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FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND LANGUAGES

OUMH2103 ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL PURPOSES

ASSIGNMENT TITLE

Name Matric n m!er NRIC Te"e#$%ne n m!er E&mai" a''re((

T t%r)( name* Learnin+ Centre*

OUMH2103

To From Date

: Minister of Housing and Local Government : Ahmad Kassim Mohd Latif : 18 Novem er !"1#

$u %ect : &e'ort on Household (aste

Introduction Definition of household (aste is an) solid (aste generated ) a household* and of the t)'e t)'icall) 'roduced ) or issued ) an) 'remises (hen occu'ied as a d(elling house* and includes garden (aste+ ,-am'le: food (aste* 'a'er* card oard* 'lastics* te-tiles* leather* garden (aste* (ood* glass* metals* such as aluminum cans and so on+ $olid (aste generation at 'resent has reached !.*""" tons 'er da) + The issue is : are there most li/el) made efore this target of #"*""" tons of solid (aste 'er da) ) !"!" * (ill e ste''ing into ne( figures ased on the latest re'ort 0 $econd * is our solid (aste landfill sufficient to cover the increase 0 1n a sense * ma) e some of us have not seen this issue in the interest of the national econom) +For them* the onl) activit) erelemen/an economic gro(th and ro ust technolog) that should e considered in achieving a develo'ed nation status +The fact is* ever) domestic or industrial activities carried out ) each of us actuall) contri uted to the increase in solid (aste generation + Furthermore* the addition of the countr) 2s 'o'ulation * (hich reached to !8+# million ased on the re'ort of the 3o'ulation and Housing 4ensus of Mala)sia !"1" * thus increasing the rate of solid (aste generation

OUMH2103

According to the t(elve Mala)sia 3lan !"1"5!"1# re'ort* the amount of solid (aste generated in 3eninsular Mala)sia increased from 16*!"" tonnes 'er da) in !"1" to 17*1"" tonnes 'er da) in !""7+ This amount is estimated to increase to #"*""" tons 'er da) in !"!"+ 8n average* at this time a Mala)sian generates "+8 'ounds of solid (aste 'er da)+ 9$ource: Ministr) of Housing and Local Government* !""8:+ The rate of solid (aste com'osition is different et(een areas ecause it is influenced ) several factors* among (hich the socio5economic and lifest)le+ 8n the average com'osition of household solid (aste in Mala)sia are as follo(s

Ta le

elo( sho(s the distri ution of solid (aste dis'osed to landfill latest in 3era/+ $olid

(aste consists distri uted ) catagories

waste item food

Q1 45 3

Q2 56

Q3 60

Q4 0

OUMH2103 glass metal paper etc Total 12 4 34 5 100 8 9 22 5 100 5 5 30 0 100 0 0 0 0 0

2.0 HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT ISSUES 2.0.1 HOW WASTE COLLECTED AND DISPOSED $olid (aste management s)stem can e defined as a mode of administration and sound

management is effective in controlling solid (aste (ill e dis'osed + $olid (aste is an) (aste generated from human activities and also in the form of animals eing dum'ed and no longer needed+ ;et(een the solid and semi5solid (aste commonl) found as (aste are 'lastic* glass * metal * 'a'er * (ood * food (aste * to-ic (aste and so on + $olid (aste and semi5 solids must e managed 'ro'erl) so as not to interfere (ith human (ell5 eing + Among the ado'ted s)stem is the s)stem of collection and storage s)stem + There are several common t)'es of collection s)stems im'lemented the s)stem stationar) container and container trans'ort s)stem + For storage s)stems * there are several methods that are used as individual containers* and on communal container collection site + ;elo( is the flo( chart of (aste dis'osal activities :
Ho!se"old waste ge#erated

$elected waste disposal age#cies collecti#g t"e +ar!a+e( Tra#sportatio# t"e gar%ages to waste d!mp area $egregatio# of waste disposal followi#g t"e criteria

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1.0 Flow chart 2.0.2 WASTE MANAGEMENT AGENCIES INVOLVED AND POLICIES Amount of solid (aste 'roduced ) the 'o'ulation of Mala)sia is large and gro(ing+ 1n )

3eninsular Mala)sia alone estimated 1!*<"" tons = da) in 1788 and increase the rate of !> 'er annum 9de'ending on the rate of increase in 'o'ulation and solid (aste 'roduction 'o'ulation:+ $olid (aste management in Mala)sia is under the %urisdiction of the Ministr) of Housing and Local Government the authorit) is managed ) the Local Munici'alit) and 4it) Hall+ Ho(ever* starting in 177.* 'rivati?ation (as conducted in (hich the solid (aste management is offered to @ consortium according to the follo(ing regions:
Konsortium Alam Flora Sdn Bhd Southern Waste Management Sdn Bhd Northern Waste Management Sdn Bhd astern Waste Management Sdn Bhd State WP Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Pahang, Terengganu dan Kelantan Johor, Melaka dan Negeri Sembilan Perak, Pulau Pinang, Perlis dan Kedah Sabah, Sara!ak dan WP Labuan

2.0 waste management agencies The Government ho'es that a s)stem of integrated solid (aste management can e im'lemented more effectivel) involve the use of technologies a''ro'riate (aste dis'osal that can hel' reduce the effects of 2 leatchate 2 environmental 'ollution in the countr)+ 8'erations and maintenance costs for the management of solid sisas is high+ A14A stud) 91778 : found that et(een #" > 5 ." > of the annual 'roceeds Tema'atan Authorit) used for this 'ur'ose + $ometimes assistance should e channeled ) the $tate Government to cover the cost of this o'eration + 1n the 6th Mala)sia 3lan * the Federal Government has s'ent &M!"+7 million to uild landfills 7 sanirati and u'grade !. e-isting landfills in #@ selected local authorities + 4urrentl)* the final dis'osal of solid (aste ) local authorities still use the old method of o'en dum'site * controlled dum'site and $anitar) Landfill + Distri ution of the num er of landfills ) state and t)'e of site is sho(n in the ta le elo(:

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Negeri " Perlis Kedah P# Pinang Perak Selangor Negeri Sembilan Melaka Johor Pahang Terengganu Kelantan K# Lumpur Jumlah )$ $ % $ % % % & '( && ) '* $

Jenis Tapak Pelupusan Terbuka Terka!al " ' ( & '% ) + & '( , , $ %+ $ ' ' & & $ ' $ & ' $ ' '' Sanitari

Jumlah

' '&+ ', '( -$ -& ', '% ' '%%

3.0 Dumpsite by teritory

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3.0 E

ECTS !OM THE CU!!ENT METHOD

3.0.1 SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL P!O"LEM Mala)sia is facing 'ro lems in solid (aste management services (hen an estimated ! )ears* 8"> of the landfill that is closed and not a le to accommodate the amount of solid (aste in the future + Among the factors that contri ute to the search for ne( methods of solid (aste management are as follo(s : 1 : 1ncrease the amount of gar age from the effects of the increase in 'o'ulation * ur ani?ation and industrial area of the o'ening + ! : 1ncrease 'u lic a(areness no( for a healthier lifest)le and a cleaner environment and control of environmental 'ollution factors on # : The increase in the cost of solid (aste management @ : Lac/ of suita le land for landfill 'ur'oses ecause of increased land 'rices are high and have commercial value + Baste management 'lanning is to ensure that ever) da) * ever) )ear * in su seCuent )ears and the ne-t 1" )ears it (as collected * handled and dis'osed of in an efficient o'eration * economicall) and (ith little im'act on the environment+ ;) the solid 5 (aste management 'lanning is not %ust loo/ing at the diversit) of current activities ut also ta/e into account the increase in 'o'ulation * housing and industrial develo'ment * the need for clean (ater * local government 'olic) o %ectives for resource recover) and so on + And the 'rocess is al(a)s ongoing + The increase in the Cuantit) of (aste dis'osal and (aste 'lacement is so shar' toda) (hile s'ace dis'osal and landfill facilities availa le are ver) limited + This means that the (aste management 'lan is not onl) to ensure the smooth o'eration of toda) ut also ta/e into account the changes to come+ This means that information should e o tained and anal)?ed and u'dated 'lan for ever +

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OUMH2103

The use of the e-isting solid (aste dis'osal has some disadvantages and im'act on the local 'o'ulation and the environment in general+ Among the 'ro lems identified are as follo(s : 1 : 2 leachate 2 D Leachate D is the resulting liCuids and the flo( of landfill either an o'en * controlled or sanitar) + &ain a sor'tion 'rocess in general as (ell as a ma%or source of leachate (ere (et gar age dum'ed as (aste food and everages + Bhat should e em'hasi?ed here is the rate of diffusion in the soil leachate can contaminate the (ater around the landfill * such as rivers * 'onds and ditches According to Mohd + &edhuan 1smail 9177< : * the leachate see'age /no(n as leachate also contains such as lead leaching rate (ill contaminate drin/ing (ater+ ,-am'le * this has een going on in the case of (ater ru ing &iver gar age dis'osal center Hulu Langat + Leachate is more dangerous than industrial (aste + Therefore* the said identified alternative is to treat this leachate liCuid efore draining into the drainage area + Esed as a ase liner to 'revent leachate (ater + Ho(ever* ased on the liner evaluation re'ort ) the ,nvironment* the 'olic) has a lo( 'ermea ilit) + Accordingl) * the evaluation 'roves that the method does not 'rotect com'letel)* ut onl) dela) the 'rocess of 'ollution in the (atershed + This method seems to e ineffective ecause securit) is not given even after the landfill (as closed for a 'eriod of 1" )ears+ !: The 'ro lem of odor 'ollution All (aste categories has resulted in 'articularl) un'leasant odor if not maintained or left unattended in a long time+ This 'oint (ill e more 'ronounced if after hours of rain and areas that have the effect is the area around the landfill + Baste trans'ortation using truc/s availa le also received com'laints from the communit)+ 1t arises ecause the lorries using h)draulic s)stems 'roduce (aste (ater as (aste com'action (or/ done+ Dis'osal ever)(here and sometimes in front of residential doors also create un'leasant odors + $ometimes the 'eo'le (or/ing are not careful in handling the (aste resulting (astes are (astes that fall (ithin trans'ort gar age from the trash into the truc/ + 1t is not causing 'ollution ut the smell (as less 'leasant+

OUMH2103

# : Fire at landfill Actuall) * the com'ressed solid (aste landfill releasing a variet) of to-ic gases such as car on mono-ide * car on dio-ide * methane and h)drogen sulfide + Gas mentana 'ossess flamma le (hen e-'osed to high tem'eratures + Bhen a fire occurs in landfills * the heat can 'roduce chemical reactions on (astes and release 'oisonous su stances is certainl) thro(n in the gar age dis'osal into the air+ Among the to-ic su stances released is itenil er'oli/lorin 934; : that cause health 'ro lems and environmental 'ollution + For e-am'le * ased on studies 'erformed in the Enited $tates sho(ed that 34;s can cause side effects on ne( orns + Among these effects are identified through this stud) is that children have a lo( 1F * lo( level of understanding and una le to read * una le to concentrate on an activit) long and short5term memor) 'ro lems + ;ased on the research done* the fire occurred suddenl) at the landfill Hulu Langat one time ma) e due to gas rate mentana e-'osed to high tem'eratures + This incident (as enough to give lessons on ho( a less effective o'eration can have a negative im'act (hich this /ind of fire occurrence in a large landfill as it is com'licated to o'erate+ Fire ha''ens * it ma) lead to ha?e surrounding areas* causing air 'ollution + @ : Air 3ollution 8ne reason is that the 'roduction of air contamination gases car on mono-ide and nitrogen dio-ide and sulfur dio-ide into the air+ Air 'ollution can also cause acid rain as ha''ened in 4ats * $ara(a/ in $e'tem er 177@+ According to Director of the Health De'artment at the time* Dr + Mohd + Taha Arif * the rains are e-'ected to contain high acidit) due to severe ha?e in $ara(a/ + 9 Etusan Mala)sia * 177@ : + &eferring to the Meteorological De'artment * acid rain 'H values less than <+! + This acid rain have adverse effects on human health terms such as shortness of reath* Asthma G adverse effects on cro's (ith root rot 'lants and adverse effect on the value of uildings 2 architecture for such a s)stem Monument Ke angsaan+Kera%aan ho'e integrated solid (aste management can e im'lemented more effectivel) involve the use of technologies a''ro'riate (aste dis'osal that can hel' reduce the effects of 2 leatchate 2 environmental 'ollution in the countr)+ 8'erations and maintenance costs for the management of solid sisas is high+ A14A stud) 91778 : found that et(een #" > 5 ." > of the annual 'roceeds Tema'atan Authorit) used for this 'ur'ose +
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OUMH2103

$ometimes assistance should e channeled ) the $tate Government to cover the cost of this o'eration + 1n the 6th Mala)sia 3lan * the Federal Government has s'ent &M!"+7 million to uild landfills 7 sanirati and u'grade !. e-isting landfills in #@ selected local authorities + 4urrentl)* the final dis'osal of solid (aste ) local authorities still use the old method of o'en dum'site * controlled dum'site and $anitar) Landfill +

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OUMH2103

#.0 !ECOMMENDATION 8n the factors discussed a ove then the elo( suggestion could ta/e 'lace along (ith the National $olid Baste Master 3lan that (as a''roved ) the ca inet + 1n this 'lan* the # fundamental im'ortance is the rec)cling 'rogram * finding a suita le landfill site and also 'ro'osed the use of the 2 1ncinerator 2 in ever) cit) in Mala)sia + a: Method of &ec)cling 9 &ec)cle : $'ecial ins have een 'rovided ) the government to (aste materials such as 'lastic* glass and 'a'er oto/ for rec)cling+ 1n order to s'read this to the (hole societ) * in television advertisements aired from time to time + Ho'efull) in 1" )ears* Mala)sia is a le to get to the 'oint (here large (aste rec)cling into se agaian of the (a) of life (ith onl) organic (aste onl) suita l) (ra''ed continue (ithout such a 'rocess + Bh) &ec)cling is necessar) 0

1+ To save s'ace on e-isting land !+ &ec)cling of Natural to maintain a health) environment and a cleaner + #+ to reduce 'ollution @+ to reduce the cost of solid (aste management <+ to conserve and save our resources such as forests and minerals+ &ec)cling 3rogram ) Alam Flora

1+ 3rogram Kits 5 Natural ,ducation and rec)cling 'rograms for school children + !+ &emove $mart 'rogram 9 BasteBise 'rogram : 5 A(areness in nature* a''lication of #& 9 &ec)cle * &euse H &educe : among the commercial * industrial and institutional + #+ 4ommunit) 3rograms 5 4ommunit) 4)cle 4entre * Mo ile 4)cle 4enter and 4ommunit) &ec)cling 3rogram

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OUMH2103

: $anitar) Landfill 9 $anitar) Landfill : $anitar) landfill method is a method of last resort if no other alternatives + 1t still reCuires a large area as the e-isting dis'osal area + Kuantan 3er andara 4ouncil 'elu'uasan sanitar) methods such as a''l)ing in their governance + 1n this method * a (ater'roof ase la)er in ottom 'lace the landfill + This is to 'revent leachate and (aste liCuids from see'ing into the ground setersun)a contaminate ground(ater resources + Fluid has een collected (ill e treated efore eing channeled into irrigation source in the vicinit) of dis'osal such as rivers* la/es or drains + The chart elo( clearl) sho(s the s/etch of a sanitar) dis'osal s)stem in to(n+ c : Ese of Latest Technolog) 1ncinerator 4onstruction of such facilities reCuire significant ca'ital investment + 1ncinerator construction cost estimate (ith a ca'acit) of !@"" tons = da) is !@"" tons = da) (as &M1+! illion+ Ho(ever* the target is 'laced to 'ut an 1ncinerator in each cit) in Mala)sia + ;enefits that (ill e used are dis'osed of through the (aste heat and convert it into energ) once it is 'art of the rec)cling 'rocess + $o far* the Ministr) of Housing and Local Government through the De'artment of Local Government has s'ent a total of &M16+" million to su''l)* install and 1ncinerator on the resort island of @ : 1+ !+ #+ 3ulau Lang/a(i 9 Lang/a(i MD 5 ca'acit) of !" tons = da) : La uan 9 La uan M3 5 ca'acit) !" tan+hari : Tioman 9 M3 &om'in 5 ca'acit) 6 ton = da) : uild mini5

@+ 3ang/or 1sland 9 MD Man%ung 5 ca'acit) of < tons = da) :

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OUMH2103

Need reasons the Ne( $)stem 1 + According to the Minister of $cience* Technolog) and ,nvironment Minister Datu/ La( Hieng Ding landfills can not co'e (ith the amount of (aste dis'osed of the 'o'ulation+ ! + The area reCuired for the landfill is et(een 1"5!< hectares+ Acreage is scarce in the ca'ital ecause the soil is too little and commercial value+ # + Mala)sia2s 'o'ulation increase from da) to da)+ For e-am'le in the ca'ital* 'o'ulation 'roduces !*<"" tons of gar age a da) and is e-'ected to gro( #*!"" tonnes 'er da) * (hile other areas in $elangor 'roduce #*8"" tons 'er da) + 9 $traits Times* !""1:

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OUMH2103

$.0 CONCLUSION D 4risis D is a ver) ig chaos 2 ig trou le 2 arise suddenl) + D 9 Ler inger * 177. : great unrest means (hen ne(s li/e gar age all over the 'lace getting front 'age coverage and ne(s 'remier electronic media into the media s'otlight + Although the crisis is 'art of the game organi?ation * (e can not avoid the crisis * %ust as the organi?ation 're'ared the im'act of the crisis can e reduced+ 9 $ilva H Mc Gann * 177< : 3ro lems of (aste dis'osal in Mala)sia if not handled (isel)* is a le to create a crisis to all citi?ens + As a 're'arator) ste' * the initial 'lan for the frame and this is 'roved ) the $olid Baste Management Master 3lan ) the Local Government + Among others* the 'ro'osed method of gar age dis'osal 'lant in Kam'ung ;ohol incinerator to e com'leted in !""@ and 'lans to e-'and this service in each cit) and (ill certainl) face the 'ro lem of (aste dis'osal + All 'arties should (or/ together in coo'eration in hel'ing to reduce the im'act of this 'ro lem so that other alternatives could e im'lemented ) the 'arties (ho have een given concessions 'rofessional and eliefs in this matter + ,ach individual should reali?e the connection et(een their actions and the current state of nature in the future+ 1t is ho'ed that the 'lanning is a le to ma/e all mem ers of societ) thin/ and assume that small changes in ever)da) ehavior the) can have a 'ositive im'act for future generations +

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OUMH2103

!%&%r%nc%' 1+ Ler inger* 8tto+ (T)% Cri'i' M*n*+%r, *cin+ !i'- *nd !%'.on'i/i0it12 ;oston

Eniversit) 9La(rence ,rl aum Associates 3u lishing: 177.:+ !+ ;arton* La(rence+ 4risis in 8rgani?ations: (M*n*+in+ *nd Co33unic*tin+ in t)% H%*t

o& C)*o'.2 Nevada Eniversit) 9$outh5Bestern 3u lishing: 177#:+ #+ @+ Harian Metro+ 1. Mei !""1* ms 1@ Mohd+ &id?uan Mohamad* ( P%nc%3*r*n 1*n+ M%3/unu)2. Ma%alah MA$$A !""1*

ms+ <<5<6+ <+ D?ul/ifli A dul &a?a/* (4*n+*n "i*r-*n P%0u.u'*n S*3.*) M%n+*nc*3

5it*2 Ma%alah MA$$A 1778* ms+ !#5!@+ 6+ Annuar Ariffin dan Khairuddin Mohd+ Amin* (A3*r*n Hu6*n A'id2. Etusan Mala)sia*

!< $e'tem er 177.+ .+ &egester* Michael (Cri'i' M*n*+%3%nt , )o7 to turn * cri'i' into o..ortunit12 1787*

4entur) Hutchinson Limited 8+ Thanh* N+H+ 17.8* (W*'t% Di'.o'*0 And !%'courc%' !%co8%r1 , Proc%%din+' o& t)%

S%3in*r on 'o0id W*'t% M*n*+%3%nt2 Asian 1nstitute of Technolog) 7+ 4harles* Michael T+ (Cri'i' M*n*+%3%nt2 178@* 4harles 4 Thomas 3u lisher*

1"+ 3illa)* M+$+ 1786+ An O8%r8i%7 o& Munici.*0 So0id W*'t% M*n*+%3%nt In M*0*1'i*. N*tion*0 S%3in*r On T)% M*n*+%3%nt *nd Uti0i9*tion o& So0id W*'t% + Eniversiti 3utra Mala)sia* $erdang+ 11+ Tchno anoglous* G+* 17..+ So0id W*'t% En+in%%rin+ Princi.0%' : M*n*+%3%nt I''u%' + McGra( Hill* Ne( Ior/+

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