Malaysia In the Malay Peninsula the indigenous Malays were primarily rice producers.

In the late nineteenth century the British established rubber plantations and tin mines, and indentured labourers were brought from India and China to work in these enterprises. Many of these immigrants did not return to their countries, and some of their descendants have become farmers. The Malays remain primarily rice producers of rubber growers. The Chinese have not unnaturally become rice and also rubber growers, but they have additionally developed two types of production rarely pursued by Malay or Indians: intensive vegetables and pigs-both part of the Chinese agricultural tradition. The Malay nor the Chinese milk livestock (see below, pp.193-5). In both Malaysia and Singapore, the great majority of cows and water buffaloes are kept by people of Indian origin; the cows were originally imported from India. Goats are even more ethnically specific, being mainly kept for milk by Tamils.

The Americas Ethnic origins are also a significant force in the agricultural geography of the Americas. In the USA, many historians have stressed the importance of different European immigrants in the rise of particular types of farming; the role of Scandinavians in the dairy industry has been emphasized. Although such factors have little contemporary significance, ethnic origins have great importance in understanding the board pattern of farming in the Americans. First, the original peoples, the Amerindians, had no plough, wheel, cattle, sheep, pigs or horses; their staple crops were maize, squash and beans in North and Central America, potatoes in the Andes, and manioc in the Amazon lawlands. Traditional agriculture system, based upon the crops and methods the Amerindians practised before 1500, are still found widely. Second, in North America, both the French in Quebec and the English in New England brought with them the idea of mixed farming, traditional European crops and livestock, and their initisl system of land holding, farm layout and village types were those of their homelands. Third, further south, the English in the West Indies and in Virginia and the Carolinas as first tried to work smallholdings themselves, or with indentured labour from the British Isles. Later, however, slaves were imported from Africa, and the plantation system became established in the south of USA, the West Indies and Brazil. At the abolition of slavery some plantations survived, with blacks becoming wage labourers; elsewhere share-cropping became the predominant mode, while in some regions feed slaves took up smallholdings to produce food crops and small amounts of cash crops. What was conspicuously absent from the plantation regions was the substantial middle-sized farm worked by owner. However, this was typical of much of northern USA. Fourth, in Central and Southern America most of the land was seized by the Spanish and Portuguese in the sixteenth century. Two features of sixteenth-century Iberia were transplanted.

land was allocated in very large holdings. Cattle were allowed to run free on the open range for much of the year. then part of Mexico. they also brought methods of raising cattle which were typical of southern Spain in the sixteenth century but which very different from the rest of Europe at the time. branded the calves and cut out older cattle for slaughter. and the spread of motor vehicles and railways have destroyed the Hispanic nature of the American ranching industry. When the distinctive ranching of the Great Plains and the Rockies developed after the end of the Civil War. the Spanish and Portugese imported cattle from the south of Spain. and used a saddle based on the Moorish saddle introduced into southern Spain by the Arabs. Since then. spurs. these methods were the basis of the system. The herders were mounted on horses.First. . Such a system of ranching was well established in northern Mexico – where the lasso was added – and in Texas. Thus a form of feudalism took root that has persisted to the present day. the advance of agricultural settlement. Second. the introduction of barbed wire. in addition the existing indigenous Indian population was used as a workforce. the use of irrigation for supplementary feeding. Periodically each cattle owner rounded up hid cattle. and it is now a blend of Spanish and Anglo – American methods. low-brimmed hats. although they were not necessarily evicted from their own land. wore the bolero jacket. when immigrants from the USA arrived in large numbers in the 1830s.