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EurIng Keith Armstrong
Cherry Clough Consultants, U.K., www.cherryclough.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
It is sometimes said that EMC engineers di ide into two cam!s:
"hose concerned with !ower, surges, lightning, and electrical installations • "hose concerned with radio #re$uencies %&'( and electronic !roducts "his !a!er will ho!e#ully )e alua)le to )oth cam!s. Issues o# ca)les screen )onding and earthing are )ecoming more im!ortant )ecause* • • "he #re$uencies used in electronics are increasing "he en ironment is )ecoming more !olluted with noise at mains harmonic and radio #re$uencies • Electronic de ices are )ecoming more com!le+ and also more ulnera)le to inter#erence • EMC regulations are increasing world-wide ,creened ca)les only !ro ide their #ull !er#ormance at high #re$uencies when their screens are correctly terminated to their e$ui!ment-s 'araday cage or local .earth- re#erence at both ends. "his !a!er discusses the design and installation issues in ol ed in terminating screens at )oth ends, with !articular re#erence to the e+cellent guidance gi en )y IEC /0111-2-3 405. "he #ollowing to!ics are co ered here: • • • • • • • "erminating screens at )oth ends to control &' 6e er use .!igtails- #or screen termination "erminating screens at one end e+!oses electronics to damaging o er oltages Meshed earth )onding is )etter than single-!oint "he !arallel earth conductor %7EC( %!re ents e+cessi e currents when ca)le screens are terminated at )oth ends( 8hen screens cannot )e terminated at )oth ends Co!!er communications )etween )uildings
%&'( here. "his need is )ecoming more demanding as electronic technology continues to !rogress and as a!!lications increase to include areas not !re iously under electronic control, including sa#ety-related #unctions. At the moment most en ironments, other than in some military and scienti#ic a!!lications, re$uire control o# &' u! to at least 3<:; %3,111M:;( )ecause o# the cell!hone systems o!erating near that #re$uency. "o realise the #ull &' screening !otential o# a screened ca)le there must )e no ga!s in its screen along its entire length, including its connectors at )oth ends. "his is o#ten called .end-to-end =/1o screening-, and 'igure 0 illustrates its general !rinci!les.
Figure 1 60! "#ree$i$g %r!& e$' (! e$'
S)ie*'e' e$#*!"ure 1
S)ie*'e' e$#*!"ure 2
60! -!$' -e(.ee$ #!$$e#(!r -,#/")e** ,$' e$#*!"ure
-!$'" -e(.ee$ #,-*e "#ree$ ,$' #!$$e#(!r -,#/")e**"
C,-*e 60! "#ree$e' ,*!$g i(" e$(ire *e$g()
60! -!$' -e(.ee$ #!$$e#(!r -,#/")e** ,$' e$#*!"ure
TERMINATING SCREENS AT BOTH ENDS TO CONTROL RF 9e elo!ments in electronic technologies, including micro!rocessors, wireless communications, switchmode !ower con ersion and aria)le-s!eed motor dri es, !lus de elo!ments in EMC regulations, mean that we now ha e a general re$uirement to control #re$uencies a)o e 021k:;, called radio #re$uencies
Achie ing e##ecti e screening at &' is rather like !lum)ing > any ga!s or incom!lete seals %including at all cou!lings and ?oints( that would leak i# the system was #illed with water under !ressure, would leak &'. "he &' screening !er#ormance o# ca)le screens and their connectors is characterised )y their sur#ace trans#er im!edance: @". A low alue o# @" im!lies a good screening !er#ormance. ,ection A.3.3 o# 8illiams and Armstrong 435 descri)es the @" o# di##erent ty!es o# ca)les, and shows that the tiny a!ertures in the )raid or #oil o# screened ca)les causes @" to rise at #re$uencies a)o e 0M:; or so. But since there are no a!ertures in solid co!!er screened ca)les their @" #alls a)o e 0M:;. Connectors ha e a similar !ro)lem > any a!ertures in their screening causes their @" to rise a)o e a certain #re$uency, which is why so-called .EMC 9-ty!es- %see 'igure 3( ha e rows o# dim!les all around their )odies > to make multi!le screen connections when mated > to reduce the si;e o# the ga!s in their o erall screening.
The benefits of applying IEC 61000-5-2
© Cherry Clough Consultants
Page 1 of 6
ri"e" ?" +E I$'u#(.-*e At a ca)le connection there are a num)er o# !ossi)ilities #or large ga!s to a!!ear in the screening > e.&1*e !% . TERMINATING SCREENS AT ONE END E2POSES ELECTRONICS TO DAMAGING O+ER+OLTAGES 9uring transient electromagnetic distur)ances > such as those caused )y lightning.ge i" . &. #.* . In installations.#/")e** &. "heir )ad e##ects on &' control ha e )een well-known in EMC circles since at least 0DG2.i$" !r "ig$. But resonance o# a !igtail-s inductance with the ca)le screen-s ca!acitance causes a much greater reduction in !er#ormance. and the need #or =/1 o )onding o# ca)le screens at )oth ends is clearly e+!ressed in two military EMC installation guides #rom the U. A 011mm long wire has an inductance o# around 011n: %1. '. .leaks.r() *i%(: 0!*(.(. com!romising the screening !er#ormance o# the whole ca)le • 8hen the length o# a ca)le e+ceeds one-si+th o# a wa elength the screen will )egin to act as a resonant antenna > worse than ha ing no screen at all • :igh-s!eed data communications use transmission line techni$ues.$' '. A !a!er )y Armstrong and 8aldron 4=5 e+!lains why using circuit and e$ui!ment design !ractices known )e#ore 0DD2 mean that multi!le earth )onds are a real )ene#it #or signal $uality. and )reaking their screen anywhere creates im!edance discontinuities which harm signal integrity and data rates • 6o screening is !ro ided against magnetic #ields with certain orientations "he )est &' screening !er#ormance o# connectors or glands is only achie ed i# their assem)ly does not re$uire the ca)le screen to )e distur)ed.r() *i%( 0!*(. )ut are sometimes #ound to )e o er =11mm. "hese wires are o#ten called . Ne0er u"e 1ig(.g. ca)le screen to ca)le connector )ackshellC )ackshell to mating connectorC mating connector to its ca)le screen or enclosure shield. Ca)le screens are traditionally only terminated at one end so as to !reser e the single-!oint earthing scheme and !re ent . and an e+am!le o# a 9-ty!e connector is shown in 'igure 3..(i!$ "raditionally.** . the inductance in its earth connection causes it to e+!erience a local .$' 60! ")ie*'e' #!$$e#(!r" . But the other item o# e$ui!ment does not The benefits of applying IEC 61000-5-2 © Cherry Clough Consultants Page 2 of 6 . IEC /0111-2-/ 4/5 and )y Armstrong 4A5. But single-!oint earthing is an old techni$ue that cannot control screen currents at &' and is now no longer !re#erred.r()i$g "4"(e&" 9E.$' 60! #*.&1e' (! -. &es!ected EMC guides 405 435 4E5 425 4/5 and 4A5 all warn against the use o# !igtails #or screen termination.earth-li#t!otential.hum loo!s-. as discussed )elow. D-(41e 7Di&1*e'7 #!$$e#(!r -!'4 &.$#e" i$ ()e ="i$g*e-1!i$(> 1r!(e#(i0e e. Figure 9E. the switching o# large inducti e loads. 8hen a ca)le screen is only terminated at one end./e" &u*(i1*e -!$'" (! &.-*e C.i*" %!r "#ree$ (er&i$.* #!$'u#(!r. and 0D1 ohms at =11M:. which has a reacti e im!edance o# 0D ohms at =1M:. Ca)le screens are o#ten )onded at one end to !reser e single-!oint earthing schemes and !re ent .ge . 7igtails ?ust 32mm long ha e )een seen to com!letely ruin any shielding e##ect in a = metre long ca)le at #re$uencies a)o e =1 M:. terminating a ca)le screen was done )y connecting it with a wire to an a!!ro!riate terminal. "he inductance o# a !igtail is ery signi#icant at high #re$uencies.##e1(.. and :H circuit )reaker o!eration > large !otential di##erences can e+ist )etween the !rotecti e earth conductors in di##erent !arts o# the same structure.0F:(. "he military ha e a lot o# e+!erience with &' control.-*e Surge !$ .(i$g #. )ut 'igure = shows how single-!oint earthing e+!oses electronic in!ut and out!ut de ices to the transient o er oltages caused )y %#or e+am!le( a lightning-induced current surge.a great deal at &'.11*ie' 'ire#(*4 (! e*e#(r!$i# #ir#ui(" -4 "ig$.-*e" E<g< .(. Commercial and industrial EMC )est !ractices in )onding screens at )oth ends are descri)ed in detail in 405.r!u$' i(" 1eri1)er4 5 60 !6 Me(./e" 60! -!$' (! #!$$e#(!r -!'4 S#ree$e' #.Figure 2 Ter&i$. "hese !otential di##erences are caused )y the #low o# transient currents through the ine ita)le im!edances o# the common )onding network %CB6. e<g< 'ue (! *ig)($i$g +E /+ /A ?" R!u(e (. sometimes called the !rotecti e earthing network(. (ig)( %i(6 O()er 60! -!$'i$g &e()!'" . 9e!artment o# the 6a y 4E5 and the UK-s Ministry o# 9e#ence 425./e$ -4 ()e "urge #urre$( 9E.#/")e** 5&u"( -e .!igtails.-*e "#ree$" i$ #!$$e#(!r -. #. 7igtails inside e$ui!ment are o#ten around 011mmm in length. !igtails o# se eral metres length are sometimes seen.* 5!r &e(.re e3u. earth #aults.**i"e'6 -. a large ga! in the screen e+ists at its other end.r()i$g "4"(e& 8hen a lightning surge %#or e+am!le( is e+!erienced )y one item o# e$ui!ment. "his creates a num)er o# !ro)lems: • "he ga! .creen termination arrangements that do not distur) the lie o# the screen are !re#erred.**4 .hum loo!s#rom a##ecting signals.#/")e**" E8.r() *i%(: i$ "i$g*e-1!i$( e.(i$g #!$$e#(!r -!'4 .-*e "#ree$ e81!"e' .and they ruin the ca)le-s screening !er#ormance at &'.
&' distur)ances in the en ironment cause signi#icant currents to #low regardless o# its earthing or other ty!e o# end termination.u"e" 500/HA (r. sometimes )etween conductors that are some distance a!art.$ .o# the two items is a!!lied in common-mode to the electronic circuits at their interconnected in!ut and out!ut %IIJ( !orts.o we can see that the age-old !ractice o# single-!oint grounding and its conse$uent re$uirement to only terminate ca)le screens at one end is !oor #or EMC./er #. metal !i!es and ducts.=kH.:-CB6 o# a )uilding. )ut can also cause the electronic circuits to #ail. .( -!() e$'" !% ()e 2 &e(re #. . so #or the a)o e e$ui!ment we should e+!ect earth-li#t oltages somewhere )etween K0.$ Duer"!$ H+ (r.ome three!hase and other e$ui!ment could )e e+!osed to e en higher le els o# lightning-related surge and conse$uent earth-li#t. ne er mind e$ui!ment relia)ility. A 1r. and it does nothing to !rotect electronic de ices to o er oltages."e "(u'4 -4 0. "he results o# their in estigations into the e##ects o# )onding at )oth ends are shown in 'igure E. 8hen the :H circuit )reaker which connected the trans#ormer to the 021kH )us)ar o!ened. there is now no reason not to carry on in this ein and gain signi#icant ad antages )y meshing the !rotecti e earthing network too.$ 'er L. #rame. 8hen ca)le screens are directly terminated to the chassis. "his was !ro)a)ly a great deal more than the designer o# the tem!erature electronics had e+!ected. .ards such as to+ic #umes.$' 0.e. 'igure 2 shows the scheme recommended )y 405 #or the ME.o we now see that single-!oint earthing and terminating ca)le screens at one end are a method that e ol ed in the days when high le els o# &' were rarely encountered. smoke. o!ening the :H )reaker e+!osed the tem!erature electronics in the control room to 3. A lighting !rotection e+!ert has descri)ed seeing the unterminated screens at the ends o# long ca)les arc to the e$ui!ment #rame during a thunderstorm > hardly a recommendation #or sa#ety. Figure @ 9E.(i!$" . used #or com!liance testing to the EMC directi e. In real li#e most single!hase e$ui!ment is su)?ected to lightning-related surges o# u! to three times higher than this.r()-*i%( In 4G5 an der Laan and an 9uerson ga e an e+am!le o# how the o er oltage e+!osure o# an instrumentation unit aried with the )onding o# its ca)le screen and related metalwork..* e8. !oor #or surge !rotection and relia)ility. and #ire. 8hen one o# the other conductors in the 3= metre ca)le was )onded to the CB6 at )oth o# its ends %the :H trans#ormer and tem!erature electronics e$ui!ment #rame(.$"ie$(" C!$(r!* r!!& Te&1er. 8here the e$ui!ment is also connected to the !rotecti e earth #or sa#ety reason we could also descri)e this as a meshed !rotecti e earthing system.uch common-mode transient oltages can cause signal and communication errors. its #lash-o er created an intense ringing wa e o# around 321A at E11k:. or enclosure shield o# the e$ui!ment at )oth ends.-*e 2< /+ . The benefits of applying IEC 61000-5-2 © Cherry Clough Consultants Page 3 of 6 . Actual !hysical damage can occur.:-CB6( is created. A greater num)er o# smaller meshes means a lower inductance. )ut they can )e dealt with whereas the draw)acks o# single-!oint earthing in the modern world cannot )e dealt with in any !ractical manner.tray. ia the 3= metre multiconductor ca)le carrying the sensor signal.ince the ca)le screens create a ME.(ure "e$"!r I)% 2 &e(re #.. the o er oltage was reduced to /11H. and is $uite unsuited to the modern world. A ty!ical simulated lightning surge. . dominates the #low o# high#re$uency current in a system or installation. would result in )etween K211H and K3kH o# earth-li#t #or a single!oint earthed e$ui!ment with a 01 metre long !rotecti e earth conductor.r() *i%(: #.&1*e !% e. and also achie es a low im!edance at higher #re$uencies > de!ending on its mesh si.e+!erience the earth-li#t.earths. "his induced signi#icant oltages into the tem!erature electronics in the control room.stray. Mesh )onding has its draw)acks. Bonding the ca)le armour at )oth ends then reduced the o eroltage to 31H. 8ith the sensor signal conductor and its associated armour and steel duct connected at the :H trans#ormer end only. A tem!erature sensor monitored a :H %021kH( trans#ormer. increasing the risks o# electric shock and other sa#ety ha. so the di##erences )etween the .-*e +CM E.$"%!r&er H+ #ir#ui( -re. . "his achie es a ery low im!edance at 21I/1:... a meshed common )onding network %ME. and was connected )y a 3= metre ca)le to the tem!erature indicating electronics in a control room. At the #re$uencies #or which a conductor %including steelwork.:-CB6.ca!acitances and .#(i#.2kH and K/kH. and when the steel duct was also )onded at )oth ends the o er oltage during the o!ening o# the :H )reaker was reduced to under 0H. 600+ - 20+ # 1+ ' MESHED EARTH BONDING IS PREFERRED TO SINGLE-POINT EARTHING "he traditional techni$ue o# single-!oint earthing %sometimes called star earthing( is clearly a !ro)lem > it !re ents us #rom directly terminating ca)le screens at )oth ends to get the )est EMC !er#ormance. and means a higher #re$uency o# control o# systematic &' currents and oltages. . and !oor #or sa#ety.r() I#& E%%e#(" !% %!ur 'i%%ere$( (er&i$.mutual inductances. and other conductors( is longer than hal# o# the wa elength.
the mesh diagonals(. e en during earth #aults.ince we can-t generally now a oid the need to terminate ca)le screens at )oth ends.7C and are either directly )onded to the . P*u&-i$g . whether screened or not. .:-CB6s and ME. .4". )ut this can cause !ro)lems #or sensiti e e+isting e$ui!ment when its care#ully-honed single-!oint earthing system is degraded to a !oor mesh %e. or 7EC %although it would ha e )een )etter to ha e called it a !arallel )onding conductor(.7C or are #itted with surge !rotection de ices %. *. 4=5 shows that ca)le screen currents do not cause noise !ro)lems when e$ui!ment is designed so that screen currents do not #low in internal circuits.* "(ee*.(i$g". .r" C.7C(.!arallel earth conductor-.79s( andIor #ilters which are )onded to the . sometimes a locally meshed )onding network is used ?ust #or its area %sometimes called a )onding mat or system re#erence !otential !lane. The benefits of applying IEC 61000-5-2 © Cherry Clough Consultants Page 4 of 6 . 'or e+am!le.*: &e(.r() -.''er".1"6 S.e no larger than E metres in any dimension %e. a 7EC is a conductor connected in !arallel with the ca)le screen. "his local mesh is isolated #rom the )uilding-s earthing system e+ce!t at a single !oint o# connection %called its . 8here a com!uter or telecommunications room or other area o# modern high-tech e$ui!ment is to )e installed in an old )uilding.e to hel! !re ent inter#erence with its signals o er a wider range o# #re$uencies.( 8here a ME. As its name im!lies. and at these low #re$uencies it is usually only the resistance that matters. A lot more on the construction o# ME.:-CB6 can )e thought o# as a large num)er o# small earth loo!s.e %o#ten /11mm or less( to hel! control the high #re$uencies their interconnections use. All the ca)les and ser ices entering or lea ing this isolated mesh-)onded area enter I lea e near to the . and also in Cha!ter 2 o# 435 and 7art 3 o# 4A5.:-IB6s are descri)ed in detail in 405. . . Meshing creates a lower im!edance CB6 that reduces earth-li#t oltages and so hel!s to !rotect e$ui!ment #rom o er oltages.:-CB6.:-CB6s.i*i$g". a way must )e #ound to !re ent ca)le screen currents #rom causing o erheating.%e(4 e. <i en a choice o# !aths they will !re#er to #low in the !ath o# least im!edance.!r/ S(ru#(ur.!r/" Many older )uildings ha e single-!oint earthing systems. &e")e' #!&&!$ -!$'i$g $e(.g.g.o 7ECs need to ha e a much lower resistance %hence a much higher cross-sectional area. and any other metalwork can )e !ressed into ser ice to hel! achie e a ME.o-called . 0e$(".metalwork. r.. and these . But where an ade$uate ME.&1*e !% .*/.:-CB6s. Figure 6 Me") CBN"B -!$'i$g 9$.**i# "e#(i!$" -ri'ge' -4 -!$'i$g "(r. (r..A( than a ca)le-s screen to reduce the !ower#re$uency currents in that screen to acce!ta)le amounts. as mentioned a)o e.(i!$ r!!& :ea y current e$ui!ment re$uires a closer mesh to !re ent high oltage dro!s in the case o# leakage or #ault currents. e(#< "he ideal ME. I"!*. "his locally meshed techni$ue is o#ten called a ME. e$ui!ment.natural.-*e 'u#(". . THE PARALLEL EARTH CONDUCTOR 5PEC6 . and ser ices )y a skilled !erson em!loyed )y the site. %*ue". "he largest currents #lowing in an earthing system are at !ower #re$uency.*. to hel! !ro ide !rotection #rom lightning induced surges it is generally recommended to use a CB6 with a mesh si. with its own dedicated !arallel earth conductor %see later(. e(#< Gr.&77(.7C.er 'i"(ri-u(i!$ r!!& E<g< i$"(ru&e$(.:-CB6 as recommended )y 405 is #ully im!lemented.r"6 Jne common techni$ue is merely to run e ery new ca)le. Its )iggest !ro)lem is that it is easily com!romised )y cra#tsmen and engineers and so re$uires a)solute control o# all wiring. one or two large earth loo!s(.&e(.!r/ 5MESH-CBN6 E<g< #!&1u(er r!!& ! T! () %* er !! r" & Fr! !() ! %*! er r" E<g< 1!.ensiti e instrumentation o#ten re$uires a smaller mesh si. %6ote that.legacy.4". ME. such as re-)ars. structural metalwork. C. the techni$ue recommended )y 405 is the . as shown )y 'igure /.(ur.$' #!$'ui(" Air 'u#(". :igh-#re$uency e$ui!ment %such as com!uter or telecommunications systems( re$uires a small mesh si.Figure 5 E8. #)i&$e4". girders.:-CB6 cannot )e #ully im!lemented and i# screen currents could )e so large as to damage the ca)les or cause emissions o# #umes.!r/ 5i$#*u'i$g re--.(e' &e")e' -!$'i$g $e(. including the use o# )onding ring conductors %B&Cs( and the ad antages o# multi!le )onds to the lightning !rotection system %L7.$' 1i1e" 5$!$.( can )e #ound in the re#erences.systems can make it costly to install new technology that re$uire ME.:IB6 %meshed isolated )onding network. it will reduce the !otential di##erences )etween items o# e$ui!ment to such low le els that connecting ca)le screens at )oth ends does not result in signi#icant le els o# screen currents at !owerline #re$uencies.
.r.1e i" -e((er (). many designers only )egin to a!!reciate their cost )ene#its when struggling to sol e the relia)ility !ro)lems. there)y im!ro ing ca)le crosstalk and signal integrity and also im!ro ing the radiated emissions and immunity o# the e$ui!ment. 'u#( 5-!$'e' . the )est a!!roach is to a oid the use o# co!!er ca)les altogether. ca)le screens should )e terminated at )oth ends unless there is a good technical reason not to do so. Figure D 1 A 1."ransient e ents generally in ol e considera)ly higher #re$uencies than the ty!ical continuous currents which #low in CB6s. .natural. The benefits of applying IEC 61000-5-2 © Cherry Clough Consultants Page 5 of 6 . #or e+am!le what ty!es o# ca)le trays !er#orm )est and how they should )e )onded together. to !ro ide any )ene#its a)o e 0M:.i() *i' 8here a )uilding has a ME.$' 2 N.oltage circuit )reakers can create currents o# 321kA at 211k:. their continuity may )e com!romised in the #uture )y !eo!le un#amiliar with their rMle as 7ECs.ca)le.i() *. and customer satis#action. . wires with a large crosssectional area may )e used instead.:-CB6s is well!ro en to )e #ar su!erior to more traditional methods.** %re3ue$#ie" N. <al anically isolated #i)reo!tics %with metal-#ree ca)les(. "hese are o#ten dismissed at an early stage in a design on grounds o# material cost. :owe er.:-CB6 it is o#ten most con enient to use !arts o# its CB6 as 7ECs.$' g*. sometimes there is a real !ractical !ro)lem with )onding ca)le screens at )oth ends. in#ra-red.dou)le insulated screen. ducts. and also must ha e a high mutual inductance to the screen %achie ed )y the 7EC #ollowing the ca)le-s route ery closely(. warranty costs. ranking them in order o# decreasing !artial inductance and increasing mutual inductance.. J!to-isolator de ices on !rinted circuit )oards %7CBs( within e$ui!ment are o#ten used #or gal anic isolation. 7ECs with lower !artial inductances also !ro ide )etter control o# the &' common-mode currents associated with the wanted signals carried )y the ca)les. )onding screens at )oth ends and using ME.* -!$'" . they may act as their own 7EC.**e* e. Un#ortunately. E8. Earth #aults ha e almost all their energy at the !ower #re$uency. its 7EC needs to ha e a much lower !artial inductance than the screen.ire 5 @ C!r$er 1!"i(i!$ i$ (r. )ut any arcing during the #ault or in the #ault-clearance de ices can create #re$uencies u! to thousands o# M:. "he ca)ling and earthing recommendations made )y IEC /0111-2-3 405 are re#erenced. Although each has $uite a high resistance and high !artial inductance. %de!ending on the construction o# the armour and the $uality o# its =/1 o )onding at its ?oints and )oth ends(. and can ha e a good res!onse at #re$uencies a)o e 21:.rge CSA Jne o# the !ro)lems with using . It may still )e necessary to use a screened ca)le to hel! !re ent noise and crosstalk within the #re$uency )and o# the signals. or else du!licated to some degree.( e0er4 F!i$( . a num)er connected in !arallel will share the screen currents )etween themsel es and there may )e no need #or a se!arate 7EC.o to reduce the le els o# transient currents #lowing in a ca)le-s screen. 8here suita)le metalwork is not handy. 4G5. or wireless communications are all ery e##ecti e alternati es. steel wire armour( should not )e relied u!on alone.4 #!$(r!*" )ig) %re3ue$#ie" -e((er A** PEC" $ee' 60E e*e#(ri#.urge !rotection de ices may also )e re$uired to !rotect #rom transient o er oltages.**e*e' -!$'i$g #!$'u#(!r . I# they are only thought to !ro ide mechanical su!!ort or !rotection. 'u#( . #or e+am!le 4D5 4015 4005 4035 40=5 40E5 and 4025. In the ast ma?ority o# cases. I# it cannot )e modi#ied to a more sensi)le design that con#ines !otentially inter#ering screen currents to its chassis. #rame.. "he o!eration o# high.( #!$(r!**i$g . es!ecially ca)le trays.*!$g i(" *e$g()6 1 S!*i' &e(. Lightning surges ha e their !eak energies at around 01k:. including !ro#essional audio 4=5 and other a!!lications in ol ing low signal le els and high signalInoise s!eci#ications.$ . CHEN CABLE SCREENS CANNOT BE TERMINATED AT BOTH ENDS In general. :owe er. But ordinary ca)le armour %e. and conduits. .r() #!$'u#(!r" 5PEC"6 best !ontrol of high fre"uen!ies# $ %orst D DC-60HA #!$(r!* !$*4 6 Lig)($i$g (. or enclosure shield it is o#ten !ossi)le to use a . Ca)le armour can also )e used as a 7EC.&1*e" !% 1. or damage created )y the use o# co!!er conductors. r!u$' .rr!. )y which time it is too late to sa e cost. )ut can in ol e #re$uencies o# u! to 211k:. inter#erence.ometimes one is #aced with an item o# e$ui!ment which has )een designed to !ermit screen currents to #low in its internal circuitry. hence their a)ility to control &'. 8hen used on long ca)les run inside a )uilding co ered )y a single !rotecti e earth-)onding network they need to )e a)le to withstand at least /kH to !rotect against transient e ents. 'igure A shows a num)er o# common ty!es o# 7EC. )ut ty!ically are o#ten rated #or only 211H. In these cases > i# signals and data are only communicated at low #re$uencies > all unwanted high #re$uencies should )e #iltered out.metalwork and armour as 7ECs is that it may )e ulnera)le to cra#tsmen and #uture modi#ications. 8here a num)er o# ca)le screens are )onded at )oth ends to the same items o# e$ui!ment. )ut o#ten turn out to ha e the lowest cost when the o erall !ro?ect is costed taking into account its regulatory com!liance. )y most o# the latest standards concerned with the installation o# electronics in )uildings and other structures. At these #re$uencies the !ath o# least im!edance is usually the !ath o# least !artial inductance.* #!$'ui( !r (u-e i" -e"( .. A lot more in#ormation on 7ECs is gi en in 405.g.r. )ut this screen will )e )onded at one end.rr!.
ehicles. “>onding con$igurations and earthing ?ithin a telecommunications building# 40=5 I"U &ecommendation K. Italy. such as an earth-#ault in a near)y :H su)station or a direct lightning strike to one o# the )uildings %or shi!s. co!!er ca)le interconnections may )e a)le to )e used. whilst the outer screen is =/1o )onded at )oth ends as shown in 'igure 0 to !ro ide &' control.3A. “Electrical Installations o$ >uildings – Part 8: Protection $or sa$ety – Chapter 88: Protection against o*er*oltages !ection 888: Protection against electromagnetic inter$erence (EMI) in installations o$ buildings# 4015 E6 21=01:3111. “>onding con$igurations and earthing at remote electronic sites# 40E5 E6 210AE-3:3110.( will acce!t an element o# risk.:-CB6 should )e designed to handle the greatest transient e ents thought to )e !ossi)le.eminar “EMC it)s nearly all about the cabling#. htt!:IIwww. “Electromagnetic Compatibility. Metal-#ree #i)re-o!tic ca)les. 9e!artment o# the 6a y. 3111.P International Con$erence on . etc. “%pplication o$ e+uipotential bonding and earthing in buildings ?ith in$ormation technology e+uipment# 4005 E".mod. :o*ember '."he inner screen would )e connected at the s!eci#ied end %e en using a !igtail i# that is what the su!!lier-s installation instructions re$uired(. is to use gal anic isolation which can co!e with at least 3MH.//#. Part 0: Code o$ practice $or 1M ships – Installation guidelines# . (rd Edition -une '. '. "his would re$uire each structure has a com!lete ME. #ree-s!ace lasers or microwa e links are all suita)le candidates and are now !ro ided )y a large num)er o# com!anies. Nan-9ec 3111. IEE . EMC Com!liance Nournal. 6ewnes. I. etc.tandard 2D-E0 7art A Issue 0. where the #unctions o# or in the )uildings %or shi!s. pp (09 – (0(4 4D5 IEC =/E-E-EEE:0DD/.. CONCLUSIONS "he recommendations #or ca)le screen termination and earthing in IEC /0111-2-3 are o# ery great )ene#it in hel!ing to control &' as re$uired )y systems and installations.com!lianceclu). 01th 6o em)er 0DD2. “Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) – Part 5: Installation and Mitigation Guidelines !ection ": Earthing and cabling# 435 "im 8illiams and Keith Armstrong. wireless %radio( links. “EMC $or !ystems and Installations# . “Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 5 2: Installation and mitigation guidelines – Mitigation o$ e3ternal EM in$luences#4 4A5 Keith Armstrong.C. <iren=e. London.B6: 1 A21/ E0/A = 4=5 Keith Armstrong and "ony 8aldron.comIKeithArmstrong7ort#olio 4G5 7 C " an der Laan and A 7 N an 9uerson. “5eliable protection o$ electronics against lightning: some practical e3amples#. =11 32=:0DD2. “Electromagnetic Compatibility design guide $or a*ionics and related ground support e+uipment. “Earthing and bonding o$ telecommunication e+uipment in telecommunication centres# 4035 I"U &ecommendation K. 0DDG.ightning Protection. pp 5'( 5"94 %lso: “5eliable protection o$ electronics against lightning#. 311=. www. :owe er.:-CB6 which e+tends to the ca)les )etween them. 0DD/. "he ME.2. or whate er. 0DD/.uk 4/5 IEC "& /0111-2-/:3113. “EMC $or !ystems and Installations#./. Cha!ter D o# 435 and 7art 2 o# 4A5 ha e more on this issue. Ministry o# 9e#ence. in these days o# ra!idly increasing electronic so!histication and ra!idly worsening electromagnetic en ironment. "(rd IC.dstan. “Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse – Part ': General principles# The benefits of applying IEC 61000-5-2 © Cherry Clough Consultants Page 6 of 6 .(. shi!s. “%E! &'( and inter$erence $ree pro audio systems# . “In$ormation 6echnology – Cabling Installation – Part ": Installation planning and practice inside buildings# 4025 IEC /0=03-0:0DD2. !eptember "( "0. 425 9e#ence . IEEE 6ransactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility 7ol4 EMC 89 :o 8.. 8ashington 9. COPPER COMMUNICATIONS BETCEEN BUILDINGS <enerally s!eaking.=2. 33 Nanuary 311= 4E5 6AHAI& A9 002. REFERENCES 405 IEC /0111-2-3:0DDA. the most relia)le and sa#e way to interconnect signals or data )etween two di##erent )uildings.