arteries+[.kk]C 2/hey bear it along day and night7 these are to be 0nown by the self-restrained' 2mire bears above+ water below7 air moves across7 2>arth in the half-hollow7 ether moves everywhere' 2/hey bear along in order+Cair+ fire+ water+ earth+ ether7 2/his is to be 0nown in its due order in the two conducting arteries' 2/he palas[@@k] of earth are fifty+ of water forty+ 2=f fire thirty+ of air twenty+ of ether ten' 2/his is the amount of time ta0en for the bearing7 but the reason that the two arteries are so disturbed 2Is that earth has five properties+[@@-] water four+ 2mire has three+ air two+ and ether one' 2/here are ten palas for each property7 hence earth has fifty palas+ 25nd each+ from water downwards+ loses successively' 8ow the five properties of earth 25re odour+ savour+ colour+ tangibility+ and audibleness7 and these decrease one by one' 2/he two elements+ earth and water+ produce their fruit by the influence of :,uiet+: 2#ut fire+ air+ and ether by the influence of :brightness+: :restlessness+: and :immensity':[@@%] 2/he characteristic signs of earth+ water+ fire+ air+ and ether are now declared7C 2=f the first steadfastness of mind7 through the coldness of the second arises desire7 2mrom the third anger and grief7 from the fourth fic0leness of mind7 2mrom the fifth the absence of any ob<ect+ or mental impressions of latent merit'

2Het the devotee place his thumbs in his ears+ and a middle finger in each nostril+[.k-] 25nd the little finger and the one next to it in the corners of his mouth+ and the two remaining fingers in the corners of his eyes+ 2/hen there will arise in due order the 0nowledge of the earth and the other elements within him+ 2/he first four by yellow+ white+ dar0 red+ and dar0 blue spots+[@@r]Cthe ether has no symbol'2 1hen the element air is thus comprehended and its restraint is accomplished+ the evil influence of wor0s which concealed discriminating 0nowledge is destroyed [ii' &.]7 hence it has been saidC 2/here is no austerity superior to regulation of the breath'2[@&l] 5nd againC 25s the dross of metals+ when they are melted+ is consumed+ 2So the serpents of the senses are consumed by regulation of the breath'2[@&$] 8ow in this way+ having his mind purified by the 2forbearances2 and the other things subservient to concentration+ the devotee is to attain 2self-mastery2 4sayama6[@&.] and 2restraint2 4pratyhra6' 23estraint2 is the accommodation of the senses+ as the eye+ Pc'+ to the nature of the mind+[@&D] which is intent on the soul:s unaltered nature+ while they abandon all concernment with their own several ob<ects+ which might excite desire or anger or stupid indifference' /his is expressed by the etymology of the word7 the senses are drawn to it 4 v hi6+ away from them 4pratpa6' 2#ut is it not the mind which is then intent upon the soul and not the senses+ since these are only adapted for external ob<ects+ and therefore have no power for this supposed actionq How+ therefore+ could they be accommodated [.k%]to the nature of the mindq2 1hat you say is ,uite true7 and therefore the author of the aphorisms+ having an eye to their want of power for this+ introduced the words 2as it were+2 to express 2resemblance'2 23estraint is+ as it were+ the accommodation of the senses to the nature of the mind in the absence of concernment with each one:s own ob<ect2 [ii' &@]' /heir absence of concernment with their several ob<ects for the sa0e of being accommodated to the nature of the mind is this 2resemblance2 which we mean' Since+ when the mind is restrained+ the eye+ Pc'+ are restrained+ no fresh effort is to be expected from them+ and they follow the mind as bees follow their 0ing' /his has been declared in the *ishu-pur!a [vi' -+ @D+ @@]C 2Het the devotee+ restraining his organs of sense+ which ever tend to pursue external ob<ects+ 2Himself intent on restraint+ ma0e them conformable to the mind7 2#y this is effected the entire sub<ugation of the unsteady senses7 2If they are not controlled+ the yogin will not accomplish his yoga'2[@&@] 25ttention2 4dhra6 is the fixing the mind+ by withdrawing it from all other ob<ects+ on some place+ whether connected with the internal self+ as the circle of the navel+ the lotus of the heart+ the top of the sushum artery+ Pc'+ or something external+ as (ra<!pati+ *!sava+ Hirayagarbha+ Pc' /his is declared by the aphorism+ 2:5ttention: is the fixing the mind on a place2 [iii' $]7 and so+ too+ say the followers of the (ur!asC 2#y regulation of breath having controlled the air+ and by restraint the senses+ 2Het him next ma0e the perfect asylum the dwelling-place of his mind'2[@&&] [.kr] /he continual flow of thought in this place+ resting on the ob<ect to be contemplated+ and avoiding all incongruous thoughts+ is 2contemplation2 4dhyna67 thus it is said+ 25 course of uniform thought there+ is :contemplation:2 [iii' .]' =thers also have saidC 25 continued succession of thoughts+ intent on ob<ects of that 0ind and desiring no other+

2/his is :contemplation+:Cit is thus effected by the first six of the ancillary things'2 1e incidentally+ in elucidating something else+ discussed the remaining eighth ancillary thing+ 2meditation2 4samdhi+ see p' .@D6' #y this practice of the ancillary means of yoga+ pursued for a long time with uninterrupted earnestness+ the 2afflictions2 which hinder meditation are abolished+ and through 2exercise2 and 2dispassion2 the devotee attains to the perfections designated by the names adhumat9 and the rest' 2#ut why do you needlessly frighten us with un0nown and monstrous words from the dialects of Nar!a+ ?aua+[@&k] and H!aq2[@&-] 1e do not want to frighten you+ but rather to gratify you by explaining the meaning of these strange words7 therefore let the reader who is so needlessly alarmed listen to us with attention' i' /he #adhumat perfection+Cthis is the perfection of meditation+ called 2the 0nowledge which holds to the truth+2 consisting in the illumination of unsullied purity by means of the contemplation of 2goodness+2 composed of the manifestation of <oy+ with every trace of 2passion2 or 2dar0ness2 abolished by 2exercise+2 2dispassion+2 Pc' /hus it is said in the aphorisms+ 2In that case there is the 0nowledge which holds to the truth2 [i' @%]' It holds 2to the truth+2 i.e.+ to the real7 it is never overshadowed by error' 2In that case+2 i.e.+ when firmly established+ there arises this 0nowledge to the second yogin' mor the yogins [.-l]or devotees to the practice of yoga are well 0nown to be of four 0inds+ viQ'+C i' /he prthamakalpika+ in whom the light has <ust entered+[@&%] but+ as it has been said+ 2he has not won the light which consists in the power of 0nowing another:s thoughts+ Pc'72 .' /he madhu!h"mika+ who possesses the 0nowledge which holds to the truth7 D' /he pra'('yotis+ who has subdued the elements and the senses7 @' /he atikrnta-!hvanya+ who has attained the highest dispassion' ii' /he #adhupratk perfections are swiftness li0e thought+ Pc' /hese are declared to be 2swiftness li0e thought+ the being without organs+ and the con,uest of nature2 [iii' @r]' 2Swiftness li0e thought2 is the attainment by the body of exceeding swiftness of motion+ li0e thought7 2the being without bodily organs2[@&r] is the attainment by the senses+ irrespective of the body+ of powers directed to ob<ects in any desired place or time7 2the con,uest of nature2 is the power of controlling all the manifestations of nature' /hese perfections appear to the full in the third 0ind of yogin+ from the sub<ugation by him of the five senses and their essential conditions'[@kl] /hese perfections are severally sweet+ each one by itself+ as even a particle of honey is sweet+ and therefore the second state is called #adhupratk [i.e.+ that whose parts are sweet]' iii' /he .iok perfection consists in the supremacy over all existences+ Pc' /his is said in the aphorisms+ 2/o him who possesses+ to the exclusion of all other ideas+ the discriminative 0nowledge of the ,uality of goodness and the soul+ arises omniscience and the supremacy over all existences2 [iii' &l]' /he 2supremacy over all existences2 is the overcoming li0e a master all entities+ as these are but the developments of the ,uality of 2goodness2 in the mind [the other ,ualities of 2passion2 and [.-$]2dar0ness2 being already abolished]+ and exist only in the form of energy and the ob<ects to be energised upon'[@k$] /he discriminative 0nowledge of them+ as existing in the modes 2subsided+2 2emerged+2 or 2not to be named+2[@k.] is 2omniscience'2 /his is said in the aphorisms [i' Dk]+ 2=r a luminous immediate cognition+ free from sorrow[@kD] [may produce steadiness of mind]'2 iv' /he 1askraeshat state is also called asapra'(ta+ i.e.+ 2that meditation in which distinct recognition of an ob<ect is lost72 it is that meditation 2without a seed2 [i.e.+ without any ob<ect] which is able to stop the 2afflictions2 that produce fruits to be afterwards experienced in the shape of ran0+ length of life+ and en<oyment7 and this meditation belongs to him who+ in the cessation of all modifications of the internal organ+ has reached the highest 2dispassion'2 2/he other 0ind of meditation [i.e.+ that in which distinct recognition of an ob<ect is lost] is preceded by that exercise of thought which produces the entire cessation of modifications7 it has nothing left but the latent

impressions2 [of thought after the departure of all ob<ects] [i.e.+ saskraesha+ i' $%]' /hus this foremost of men+ being utterly passionless towards everything+ finds that the seeds of the 2afflictions+2 li0e burned rice-grains+ are bereft of the power to germinate+ and they are abolished together with the internal organ' 1hen these are destroyed+ there ensues+ through the full maturity of his unclouded 2discriminative 0nowledge+2 an absorption of all causes and effects into the primal prakiti7 and the soul+ which is the power of pure intelligence+ abiding in its own real nature+ and escaped from all connection with the phenomenal understanding 4!uddhi6+ or with existence+ reaches 2absolute isolation2 4kaivalya6' minal liberation is described by (ataO<ali as two perfectionsG 25bsolute isolation is the repressive absorption[@k@] of the :,ualities: which have consummated [.-.]the ends of the soul+ i.e.+ en<oyment and liberation+ or the abiding of the power of intelligence in its own nature2 [iv' DD]' 8or should any one ob<ect+ 21hy+ however+ should not the individual be born again even though this should have been attainedq2 for that is settled by the well-0nown principle that 2with the cessation of the cause the effect ceases+2 and therefore this ob<ection is utterly irrelevant+ as admitting neither in,uiry nor decision7 for otherwise+ if the effect could arise even in the absence of the cause+ we should have blind men finding <ewels+ and such li0e absurdities7 and the popular proverb for the impossible would become a possibility' 5nd so+ too+ says the Eruti+ 25 blind man found a <ewel7 one without fingers seiQed it7 one without a nec0 put it on7 and a dumb man praised it'2[@k&] /hus we see that+ li0e the authoritative treatises on medicine+ the ;oga-!stra consists of four divisions7 as those on medicine treat of disease+ its cause+ health+ and medicine+ so the ;oga-!stra also treats of phenomenal existence+ its cause+ liberation+ and its cause' /his existence of ours+ full of pain+ is what is to be escaped from7 the connection of nature and the soul is the cause of our having to experience this existence7 the absolute abolition of this connection is the escape7 and right insight is the cause thereof'[@kk] /he same fourfold division is to be similarly traced as the case may be in other E!stras also' /hus all has been made clear' [.-D] /he system of Ea0ara+ which comes next in succession+ and which is the crest-gem of all systems+ has been explained by us elsewhere7 it is therefore left untouched here'[@k-] >' #' C' 8=/> =8 /H> ;=?5' /here is an interesting description of the ;ogins on the ountain 3aivata0a in !gha 4iv' &&6GC 2/here the votaries of meditation+ well s0illed in benevolence 4maitr6 and those other purifiers of the mind+Chaving successfully abolished the :afflictions: and obtained the :meditation possessed of a seed+: and having reached that 0nowledge which recognises the essential difference between the ,uality ?oodness and the Soul+Cdesire yet further to repress even this ultimate meditation'2 It is curious to notice that maitr+ which plays such a prominent part in #uddhism+ is counted in the ;oga as only a preliminary condition from which the votary is to ta0e+ as it were+ his first start towards his final goal' It is called a parikarman 4x prasdhaka6 in *y!sa:s Comm' i' DD 4cf' iii' ..6+ whence the term is borrowed by !gha' #ho<a expressly says that this purifying process is an external one+ and not an intimate portion of yoga itself7 <ust as in arithmetic the operations of addition+ Pc'+ are valuable+ not in themselves+ but as aids in effecting the more important calculations which arise subse,uently' /he ;oga seems directly to allude to #uddhism in this mar0ed depreciation of its cardinal virtue' 8=/> =8 (' .D-+ H5S/ HI8>' mor the word vykopa in the original here 4see also p' .@.+ l' D infra6+ cf' Nusum!O<ali+ p' k+ l' -'

[DkD] =n this see Ar' Hall:s (ref' to S!0hya (r' #h!sh'+ p' .l7 S' S!ra+ p' $$' [Dk@] I.e.+ he revealed the *eda+ and also originated the meanings of words+ as well as instructed the first fathers of man0ind in the arts of life' [Dk&] I read ye for te with Ar' Hall:s S' /apya means rather 2susceptible of suffering'2 [Dkk] /his is really *y!sa:s comm' on Snt'+ iv' .$' [Dk-] Cf' 4hsh-parichchheda+ $&+ a' [Dk%] Eatapatha #r'+ xiv' -+ .+ .%' [Dkr] I read in the second clause tad!hve*pi+ understanding by tad the different conditions which atha is supposed to assume as being necessarily present' [D-l] /hese are+ i'+ the discrimination of the eternal from the phenomenal7 ii'+ the re<ection of the fruit of actions here or hereafter7 iii'+ the possession of the six ,ualities+ tran,uillity+P c'7 and+ iv'+ the desire for liberation' [D-$] It may be sukha-'anaka+ but it is not itself sukha' [D-.] ?ranting that atha does not here mean 2auspicious+2 why should not this be the implied meaning+ as all allow that the particle atha does produce an auspicious influenceq [D-D] i.e.+ a word:s incapacity to convey a meaning without some other word to complete the construction' [D-@] /his is found with some variations in the ah!bh!shya 4p' -+ Nielhorn:s ed'6 [D-&] /he commentators hold that the word viddhi is placed at the beginning of the first sntra+ while gua in the second is placed at the end 4ad e gua6+ in order to ensure an auspicious opening+ viddhi meaning 2increase+2 2prosperity+2 as well as 2the second strengthening of a vowel'2 [D-k] In the old #engali poem Cha9+ we have an interesting list of these omens' /he hero Chandra0etu+ starting on a <ourney+ has the following good omensG =n his right hand a cow+ a deer+ a #r!hman+ a full-blown lotus7 on his left+ a <ac0al and a <ar full of water' He hears on his right hand the sound of fire and a cowherdess calling 2mil02 to buyers' He sees a cow with her calf+ a woman calling 2<aya+2 d"rv grass+ rice+ garlands of flowers+ diamonds+ sapphires+ pearls+ corals7 and on the left twelve women' He hears drums and cymbals+ and men dancing and singing 2Hari'2 It is+ however+ all spoiled by seeing a guana 4godhik6' /he author adds+ 2/his is a bad omen according to all !stras+ and so is a tortoise+ a rhinoceros+ the tuberous root of the water-lily+ and a hare'2 >lsewhere+ a vulture+ a 0ite+ a liQard+ and a woodman carrying wood are called bad omens' [D--] /hese are the names of two out of the four sacrifices lasting for one day+ in which a thousand cows are given to the officiating #r!hmans' [D-%] He is here called phaipati+ 2lord of sna0es+2C(ataO<ali+ the author of the being represented as a sna0e in mythology' [D-r] Cf' Ea0ara+ *ed!nta-Snt'+ iii' D+ @r' [D%l] /his is the 9m!s! rule for settling the relative value of the proofs that one thing is ancillary to another' $' 0ruti+ 2a definite text+2 as 2let him offer with curds+2 where curds are clearly an ancillary part of the sacrifice' .' +iga+ 2a sign+2 or 2the sense of the words+2 as leading to an inference+ as in the text 2he divides by the ladle72 here we infer that the thing to be divided must be a li,uid li0e ghee+ since a ladle could not divide solid things li0e the ba0ed flour ca0es' D' .kya+ 2the being mentioned in one sentence+2 i.e.+ the context+ as in the text 2:4I cut6 thee for food+: thus saying+ he cuts the branch72 here the words 24I cut6 thee for food2 are ancillary to the action of cutting7 or in the text+ 2I offer the welcome 4oblation6 to 5gni+2 the words 2the welcome 4oblation6 ah!bh!shya+

to 5gni+2 as they form one sentence with the words 2I offer+2 are ancillary to the act of offering' @' -rakaraa+ 2the sub<ect-matter viewed as a whole+ with an interdependence of its parts+2 as in the dara-p"ramsa sacrifice+ where the pray'a ceremonies+ which have no special fruit mentioned+ produce+ as parts+ a mystic influence 4ap"rva6 which helps forward that influence of the whole by which the worshippers obtain heaven' Here the prakaraa proves them to be ancillary' &' 1thna 4or krama6+ 2relative position2 or 2order+2 as the recital of the hymn 0undhadhvam+ Pc'+ 2#e ye purified for the divine wor0+2 in connection with the mention of the snnyya vessels+ where this position proves that the hymn is ancillary to the action of sprin0ling those vessels' k' 1amkhy+ 2title72 thus the ;a<ur-veda is called the special boo0 for the adhvaryu priests7 hence in any rite mentioned in it they are prima facie to be considered as the priests employed' /he order in the aphorism represents the relative weight to be attached to each7 the first+ ruti+ being the most important7 the last+ samkhy+ the least' Cf' Baimini:s Sntras+ iii' D+ $@7 #mspari!hsh+ pp' %+ r' [D%$] I.e.+ ;ogi-;!<Oaval0ya+ the author of the 9'(avalkya-gt' See Hall+ 4i!l. Index+ p' $@7 5ufrecht+ 4odl. 8atal.+ p' %- !' [D%.] Karman seems here used for kriy<+ which properly belongs only to the body+ as the soul is drashi' [D%D] 1cil. samdhi+ or the restraining the mind and senses to profound contemplation' [D%@] 1cil. 2forbearance+ religious observance+ postures+ suppression of the breath+ restraint+ attention+ contemplation+ and meditation 4samdhi6'2 [D%&] See #ho<a+ Comm' iii' D+ samyag dhyate mano yatra sa samdhi' [D%k] /hus+ e.g.+ the antecedent non-existence and the destruction of the pot are found in the two halves in which the pot itself 4the counter-entity to its own non-existence6 resides by intimate relation 4samavya-sam!andha6' [D%-] I read niroddhavynm for nirodhnm' [D%%] 8hit-akti and chiti-akti x soul' [D%r] /he sattva of the !uddhi or the internal organ' [Drl] /his second substance+ 2mind2 or 2understanding2 4!uddhi+ chitta6+ is li0e a loo0ing-glass+ which reflects the image of the ob<ect on a second loo0ing-glass 4sc. soul6' [Dr$] *!chaspati explains lakshaa as kla!heda' [Dr.] I ta0e di as meaning asphuatva' /he change of state ta0es place between the several moments of the lakshaa-parima' Cf' the Commentaries on iii' $D' [DrD] /hese are generally called the five states of the thin0ing principle+ chitta!h"mayas or avasths' Cf' Commentary+ i' .+ $%' [Dr@] /hese three conditions respectively characterise men+ demons+ and gods' [Dr&] uch of this is ta0en from #ho<a:s Commentary+ and I have borrowed #allantyne:s translation' [Drk] Can chitta mean 2soul2 hereq [Dr-] I.e.+ as+ e.g.+ whether the senses produce the elements or the elements the senses+ Pc' [Dr%] In p' $k@+ line @ infra+ read sukhaprakamayasya' [Drr] In p' $k@+ line . infra+ read sattmtra for sattva-' #ho<a well distinguishes asmit from ahakra' [@ll] mor these see infra+ and cf' ;oga S'+ ii' D+ $.+ $D'

[@l$] I have ventured to alter the examples+ to suit the >nglish translation' [@l.] 1here the negation is prominent it is called prasa'ya-pratishedha7 but where it is not prominent+ we have the paryudsa negation' In the former the negative is connected with the verb7 in the latter it is generally compounded with some other word+ as+ e.g.C 4a'6 28ot a drum was heard+ not a funeral note'2 4b'6 2pnwatched the garden bough shall sway'2 /he former corresponds to the logician:s atyant!hva+ the latter to anyony!hva or !heda' [@lD] Cf' the vrttika in Siddh!nta Naum'+ i' @l$' [@l@] /hus adhana stands for avidya-mnadhana+ with vidyamna omitted in the compound' [@l&] 5s its sub<ect would confessedly be !uddhi' [@lk] 5s it is avidy after all' [@l-] In p' $k&+ lines $k+ $-+ read 4with my S' of *!chaspati:s ?loss6+ sarvavittinirodhasampanny api tathtvaprasagt' [@l%] I read tanvavasthcha with the printed edition of *!chaspati:s ?loss' If tanudagdhcha is correct+ it must mean tanutvena dagdhh' [@lr] 5s in rmalakshmaau+ 3!ma and Ha0shmaa' [@$l] I read pakshatraye for pakshadvaye' [@$$] In his Comm' on Snt'+ ii' &' [@$.] /hus inimicus is not a 2friend+2 nor+ on the other hand+ a 2non-friend+2 but something positive+ an 2enemy'2 So agoshpada is said to mean 2a forest'2 [@$D] Cf' ;oga Snt'+ i' %' [@$@] In p' $kk+ line @ infra+ read kydau for krydau' [@$&] /his couplet is ,uoted by *y!sa in his Comm' on ;oga Sntras+ ii' &+ and I have followed *!chaspati in his explanation of it7 he calls it vaiysak gth' [@$k] Since the continued en<oyment of an ob<ect only increases the desire for more+ and its loss gives correspondent regret 4cf' #hag' ?' xviii' D%6' [@$-] Hiterally+ 2it has four feet'2 [@$%] /hus 2sight+2 or the power of seeing+ is a modification of the ,uality of sattva unobstructed by ra'as and tamas' [@$r] 2Het the affix ini be used after a root in the sense of what is habitual+ when the upapada+ or subordinate word+ is not a word meaning :genus: and ends in a case'2 [@.l] 2Het viddhi be the substitute of a base ending in a vowel+ when that which has an indicatory ( or follows72 ini has an indicatory ' [@.$] Sc' anuaya v ini x anuayin' [@..] Ini and han+ which respectively leave in and ika7 thus daa gives dain and daika' /he line is ,uoted by #oehtling0+ vol' ii' p' .$-+ on (!' v' .+ $$&+ and is explained in the Kik+ ad loc' /he different prohibitions are illustrated by the examplesGC4$'6 svavn+ khavn7 4.'6 krakavn7 4D'6 vyghravn+ sihavn7 4@'6 daavat l 4i.e.+ da asy santi6' [@.D] #y iii' D+ &k' [@.@] It is curious to see the great grammarian:s favourite study obtruding itself here on such a slender pretext'

[@.&] See the Kik on (!' v' .+ $$&' mor vivakshrtha 4meaning 2general currency26+ compare Commentary on (!' ii' .+ .-' /he edition in the #enares -andit reads vishayaniyamrtha' [@.k] i.e.+ /hus nirodha is not vitter a!hva+ but a!hvasyrya' [@.-] I read in p' $k%+ last line+ prakapravittiniyamar"pa+ from #ho<a:s comment on i' $.' [@.%] See N!i0!+ ii' D+ Dk' [@.r] /his passage probably occurs in the 9'(avalkya-gt of ;ogi-y!<Oaval0ya' See Colebroo0e:s >ssays 4ed' .6+ vol' i' p' $@&+ note' [@Dl] 9m!s! Sntras+ ii' $+ D&-D-' [@D$] /he tantras are not properly concerned with what is nitya or naimittika7 they are kmya' [@D.] /he v'a of air is the syllable 'a' [@DD] /he v'a of water is the syllable !a' [@D@] %r. [@D&] 0r. [@Dk] /ava is the frantic dance of the god' Eiva and his votaries' [@D-] Hiterally 2they ta0e severally in order the gender of one of the two'2 Cf' 2/hebF ipsF ,uod #otiF caput est+2 +ivy+ xlii' @@7 25nimal hoc providum+ acutum+ plenum rationis et consilii+ ,uem vocamus hominem+2 8ic.+ +egg+ i' -' [@D%] I have borrowed these terms from #allantyne:s translation of the S!hitya-darpaa' [@Dr] uualified indication arises from li0eness+ as the man is li0e an ox from his stupidity7 pure indication from any other relation+ as cause and effect+ Pc'+ thus butter is the cause of longevity' [@@l] I.e.+ an hour+ a ghaik being twenty-four minutes' [@@$] /he ns or tubular vessels are generally rec0oned to be $l$+ with ten principal ones7 others ma0e sixteen principal ns' /hey seem ta0en afterwards in pairs' [@@.] !dhava uses the same illustration in his commentary on the passage in the 5itareya #r!hmaa 4iii' .r6+ where the relation of the vital airs+ the seasons+ and the mantras repeated with the offerings to the seasons+ is discussed' 2/he seasons never stand still7 following each other in order one by one+ as spring+ summer+ the rains+ autumn+ the cold and the foggy seasons+ each consisting of two months+ and so constituting the year of twelve months+ they continue revolving again and again li0e a waterwheel 4ghayantravat67 hence the seasons never pause in their course'2 [@@D] /his refers to a peculiar tenet of Hindu mysticism+ that each involuntary inspiration and expiration constitutes a mantra+ as their sound expresses the word so*ha 4i'e'+ hasa6+ 2I am he'2 /his mantra is repeated .$+kll times in every twenty-four hours7 it is called the a'apmantra+ i.e.+ the mantra uttered without voluntary muttering' [@@@] I.e.+ that which conveys the inhaled and the exhaled breath' [@@&] I cannot explain this' 1e might read guruvarnm for guavarn+ as the time spent in uttering a guruvara is a vipala+ sixty of which ma0e a pala+ and two and a half palas ma0e a minute7 but this seems inconsistent with the other numerical details' /he whole passage may be compared with the opening of the fifth act of the #latmdhava' [@@k] Sixty palas ma0e a ghaik 4&l v @l v Dl v .l v $l x $&l+ i.e.+ the palas in two and a half ghaiks or one hour6' [@@-] Cf' Colebroo0e:s >ssays+ vol' i' p' .&k' [@@%] Hiterally 2the being ever more'2

[@@r] mor these colours cf' 8hhndogya p.+ viii' k7 #aitri p.+ vi' Dl' [@&l] /his is an anonymous ,uotation in *y!sa:s Comm' [@&$] /his seems a variation of Elo0a - of the Amita-nda p. See 1eber+ Indische 1tud.+ ix' .k' [@&.] /his is defined in the ;oga Snt'+ iii' @+ as consisting of the united operation towards one ob<ect of contemplation+ attention+ and meditation' [@&D] I.e.+ the internal organ 4chitta6' [@&@] /his couplet is corrupt in the text' I follow the reading of the #ombay edition of the (ur!a 4only reading in line D chaltmanm6' [@&&] *ishu-pur'+ vi' -+ @&+ with one or two variations' /he 2perfect asylum2 is #rahman+ formless or possessing form' [@&k] /he old name for the central part of #engal' [@&-] 5 country comprising Nhandesh and part of ?uQerat7 it is the ^`Sc of (tolemy' [@&%] In p' $-%+ l' .+ infra+ read pravitta for pravitti' Cf' ;oga S'+ iii' &. in #ho<a:s Comm' 4&l in *y!sa:s Comm'6 [@&r] 3ead vikaraa!hva7 *!chaspati explains it as 2videhnm indriy karaa!hva'2 [@kl] *y!sa has karaapa(chakar"pa'aya7 *!chaspati explains r"pa by grahadi 4cf' iii' @-6' [@k$] I read in p' $-r+ l' $$+ vyava-syavyavaseytmaknm+ from *y!sa:s Comm' [@k.] I.e.+ as past+ present+ or future' [@kD] .iok. [@k@] /his is explained by *!chaspati+ 2/he latent impressions produced by the states of the internal organ called vyutthna 4when it is chiefly characterised by :activity+: or :dar0ness+: iii' r6 and nirodha 4when it is chiefly characterised by the ,uality of :goodness:6+ are absorbed in the internal organ itself7 this in :egoism: 4asmit67 :egoism: in the :merely once resolvable: 4i.e.+ !uddhi67 and !uddhi into the :irresolvable: 4i.e.+ prakiti6'2 -rakiti consists of the three :,ualities: in e,uilibrium7 and the entire creation+ consisting of causes and effects+ is the development of these :,ualities: when one or another becomes predominant' [@k&] /his curious passage occurs in the /aittir9ya-"raya0a i' $$+ &' !dhava in his Comment+ there explains it of the soul+ and ,uotes the Evet!v' pp'+ iii' $r' !dhava here ta0es avindat as 2he pierced the <ewel+2 but I have followed his correct explanation in the Comm' [@kk] /his is ta0en from *!chaspati:s Comm' on ;oga S' ii' $&' Cf' the 2four truths2 of #uddhism' [@k-] /his probably refers to the (aOchada9' 5 Calcutta (andit told me that it referred to the (rameya-vivaraa-sagraha 4cf' Ar' #urnell:s preface to his edition of the Aevat!dhy!yabr!hmaa+ p' x6+ but+ if this is the same as the vivaraa-prameya-sagraha+ it is by #h!rat9t9rthavidy!raya 4see Ar' #urnell:s Cat of /an<ore SS' p' %%6' [.-&]

APPENDI%. ON THE UPDHI ,01. supra, 22. /, !, /+, 3+-.

[5s the updhi or 2condition2 is a peculiarity of Hindu logic which is little 0nown in >urope+ I have

added the following translation of the sections in the #h!sh!-parichchheda and the Siddh!ntamu0t!val9+ which treat of it'] cxxxvii' /hat which always accompanies the ma'or term DsdhyaE> !ut does not always accompany the middle DhetuE> is called the 8ondition DupdhiEF its examination is now set forth. =ur author now proceeds to define the updhi or condition+[@k%] which is used to stop our ac,uiescence in a universal proposition as laid down by another person7C2that which always accompanies+2 Pc' /he meaning of this is that the so-called condition+ while it invariably [.-k]accompanies that which is accepted as the ma<or term+ does not thus invariably accompany that which our opponent puts forward as his middle term' [/hus in the false argument+ 2/he mountain has smo0e because it has fire+2 we may advance 2wet fuel+2 or rather 2the being produced from wet fuel+2 as an updhi+ since 2wet fuel2 is necessarily found wherever smo0e is+ but not always where fire is+ as e.g.+ in a red-hot iron ball'] 2#ut+2 the opponent may suggest+ 2if this were true+ would it not follow that 4a6 in the case of the too wide middle term in the argument+ :/his [second] son of itr!:s+ whom I have not seen+ must be dar0 because he is itr!:s son+: we could not allege :the being produced from feeding on vegetables:[@kr] as a :condition+:Cinasmuch as it does not invariably accompany a dar0 colour+ since a dar0 colour does also reside in things li0e [unba0ed] <ars+ Pc'+ which have nothing to do with feeding on vegetablesq 4!6 5gain+ in the argument+ :/he air must be perceptible to sense[@-l] because it is the site of touch+: we could not allege the :possessing proportionate form: as a :condition7: because perceptibility [to the internal sense] is found in the soul+ Pc'+ and yet soul+ Pc'+ have no form [and therefore the :possessing proportionate form: does not invariably accompany perceptibility]' 4c6 5gain+ in the argument+:Aestruction is itself perishable+ because it is produced+: we could not allege as a :condition: the :being included in some positive category of existence:[@-$] [destruction being a form of non-existence+ called 2emergent+2 dva!hva]+ [.--]inasmuch as perishability is found in antecedent non-existence+ and this certainly cannot be said to be included in any positive category of existence'2 1e+ however+ deny this+ and maintain that the true meaning of the definition is simply this+Cthat whatever fact or mar0 we ta0e to determine definitely+ in reference to the topic+ the ma<or term which our condition is invariably to accompany+ that same fact or mar0 must be e,ually ta0en to determine the middle term which our said condition is not invariably to accompany' /hus 4a6 the 2being produced from feeding on vegetables2 invariably accompanies 2a dar0 colour+2 as determined by the fact that it is itr!:s son+ whose dar0 colour is discussed [and this very fact is the alleged middle term of the argument7 but the pretended contradictory instance of the dar0 <ar is not in point+ as this was not the topic discussed]' 4!6 5gain+ 2possessing proportionate form2 invariably accompanies perceptibility as determined by the fact that the thing perceived is an external ob<ect7 while it does not invariably accompany the alleged middle term 2the being the site of touch+2 which is e,ually to be determined by the fact that the thing perceived is to be an external ob<ect'[@-.] 4c6 5gain+ in the argument 2destruction is perishable from its being produced+2 the 2being included in some positive category of existence2 invariably accompanies the ma<or term 2perishable+2 when determined by the attribute of being produced' [5nd this is the middle term advanced7 and therefore the alleged contradictory instance+ 2antecedent non-existence+2 is not in point+ since nobody pretends that this is produced at all'] #ut it is to be observed that there is nothing of this 0ind in valid middle terms+ i.e.+ there is nothing there [.-%]which invariably accompanies the ma<or term when determined by a certain fact or mar0+ and does not so accompany the middle term when similarly determined' /his is peculiar to the so-called condition' [Should the reader ob<ect that 2in each of our previous examples there has been given a separate determining mar0 or attribute which was to be found in each of the cases included under each7 how then+ in the absence of some general rule+ are we to find out what this determining mar0 is to be in any particular given caseq2 1e reply that] in the case of any middle term which is too general+ the re,uired general rule consists in the constant presence of one or other

of the following alternatives+ viQ'+ that the sub<ects thus to be included are either 4i'6 the ac0nowledged site of the ma<or term+ and also the site of the condition+[@-D] or else 4ii'6 the ac0nowledged site of the too general middle term+ but excluding the said condition7[@-@] and it will be when the case is determined by the presence of one or other of these alternatives that the condition will be considered as 2always accompanying the ma<or term+ and not always accompanying the middle term'2[@-&] [.-r] cxxxviii' All true 8onditions reside in the same su!'ects with their ma'or termsFAGHIB and> their su!'ects !eing thus common> the DerringE middle term will !e e&ually too general in regard to the 8ondition and the ma'or term.[@--] cxxxix' It is in order to prove faulty generality in a middle term that the 8ondition has to !e employed. /he meaning of this is that it is in conse,uence of the middle term being found too general in regard to the condition+ that we infer that it is too general in regard to the ma<or term7 and hence the use of having a condition at all' 4a.6 /hus+ where the condition invariably accompanies an unlimited[@-%] ma<or term+ we infer that the middle term is too general in regard to the ma<or term+ from the very fact that it is too general in regard to the condition7 as+ for example+ in the instance 2the mountain has smo0e because it has fire+2 where we infer that the 2fire2 is too general in regard to 2smo0e+2 since it is too general in regard to 2wet fuel72 for there is a rule that what is too general for that which invariably accompanies must also be too general for that which is invariably accompanied' 4!.6 #ut where we ta0e some fact or mar0 to determine definitely the ma<or term which the condition is invariably to accompany+Cthere it is from the middle term:s being found too general in regard to the condition in cases possessing this fact+ or mar0 that we infer that the middle term is e,ually too general in regard to the ma<or term' /hus in the argument+ 2# is dar0 because he is itr!:s son+2 the middle term 2the fact of being itr!:s [.%l]son2 is too general in regard to the sdhya+ 2dar0 colour+2 because it is too general in regard to the updhi+ 2feeding on vegetables+2 as seen in the case of itr!:s second son [ itr!:s parentage being the assumed fact or mar0+ and itr! herself not having fed on vegetables previous to his birth]' [#ut an ob<ector might here interpose+ 2If your definition of a condition be correct+ surely a pretended condition which fulfils your definition can always be found even in the case of a valid middle term' mor instance+ in the stoc0 argument :the mountain must have fire because it has smo0e+: we may assume as our pretended condition :the being always found elsewhere than in the mountain7: since this certainly does not always :accompany the middle term+: inasmuch as it is not found in the mountain itself where the smo0e is ac0nowledged to be7 and yet it apparently does :always accompany the ma<or term+: since in every other 0nown case of fire we certainly find it+ and as for the present case you must remember that the presence of fire in this mountain is the very point in dispute'2 /o this we reply] ;ou never may ta0e such a condition as 2the being always found elsewhere than in the sub<ect or minor term2 4unless this can be proved by some direct senseevidence which precludes all dispute67 because+ in the first place+ you cannot produce any argument to convince your antagonist that this condition does invariably accompany the ma<or term [since he naturally maintains that the present case is exactly one in point against you]7 and+ secondly+ because it is self-contradictory [as the same nugatory condition may be e,ually employed to overthrow the contrary argument]' #ut if you can establish it by direct sense-evidence+ then the 2being always found elsewhere than in the sub<ect2[.%$] becomes a true condition+ [and serves to render nugatory the false argument which a disputant tries to establish]' /hus in the illusory argument 2the fire must be non-hot because it is artificial+2 we can have a valid condition in 2the being always found elsewhere than in fire+2 since we can prove by sense-evidence that fire is hot+[@-r] [thus the updhi here is a means of overthrowing the false argument]'

1here the fact of its always accompanying the ma<or term+ Pc'+ is disputed+ there we have what is called a disputed condition'[@%l] #ut 2the being found elsewhere than in the sub<ect2 can never be employed even as a disputed condition+ in accordance with the traditional rules of logical controversy'[@%$] >' #' C'

[@k%] /he updhi is the 2condition2 which must be supplied to restrict a too general middle term' If the middle term+ as thus restricted+ is still found in the minor term+ the argument is valid7 if not+ it fails' /hus+ in 2/he mountain has smo0e because it has fire2 4which rests on the false premise that 2all fire is accompanied by smo0e26+ we must add 2wet fuel2 as the condition of 2fire72 and if the mountain has wet fuel as well as fire+ of course it will have smo0e' Similarly+ the alleged argument that 2# is dar0 because he is itr!:s son2 fails+ if we can establish that the dar0 colour of her former offspring 5 depended not on his being her son+ but on her happening to have fed on vegetables instead of ghee' If we can prove that she still 0eeps to her old diet+ of course our amended middle term will still prove # to be dar0+ but not otherwise' [@kr] /he Hindus thin0 that a child:s dar0 colour comes from the mother:s living on vegetables+ while its fair colour comes from her living on ghee' [@-l] #y #h!sh!-parich' l' .&+ the four elements+ earth+ water+ air+ and fire+ are sparavat+ but by l' .- of these air is neither pratyaksha nor r"pavat' [@-$] /his condition would imply that we could only argue from this middle term 2the being produced2 in cases of positive existence+ not non-existence' [@-.] 2Soul+2 of course+ is not external7 but our topic was not soul+ but air' [@-D] 5s+ e.g.+ the mountain and itr!:s first son in the two false arguments+ 2/he mountain has smo0e because it has fire2 4when the fire-possessing red-hot iron ball has no smo0e6+ and 2 itr!:s first son 5 is dar0 because he is itr!:s offspring2 4when her second son # is fair6' /hese two sub<ects possess the respective sdhyas or ma<or terms 2smo0e2 and 2dar0 colour+2 and therefore are respectively the sub<ects where the conditions 2wet fuel2 and 2the mother:s feeding on vegetables2 are to be respectively applied' [@-@] 5s+ e.g.+ the red-hot ball of iron and itr!:s second son7 as these+ though possessing the respective middle terms 2fire2 and 2the being itr!:s offspring2 do not possess the respective conditions 2wet fuel2 or 2the mother:s feeding on vegetables+2 nor+ conse,uently+ the respective ma<or terms 4sdhya6 2smo0e2 and 2dar0 colour'2 [@-&] /his will exclude the ob<ected case of 2dar0 <ars2 in 4a6+ as it falls under neither of these two alternatives7 for+ though they are the sites of the sdhya 2dar0 colour+2 they do not admit the condition 2the feeding on vegetables+2 nor the middle term 2the being itr!:s son'2 [@-k] I.e.+ wherever there is fire produced by wet fuel there is smo0e' /he condition and the ma<or term are 2e,uipollent2 in their extension' [@--] 1here the hetu is found and not the sdhya 4as in the red-hot ball of iron6+ there the updhi also is not applicable' [@-%] I.e.+ one which re,uires no determining fact or mar0+ such as the three ob<ected arguments re,uired in } $D-' [@-r] /he disputant says+ 2mire must be non-hot because it is artificial'2 21ell+2 you re<oin+ 2then it must only be an artificiality which is always found elsewhere than in fire+Ci.e.+ one which will not answer your purpose in trying to prove your point'2 Here the proposed updhi 2the being always found elsewhere than in fire2 answers to the definition+ as it does not always accompany the hetu

2possessing artificiality+2 but it does always accompany the sdhya 2non-hot+2 as fire is proved by sense-evidence to be hot' [@%l] 5s in the argument+ 2/he earth+ Pc'+ must have had a ma0er because they have the nature of effects+2 where the /heist disputes the 5theistic condition 2the being produced by one possessing a body'2 See Nusum!O<ali+ v' .' [@%$] In fact+ it would abolish all disputation at the outset+ as each party would produce a condition which from his own point of view would reduce his opponent to silence' In other words+ a true condition must be consistent with either party:s opinions'



25 0nowledge of the commonplace+ at least+ of =riental literature+ philosophy+ and religion is as necessary to the general reader of the present day as an ac,uaintance with the Hatin and ?ree0 classics was a generation or so ago' Immense strides have been made within the present century in these branches of learning7 Sans0rit has been brought within the range of accurate philology+ and its invaluable ancient literature thoroughly investigated7 the language and sacred boo0s of the yoroastrians have been laid bare7 >gyptian+ 5ssyrian+ and other records of the remote past have been deciphered+ and a group of scholars spea0 of still more recondite 5ccadian and Hittite monuments7 but the results of all the scholarship that has been devoted to these sub<ects have been almost inaccessible to the public because they were contained for the most part in learned or expensive wor0s+ or scattered throughout the numbers of scientific periodicals' essrs' /r|bner P Co'+ in a spirit of enterprise which does them infinite credit+ have determined to supply the constantly-increasing want+ and to give in a popular+ or+ at least+ a comprehensive form+ all this mass of 0nowledge to the world'2C/imes. Second >dition+ post %vo+ pp' xxxii'--@%+ with ap+ cloth+ price .$s'


#y the Hon' Sir 1' 1' Hunter+ N'C'S'I'+ C'S'I'+ C'I'>'+ HH'A'+ ember of the *iceroy:s Hegislative Council+ Airector-?eneral of Statistics to the ?overnment of India' #eing a 3evised >dition+ brought up to date+ and incorporating the general results of the Census of $%%$' 2It forms a volume of more than -ll pages+ and is a marvellous combination of literary condensation and research' It gives a complete account of the Indian >mpire+ its history+ peoples+ and products+ and forms the worthy outcome of seventeen years of labour with exceptional opportunities for rendering that labour fruitful' 8othing could be more lucid than Sir 1illiam Hunter:s expositions of the economic and political condition of India at the present time+ or more interesting than his scholarly history of the India of the past'2C/he /imes. /%$ JC++C?I56 ?C;K1 %A.$ A+;$A29 A--$A;$2 GC /hird >dition+ post %vo+ cloth+ pp' xvi'-@.%+ price $ks'


#y artin Haug+ (h'A'+ Hate of the pniversities of /|bingen+ ?ttingen+ and #onn7 Superintendent of Sans0rit Studies+ and (rofessor of Sans0rit in the (oona College' >dited and >nlarged by Ar' >' 1' 1est' /o which is added a #iographical emoir of the late Ar' Haug by (rof' >' (' >vans' I' History of the 3esearches into the Sacred 1ritings and 3eligion of the (arsis+ from the >arliest /imes down to the (resent' II' Hanguages of the (arsi Scriptures' III' /he yend-5vesta+ or the Scripture of the (arsis' I*' /he yoroastrian 3eligion+ as to its =rigin and Aevelopment' 2:>ssays on the Sacred Hanguage+ 1ritings+ and 3eligion of the (arsis+: by the late Ar' artin Haug+ edited by Ar' >' 1' 1est' /he author intended+ on his return from India+ to expand the materials contained in this wor0 into a comprehensive account of the yoroastrian religion+ but the design was frustrated by his untimely death' 1e have+ however+ in a concise and readable form+ a history of the researches into the sacred writings and religion of the (arsis from the earliest times down to the presentCa dissertation on the languages of the (arsi Scriptures+ a translation of the yend-5vesta+ or the Scripture of the (arsis+ and a dissertation on the yoroastrian religion+ with especial reference to its origin and development'2C/imes. (ost %vo+ cloth+ pp' viii'-$-k+ price -s' kd'


C= =8H; N8=18 5S 2AH5 5(5A5'2 ?ith Accompanying 5arratives. /ranslated from the Chinese by S' #>5H+ #'5'+ (rofessor of Chinese+ pniversity College+ Hondon' /he Ahammapada+ as hitherto 0nown by the (ali /ext >dition+ as edited by mausbll+ by ax |ller:s >nglish+ and 5lbrecht 1eber:s ?erman translations+ consists only of twenty-six chapters or sections+ whilst the Chinese version+ or rather recension+ as now translated by r' #eal+ consists of thirty-nine sections' /he students of (ali who possess mausbll:s text+ or either of the above-named translations+ will therefore needs want r' #eal:s >nglish rendering of the Chinese version7 the thirteen above-named additional sections not being accessible to them in any other form7 for+ even if they understand Chinese+ the Chinese original would be unobtainable by them' 2 r' #eal:s rendering of the Chinese translation is a most valuable aid to the critical study of the wor0' It contains authentic texts gathered from ancient canonical boo0s+ and generally connected with some incident in the history of #uddha' /heir great interest+ however+ consists in the light which they throw upon everyday life in India at the remote period at which they were written+ and upon the method of teaching adopted by the founder of the religion' /he method employed was principally parable+ and the simplicity of the tales and the excellence of the morals inculcated+ as well as the strange hold which they have retained upon the minds of millions of people+ ma0e them a very remar0able study'2C/imes. 2 r' #eal+ by ma0ing it accessible in an >nglish dress+ has added to the great services he has already rendered to the comparative study of religious history'2CAcademy.

2*aluable as exhibiting the doctrine of the #uddhists in its purest+ least adulterated form+ it brings the modern reader face to face with that simple creed and rule of conduct which won its way over the minds of myriads+ and which is now nominally professed by $@& millions+ who have overlaid its austere simplicity with innumerable ceremonies+ forgotten its maxims+ perverted its teaching+ and so inverted its leading principle that a religion whose founder denied a ?od+ now worships that founder as a god himself'2C1cotsman. Second >dition+ post %vo+ cloth+ pp' xxiv'-Dkl+ price $ls' kd'


#y 5lbrecht 1eber' /ranslated from the Second ?erman >dition by Bohn with the sanction of the 5uthor' ann+ '5'+ and /hIodor yachariae+ (h'A'+

Ar' #uhler+ Inspector of Schools in India+ writesGC21hen I was (rofessor of =riental Hanguages in >lphinstone College+ I fre,uently felt the want of such a wor0 to which I could refer the students'2 (rofessor Cowell+ of Cambridge+ writesGC2It will be especially useful to the students in our Indian colleges and universities' I used to long for such a boo0 when I was teaching in Calcutta' Hindu students are intensely interested in the history of Sans0rit literature+ and this volume will supply them with all they want on the sub<ect'2 (rofessor 1hitney+ ;ale College+ 8ew Haven+ Conn'+ p'S'5'+ writesGC2I was one of the class to whom the wor0 was originally given in the form of academic lectures' 5t their first appearance they were by far the most learned and able treatment of their sub<ect7 and with their recent additions they still maintain decidedly the same ran0'2 2Is perhaps the most comprehensive and lucid survey of Sans0rit literature extant' /he essays contained in the volume were originally delivered as academic lectures+ and at the time of their first publication were ac0nowledged to be by far the most learned and able treatment of the sub<ect' /hey have now been brought up to date by the addition of all the most important results of recent research'2C/imes. (ost %vo+ cloth+ pp' xii'-$r%+ accompanied by /wo Hanguage aps+ price -s' kd'


#y 3obert 8' Cust' /he 5uthor has attempted to fill up a vacuum+ the inconvenience of which pressed itself on his notice' uch had been written about the languages of the >ast Indies+ but the extent of our present 0nowledge had not even been brought to a focus' It occurred to him that it might be of use to others to publish in an arranged form the notes which he had collected for his own edification' 2Supplies a deficiency which has long been felt'2C/imes. 2/he boo0 before us is then a valuable contribution to philological science' It passes under review a vast number of languages+ and it gives+ or professes to give+ in every case the sum and substance of the opinions and <udgments of the best-informed writers'2C1aturday ;eview. Second Corrected >dition+ post %vo+ pp' xii'-$$k+ cloth+ price &s'


5 (oem' #y Nalidasa' /ranslated from the Sans0rit into >nglish *erse by 3alph /' H' ?riffith+ '5' 25 very spirited rendering of the Kumrasam!hava+ which was first published twenty-six years ago+ and which we are glad to see made once more accessible'2C/imes. 2 r' ?riffith:s very spirited rendering is well 0nown to most who are at all interested in Indian literature+ or en<oy the tenderness of feeling and rich creative imagination of its author'2CIndian Anti&uary. 21e are very glad to welcome a second edition of (rofessor ?riffith:s admirable translation' mew translations deserve a second edition better'2CAthen=um. (ost %vo+ pp' @D.+ cloth+ price $ks'

#y Bohn Aowson+ '3'5'S'+ Hate (rofessor of Hindustani+ Staff College' 2/his not only forms an indispensable boo0 of reference to students of Indian literature+ but is also of great general interest+ as it gives in a concise and easily accessible form all that need be 0nown about the personages of Hindu mythology whose names are so familiar+ but of whom so little is 0nown outside the limited circle of savants'2C/imes. 2It is no slight gain when such sub<ects are treated fairly and fully in a moderate space7 and we need only add that the few wants which we may hope to see supplied in new editions detract but little from the general excellence of r' Aowson:s wor0'2C1aturday ;eview. (ost %vo+ with *iew of ecca+ pp' cxii'-$-.+ cloth+ price rs'


#y >dward 1illiam Hane+ /ranslator of 2/he /housand and =ne 8ights72 Pc'+ Pc' 5 8ew >dition+ 3evised and >nlarged+ with an Introduction by Stanley Hane (oole' 2''' Has been long esteemed in this country as the compilation of one of the greatest 5rabic scholars of the time+ the late r' Hane+ the well-0nown translator of the :5rabian 8ights':''' /he present editor has enhanced the value of his relative:s wor0 by divesting the text of a great deal of extraneous matter introduced by way of comment+ and prefixing an introduction'2C/imes. 2 r' (oole is both a generous and a learned biographer'''' r' (oole tells us the facts ''' so far as it is possible for industry and criticism to ascertain them+ and for literary s0ill to present them in a condensed and readable form'2C$nglishman> 8alcutta.

(ost %vo+ pp' vi'-Dk%+ cloth+ price $@s'


#>I8? 5 S>3I>S =m I (3>SSI=8S+ 8=/>S+ 58A >SS5;S' #y onier 1illiams+ A'C'H'+ Hon' HH'A' of the pniversity of Calcutta+ Hon' ember of the #ombay 5siatic Society+ #oden (rofessor of Sans0rit in the pniversity of =xford' /hird >dition+ revised and augmented by considerable 5dditions+ with Illustrations and a ap' 2In this volume we have the thoughtful impressions of a thoughtful man on some of the most important ,uestions connected with our Indian >mpire'''' 5n enlightened observant man+ travelling among an enlightened observant people+ (rofessor onier 1illiams has brought before the public in a pleasant form more of the manners and customs of the uueen:s Indian sub<ects than we ever remember to have seen in any one wor0' He not only deserves the than0s of every >nglishman for this able contribution to the study of odern IndiaCa sub<ect with which we should be specially familiarCbut he deserves the than0s of every Indian+ (arsee or Hindu+ #uddhist and oslem+ for his clear exposition of their manners+ their creeds+ and their necessities'2C/imes. (ost %vo+ pp' xliv'-D-k+ cloth+ price $@s'


1ith an Introduction+ many (rose *ersions+ and (arallel (assages from Classical 5uthors' #y B' uir+ C'I'>'+ A'C'H'+ HH'A'+ (h'A' 2''' 5n agreeable introduction to Hindu poetry'2C/imes. 2''' 5 volume which may be ta0en as a fair illustration ali0e of the religions and moral sentiments and of the legendary lore of the best Sans0rit writers'2C$din!urgh 2aily ;eview. Second >dition+ post %vo+ pp' xxvi'-.@@+ cloth+ price $ls' kd'

=r+ 3ose ?arden of She0h ushliu:d-din Sadi of ShiraQ' /ranslated for the mirst /ime into (rose and *erse+ with an Introductory (reface+ and a Hife of the 5uthor+ from the 5tish Nadah+ #y >dward #' >astwic0+ C'#'+ '5'+ m'3'S'+ '3'5'S' 2It is a very fair rendering of the original'2C/imes. 2/he new edition has long been desired+ and will be welcomed by all who ta0e any interest in =riental poetry' /he 6ulistan is a typical (ersian verse-boo0 of the highest order' r' >astwic0:s rhymed translation ''' has long established itself in a secure position as the best version of Sadi:s finest wor0'2CAcademy. 2It is both faithfully and gracefully executed'2C/a!let.

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#y #rian Houghton Hodgson+ >s,'+ m'3'S'+ Hate of the #engal Civil Service7 Corresponding ember of the Institute7 Chevalier of the Hegion of Honour7 late #ritish inister at the Court of 8epal+ Pc'+ Pc' 8C5/$5/1 CJ .C+. I. Section I'C=n the Nocch+ #d+ and Ahim!l /ribes'C(art I' *ocabulary'C(art II' ?rammar'C (art III' /heir =rigin+ Hocation+ 8umbers+ Creed+ Customs+ Character+ and Condition+ with a ?eneral Aescription of the Climate they dwell inC5ppendix' Section II'C=n Himalayan >thnology'CI' Comparative *ocabulary of the Hanguages of the #ro0en /ribes of 8Ip!l'CII' *ocabulary of the Aialects of the Niranti Hanguage'CIII' ?rammatical 5nalysis of the *!yu Hanguage' /he *!yu ?rammar'CI*' 5nalysis of the #!hing Aialect of the Niranti language' /he #!hing ?rammar'C*' =n the *!yu or H!yu /ribe of the Central Himal!ya'C*I' =n the Niranti /ribe of the Central Himal!ya' 8C5/$5/1 CJ .C+. II. Section III'C=n the 5borigines of 8orth->astern India' Comparative *ocabulary of the /ibetan+ #d+ and ?!r /ongues' Section I*'C5borigines of the 8orth->astern mrontier' Section *'C5borigines of the >astern mrontier' Section *I'C/he Indo-Chinese #orderers+ and their connection with the Himalayans and /ibetans' Comparative *ocabulary of Indo-Chinese #orderers in 5ra0an' Comparative *ocabulary of IndoChinese #orderers in /enasserim' Section *II'C/he ongolian 5ffinities of the Caucasians'CComparison and 5nalysis of Caucasian and ongolian 1ords' Section *III'C(hysical /ype of /ibetans' Section Io'C/he 5borigines of Central India'CComparative *ocabulary of the 5boriginal Hanguages of Central India'C5borigines of the >astern ?hats'C*ocabulary of some of the Aialects of the Hill and 1andering /ribes in the 8orthern Sircars'C5borigines of the 8ilgiris+ with 3emar0s on their 5ffinities'CSupplement to the 8ilgirian *ocabularies'C/he 5borigines of Southern India and Ceylon' Section o'C3oute of 8epalese /ibet' ission to (e0in+ with 3emar0s on the 1ater-Shed and (lateau of

Section oI'C3oute from N!thm!ndn+ the Capital of 8epl+ to Aar<eeling in Si0im'C emorandum relative to the Seven Cosis of 8epl' Section oII'CSome 5ccounts of the Systems of Haw and (olice as recognised in the State of 8epl' Section oIII'C/he 8ative ethod of ma0ing the (aper denominated Hindustan+ 8Ip!lese' Section oI*'C(re-eminence of the *ernaculars7 or+ the 5nglicists 5nswered7 #eing Hetters on the >ducation of the (eople of India' 2mor the study of the less-0nown races of India r' #rian Hodgson:s : iscellaneous >ssays: will be found very valuable both to the philologist and the ethnologist'2

/hird >dition+ /wo *ols'+ post %vo+ pp' viii'-.k% and viii'-D.k+ cloth+ price .$s'


/H> #pAAH5 =m /H> #p3 >S>' 1ith 5nnotations' /he 1ays to 8eibban+ and 8otice on the (hongyies or #urmese #y the 3ight 3ev' (' #igandet+ #ishop of 3amatha+ *icar-5postolic of 5va and (egu' 2/he wor0 is furnished with copious notes+ which not only illustrate the sub<ect-matter+ but form a perfect encyclopFdia of #uddhist lore'2C/imes. 25 wor0 which will furnish >uropean students of #uddhism with a most valuable help in the prosecution of their investigations'2C$din!urgh 2aily ;eview. 2#ishop #igandet:s invaluable wor0'2CIndian Anti&uary. 2*iewed in this light+ its importance is sufficient to place students of the sub<ect under a deep obligation to its author'2C8alcutta ;eview. 2/his wor0 is one of the greatest authorities upon #uddhism'2C2u!lin ;eview. (ost %vo+ pp' xxiv'-@.l+ cloth+ price $%s' on0s'

5 *=Hp > =m SN>/CH>S+ HIS/=3IC5H 58A C3I/IC5H' #y B' >d0ins+ A'A' 5uthor of 2China:s (lace in (hilology+2 23eligion in China+2 Pc'+ Pc' 2It contains a vast deal of important information on the sub<ect+ such as is only to be gained by long-continued study on the spot'2CAthen=um. 2ppon the whole+ we 0now of no wor0 comparable to it for the extent of its original research+ and the simplicity with which this complicated system of philosophy+ religion+ literature+ and ritual is set forth'2C4ritish Kuarterly ;eview. 2/he whole volume is replete with learning'''' It deserves most careful study from all interested in the history of the religions of the world+ and expressly of those who are concerned in the propagation of Christianity' Ar' >d0ins notices in terms of <ust condemnation the exaggerated praise bestowed upon #uddhism by recent >nglish writers'2C;ecord. (ost %vo+ pp' @rk+ cloth+ price $ls' kd'


1ritten from the ;ear $%@k to $%-%' #y 3obert 8eedham Cust+ Hate ember of Her a<esty:s Indian Civil Service7 Hon' Secretary to the 3oyal 5siatic Society7 and 5uthor of 2/he odern Hanguages of the >ast Indies'2 21e 0now none who has described Indian life+ especially the life of the natives+ with so much

learning+ sympathy+ and literary talent'2CAcademy. 2/hey seem to us to be full of suggestive and original remar0s'2C1t. 3ames*s 6aLette. 2His boo0 contains a vast amount of information' /he result of thirty-five years of in,uiry+ reflection+ and speculation+ and that on sub<ects as full of fascination as of food for thought'2C /a!let. 2>xhibit such a thorough ac,uaintance with the history and anti,uities of India as to entitle him to spea0 as one having authority'2C$din!urgh 2aily ;eview. 2/he author spea0s with the authority of personal experience'''' It is this constant association with the country and the people which gives such a vividness to many of the pages'2CAthen=um. (ost %vo+ pp' civ'-D@%+ cloth+ price $%s'


/he =ldest Collection of mol0-lore >xtantG #>I8? /H> B5/5N5//H5*588585+ mor the first time >dited in the original ({li' #y *' mausboll7 5nd /ranslated by /' 1' 3hys Aavids' /ranslation' *olume I' 2/hese are tales supposed to have been told by the #uddha of what he had seen and heard in his previous births' /hey are probably the nearest representatives of the original 5ryan stories from which sprang the fol0-lore of >urope as well as India' /he introduction contains a most interesting dis,uisition on the migrations of these fables+ tracing their reappearance in the various groups of fol0-lore legends' 5mong other old friends+ we meet with a version of the Budgment of Solomon'2C/imes. 2It is now some years since r' 3hys Aavids asserted his right to be heard on this sub<ect by his able article on #uddhism in the new edition of the :>ncyclopFdia #ritannica':2C+eeds #ercury. 25ll who are interested in #uddhist literature ought to feel deeply indebted to r' 3hys Aavids' His well-established reputation as a (ali scholar is a sufficient guarantee for the fidelity of his version+ and the style of his translations is deserving of high praise'2CAcademy. 28o more competent expositor of #uddhism could be found than r' 3hys Aavids' In the B{ta0a boo0 we have+ then+ a priceless record of the earliest imaginative literature of our race7 and ''' it presents to us a nearly complete picture of the social life and customs and popular beliefs of the common people of 5ryan tribes+ closely related to ourselves+ <ust as they were passing through the first stages of civilisation'2C1t. 3ames*s 6aLette. (ost %vo+ pp' xxviii'-Dk.+ cloth+ price $@s'

=r+ 5 /H=pS58A 58A =8> >o/35C/S m3= /H> N5##5H5H' /H> /5H pA+ /H> IA35SHI + 58A

Compiled and /ranslated by (5pH IS55C H>3SH=8+ 5uthor of 2?enesis 5ccording to the

/almud+2 Pc' 1ith 8otes and Copious Indexes' 2/o obtain in so concise and handy a form as this volume a general idea of the /almud is a boon to Christians at least'2C/imes. 2Its peculiar and popular character will ma0e it attractive to general readers' r' Hershon is a very competent scholar'''' Contains samples of the good+ bad+ and indifferent+ and especially extracts that throw light upon the Scriptures'2C4ritish Kuarterly ;eview. 21ill convey to >nglish readers a more complete and truthful notion of the /almud than any other wor0 that has yet appeared'2C2aily 5ews. 21ithout overloo0ing in the slightest the several attractions of the previous volumes of the :=riental Series': we have no hesitation in saying that this surpasses them all in interest'2C$din!urgh 2aily ;eview. 2 r' Hershon has ''' thus given >nglish readers what is+ we believe+ a fair set of specimens which they can test for themselves'2C/he ;ecord. 2/his boo0 is by far the best fitted in the present state of 0nowledge to enable the general reader to gain a fair and unbiased conception of the multifarious contents of the wonderful miscellany which can only be truly understoodCso Bewish pride assertsCby the life-long devotion of scholars of the Chosen (eople'2CIn&uirer. 2/he value and importance of this volume consist in the fact that scarcely a single extract is given in its pages but throws some light+ direct or refracted+ upon those Scriptures which are the common heritage of Bew and Christian ali0e'2C3ohn 4ull. 2It is a capital specimen of Hebrew scholarship7 a monument of learned+ loving+ light-giving labour'2C3ewish %erald. (ost %vo+ pp' xii'-..%+ cloth+ price -s' kd'


#y #asil Hall Chamberlain+ 5uthor of 2;eigo HeO0a0u ShiraO'2 25 very curious volume' /he author has manifestly devoted much labour to the tas0 of studying the poetical literature of the Bapanese+ and rendering characteristic specimens into >nglish verse'2C 2aily 5ews. 2 r' Chamberlain:s volume is+ so far as we are aware+ the first attempt which has been made to interpret the literature of the Bapanese to the 1estern world' It is to the classical poetry of =ld Bapan that we must turn for indigenous Bapanese thought+ and in the volume before us we have a selection from that poetry rendered into graceful >nglish verse'2C/a!let. 2It is undoubtedly one of the best translations of lyric literature which has appeared during the close of the last year'2C8elestial $mpire. 2 r' Chamberlain set himself a difficult tas0 when he undertoo0 to reproduce Bapanese poetry in an >nglish form' #ut he has evidently laboured con amore+ and his efforts are successful to a degree'2C+ondon and 8hina $xpress. (ost %vo+ pp' xii'-$k@+ cloth+ price $ls' kd'


NI8? =m 5SS;3I5+ b'c' k%$-kk%' /ranslated from the Cuneiform Inscriptions upon Cylinders and /ablets in the #ritish useum Collection7 together with a ?rammatical 5nalysis of each 1ord+ >xplanations of the Ideographs by >xtracts from the #i-Hingual Syllabaries+ and Hist of >ponyms+ Pc' #y >rnest 5' #udge+ #'5'+ '3'5'S'+ 5ssyrian >xhibitioner+ Christ:s College+ Cambridge' 2Students of scriptural archFology will also appreciate the :History of >sarhaddon':2C/imes. 2/here is much to attract the scholar in this volume' It does not pretend to popularise studies which are yet in their infancy' Its primary ob<ect is to translate+ but it does not assume to be more than tentative+ and it offers both to the professed 5ssyriologist and to the ordinary non-5ssyriological Semitic scholar the means of controlling its results'2CAcademy. 2 r' #udge:s boo0 is+ of course+ mainly addressed to 5ssyrian scholars and students' /hey are not+ it is to be feared+ a very numerous class' #ut the more than0s are due to him on that account for the way in which he has ac,uitted himself in his laborious tas0'2C/a!let. (ost %vo+ pp' @@%+ cloth+ price .$s'

4psually 0nown as /he esneviyi Sherif+ or Holy B>H5Hp :A-AI8 pH5 >A >3-3p I' #oo0 the mirst' /ogether with some Account of the +ife and Acts of the Author> of his Ancestors> and of his 2escendants. Illustrated by a Selection of Characteristic 5necdotes+ as Collected by their Historian+ evlana Shemsu-:A-Ain 5hmed+ el >fla0i+ el :5rifi' /ranslated+ and the (oetry *ersified+ in >nglish+ #y Bames 1' 3edhouse+ '3'5'S'+ Pc' 25 complete treasury of occult =riental lore'2C1aturday ;eview. 2/his boo0 will be a very valuable help to the reader ignorant of (ersia+ who is desirous of obtaining an insight into a very important department of the literature extant in that language'2C /a!let. (ost %vo+ pp' xvi'-.%l+ cloth+ price ks' esnevi6 =m >*H585 4=p3 H=3A6


Illustrating =ld /ruths' #y 3ev' B' Hong+ ember of the #engal 5siatic Society+ m'3'?'S' 21e regard the boo0 as valuable+ and wish for it a wide circulation and attentive reading'2C ;ecord.

25ltogether+ it is ,uite a feast of good things'2C6lo!e. 2It is full of interesting matter'2CAnti&uary. (ost %vo+ pp' viii'-.-l+ cloth+ price -s' kd'

Containing a 8ew >dition of the 2Indian Song of Songs+2 from the Sanscrit of the 2?ita ?ovinda2 of Bayadeva7 /wo #oo0s from 2/he Iliad of India2 4 ahabharata6+ 2(roverbial 1isdom2 from the Shlo0as of the Hitopadesa+ and other =riental (oems' #y >dwin 5rnold+ C'S'I'+ 5uthor of 2/he Hight of 5sia'2 2In this new volume of essrs' /r|bner:s =riental Series+ r' >dwin 5rnold does good service by illustrating+ through the medium of his musical >nglish melodies+ the power of Indian poetry to stir >uropean emotions' /he :Indian Song of Songs: is not un0nown to scholars' r' 5rnold will have introduced it among popular >nglish poems' 8othing could be more graceful and delicate than the shades by which Nrishna is portrayed in the gradual process of being weaned by the love of :#eautiful 3adha+ <asmine-bosomed 3adha+: from the allurements of the forest nymphs+ in whom the five senses are typified'2C/imes. 28o other >nglish poet has ever thrown his genius and his art so thoroughly into the wor0 of translating >astern ideas as r' 5rnold has done in his splendid paraphrases of language contained in these mighty epics'2C2aily /elegraph. 2/he poem abounds with imagery of >astern luxuriousness and sensuousness7 the air seems laden with the spicy odours of the tropics+ and the verse has a richness and a melody sufficient to captivate the senses of the dullest'2C1tandard. 2/he translator+ while producing a very en<oyable poem+ has adhered with tolerable fidelity to the original text'2CCverland #ail. 21e certainly wish r' 5rnold success in his attempt :to popularise Indian classics+: that being+ as his preface tells us+ the goal towards which he bends his efforts'2CAllen*s Indian #ail. (ost %vo+ pp' xvi'-.rk+ cloth+ price $ls' kd'


=r+ (=HI/IC5H >C=8= ; m=p8A>A p(=8 =35H (HIH=S=(H;' encius' 5 Systematic Aigest of the Aoctrines of the Chinese (hilosopher #y the 3ev' >rnst maber+ 3henish ission Society' ission+ Hong Nong'

/ranslated from the =riginal /ext and Classified+ with Comments and >xplanations+ /ranslated from the ?erman+ with 5dditional 8otes+ #y the 3ev' 5' #' Hutchinson+ C' 'S'+ Church 2 r' maber is already well 0nown in the field of Chinese studies by his digest of the doctrines of Confucius' /he value of this wor0 will be perceived when it is remembered that at no time since relations commenced between China and the 1est has the former been so powerfulCwe had almost said aggressiveCas now' mor those who will give it careful study+ r' maber:s wor0 is one of the most valuable of the excellent series to which it belongs'2C5ature.

(ost %vo+ pp' DDk+ cloth+ price $ks'


#y 5' #arth' /ranslated from the mrench with the authority and assistance of the 5uthor' /he author has+ at the re,uest of the publishers+ considerably enlarged the wor0 for the translator+ and has added the literature of the sub<ect to date7 the translation may+ therefore+ be loo0ed upon as an e,uivalent of a new and improved edition of the original' 2Is not only a valuable manual of the religions of India+ which mar0s a distinct step in the treatment of the sub<ect+ but also a useful wor0 of reference'2CAcademy. 2/his volume is a reproduction+ with corrections and additions+ of an article contributed by the learned author two years ago to the :>ncyclopIdie des Sciences 3eligieuses': It attracted much notice when it first appeared+ and is generally admitted to present the best summary extant of the vast sub<ect with which it deals'2C/a!let. 2/his is not only on the whole the best but the only manual of the religions of India+ apart from #uddhism+ which we have in >nglish' /he present wor0 ''' shows not only great 0nowledge of the facts and power of clear exposition+ but also great insight into the inner history and the deeper meaning of the great religion+ for it is in reality only one+ which it proposes to describe'2C#odern ;eview. 2/he merit of the wor0 has been emphatically recognised by the most authoritative =rientalists+ both in this country and on the continent of >urope' #ut probably there are few Indianists 4if we may use the word6 who would not derive a good deal of information from it+ and especially from the extensive bibliography provided in the notes'2C2u!lin ;eview. 2Such a s0etch ' #arth has drawn with a master-hand'2C8ritic D5ew 9orkE.

(ost %vo+ pp' viii'-$&.+ cloth+ price ks'

/he Sn0hya Nri0a =f Is:wara Nrishna' 5n >xposition of the System of Napila+ with an 5ppendix on the 8y{ya and *ais:eshi0a Systems' #y Bohn Aavies+ '5' 4Cantab'6+ '3'5'S' /he system of Napila contains nearly all that India has produced in the department of pure philosophy' 2/he non-=rientalist ''' finds in r' Aavies a patient and learned guide who leads him into the intricacies of the philosophy of India+ and supplies him with a clue+ that he may not be lost in them' In the preface he states that the system of Napila is the :earliest attempt on record to give an answer+ from reason alone+ to the mysterious ,uestions which arise in every thoughtful mind about the origin of the world+ the nature and relations of man and his future destiny+: and in his learned and able notes he exhibits :the connection of the S{n0hya system with the philosophy of SpinoQa+: and :the connection of the system of Napila with that of Schopenhauer and *on Hartmann':2CJoreign 8hurch 8hronicle. 2 r' Aavies:s volume on Hindu (hilosophy is an undoubted gain to all students of the development of thought' /he system of Napila+ which is here given in a translation from the S{n0hya N{ri0{+ is

the only contribution of India to pure philosophy'''' (resents many points of deep interest to the student of comparative philosophy+ and without r' Aavies:s lucid interpretation it would be difficult to appreciate these points in any ade,uate manner'2C1aturday ;eview. 21e welcome Kueries. r' Aavies:s boo0 as a valuable addition to our philosophical library'2C5otes and

Second >dition' (ost %vo+ pp' x'-$Dl+ cloth+ price ks'


/ranslated+ with copious 5nnotations+ #y a<or ?' 5' Bacob+ #ombay Staff Corps7 Inspector of 5rmy Schools' /he design of this little wor0 is to provide for missionaries+ and for others who+ li0e them+ have little leisure for original research+ an accurate summary of the doctrines of the *ednta' 2/he modest title of a<or Bacob:s wor0 conveys but an inade,uate idea of the vast amount of research embodied in his notes to the text of the *edantasara' So copious+ indeed+ are these+ and so much collateral matter do they bring to bear on the sub<ect+ that the diligent student will rise from their perusal with a fairly ade,uate view of Hind philosophy generally' His wor0 ''' is one of the best of its 0ind that we have seen'2C8alcutta ;eview. (ost %vo+ pp' xii'-$&@+ cloth+ price -s' kd'

/he Supreme #eing of the Nhoi-Nhoi' #y /H>=(HIHpS H5H8+ (h'A'+ Custodian of the ?rey Collection+ Cape /own7 Corresponding ember of the ?eogr' Society+ Aresden7 Corresponding ember of the 5nthropological Society+ *ienna+ Pc'+ Pc' 2/he first instalment of Ar' Hahn:s labours will be of interest+ not at the Cape only+ but in every pniversity of >urope' It is+ in fact+ a most valuable contribution to the comparative study of religion and mythology' 5ccounts of their religion and mythology were scattered about in various boo0s7 these have been carefully collected by Ar' Hahn and printed in his second chapter+ enriched and improved by what he has been able to collect himself'2C-rof. #ax #Mller in the 5ineteenth 8entury. 2It is full of good things'2C1t. 3ames*s 6aLette. In mour *olumes' (ost %vo+ *ol' I'+ pp' xii'-Dr.+ cloth+ price $.s' kd'+ *ol' II'+ pp' vi'-@l%+ cloth+ price $.s' kd'+ *ol' III'+ pp' viii'-@$@+ cloth+ price $.s' kd'+ *ol' I*'+ pp' viii'-D@l+ cloth+ price $ls' kd'


/o which is prefixed Sale:s (reliminary Aiscourse+ with 5dditional 8otes and >mendations' /ogether with a Complete Index to the /ext+ (reliminary Aiscourse+ and 8otes'

#y 3ev' >'

' 1H>33;+

'5'+ Hodiana'

25s r' 1herry:s boo0 is intended for missionaries in India+ it is no doubt well that they should be prepared to meet+ if they can+ the ordinary arguments and interpretations+ and for this purpose r' 1herry:s additions will prove useful'2C1aturday ;eview. Second >dition' (ost %vo+ pp' vi'-.l%+ cloth+ price %s' kd'

/ranslated+ with Introduction and 8otes' #y Bohn Aavies+ '5' 4Cantab'6 2Het us add that his translation of the #hagavad ?Lt is+ as we <udge+ the best that has as yet appeared in >nglish+ and that his (hilological 8otes are of ,uite peculiar value'2C2u!lin ;eview. (ost %vo+ pp' rk+ cloth+ price &s'


/ranslated by >' H' 1HI8mI>HA+ '5'+ #arrister-at-Haw+ late H' ' #engal Civil Service'

(ost %vo+ pp' xxxii'-DDk+ cloth+ price $ls' kd'


/he (ersian /ext+ with an >nglish *erse /ranslation' #y >' H' 1HI8mI>HA+ late of the #engal Civil Service' 2 r' 1hinfield has executed a difficult tas0 with considerable success+ and his version contains much that will be new to those who only 0now r' mitQgerald:s delightful selection'2CAcademy. 2/he most prominent features in the uuatrains are their profound agnosticism+ combined with a fatalism based more on philosophic than religious grounds+ their >picureanism and the spirit of universal tolerance and charity which animates them'2C8alcutta ;eview. (ost %vo+ pp' xxiv'-.k%+ cloth+ price rs'


5s exhibited in a series of 5rticles contributed to the 8alcutta ;eview' #y 53CHI#5HA >A153A ?=p?H+ adrasa' '5'+ Hincoln College+ =xford7 (rincipal of the Calcutta

2mor practical purposes this is perhaps the most important of the wor0s that have thus far appeared in :/r|bner:s =riental Series':''' 1e cannot doubt that for all who may ta0e it up the wor0 must be one of profound interest'2C1aturday ;eview.

In /wo *olumes' *ol' I'+ post %vo+ pp' xxiv'-.Dl+ cloth+ price -s' kd'


#y Ar' C' (' /iele' *ol' I'CHistory of the >gyptian 3eligion' /ranslated from the Autch with the 5ssistance of the 5uthor' #y B5 >S #5HHI8?5H' 2It places in the hands of the >nglish readers a history of >gyptian 3eligion which is very complete+ which is based on the best materials+ and which has been illustrated by the latest results of research' In this volume there is a great deal of information+ as well as independent investigation+ for the trustworthiness of which Ar' /iele:s name is in itself a guarantee7 and the description of the successive religions under the =ld Ningdom+ the iddle Ningdom+ and the 8ew Ningdom+ is given in a manner which is scholarly and minute'2C1cotsman. (ost %vo+ pp' xii'-Dl.+ cloth+ price %s' kd'


5 (oem by Bami' /ranslated from the (ersian into >nglish *erse' #y 3alph /' H' ?riffith' 2 r' ?riffith+ who has done already good service as translator into verse from the Sans0rit+ has done further good wor0 in this translation from the (ersian+ and he has evidently shown not a little s0ill in his rendering the ,uaint and very oriental style of his author into our more prosaic+ less figurative+ language'''' /he wor0+ besides its intrinsic merits+ is of importance as being one of the most popular and famous poems of (ersia+ and that which is read in all the independent native schools of India where (ersian is taught'2C1cotsman. (ost %vo+ pp' viii'-.kk+ cloth+ price rs'

#y Carl 5bel' 25n entirely novel method of dealing with philosophical ,uestions and impart a real human interest to the otherwise dry technicalities of the science'2C1tandard. 2Ar' 5bel is an opponent from whom it is pleasant to differ+ for he writes with enthusiasm and temper+ and his mastery over the >nglish language fits him to be a champion of unpopular doctrines'2CAthen=um. (ost %vo+ pp' ix'-.%$+ cloth+ price $ls' kd'

=r+ 3eview =f /he Aifferent Systems of Hindu (hilosophy' #y adhava 5charya' /ranslated by >' #' C=1>HH+ ' 5'+ (rofessor of Sans0rit in the pniversity of Cambridge+ and 5' >' ?=p?H+ '5'+ (rofessor of (hilosophy in the (residency College+ Calcutta' /his wor0 is an interesting specimen of Hindu critical ability' /he author successively passes in review the sixteen philosophical systems current in the fourteenth century in the South of India7 and he gives what appears to him to be their most important tenets' 2/he translation is trustworthy throughout' 5 protracted so<ourn in India+ where there is a living tradition+ has familiarised the translators with Indian thought'2CAthen=um. (ost %vo+ pp' lxv'-Dk%+ cloth+ price $@s'


/ranslated from the /ibetan of the Nah-?yur' #y m' 5nton *on Schiefner' Aone into >nglish from the ?erman+ with an Introduction+ #y 1' 3' S' 3alston+ '5' 2 r' 3alston+ whose name is so familiar to all lovers of 3ussian fol0-lore+ has supplied some interesting 1estern analogies and parallels+ drawn+ for the most part+ from Slavonic sources+ to the >astern fol0-tales+ culled from the Nahgyur+ one of the divisions of the /ibetan sacred boo0s'2C Academy. 2/he translation ''' could scarcely have fallen into better hands' 5n Introduction ''' gives the leading facts in the lives of those scholars who have given their attention to gaining a 0nowledge of the /ibetan literature and language'2C8alcutta ;eview. 2=ught to interest all who care for the >ast+ for amusing stories+ or for comparative fol0-lore'2C -all #all 6aLette. (ost %vo+ pp' xvi'-..@+ cloth+ price rs'

5 Collection of *erses from the #uddhist Canon' Compiled by AH53 5/3/5' #eing the 8orthern #uddhist *ersion of Ahammapada' /ranslated from the /ibetan of #0ah-hgyur+ with 8otes+ and >xtracts from the Commentary of (rad<navarman+ #y 1' 1oodville 3oc0hill' 2 r' 3oc0hill:s present wor0 is the first from which assistance will be gained for a more accurate understanding of the (ali text7 it is+ in fact+ as yet the only term of comparison available to us' /he :pdanavarga+: the /hibetan version+ was originally discovered by the late ' Schiefner+ who published the /ibetan text+ and had intended adding a translation+ an intention frustrated by his

death+ but which has been carried out by r' 3oc0hill'''' r' 3oc0hill may be congratulated for having well accomplished a difficult tas0'2C1aturday ;eview. In /wo *olumes+ post %vo+ pp' xxiv'-&kk+ cloth+ accompanied by a Hanguage ap+ price $%s'


#y 3obert 8eedham Cust+ #arrister-at-Haw+ and late of Her a<esty:s Indian Civil Service' 25ny one at all interested in 5frican languages cannot do better than get r' Cust:s boo0' It is encyclopFdic in its scope+ and the reader gets a start clear away in any particular language+ and is left free to add to the initial sum of 0nowledge there collected'2C5atal #ercury. 2 r' Cust has contrived to produce a wor0 of value to linguistic students'2C5ature. /hird >dition' (ost %vo+ pp' xv'-.&l+ cloth+ price -s' kd'


#y C' (' /iele+ Aoctor of /heology+ (rofessor of the History of 3eligions in the pniversity of Heyden' /ranslated from the Autch by B' >stlin Carpenter+ '5' 2mew boo0s of its siQe contain the result of so much wide thin0ing+ able and laborious study+ or enable the reader to gain a better bird:s-eye view of the latest results of investigations into the religious history of nations' 5s (rofessor /iele modestly says+ :In this little boo0 are outlinesC pencil s0etches+ I might sayCnothing more': #ut there are some men whose s0etches from a thumbnail are of far more worth than an enormous canvas covered with the crude painting of others+ and it is easy to see that these pages+ full of information+ these sentences+ cut and perhaps also dry+ short and clear+ condense the fruits of long and thorough research'2C1cotsman. (ost %vo+ pp' xii'-D$.+ with aps and (lan+ cloth+ price $@s'

Including #urma (roper+ (egu+ /aungu+ /enasserim+ and 5ra0an' mrom the >arliest /ime to the >nd of the mirst 1ar with #ritish India' #y Hieut'-?en' Sir 5rthur (' (hayre+ ?'C' '?'+ N'C'S'I'+ and C'#'+ SociItI 5cadImi,ue Indo-Chinoise de mrance' embre Correspondant de la

2Sir 5rthur (hayre:s contribution to /r|bner:s =riental Series supplies a recognised want+ and its appearance has been loo0ed forward to for many years'''' ?eneral (hayre deserves great credit for the patience and industry which has resulted in this History of #urma'2C1aturday ;eview. /hird >dition' (ost %vo+ pp' .-k+ cloth+ price -s' kd'

#y Boseph >d0ins+ A'A'+ (e0ing' Containing a #rief 5ccount of the /hree 3eligions of the Chinese+ with =bservations on the (rospects of Christian Conversion amongst that (eople' 2Ar' >d0ins has been most careful in noting the varied and often complex phases of opinion+ so as to give an account of considerable value of the sub<ect'2C1cotsman. 25s a missionary+ it has been part of Ar' >d0ins: duty to study the existing religions in China+ and his long residence in the country has enabled him to ac,uire an intimate 0nowledge of them as they at present exist'2C1aturday ;eview. 2Ar' >d0ins: valuable wor0+ of which this is a second and revised edition+ has+ from the time that it was published+ been the standard authority upon the sub<ect of which it treats'2C5onconformist. 2Ar' >d0ins ''' may now be fairly regarded as among the first authorities on Chinese religion and language'2C4ritish Kuarterly ;eview. (ost %vo+ pp' x'-.-@+ cloth+ price rs'

Aerived from /ibetan 1or0s in the #0ah-hgyur and #stan-hgyur' mollowed by notices on the >arly History of /ibet and Nhoten' /ranslated by 1' 1' 3=CNHIHH+ Second Secretary p'S' Hegation in China' 2/he volume bears testimony to the diligence and fulness with which the author has consulted and tested the ancient documents bearing upon his remar0able sub<ect'2C/imes. 21ill be appreciated by those who devote themselves to those #uddhist studies which have of late years ta0en in these 1estern regions so remar0able a development' Its matter possesses a special interest as being derived from ancient /ibetan wor0s+ some portions of which+ here analysed and translated+ have not yet attracted the attention of scholars' /he volume is rich in ancient stories bearing upon the world:s renovation and the origin of castes+ as recorded in these venerable authorities'2C2aily 5ews. /hird >dition' (ost %vo+ pp' viii'-@k@+ cloth+ price $ks'


1ith Illustrative >xtracts from the Commentaries' /ranslated by B' 3' #5HH58/;8>+ HH'A'+ late (rincipal of the #enares College' >dited by mI/y>A153A H5HH' 2/he wor0 displays a vast expenditure of labour and scholarship+ for which students of Hindoo philosophy have every reason to be grateful to Ar' Hall and the publishers'2C8alcutta ;eview. In /wo *olumes+ post %vo+ pp' cviii'-.@.+ and viii'-D-l+ cloth+ price .@s' Aedicated by permission to H'3'H' the (rince of 1ales'


/ranslated from the Chinese of Hiuen /siang 4a'd' k.r6' #y Samuel #eal+ #'5'+ 4/rin' Coll'+ Camb'67 3'8' 43etired Chaplain and 8'I'67 (rofessor of Chinese+ pniversity College+ Hondon7 3ector of 1ar0+ 8orthumberland+P c' 5n eminent Indian authority writes respecting this wor0GC28othing more can be done in elucidating the History of India until r' #eal:s translation of the :Si-yu-0i: appears'2 2It is a strange frea0 of historical preservation that the best account of the condition of India at that ancient period has come down to us in the boo0s of travel written by the Chinese pilgrims+ of whom Hwen /hsang is the best 0nown'2C/imes. (ost %vo+ pp' xlviii'-Dr%+ cloth+ price $.s'


/ranslated from the Sans0rit+ with an Introduction' #y the late 5'C' #p38>HH+ (h'A'+ C'I'>' Completed and >dited by >'1' H=(NI8S+ (h'A'+ of Columbia College+ 8';' 2/his wor0 is full of interest7 while for the student of sociology and the science of religion it is full of importance' It is a great boon to get so notable a wor0 in so accessible a form+ admirably edited+ and competently translated'2C1cotsman. 2mew men were more competent than #urnell to give us a really good translation of this well-0nown law boo0+ first rendered into >nglish by Sir 1illiam Bones' #urnell was not only an independent Sans0rit scholar+ but an experienced lawyer+ and he <oined to these two important ,ualifications the rare faculty of being able to express his thoughts in clear and trenchant >nglish'''' 1e ought to feel very grateful to Ar' Hop0ins for having given us all that could be published of the translation left by #urnell'2Cm' ax |ller in the Academy. (ost %vo+ pp' xii'-.D@+ cloth+ price rs'


#etween $%$r and $%@.' 1ith a Short 8otice of all his (ublished and pnpublished 1or0s and >ssays' mrom =riginal and for most part pnpublished Aocuments' #y /H>=A=3> ApN5+ 3etired+ Pc' 'A'+ m'3'C'S' 4>ng'6+ Surgeon- a<or H' ':s #engal edical Service+

28ot too soon have essrs' /r|bner added to their valuable =riental Series a history of the life and wor0s of one of the most gifted and devoted of =riental students+ 5lexander Csoma de Noros' It is forty-three years since his death+ and though an account of his career was demanded soon after his decease+ it has only now appeared in the important memoir of his compatriot+ Ar' Au0a'2C 4ookseller. In /wo *olumes+ post %vo+ pp' xii'-D$% and vi'-D$.+ cloth+ price .$s'


3eprinted from 2Aalrymple:s =riental 3epertory+2 25siatic 3esearches+2 and the 2Bournal of the 5siatic Society of #engal'2 8C5/$5/1 CJ .C+. I. I'CSome 5ccounts of uuedah' #y ichael /opping' II'C3eport made to the Chief and Council of #alambangan+ by Hieut' Bames #arton+ of his several Surveys' III'CSubstance of a Hetter to the Court of Airectors from #orneo (roper' I*'Cmormation of the >stablishment of (oolo (eenang' *'C/he ?old of Himong' #y Bohn acdonald' acdonald' alays' #y 1illiam *I'C=n /hree 8atural (roductions of Sumatra' #y Bohn r' Bohn Besse+ dated Buly .l+ $--&+ at

*II'C=n the /races of the Hindu Hanguage and Hiterature extant amongst the arsden'

*III'CSome 5ccount of the >lastic ?um *ine of (rince-1ales Island' #y Bames Howison' Io'C5 #otanical Aescription of prceola >lastica+ or Caoutchouc *ine of Sumatra and (ulo(inang' #y 1illiam 3oxburgh+ 'A' o'C5n 5ccount of the Inhabitants of the (oggy+ or 8assau Islands+ lying off Sumatra' #y Bohn Crisp' oI'C3emar0s on the Species of (epper which are found on (rince-1ales Island' #y 1illiam Hunter+ 'A' oII'C=n the Hanguages and Hiterature of the Indo-Chinese 8ations' #y B' Heyden+ 'A' oIII'CSome 5ccount of an =rang-=utang of remar0able height found on the Island of Sumatra' #y Clar0e 5bel+ 'A' oI*'C=bservations on the ?eological 5ppearances and ?eneral meatures of (ortions of the alayan (eninsula' #y Captain Bames How' o*'CShort S0etch of the ?eology of (ulo-(inang and the 8eighbouring Islands' #y /' 1are' o*I'CClimate of Singapore' o*II'CInscription on the Betty at Singapore' o*III'C>xtract of a Hetter from Colonel B' How' oIo'CInscription at Singapore' ooC5n 5ccount of Several Inscriptions found in (rovince 1ellesley' #y Hieut'-Col' Bames How' ooI'C8ote on the Inscriptions from Singapore and (rovince 1ellesley' #y B' 1' Haidlay' ooII'C=n an Inscription from Neddah' #y Hieut'-Col' How' ooIII'C5 8otice of the 5lphabets of the (hilippine Islands' ooI*'CSuccinct 3eview of the =bservations of the /ides in the Indian 5rchipelago' oo*'C3eport on the /in of the (rovince of oo*I'C3eport on the anganese of ergui' #y Capt' ?' # /remenheere' ergui (rovince' #y Capt' ?' #' /remenheere'

oo*II'C(aragraphs to be added to Capt' ?' #' /remenheere:s 3eport'

oo*III'CSecond 3eport on the /in of

ergui' #y Capt' ?' #' /remenheere' ergui+ and of Himestone from ergui' #y Ar' 5'

ooIo'C5nalysis of Iron =res from /avoy and pre'

ooo'C3eport of a *isit to the (a0chan 3iver+ and of some /in Hocalities in the Southern (ortion of the /enasserim (rovinces' #y Capt' ?' #' /remenheere' oooI'C3eport on a 3oute from the outh of the (a0chan to Nrau+ and thence across the Isthmus of Nrau to the ?ulf of Siam' #y Capt' 5l' mraser and Capt' B' ?' morlong' oooII'C3eport+ Pc'+ from Capt' ?' #' /remenheere on the (rice of oooI*'Cmurther 3emar0s' #y >' #lyth' 8C5/$5/1 CJ .C+. II. ooo*'CCatalogue of Cantor+ 'A' ammalia inhabiting the alayan (eninsula and Islands' #y /heodore ergui /in =re' oooIII'C3emar0s on the Aifferent Species of =rang-utan' #y >' #lyth'

ooo*I'C=n the Hocal and 3elative ?eology of Singapore' #y B' 3' Hogan' ooo*II'CCatalogue of 3eptiles inhabiting the Cantor+ 'A' alayan (eninsula and Islands' #y /heodore

ooo*III'CSome 5ccount of the #otanical Collection brought from the >astward+ in $%@$+ by Ar' Cantor' #y the late 1' ?riffith' oooIo'C=n the mlat-Horned /aurine Cattle of S'>' 5sia' #y >' #lyth' oH'C8ote+ by ?eneral Index' Index of *ernacular /erms' Index of yoological ?enera and Sub-?enera occurring in *ol' II' 2/he papers treat of almost every aspect of Indo-ChinaCits philology+ economy+ geography+ geologyCand constitute a very material and important contribution to our accessible information regarding that country and its people'2C8ontemporary ;eview. (ost %vo+ pp' xii'--.+ cloth+ price &s' a<or-?eneral ?' #' /remenheere'


/ranslated from the Sans0rit #y the 3ev' #' Hale 1ortham+ '3'5'S'+ 3ector of >ggesford+ 8orth Aevon' 25 very interesting addition to /r|bner:s =riental Series'2C1aturday ;eview. 2 any of the 6aLette. axims in the boo0 have a #iblical ring and beauty of expression'2C1t. 3ames*

(ost %vo+ pp' xii'-$%l+ cloth+ price ks'


=r+ /H> 8I/I HI/>35/p3> =m #p3 5' #y Bames ?ray+ 5uthor of 2>lements of (ali ?rammar+2 2/ranslation of the Ahammapada+2 Pc' /he Sanscrit-(li word 8Lti is e,uivalent to 2conduct2 in its abstract+ and 2guide2 in its concrete signification' 5s applied to boo0s+ it is a general term for a treatise which includes maxims+ pithy sayings+ and didactic stories+ intended as a guide to such matters of everyday life as form the character of an individual and influence him in his relations to his fellow-men' /reatises of this 0ind have been popular in all ages+ and have served as a most effective medium of instruction' (ost %vo+ pp' xxxii' and DDl+ cloth+ price -s' kd'


/H> S(I3I/p5H C=p(H>/S =m 5pH585 B5H5Hp-:A-AI8 pH5 5A I 3p I' /ranslated and 5bridged by >' H' 1HI8mI>HA+ (ost %vo+ pp' viii' and D@k+ cloth+ price $ls' kd' '5'+ Hate of H' ' #engal Civil Service'


=riginal Sans0rit /ext+ with Critical 8otes' #y B' Bolly+ (h'A'+ (rofessor of Sans0rit in the pniversity of 1urQburg7 late /agore (rofessor of Haw in the pniversity of Calcutta' /he date assigned by Sir 1illiam Bones to this CodeCthe well-0nown ?reat Haw #oo0 of the HindusCis $.&l-&ll b'c'+ although the rules and precepts contained in it had probably existed as tradition for countless ages before' /here has been no reliable edition of the /ext for Students for many years past+ and it is believed+ therefore+ that (rof' Bolly:s wor0 will supply a want long felt' (ost %vo+ pp' .$&+ cloth+ price -s' kd'


#y mrederic Henry #alfour' 5uthor of 21aifs and Strays from the mar >ast+2 2/aoist /exts+2 2Idiomatic (hrases in the (e0ing Collo,uial+2 Pc' Pc' (ost %vo+ pp' xvi'-&@%+ with Six aps+ cloth+ price .$s'


1ritten from the ;ear $%@- to $%%-' 1econd 1eries. #y 3obert 8eedham Cust+ HH'A'+ #arrister-at-Haw7 Honorary Secretary of the 3oyal 5siatic Society7 Hate ember of Her a<esty:s

Indian Civil Service' In /wo *olumes+ post %vo+ pp' x'-Dl% and vi'-D$@+ cloth+ price .&s'


>dited #y 3' 3ost+ (h'A'+ Pc' Pc'+ Hibrarian to the India =ffice' Second Series' 3eprinted for the Straits #ranch of the 3oyal 5siatic Society from the alayan 2 iscellanies+2 the 2/ransactions and Bournal2 of the #atavian Society+ and the 2Bournals2 of the 5siatic Society of #engal+ and the 3oyal ?eographical and 3oyal 5siatic Societies' (ost %vo+ pp' xii'-&$.+ price $ks'

#y the 3ev' B' Hinton Nnowles+ m'3'?'S'+ 4C' 'S'6 issionary to the Nashmiris' '3'5'S'+ Pc'

In /wo *olumes+ post %vo+ pp' xii'-DDk and o'-D&.+ cloth+ price .$s'


mragments /owards the Nnowledge of the ?eography and History of Central and 1estern 5sia from the /hirteenth to the Seventeenth Century' #y >' #retschneider+ 'A'+ mormerly (hysician of the 3ussian Hegation at (e0in' In /wo *olumes+ post %vo+ pp' l'-@l% and @D$+ cloth+ price Dks'

58 5CC=p8/ =m I/S 3>HI?I=8+ (HIH=S=(H;+ HI/>35/p3>+ ?>=?35(H;+ CH3=8=H=?;+ 5S/3=8= ;+ CpS/= S+ H51+ 58A 5S/3=H=?; 45bout a'd' $lD$6' /ranslated into >nglish' 1ith 8otes and Indices by (rof' >A153A S5CH5p+ pniversity of #erlin' /he 5rabic =riginal+ with an Index of the Sans0rit 1ords+ >dited by (rofessor S5CH5p+ is in the press' (ost %vo+ pp' xxxvii'-.$%+ cloth+ price $ls'


#y the Shamans Hwui Hi and ;en-tsung' 1ith a (reface containing an account of the 1or0s of I-/sing' #y Samuel #eal+ #'5' 4/rin' Coll'+ Camb'67 (rofessor of Chinese+ pniversity College+ Hondon7 3ector of 1ar0+ 8orthumberland+ Pc' 5uthor of 2#uddhist 3ecords of the 1estern 1orld+2 2/he 3omantic Hegend of Sa0ya #uddha+2 Pc' 1hen the (ilgrim Hiuen /siang returned from his travels in India+ he too0 up his abode in the /emple of 2?reat #enevolence72 this convent had been constructed by the >mperor in honour of the >mpress+ 1en-te-hau' 5fter Hiuen /siang:s death+ his disciple+ Hwui Hi+ composed a wor0 which gave an account of his illustrious aster:s travels7 this wor0 when he completed he buried+ and refused to discover its place of concealment' #ut previous to his death he revealed its whereabouts to ;en-tsung+ by whom it was finally revised and published' /his is 2/he Hife of Hiuen /siang'2 It is a valuable se,uel to the Si-yu-0i+ correcting and illustrating it in many particulars' I5 -;$-A;A/IC5NO (ost %vo'


#y 3' 8' Cust+ HH' A' 5uthor of 2 odern Hanguages of the >ast+2 2 odern Hanguages of 5frica+2 Pc'

L6>I6>: T7JA><7 & CO., '/ 8>I '3 LKIL89< H@;;.

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