CHEMISTRY | REFERENCE

Important Terms
absolute zero acid acid ionization constant activated complex activation energy alkali metals alkaline metals alkanes alkenes alkynes anion anode aqueous atom atomic number atomic weight Avogadro’s number
The lowest possible temperature (0 K, -273 °C, -459 °F) a compound that can donate a proton (H+) the equilibrium constant defining the degree of dissociation of an acid the high-energy, intermediate product that is formed when reactants react to form products the minimum energy required to make a reaction “go” the group of elements in Group I of the Periodic Table the group of elements in Group II of the Periodic Table organic molecules that contain only single bonds organic molecules that contain at least one double bond organic molecules that contain at least one triple bond An atom or molecule with a negative charge. A negatively charged subatomic particle. the negatively charged electrode, at which oxidation occurs dissolved in water the basic unit of an element … the number of protons in the nucleus of an element the weight (in grams) of one mole of an element

6.02 10
The number of molecules in 1 mole of a substance a compound that releases OH− ions in a solution

base ∙

+ 
an electron produced in radioactive decay at constant temperature, the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure

beta particle Boyle’s Law

catalyst cathode Charles’ Law compound concentration covalent bond critical point dissociation electrolysis electrolyte electron electronegativity endothermic equilibrium constant exothermic free energy freezing point fusion gram formula weight ground state group half-reaction hydrocarbon

a substance or a molecule that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed the positive electrode, at which reduction occurs the volume of a gas varies directly with its temperature a substance made up of two or more elements the relative amount of a solute in a solution a chemical bond between atoms formed by sharing electrons a point in a phase diagram where liquid and gas states cease to be distinct the breakdown of a solute into its constituent ions the decomposition of substances by the use of electric current an ionic compound that dissolves to produce a solution that has high electrical conductivity the elementary negatively charted subatomic particle the attraction of an element for electrons in a chemical bond a reaction in which heat or energy is consumed to form products the ration of concentrations of products to reactants when a reaction is in its equilibrium state a reaction in which heat or energy is released when products are formed the thermodynamic quantity measuring the tendency of a reaction to proceed the temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid (same temp. as melting point) the melting process an amount of a substance equal in grams to the sum of the atomic weights the electron configuration of lowest energy of an atom a column of elements in the periodic table an oxidation or reduction reaction that takes place as part of a redox reaction an organic compound containing only carbon an hydrogen

hydroxyl inert gases ion ionization ionization energy isomers isotopes

the OH− ion also called noble gases, they make up Group 8a (or XVIII - 18) of the periodic table an atom with a charge (negative or positive) due to gain or loss of electrons the process that adds or takes away electrons from atoms the amount of energy needed to remove electron(s) from atoms molecules that have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures similar elements that each have a different number of neutrons in their nucleus … ???

Le Chatelier’s Principle

when a system in equilibrium is disturbed by a change in pressure, temperature, or concentration, the equilibrium shifts in a way that counteracts the change. the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid (same temp. as freezing point)

melting point molality molarity molar mass mole

the number of moles of solute in 1kg of solvent the number of moles of solute in 1L of solution … the number of atoms in the number of grams indicated in a substance’s molecular weight … ???

molecular formula molecule neutralization neutrons organic oxidation periodic table pH

the ratio of elements in a molecule a group of atoms bonded to each other the chemical reaction of a strong acid and a strong base a subatomic particle with zero (no) charge found inside the nucleus of elements containing carbon (C) the process through which electrons are lost by elements a display of all of the elements based on their atomic number a number describing the concentration of hydrogen ions in a

solution

polyprotic product proton reactant redox reduction salt shell solute solvent STP
(Standard Temperature and Pressure)

an acid with more than one hydrogen that can dissociate in solution a substance on the right side of a forward chemical reaction; products are formed by the reactions of reactants a subatomic particle with a positive charge found inside the atomic nucleus a substance on the left side of a chemical reaction; reactants react to form products a reaction with simultaneous oxidation and reduction the reaction process through which electrons are gained by electrons a solid compound composed of a metal and a nonmetal a set of electron orbitals that have the same principal quantum number the substance that is dissolved in solution the liquid substance in which solutes are dissolved 273 K and 1 atm (or 760 mmHg) the transformation of a solid directly to gas measurement of the average kinetic energy of all atoms of a substance the addition of a known volume of a solution in order to determine the concentration of an unknown/known solution an element whose atoms contain unfilled d sublevels the nuclear process through which one element is converted to another element a point in a phase diagram where the three states of matter are in equilibrium the outermost shell of electrons

sublimation temperature titration transition element transmutation triple point valence electrons

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